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Introduction to e-commerce

MLR Institute of Technology

 Introduction
 E-Commerce Framework
 E-Commerce and Media Convergence
 Anatomy of E-Commerce Applications
 E-Commerce Organization Applications
 E-commerce is a modern business methodology
that addresses the need of the organizations,
merchants and consumers to cut costs while
improving the quality of goods and services and
increasing the speed of service delivery.
 E-commerce is well suited to facilitate the
current reengineering of business processes
occurring at man firms.
 Goals of re-engineering are reduced costs, lower
product cycle times, faster customer response
and improved service quality.
Introduction contd..
 Key element of e-commerce is Information
 Information processing may be between
 Transactions between company and consumer
 Transactions with trading partners (EDI)
 Transactions for market research, managerial decision
making, supply chain management
 Transactions for information distribution with
prospective customers including advertising, sales
and marketing.
Electronic Commerce Framework
 Building Blocks
 Common business services, for facilitating the buying and selling
 Messaging and Information Distribution, as means of sending
and retrieving information.
 Multimedia content and network publishing, for creating a
product and a means to communicate about it.
 The Information Superhighway (I-way) – for providing the
highway system along which all e-commerce must travel.
 Pillars
 Public Policy, to govern such issues as universal access, privacy,
and information pricing
 Technical standards, to dictate the nature of information
publishing, user interfaces and transport in the interest of
compatibility across the entire network.
 Technical Standards (Final Pillar not appears in framework
E-commerce framework contd..

 E-commerce applications
 Supply Chain Management
 Video on-demand
 Remote banking
 Procurement and purchasing
 On-line marketing and advertising
 Home shopping
E-Commerce and Media
 Convergence, broadly defined, is the melding of
consumer electronics, television, publishing,
telecommunications, and computers for the
purpose of facilitating new forms of information-
based commerce.
 Multimedia Convergence applies to the
conversion of text, voice, data, image and
 Cross-media convergence refers to the
integration of various industries – entertainment,
publication and communication media.
E-commerce and Media
Convergence contd..
 Driving phenomenon of convergence
 Convergence of content – books, videos, movies
 Convergence of transmission – phone, cable wiring
and some switching techniques
 Convergence of information access devices –
computers, televisions, fax machines, modems.
 Convergence driven by market conditions
 Availability of low-cost, high-performance enabling
component technologies.
 Entrepreneurs who are feeding on anticipated end-
user demand for new applications.
 Aggressive regulatory actions that are introducing
competition in monopoly markets.
Anatomy of E-commerce
 Multimedia content
 Multimedia Storage Servers
 Client – Server Architecture
 Internal Processes of Multimedia Servers
 Video Servers
 Information Delivery / Transport
 Telecom-based
 Cable-based
 Computer-network based
 Wireless
 Consumer Access Devices
E-commerce organization
 Changing Business Environment
 E-commerce and Retail Industry
 Marketing and E-Commerce
 Inventory Management and Organizational Applications
 Just-in-Time Manufacturing
 Quick Response Retailing
 Supply Chain Management
 Supplier Management
 Inventory Management
 Distribution Management
 Channel Management
 Payment Management
 Financial Management
 Sales force productivity
 Work Group Collaboration Applications
Thank You
Consumer Oriented

ANK Prasanna Anjaneyulu

Asst. Professor – IT Division

 Introduction
 Consumer-oriented Applications
 Mercantile Process Models
 Mercantile Models from the Consumer’s
 Mercantile Models from the Merchant’s
 Issues to be addressed
 Establishment of standard business processes for
buying and selling products and services in electronic
 Development of widespread and easy-to-use
implementations of mercantile protocols for order-
taking, online payment and service delivery
 Development of transport and privacy methods that
will allow parties that have no reason to trust one
another to carry on secure commercial exchanges
Consumer oriented applications

 Personal Finance & Home Banking

 Basic Services (ATM, 1970 – Citibank)
 Intermediate Services (VISA – Electronics
 Advanced Services (Home Banking – bill
payments, stocks, mutual funds, air tickets,
traveler’s cheques)
Consumer oriented applications
 Home Shopping
 Television based shopping
 Catalog based shopping
 Home Entertainment
 Movie on Demand, online games
 Impact on Home Entertainment on Traditional
 Micro Transactions of Information
 Digital Information like data, pictures, computer
programs and services
 Problems with online banking and Credit cards
 Desirable Characteristics of an e-
 Critical mass of buyers and sellers
 Opportunity for independent evaluations and
for customer dialogue and discussion
 Negotiation and bargaining
 New products and services
 Seamless interface
 Recourse for disgruntled buyers
Mercantile Process Models
 Well established standard process for
processing credit card purchases has
contributed to the widespread of
dissemination of credit cards.
 Establishment of common mercantile
process is expected to increase
convenience for consumers.
 Review of Old processes before
introducing new processes.
Mercantile Models from the
Consumer’s Perspective
 Business Model from a consumer’s perspective
consists of seven activities grouped in three
 Pre purchase preparation phase
 Product/service search
 Comparison of shopping or product info
 Negotiation of terms
 Placement of order
 Purchase consummation phase
 Authorization of payment
 Receipt of payment
 Post purchase interaction phase
 Customer services and support
Pre purchase preparation
 Types of consumers
 Impulsive Buyers: who purchases products quickly
 Patient buyers: who purchases products after making some
 Analytical buyers: who do substantial research before making
the decision to purchase products
 Types of purchases (market research)
 Specifically planned purchases
 Generally planned purchases
 Reminder purchases
 Entirely unplanned purchases
 Consumer Information Search process
 Organizational Search process
 Consumer Search Experiences
 Information Brokers and Brokerages
Purchase Consummation
 Buyer contacts vendor to purchase product or service
 Vendor states price
 Buyer and vendor may or may not engage in negotiation
 If satisfies, buyer authorizes payment to vendor
 Vendor contacts his or her billing service to verify
authorization or authentication
 Billing service check authorization and balance of
 Billing service gives “green signal” to vendor
 Vendor delivers goods after receiving notification
 On receiving goods buyer signs and delivers receipt.
Vendor tells billing service to complete transaction
 At end buyer can either deny certain transactions or
complain about over billing after receiving a list of
Post purchase Interaction

 Complex customer service challenges

 Inventory Issues
 Database access and compatibility issues
 Customer service issues
Mercantile Models from the
Merchant’s Perspective

 Order Management cycle in e-commerce

 Customer Inquiry and order planning generation
 Cost estimation and pricing of product services
 Order receipt and entry
 Order Selection and prioritization
 Order scheduling
 Order fulfillment and delivery
 Order billing and account/payment management
 Customer service and support
Thank You
Electronic Payment Systems

ANK Prasanna Anjaneyulu

Asst. Professor – IT Division
 Types of Electronic Payment Systems
 Digital Token-based Electronic Payment
 Smart Cards and Electronic Payment
 Credit Card-based Electronic Payment
 Risk and Electronic Payment Systems
 Designing Electronic Payment Systems
Types of Electronic Payment
 Making payments in the world in different
ways like coins, dollars, through cheques,
credit cards, dining club cards, MICR
(Magnetic Ink Character Recognition)
cheques, teller machines, Electronic Data
Interchange (EDI) for bank to bank
payments and Digital Cash.
 EFT (Electronic Fund Transfer) can be
segmented into three categories.
 Banking and financial Payments
 Large-scale or wholesale payments (bank-to-bank)
 Small-scale or retail payments (teller machines)
 Home Banking (bill payment)
 Retailing Payments
 Credit cards (VISA / Master Card)
 Private label credit/debit cards
 Charge Cards (American express)
 On-line electronic commerce payments
 Token-based payment systems (Electronic cash, electronic
payments, smart cards or debit cards)
 Credit-card based payment systems (Encrypted credit cards,
Third-party authorization numbers)
Digital token-based Electronic
Payment Systems
 Electronic tokens are three types.
 Cash or real-time: Transactions are settled with
exchange of electronic currency.
 Debit or prepaid
 Credit or postpaid
 The dimensions to analyze above types of
 The nature of the transaction for which the
instrument is designed
 The means of settlement used
 Approach to security, anonymity and authentication
 The question of risk
 E-Cash
 E-cash is a new concept in online payment systems because it
combines computerized convenience with security and privacy
that improve or paper cash.
 E-cash properties
 Monetary value
 Interoperability
 Retrievability
 security
 E-cash in action
 e-cash is based on cryptographic system called “digital signatures”.
 Purchasing e-cash from currency servers
 Using digital currency
 Two types of transactions are possible: Bilateral and Trilateral.
 In Bilateral or two-party system (buyer and seller), where merchant
checks the veracity of note’s digital signature by bank’s public policy.
 In Bilateral system every time e-note will be transferred from one
account to another account. There is a chance for double spending.
Bank has to check the notes every time to prevent double spending.
 Business Issues in e-cash
 Operational risks in e-cash
 The time over which a given electronic money is valid
 How much can be stored on and transferred by e-money
 The number of exchanges that can take place before a
money needs to be redeposited with a bank of financial
 The number of such transactions that can be made during a
given period of time
 Legal issues in e-cash
 E-cheques
 Process
 Transfer electronic check (payer to payee)
 Forward check for payer authentication (payee to accounting
 Deposit cheque (accouting server to bank)
 Advantages
 It works like a traditional cheques
 E-cheques are well suited for clearing micropayments
 E-cheques create float and the availability of float is an
important requirement for commerce.
 Financial risk is assumed by the accounting server and may
result in easier acceptance.
Smart Cards and Electronic
Payment Systems
 Relationship-based smart cards
 Access to multiple accounts, such as debit, credit,
investments or stored value for e-cash.
 A variety of functions such as cash access, bill
payment, balance enquiry or funds transfer.
 Multiple access options at multiple locations using
multiple device types, such as ATM, PC and PDA.
 Electronic Purses and Debit Cards
 Smart-card Readers and Smart Phones
 Business Issues and Smart Cards
Credit card-based Electronic
Payment System
 Categories
 Payments using plain credit card details
 Payments using encrypted credit card details
 Payments using third party verification
 Encryption and Credit Cards
 A customer presents his/her card information along with
authenticity signature like mother’s maiden name.
 Merchant validates customer’s identity
 Merchant relays credit card charge information and signature to
bank or on-line credit card processors
 Bank or processing party relays the information to the
customer’s bank for authorization approval.
 Customer’s bank returns the credit card data, charge
authentication and authorization to the merchant.
 Several browsers support for Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) and
Pretty Good Policy (PGP) for encryption.
 Third Party processors and Credit Cards
 Consumer acquires an OTTP (Online Third Party Processor)
account number by filling out a registration form.
 For purchases customer specify account number (consumer can
authorize through merchant browser or specifies number)
 Merchant contact OTTP payment server with customer info.
 OTTP payment server checks customer account no and funds.
 OTTP payment server sends and electronic message to buyer
and asks for customer response (Yes / No)
 IF Yes, merchant is allowed for downloading the material.
 OTTP will not debit buyer’s account until it receives confirmation
of purchase completion.
 Business Pros and Cons of Credit card-based payment
 Infrastructure for On-Line Credit card processing
Risk and Electronic Payment
 Risks from Mistake and Disputes:
Consumer Protection
 Managing Information Privacy
 Managing Credit Risk
Designing Electronic Payment
 Privacy (Telephone is best)
 Security
 Intuitive Interfaces
 Database Integration
 Brokers
 Pricing
 Standards
Inter organizational
Commerce and EDI

A N K Prasanna Anjaneyulu
Asst. Professor – IT Division

 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

 EDI Applications in Business
 EDI: Legal, Security and Privacy Issues
 EDI and Electronic Commerce

 EDI is defined as the inter process

communication of business information in
a standardized electronic form.
 Primary benefit of EDI to business is a
considerable reduction in transaction
costs, by improving the speed and
efficiency of filling orders.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
 Defining EDI
 Electronic data interchange is the transmission, in a standard
syntax, of unambiguous information of business or strategic
significance between computers of independent organizations.
 Electronic data interchange is the interchange of standard
formatted data between computer application system of trading
partners with minimal manual intervention.
 Electronic data interchange is the electronic transfer, from
computer to computer, of commercial and administrative data
using an agreed standard to structure and EDI message.
 Electronic data interchange is the electronic transfer from one
computer to another computer processable data using an agreed
standard to structure the data.
 EDI Layered Architecture
 Semantic Layer
 Business application that is driving EDI
 It is an user interface based on local environments
 Information seen and EDI semantic layer must be translated from a
company-specific form to a more generic or universal form so that it
can be sent to various trading partners.
 Standards Translation Layer
 It specifies business form structure and to some extent influence
content seen at the application layer.
 Packing (or transport) Layer
 It corresponds closely with the non-electronic activity of sending a
business form from one company to other company.
 EDI documents are exchanged rapidly over electronic networks
using the existing e-mail programs, WWW, FTP, Telnet and some
 Physical network infrastructure Layer
 Dial-up lines, Internet and I-way
 EDI in Action
 Buyer’s computer sends Purchase Order to seller’s computer
 Seller’s computer sends Purchase Order confirmation to buyer’s
 Seller’s computer sends Booking request to transport company’s
 Transport company’s computer sends Booking confirmation to
seller’s computer
 Seller’s computer sends Advance Ship Notice to buyer’s
 Transport company’s computer sends Status to seller’s computer
 Buyer’s computer sends Receipt Advice to seller’s computer
 Seller’s computer sends Invoice to buyer’s computer
 Buyer’s computer sends Payment to seller’s computer
 Tangible Benefits of EDI
 Reduced paper-based systems
 Improved problem resolution and customer
 Expanded customer/supplier base.
EDI Applications in Business
 International Trade and EDI
 Role of EDI in International Trade
 Components of International Trade
 Freight forwarders / Travel Agent act as middlemen for shippers
and consumers.
 It also includes customs, banking, insurance and logistics.
 Customs and International Trade
 Tremendous volume of goods is being traded
 Speed of delivery should be increased
 Logistics of Transport
 Trade Point Global Network
 Trade facilitation center, where participants in foreign trade
transactions are grouped together under a single physical roof.
 Source of trade-related information that provides actual and
potential traders with data about business and market
opportunities, suppliers, clients, regulations and requirements.
 Gateway to global networking, whereby all trade points will be
interconnected and equipped with computing and
telecommunication tools to link up with other global networks.
 Financial EDI
 Types of Financial EDI
 Bank Checks
 Inter bank Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
 Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Transfers
 How Financial EDI Payments are made
 Payment and Remittance Information Flowing together
 Financial EDI Standards
 Health Care and Insurance EDI
 Manufacturing/Retail Procurement using EDI
 Just-in-Time and EDI
 Quick Response and EDI
 Business Information, Product Design and Procurement
 Original Information Producer (OIP), Value-added Producer
(VAP), Equipment Producer (EP), e-commerce information,
customized product design brokerage
EDI: Legal, Security and Privacy
 Legal status of EDI Messages
 Instantaneous
 Delayed (Postal service)
 Delayed ( Non-postal service like couriers)
 Digital Signatures and EDI
EDI and Electronic Commerce
 Traditional EDI
 TDI (Traditional Data Interchange) encompasses transactions such as
purchase orders, invoices and acknowledgements.
 Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) is the automatic transfer of funds
among banks and other organizations
 Old EDI
 Current practice of automating the exchange of information using to the
business activity.
 Information is transferred electronically and effects a corresponding
business process in other computer
 New EDI
 Goal is to produce standardization at the document processing level in the
context of a business work flow rather than document interchange level.
 Open EDI
 Open EDI is a business process for automating the operation of the law
of contract within the context of electronic commerce where
transactions are not repeated or sustained over a long period of time.
 It is a business procedure that enable electronic commerce to occur
between organizations where the interaction is of short duration.
Intra organizational E-

ANK Prasanna Anjaneyulu

Asst. Professor – IT Division

 Introduction
 Internal Information Systems
 Macro forces and Internal Commerce
 Work-Flow Automation and Coordination
 Customization and Internal Commerce
 Supply Chain Management (SCM)
 Customer-organization, inter organizational and
disconnected internal automation activities should be
integrated for fully effective e-commerce oriented
 Internal commerce is methods and pertinent
technologies for supporting internal business processes
between individuals, departments and collaborating
 Private commerce is significant because it is closely
related to market orientation toward creating superior
value to customers.
 Now a days companies deliver to superior value to
customers through better co-ordination and work-flow
management, product and service customization and
supply chain management.
 Work-Flow Management
 Product or Service Customization
 Customization on two issues
 Time-to-market
 Flexible operations

 Supply Chain Management

 A supply chain is the network of suppliers and
customers within which any business
Internal Information Systems

 Information usually begins with corporate

 Corporate data provide the building blocks
to form the information and knowledge
that underlie the operations of all
 Corporate information is created,
managed and stored in many forms and
 Proprietary Systems as Differentiators
 In Old Paradigm, a proprietary infrastructure
was put in place first and then the
organization went beyond the technology to
view the management of “infrastructure” itself
as an asset to gain competitive advantage.
 A New Paradigm: Information Architecture
 Cross-Functional Systems
 Information Not Data
Macro forces and Internal Commerce
 The common focus in most of these modern
management practices is the use of technology for
improving efficiency and eliminating wasteful tasks in
business operations.
 Total Quality Management, improvement, reengineering, etc..
 Global Markets: Definition and Characteristics
 MNCs (25 - 75% business outside home country)
 Organizational Structure: Vertical versus Horizontal
 Vertical
 Traditional approach and Multi-level
 Lack of interaction among employees of different departments
 Only department goals are set (not fulfill organizational goals)
 Examples sales target may reach but services like delivery &
support may not be there
 Horizontal
 Two-level approach, one for strategic planning
 Objective is to improve flow management
 Team members are typically from the respective functions
 New Forms of Organizational Structure
 Virtual or Network Organizational Structure
 Virtual Organization is defined as being closely coupled upstream
with its suppliers and downstream with its customers such that
where one begins and other ends means little to those who manage
the business processes within the entire organization.
 Also referred as Network Organizations, Organic Networks and
hybrid arrangements
 Example is Cisco systems
 Understanding the structure of virtual enterprises
 Two approaches named virtual and lateral
 Download
 Observed in large, vertically integrated company seeking to reduce its
overhead by outsourcing
 Lateral
 Observed in small, specialized firms, form partnerships along a value-
added chain
 Electronic Organizations and Brokerages
 Goal is to increase the efficiency of the internal
 Internal markets created inside organizations,
allowing firms, suppliers and government agencies
to meet new challenges of fast-changing
 Internal markets replace organizational structure
of vertical and horizontal
Work-Flow Automation and
 Organizational integration steps
 Improving existing processes by utilizing technology where
 Integrating across the business functions after identifying the
information needs for each process
 Integrating business functions, application program interfaces
and databases across departments and groups.
 Work Flow coordination
 Tools are available to understand and implement electronic
forms like expense reports and purchase orders.
 Work Flow related technology
 Realities in market.
 Middleware is maturing (Lotus notes is middleware)
 Organizational memory is becoming practical.
Customization and Internal

Consumer Choice dictates

Technology provides
Marketing, distribution
access to a variety
and production of products
of products and services
and services

Need to cut
Costs drives the need for
Improved technology
 Mass customizations, Not Mass production
 Customization of Services
Supply Chain Management
 SCM is an integrating process based on the
flawless delivery of basic and customized
 Characteristics of E-commerce SCM
 Ability to source raw material or finished goods from
anywhere in the world
 A centralized, global business and management
strategy with flawless local execution
 On-line, real-time distributed information processing
to the desktop, providing total supply chain
information visibility
 Ability to manage information not only within a
company but across industries and enterprises
 Seamless integration of all supply chain
processes and measurements, including third-
party suppliers, information systems, cost
accounting standards and measurement
 Development and implementation of
accounting models such as activity-based cost
that link cost to performance
 Reconfiguration of supply chain organization
into high-performance teams going from the
shop floor to senior management.
 Models of SCM
 PUSH based
 Manufacturer -> Retail Distribution center ->
Retail store -> Consumers purchase merchandise
 PULL based
 Consumers purchase merchandise -> Retail Store -
> Retail Distribution Center -> Manufacturer
 Both models contains three primary
elements. They are
 Primary Elements
 Logistics and Distribution (Integrated
 Integrated Marketing and Distribution
 Agile Manufacturing
 Greater product Customization
 Rapid introduction of new or modified products

 Interactive Customer relationships

 Dynamic reconfiguration of production processes

The Corporate Digital Library

ANK Prasanna Anjaneyulu

Asst. Professor – IT Division

 Introduction
 Dimensions of internal e-commerce
 Making a Business Case for a Document
 Types of Digital Documents
 Issues Behind Document Infrastructure
 Corporate Data warehouses
 Every e-commerce system concentrates on transaction
 Totality of the information relevant to a manager can
referred to as “Operational Picture”.
 Systems which are helpful for managers to analyse
transaction data
 Decision Support Systems (DSS)
 Management Support Systems (MSS)
 Visual Information Access and Analysis (VIAA)
 Data warehouse
 Structured document and Imaging databases
 Executive Information Systems (EIS)
 Business Intelligence Systems (BIS)
 Multi-dimensional databases (MDD)
 Vendors and Industry analysts use above
systems to describe
 Digital information infrastructure consisting of
documents and data
 Better utilization of information in strategic
and operational decision making
 Architecture for implementing decisions
through work-flow automation and business
process integration
Dimensions of Internal e-commerce
 Need for enabling technologies
 User modeling and interaction layer
 Mobile agents
 Rich transaction processing
 Document and data management
 Architecture supporting internal commerce can be
divided into five key areas.
 Modeling of users and tasks so that intelligent software can
decide what to search for and how to integrate search results
 Developing an efficient technology architecture to utilize
 Agent and work-flow architecture that acts as a broker in
searching, retrieving and analyzing the information
 Navigation and retrieval methods that locate and filter
multimedia information appropriate for a particular user and task
 Information infrastructure layer that represents the vast network
of information resources
Making a Business case for a
Document Library
 Corporate Digital Library as core of document
 Human Resources, R & D Engineering, Manufacturing
& Production, Accounting & Finance, Sales &
Marketing, Service & Support, Suppliers, Customers
 Digital Document Management
 Ad hoc Documents (letters, financial reports,
 Process-specific documents (invoices, purchase
 Knowledge-oriented documents (technical
documentation, catalogues)
Types of Digital Documents
 Document Imaging (microfiche and microfilm)
 TIFF (tag image file format)
 ITU-TSS (International Telecommunication Union –
telecommunications standardization sector)
 Structured Documents
 Structured documents apply database structuring capabilities to
individual documents and document collections to allow tools to
manipulate document content.
 Document formatting and rendering suits different information
delivery vehicle or media.
 Ability to create easily modifiable structures allows more dynamic
 Given the right structure and interface, e-documents can be easier
to search and query.
 SGML (Standard generalized markup language), ODA (Office
Document Architecture), CDA (Compound Document Architecture)
and RTF (Rich Text File Format)
 Hypertext documents
 Hypertext is a way of making document-based information more
 Relations between documents can be represented by using
 Active Documents
 Active/Compound documents represents document-oriented
 It provides an interface to access, storage, data formats,
location and computing mechanism of documents.
 These are powerful because they combine notion of composition
of information with the distributed nature of information.
 It allows users to create interfaces that are dynamically updated
from remote data and computation objects that may be stored
in document libraries.
Issues behind document
 Document constituencies
 End users
 Developers
 Document librarians
 Document-oriented processes
 Document creation
 Document media conversion
 Document production and distribution
 Document storage and retrieval
 Document-based work flows
 Document modeling
 Transformation
 Synthesizing (value added information)
 Business modeling
Corporate Data Warehouses
 Organizations having characteristics
 Information-based approach for decision making
 Involvement in highly competitive, rapidly changing markets
with a large
 Data stored in many systems and represented differently
 Data stored in complex, technical, making conversion for
analysis difficult
 Data warehouse functions
 Allows existing transaction and legacy systems to continue in
 Consolidates data from the various transaction systems into a
coherent set
 Allows analysis of vital information about current operations for
decision support.
 Types of Data warehouses
 Physical Data warehouse
 Logical data warehouse
 Data Library (Data Mart)
 Decision Support Systems (DSS)
 Building an End-to-end Data Warehouse
 Back End
 Preparing data for analysis
 Translation, Summarizing, Packaging, Distributing and
Garbage Collection
 Front end
 User retrieval, Proactive delivery
Consumer Search and
Resource Discovery

A N K Prasanna Anjaneyulu
Asst. Professor – IT Division

 Introduction
 Search and Resource Discovery Paradigms
 Information Search and Retrieval
 Electronic Commerce Catalogs and
 Information Filtering
 Consumer-Data Interface: Emerging Tools
 Fundamental goals of e-commerce are
availability and accessibility
 Availability can be done with different
publishing mechanisms
 Accessibility needs search challenges
 Information Search Challenges
 Turnover of information is rapid
 Information overload
 Human-technology interface
Search and Resource Discovery
 Information Search and Retrieval
 Challenge is to develop retrieval and search strategies that helps
the native or unfocused user in domains as electronic shopping
 Electronic Directories and Catalogs
 Information organizing and browsing can be accomplished
through directories
 Weakness of organizing is that it is typically done by “someone
else” and it is not easy to change
 Information Filtering
 Goal of information filtering is to select al and only that
information is relevant
 Filters are two types
 Local filters work on incoming data to a PC
 Remote filters are often software agents that work on behalf of the
user and roam around network from one database to another
Information Search and Retrieval

 Process of searching for text strings in large

collection of documents can be done in two
 End-user retrieval phase: user query, interpretation of
query and performing search by server, returning a
list of documents
 Publisher indexing phase: creating indexes and
pointers to facilitate subsequent searches.
 Two phases are highly interdependent
 WAIS (Wide Area Information Service) Engine
 WAIS lets users search the full text of all documents
on server.
 Search Engines
 Different types of search engines are available based
on company
 Indexing Methods
 File-level indexing associates each indexed word with
a list of all the files in which that word appears at
least once.
 Word-level indexing is more sophisticated and stores
the location of every instance of word.
 A large number of indexing packages are available.
They are classified based on
 Client-server method
 Mainframe-based
 Parallel-processing
 Search and New Data Types
 Hypertext
 Sound
 Video
 3D Images
 WWW Robots, Wanderers, and spiders
 Robots, wanderers and spiders are all
programs that traverse the WWW
automatically gathering information.
E-commerce Catalogs or Directories

 Directories are two types

 White Pages: used to locate people or institutions
 Yellow Pages are oriented toward consumers who
have decided to buy a product or service.
 White Pages through X.500 (directory for e-
 Decentralized maintenance
 Searching capabilities
 Single Global name space
 Structured information framework
 Standards-based directory.
 Electronics Yellow Pages
 Basic yellow pages (Product or service)
 Business directories
 State business directories
 Directories by SIC (Standard Industrial Classification)
 Manufacturers Directory
 Big-business directory
 Metropolitan area business directory
 Credit reference directory
 World wide web directory
 Interactive Product Catalogs
Information Filtering
 Information filtering describes a variety of
processes involving the delivery of information
to people who need it.
 Filtering systems involves large amounts of data
 It typically involves streams of incoming data, either
being broadcast by remote sources (news) or sent
directly by other sources (e-mail)
 Filtering is based on descriptions of individual or
group information preferences, often profiles.
 Filtering system primarily deals with textual
 Mail-Filtering agents
 News-Filtering agents
Consumer-data interface: Emerging
 Human-computer interface
 Heterogeneous database interfaces
 User-centered design tools/systems.
 Virtual reality and telepresence.
Multimedia and Digital Video

ANK Prasanna Anjaneyulu

Asst. Professor – IT Division
 Key Multimedia Concepts
 Digital Video and E-Commerce
 Desktop Video Processing
 Desktop Video Conferencing

 Multimedia entity must pass through a

series of stages from inception to display,
 Image capture/generation
 Compression
 Storage
 Transport
 Desktop Processing and Display
Key Multimedia Concepts
 Multimedia Data Compression
 Compression Methods
 Sector-oriented disk compression (DOS 6.22)
 Backup or archive-oriented compression (PKZIP)
 Graphics and video-oriented compression
 Compression of data being transmitted over low-speed
 Data Compression in Action
 Depending on media storage and transmission are required.
Ex. For Image 64Kb/image, for audio 8kHz/8bits, for video
27.7 Mbps for 640 * 480 * 24 pixels for 24-bit color
 Compression Techniques
 Lossy
 Loseless
 Multimedia Servers
 Multi processing
 Loosely coupled (own memory)
 Tightly coupled (shared memory)

 Symmetric multi processing

 It treats all processors are equal.
 Any processor can do the work of any other
 No processor sits idle

 Multi tasking
 Multi threading
 Multimedia Storage Technology
 Disk Arrays
 High information density
 Low unit cost

 Read-only medium

 Modest random access performance

Digital Video and E-Commerce
 Characteristics
 It can be manipulated, transmitted and reproduced
with no discernible image degradation
 It allows more flexible routing through packet
switching technology.
 Digital video compression technology has enabled the
development of new applications in consumer
electronics, multimedia computers and
communications markets
 Types of codecs
 Moving Pictures Experts Group -1 (MPEG -1)
 Moving Pictures Experts Group -2 (MPEG -2)
 Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
Desktop Video Processing

 Desktop Video Hardware for playback and

 Video Playback
 Video Capture and Editing
 Desktop Video Application Software
 Apple’s QuickTime
 Microsoft’s Video for Windows
Desktop Video Conferencing
 The Economics
 Price
 Standards
 Compression
 Data or Document Conferencing
 Types of Desktop Video Conferencing
 Using POTS for video conferencing (using modems)
 Using ISDN for video conferencing
 Using Internet for Video Conferencing