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A HAZID is a workshop based study carried out by a multi-disciplinary team of personnel. The procedure aims to
systematically generate questions about the hazards for particular system or process. Although it is a comprehensive hazard
identification tool, it cannot provide assurance that all hazards (both major and minor) will be identified.

The study aims to search a design or procedure systematically section by section to identify every conceivable deviation from
normal operation. The HAZID uses a set of guidewords that are carefully chosen to promote creative thought about all
possible hazards.

For each guideword, the team considers whether there are realistic causes for that guideword and whether the
consequences are significant. The team then considers whether the existing safeguards are adequate and may make
recommendations for corrective action or further study as appropriate.

The composition of the team is important. Where possible, the team should comprise representatives from both the design
and operating groups for the plant and any other specialists as required. The team members should be knowledgeable and
experienced in the field they represent. A team leader (experienced in the HAZID technique and able to assist the team in
identifying deviations and potential hazards) guides the HAZID process.

The best method for dealing with hazards is not always obvious. In this study, a simple risk analysis and hazard ranking
exercise is used to highlight the level of attention each hazard requires. Each hazard is assigned a frequency of occurrence
and a consequence severity. Using these frequency and severity rankings, the risk is determined on a simple matrix, and a
risk level of Low, Medium, High or Extreme is assigned.

A HAZID conducted during the early stages of a project minimises risk by early identification of critical hazards, allowing the
design to effectively eliminate or mitigate them. By considering all requirements in the very early stages of design, any
changes can be made before procurement and construction commitments are made. This reduces the cost of any
modifications, which will only increase the later in the project that they are made. The study also helps by highlighting key
safety and operations aspects to the design team.

A HAZID can also assist in the construction and commissioning phases of a project, by being able to foresee major problems
and then allow time to adequately plan how to handle the problems. This leads to trouble free construction and

The guidewords that were used in the HAZID study are listed below. The “category” in the below table was used as the hazard
under consideration, and the “guidewords” were used as examples to prompt the workshop group into considering the
possible causes of each hazard.
Stored flammables Climate Extremes
Sources of ignition Natural and Lightning
Fire and Explosion
1 Equipment layout 5 Environmental Earthquakes
Fire protection and response Hazards Erosion
Operator Protection Subsidence
Geographical –
Inventory Infrastructure
Release of Inventory Proximity to Population
Over pressure Effect of the Adjacent Land Use
2 Process Hazards 6 Surroundings on the
Facility Proximity to Transport
Over / under temperature Corridors
Excess / zero level Environmental Issues
Wrong composition/ phase Social Issues
Continuous Plant
Fuel Gas Discharges to
Heating Medium Air
Continuous Plant
Diesel Fuel Discharges to
Power Supply, Lighting Water
Utility Systems Environmental Continuous Plant
3 7
Hazards Steam Damage or Hazards Discharges to
Drains Soil
Emergency / Upset
Inert Gas/Instrument Air Discharges
Waste Storage/Treatment Facility Impact
Chemical / Fuel Storage Waste Disposal Options
Potable Water Timing of Construction
Access Requirements
Maintenance Commonality of Equipment Manmade Security Hazards
4 8
Hazards Heavy Lifting Requirements Hazards Terrorist Activity

1 2 3 4 5

FREQUENCY Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Catastrophic

A Almost Certain H H E E E

B Likely M H H E E

C Possible L M H E E

D Unlikely L L M H E

E Rare L L M H H
L – Low, M – Medium, H – High, E – Extreme


1 Insignificant Low injuries Low financial loss

First aid treatment, onsite release

2 Minor Medium financial loss
immediately contained
Serious injuries, on-site release contained
3 Moderate High financial loss
with outside assistance
Extensive injuries, single fatality, loss of
4 Major production capability, off-site Major financial loss
release with no detrimental effects
Multiple fatalities, toxic release off-site with
5 Catastrophic Huge financial loss
detrimental effect


A Almost Certain 10 times per year Is expected to occur in most circumstances

B Likely Once Per Year Will probably occur in most circumstances

C Possible Once every 10 years Might occur at some time

D Unlikely Once every 100 years Could occur at some time

E Rare Once every 1000 years May only occur in exceptional circumstances

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