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Genset Basics

WHAT “GENSET” IS ?
Silencer

Control Panel

Radiator
Engine Alternator

AVM AVM
Base Frame Fuel Tank

100% 33-38% 30-35%

Chemical Mechanical ALTERNAT Electrical


ENGINE Energy Energy
Energy OR
GENSET CONTROLS
Silencer

Control Panel

Engine Alternator

Radiator

AVM AVM

Base Frame Fuel Tank

SUN/ PROCOM
Engine Parameters Monitoring Alternator Parameters Monitoring
Engine Safety Alternator Load monitoring
Engine Start & Stop Alternator Load Safety
Engine speed control Voltage control
EFC/Mechanical AVR

AMF, Auto Paralleling, Load Sharing


Engine Basics
Basics of Diesel Engine
Engine
• Machine
• Prime Mover
• Converts Fuel Energy into Mechanical energy
• Fuel energy (Combustion)  Piston, Connecting rod
(Mechanical energy - Linear motion)  Crankshaft
(rotational Motion)
TYPES OF HEAT ENGINES

Based on the type of Ignition


Based on the type of combustion •Compression Ignition Engines
• Internal combustion engine. • Spark Ignition Engines
• External combustion engine.
Based on the type of cooling
•Water Cooled Engines
Based on the type of fuel/ cycle • Air Cooled Engines
• Diesel
• Petrol.
Based on number of strokes
• Four stroke
• Two stroke.

Based on Combustion Chamber


• Direct Combustion Chambers
• In Direct Combustion Chambers
Principle of 4 Stroke Diesel Engine
4 Strokes 2 Revolutions

Suction

Compression

Power

Exhaust
Principle of 4 Stroke Diesel Engine
4 Strokes 2 Revolutions
1 Suction Injection
2 Compression

3 Power
4 Exhaust

Valve
Overlap
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF 4 – STROKE CI
RECIPROCATING ENGINE

INTAKE / SUCTION STROKE

Air is sucked in to the


cylinder due to the vaccum
created by the down ward
movement of the Piston (
T.D.C. to B.D.C. ) through the
Inlet Valve, which is open
through out this stroke.
COMPRESSION STROKE

The Piston rises from B.D.C. to


T.D.C, in a Compression
Stroke.At this point both the
valves are closed.Thus the Air
which entered the Cylinder
During Suction gets
compressed to Pressures
around 30 – 40 Kg / Cm2 and
simultaneously the
Temperature Rises to around
650 – 800 Degree Centigrade.
EXPANSION / POWER
STROKE
As the piston reaches T.D.C.
the Injector sprays Diesel in
to the Cylinder (Combustion
Chamber ). The high
temperature of the Air Ignites
the fuel and combustion takes
place, which will further boost
up the pressure and pushes
the Piston Downwards.Since
Power is generated during
this stroke this stroke is
termed as Power Stroke.
EXHAUST STROKE
The Exhaust valve Opens and
and Combustion Gas is
discharged through the
Exhaust Valve as the Piston
Moves from B.D.C to T.D.C.
thus completing one whole
cycle of four strokes.Thus
this is termed as “Four Stroke
Engine”.
VA LV E T I M I N G D I A G R A M
FIP TIMING TDC
13 – 20 Deg
BTDC
1. EXHAUST VALVE CLOSES
AT 10 Deg ATDC

4. INLET VALVE OPENS AT


9 Deg BTDC

2. INLET VALVE CLOSES AT


35 Deg ABDC

3. EXHAUST VALVE OPENS


AT 42 Deg BBDC

BDC
VALVE TIMING
Theoretically the Inlet Valve should open at T.D.C. and close at
B.D.C.Similarly the exhaust valve should open instantaneously at B.D.C. and
should remain open till the piston reaches T.D.C., where it must close.But in
practice due to inertia the valves cannot open instantaneously and time has
to be allowed for the intake and exhaust processes to complete.Hence Inlet
Valve opens before T.D.C (Called Valve Lead) and close after B.D.C. ( Called
Valve Lag ).Similarly exhaust Valve Opens before B.D.C. and closes After
T.D.C. Hence both Inlet & Exhaust Valve are simultaneously open for certain
period called Valve Over Lap.
Engine Mechanism Multiple cylinders
Groups and Systems
For study purpose let us divide the engine into
1 Component Groups
– Block Group – Cylinder Block, Crank, Cam, Conrod, Piston, etc
– Head Group – Cylinder Head, Rockers, Valves, Nozzles, etc
– Pan Group – Oil pan, gasket etc
– Ends Group - Fly wheel, FW Housing, Gears, Gear case etc
– Accessories Group – Turbocharger, Water pump, Fan etc

2 Working Systems
– Air System
– Cooling System
– Lubrication System
– Fuel System
Parts Identification
on Live Genset
Engine Systems
Air, Coolant , Fuel, Lubrication
Air System
INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM

70 C

150 C

600 C
Turbo Intercooler
Turbocharger
Driven by Exhaust gasses directed on Turbine wheel and supplies
compressed high pressure air to cylinders to increase the engine
horse power and other benefits.
Components -
• Turbine casing & turbine wheel
• Impeller & casing
• Bearing housing
Advantages of a Turbocharger
• More Power – More air - More fuel can be burnt
• More Efficient - Utilizes energy from exhaust gases
• Less Pollution -- Better air / fuel ratio at all speeds and loads
• Self compensating at high altitudes – No de-ration up to 5000 ft
• Less Noise - Pressurized air manifolds, Noise Reduction by turbine
Turbo Charger
Turbocharger - Care & maintenance

• Idle the engine 3 to 5 minutes before stopping


• Turbo speed - 70,000 to 1,00,000 rpm at full load
• Special attention required to air filtration
• Choked air cleaner may cause turbo oil seal leakage
• Pre-lubrication of bearings after long shutdown
• Avoid foreign material entry to prevent damage of impeller
• Prevent load of exhaust system
• Periodical inspection of radial & axial plays
Exhaust System - Components

Exhaust system supports


Give support to pipings & silencer to prevent load on engine
Absorbs the vibrations of system
can support from ground or ceiling

Silencer / muffler
Purpose - to reduce noise without increasing back pressure
Available for - Industrial, Residential & Critical applications
Correct location is important

Rain Protection
Shall be protected from rain by means of
Bent and 45 degree cut at the end
Flip type cap
Umbrella type cap
Ensuring drain at low area of silencer and exhaust pipe
By avoiding direct open exhaust piping from engine to out side room
Cooling System
Disposal of Heat
Useful
Coolant Work

Exhaust
Engine Coolant Flow
Functions : Absorbs , Circulates , Controls , Dissipates

Water outlet
Water Jacket of
Thermostat
Cylinder Head

RADIATOR
Water Jacket of
Cylinder Block

Lube oil Cooler Cooling Water Pump


Water inlet
Thermostat Operation

Thermostat helps to bring the


operating temperatures as early
as possible to increase engine
efficiency and life
Pressure caps Advantages

• Maintain positive pressure on system during P


R
ES
SU
RE
CA
P

operation
• Prevent formation of vacuum when system cools
P
R
ES
SURE

down SP
RI
NG

• Prevents boiling of coolant at altitude V


E
NT
P
R
ES
S
V
A
L
U
R
V
E
E

• Minimize ‘ after boil’ resultant loss of coolant


V
A
CUUM
S
P
RI
NG

• Water boils at 212 F at sea level S


E
AL
S
V
A
C
V
U
U
A
L
V
M
E

• 1 psi pressure will raise Boiling Point by 3 F


• By raising boiling point, capacity of coolant to
absorb heat & cooling efficiency can be increased
• Water pump efficiency is more, if coolant is under
pressure.
• No Air formation at Water pump Suction prevents
cavitations
Coolant
Lubrication System
Functions of Lubricating oil
Lubricates (Friction) all moving parts by providing thin protective coating
between all moving parts during engine operation
Cools (Heat) the parts by absorbing heat generated by friction & combustion
Cleans (wear) the engine by picking up the foreign particles formed during
combustion by introducing oil between solid sliding surfaces
Seals combustion chamber from crankcase by forming a thin film between
piston rings & liner wall
Shock Absorb Provides a cushioning between contacting surfaces of
components & dampens the shocks
Lube Oil Function & Recommendations
Functions
•Lubricates
•Cools
•Cleans
•Sealing

Valvoline Powergen Excel


API CH4
SAE 15W40
TBN 10.5
Minimum lube oil pressure – 1.5 kg/cm2
Lubricating System for G128 series
LUBRICATION SYSTEM

BEARINGS &
OIL GALLARY
BUSHES

OIL FILTER
BYEPASS VALVE

OIL COOLER

PRESSURE
OIL PUMP
REGULATOR

OIL PAN
Components in lubrication system
• Oil pan
• Oil pump
• Pressure regulator
• Lubricating oil filter
• Filter head
• Super by-pass filter
• Oil coolers
• Piston cooling nozzles
• Pressure gauge
• Dip stick
And Lubricating oil
Why oil change?

• Basic function of the blended additive package


is essential to oil’s performance

• Quality & quantity of additive package


determine oil’s performance capabilities

• Additives have a limited life span


- should not be extended beyond designed span

• Oil gets contaminated as a result of engine operation


Recommendations Lube oil
- Valvoline Powergen Excel
- SAE 15 W 40
• Minimum TBN of 10.5 to counteract high sulfur content in fuel
• CH 4 oils provide better performance than CD oils
Fuel System
Functions of Fuel system

• Basic objectives of any fuel system -

• To control the quantity of fuel to each cylinder

• To ensure that the fuel is delivered at correct time

• To deliver the fuel in correct condition

• To govern the engine speed

• Methods to achieve these objectives are different


Parts of Fuel System
1.Fuel Tank
2.Pre Filter
3.Fuel Feed Pump
4.Water Separator
5.Dual Fuel Filter
6.Fuel Injection Pump
7.Injectors
8.Over Flow Valve
9.Leak Off Pipe
Fuel System External Connections
Pump Designation
FIP OPERATION
NOZZLE OPERATION
Important Maintenance Procedures
Basic Complaints
Common Complaints
• Engine Not Cranking
• Engine Not Starting
• Engine Not taking Load
• Engine Over heating (High Water temperature)
• Engine Hunting
• Low engine Speed
• Low coolant temperature
• Low oil pressure
• Fuel Dilution
• Excessive oil Consumption
• Excessive Fuel Consumption
• Abnormal Sound
Troubleshooting / Fault Diagnostics
Troubleshooting : Methodology

Think Before Acting


Study the problem thoroughly. Ask these questions :
1. What were the warning signs preceding the trouble?
2. What previous repair and maintenance work has been
done ?
3. Has similar trouble occurred before ?
4. If the engine still runs, is it safe to continue running it to
make further checks ?

Do Easiest Things First

Double-Check Before Beginning Disassembly Operations

Find And Correct Basic Cause of Trouble


Do's - for better performance

Ensure that all safety shields are in place and in good condition.

Read all operating instructions before commencing to operate


Engine.

Carry out all maintenance tasks without fail.

Keep the air cleaner clean and the oil at the correct level.

Ensure that the correct grade of lubricating oils is


used and that they are replenished and changed at the recommended
intervals.

Fit new sealing rings when the filter elements are changed.

Watch the oil pressure gauge or warning light


and investigate any abnormality immediately.
Contents of Alternators
• Introduction of Participants & Trident
• Course Objective,
• Basics of Electricals
• Working Principle of Alternators
• Nomenclature of Trident Alternator
• Parts of alternator
• Wiring Diagrams with AVRs
• Commissioning & Maintenance Checks, Dos &
DONTs
• Load Formula & Loading
• Principle & Wiring Diagrams on Sincro & LS
Alternators
CONVERTS MECHANICAL ENERGY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
TYPES OF ALTERNATORS
ALTERNATORS

3000rpm,50 Hz 1500rpm,50 Hz

1 PHASE 3 PHASE 3 PHASE 1 PHASE


5KVA TO 15KVA 5KVA TO 40KVA 5.0KVA TO 625 KVA 2.5KVA TO 30 KVA
BRUSHLESS,+/-1.5% REG. BRUSHLESS,+/-1.5% REG.

BRUSHLESS SLIPRING BRUSHLESS SLIPRING


5KVA TO 625KVA 6.5KVA TO 82.5KVA 2.5KVA TO 30KVA 5KVA TO 15KVA
+/-1% VOLT. REG +/-5%SLIPRING +/-1% VOLT. REG +/-5%SLIPRING
BASICS OF ALTERNATOR
DC Current & Voltage Principles - Basic
DC voltage & Current Characteristics. The current & the voltages generated has a
constant magnitude & direction which do not
vary with time.
Ex:Dry Cells, Battery, DC Source cells.,

Voltage

Current

Time

Flow of current
A C Generator Principles & ac Sinusoidal
AC Voltage & Current.
wave Motion
The magnitude of AC voltage &
current vary with time.
Principle of e.m.f induction :
Whenever a conductor cuts the
South North magnetic Flux an e.m.f is
induced into the conductor i.e
proportional to the rate of
Current
SF
change of flux linkages. The
direction of induced e.m.f is as
AC sinusoidal wave per Flehming’s Right hand Rule.

Different Types of Gen. are :


D.C.Generators – Self excited &
Voltage /
Current

Separately excited.
A.C.Generators – Self excited &
Separately excited.
a. Single phase
b. Three phase
i) Brush Type
ii) Brushless Type.
Time An Electric generator is a
machine that converts
mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
f = PN/120
Schematic Diagram – Basic Working
BRUSHLESS ALTERNATORS

Main Stator - AC Exciter Stator

RRA
Mechanical drive

Main Rotor - DC Exciter Rotor

DC

AC
AVR DC feed back
To Load
NOMENCLATURE OF TRIDENT
ALTERNATOR

Note: Various make of alternator have their own nomenclature, we


need to refer the respective manual.
PARTS OF ALTERNATOR
Main Stator

 Core: Consists of high quality low silicon content laminated Stator Frame : Unique Sheet metal
stampings having slots. The slots are skewed to reduce tooth design to reduce weight & improve
ripples in the voltage wave form. aesthetics. Also provide better
cooling provision as the Forced air is
 Winding : Coils are made up of Class H, dual coated, class blowing directly on the laminations.
200 copper conductors wound with 2/3 pitch.
Possible checks / measurement
Double/Vacuum Class H - impregnation with epoxy gel coat on can be done:
over hangs.
1) Loose crimping of socket.
 Output Leads: Twelve leads are brought out, sleeved and 2) IR Value.
terminated with suitable crimping sockets. 3) Resistance Measurements.
4) Loosening of hardware’s.
Main Rotor
Fan

Ex. rotor
Pole

 Rotor core also has damper windings to prevent hunting &


Possible checks/ measurement
for synchronization to provide starting torques.
that
 Shaft is made of high grade steel, The shaft is liberally
can be done at site:
designed to enable it to withstand overload & Short circuit
conditions.
1. Loose crimping of socket.
2. IR Value
Resin applied during winding and curing followed by epoxy
3. Resistance.
gel coat on overhangs.
4. Loosening of hardware’s.
 Coil support blocks are provided for adequate supporting
of the winding from high centrifugal forces.
 The end connections are made and routed through the
shaft and to be connected to RRA.
Exciter Rotor / Exciter Stator

Exciter Stator Possible checks /


Winding : Coils are made using Class H enamelled copper conductor. measurements to be
The end connections are made to form alternate N & S poles. done at site:
Vacuum Impregnation is followed by epoxy gel coat on overhangs.
Permanent Magnets : Are mounted to ensure the minimum residual 1. Loose crimping of
voltage in the Exciter stator to generate voltage. socket.
2. IR Value.
Exciter Rotor
Core:- Consists of thin laminated stamping having slots.
3. Resistance.
Winding : Coils are made using Class H enamelled copper conductor.
Impregnation followed by epoxy gel coat on overhangs
Rotating Rectifier Assembly

ROTATING RECTIFIER ASSEMBLY

Aluminium Plate + ve

Forward
Diodes
+ ve
To Main Rotor
Exciter - ve
Rotor

Reverse Surge
Diodes Suppressor

Aluminium Plate - ve

The RRA assembly consists of Aluminium plate & Insulation hub to facilitate mounting of rectifiers
suitably designed to withstand centrifugal forces. The Surge Suppressor fitted across the field
ensures protection of diodes from surges coming from the load.
Possible checks / measurement that can be done at site:

1. Loose crimping of socket.


2. Testing of Diodes
3. Loosening of hardware’s.
4. Grounding of Diode leads.
Schematic Diagram of RRA

Diode - A

Diode - C

Rotating Rectifier Assembly is a three-phase bridge rectifier mounted on two Aluminium heat
sinks.

 Exciter Armature leads are connected to input of RRA as indicated in the diagram.
The output of the rectifier assembly is connected to the main rotor leads.
 Varistor is provided across the RRA output to suppress any surge voltages.
DIODE CHECKING WITH MULTI-METER

- ve + ve

Cathode
Forward Bias Reverse Bias

Multi-meter reading Multi-meter reading


less than 100 more than 10,000
Ohms Ohms

Anode

+ ve - ve

FAULTY DIODE WILL SHOW SHORT IN BOTH DIRECTIONS


OR OPEN IN BOTH DIRECTIONS
ASSEMBLY PARTS – 164/184 Frame

Anodes Al. Plate Cathodes NDE Bearing NDE Bearing cap Circlip

Back End cover Pressure Plate Flexible discs


DISMANTLING OF ALTERNATOR
DISMANTLING OF ALTERNATOR
DISMANTLING OF ALTERNATOR
INSULATION TEST
• Minimum acceptable value of Insulation to earth is 1
M-.
• The AVR must be disconnected before the test.
• Meggar the
» Main stator
» Main rotor
» Exciter Stator
» Exciter Rotor
• Meggaring is necessary only if generator has become
wet or has not been used for a long time.
• Use 500V Insulation Tester.

70
Fuel Consumption
Calculations
Fuel Consumption Calculations

Part load fuel Consumption need to be calculated


based on the actual load (kW) on genset, not on the
designated HP of engine
Require Specific Fuel consumption of the engine /
genset model
Fuel consumpton of an engine can vary for +/- 5% of
the calculated value
Consider the upper SFC value as per kWm % Load
Fuel Consumption Calculations
Fuel Consumption Calculations
Specific fuel Consumption = 152gms/bhp/hour @ 100 % load
12.5kVAe=10kWe=11kWm=14.87hpm
152 X 14.87 = 2260.24gm/hour
2260.24/0.84 = 2690 ml/hour
2.7 liters/hour

Specific fuel Consumption = 165gms/bhp/hour @ 50 % load


12.5kVAe=10kWe=11kWm=14.87hpm -> 14.87 * 50% = 7.435
165 X 7.435= 1226.77gm/hour
1226.77/0.84 = 1460.44 ml/hour
1.46 liters/hour

+/- 5%
Fuel Consumption Calculations
Fuel Consumption Calculations
Specific fuel Consumption = 160gms/bhp/hour @ 100 % load
25kVAe=20kWe=22kWm=29.49hpm
160X 29.49 = 4718.5gm/hour
2260.24/0.84 = 5617 ml/hour
5.62 liters/hour
Genset Loading
for Genset Operators

Created by :

Sasidhar Aripaka
Load Fuel Calculations
• Never Exceed the limits of parameters mentioned on the
alternator and engine while loading

Basic Formula :
kW = √3 * V * I * Cos Ø / 1000
For Example
100 = √ 3 * 415 *174 * 0.8 / 1000

Example of parameters taken in this presentation are based


on 125kVA Genset (100kW,174A,415V,0.8pf)