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Climate Change Mitigation

Saadullah Ayaz
Climate Change Coordinator,
IUCN- Pakistan

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


MITIGATION

Definition:
Mitigation of climate change refers to the actions taken by
individuals or corporations to reduce the greenhouse gas
emissions in order to minimize their effects on global climate
change. This usually works in conjunction with national and
international policies that minimize greenhouse gas production and
release into the atmosphere. Instead of trying to adapt to global
warming, mitigation of global warming refers more to the prevention
and control of the products and actions that cause climate change.

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


MITIGATION OPTIONS

1. Energy Efficiency and Management


- urban planning and building design
- changing attitudes and choices
- transportation
- technological measures
- fuel switching

2. Alternate energy sources


- solar, hydel, wind and alternate options like biofuels etc.

3. Reforestation and avoided defoforestation

4. Geoengineersing
- carbon capture and storage
- solar radiation management (global dimming)
- ocean storage (use of iron)

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


ECONOMICS CLIMATE CHANGE
Sterns Review. Sir Nicholas Stern- 2006

proposes stabilising the concentration of greenhouse-gas


emissions in the atmosphere at a maximum of 550ppm CO2e
by 2050. The Review estimates that this would mean cutting
total greenhouse-gas emissions to three quarters of 2007
levels. The cost of these cuts would be in the range -1.0 to
+3.5% of GDP

The costs of stabilizing the climate are significant but


manageable; delay would be dangerous and much more
costly

The cost of in- action will be more that action

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


MITIGATION MECHANISMS-
THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
Adopted in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 under the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change
The Kyoto Protocol: Aims to reduce GHG emissions by 2012 and
distinguish two types of countries:
- Annex-I countries: With binding emission targets
(41 industrialised countries):
- Non-Annex I countries: With voluntary participation
(151 developing countries):

The Kyoto Protocol legally binds the Annex- I countries to reduced


there greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2 % (in average) below the
1992 levels, by Year 2012

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
MITIGATION OPTIONS
- Source oriented measures

Energy conservation and efficiency improvement


Fossils fuel switching
Renewable energy

- Sink enhancement measures

Capture and disposal of CO2 (under discussion)


Enhancement of forest sinks (limited options)

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


KYOTO PROTOCOL TARGETS

Decrease avg. emissions 2008-2012 compared to 1990

USA -7%
EU -8%
Japan -6%
Russian Federation 0%
all developed countries -5.2%

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


MAJOR GREENHOUSE GASES
ADDRESSED BY KYOTO PROTOCOL

Name Formula GWP (CO2 eq.)

1. Carbon- dioxide (CO2) 1


2. Methane (CH4) 21
3. Nitrous oxide (N2O) 310
5. Per- fluorocarbons (PFCs) 92,00
4. Hydro- fluorocarbons (HFCs) 11,700
6. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 23,900

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


MECHANISMS UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL

The Kyoto Protocol introduces three market based flexible


mechanisms for the emissions reduction:

- Joint Implementation (JI),

- Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ), and

- Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM)

CDM is a market based instrument under the Kyoto Protocol of


UNFCCC:

Assists developing countries in sustainable development while at


the same time contributing to the ultimate objective of the
Convention.

Developed countries to support project activities that reduce


GHG emissions in the developing countries in return for
Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)/ Carbon Credits.

The CERs generated by such project activities can be used by


developed countries as credits to meet their emissions targets
under the Protocol.

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


CONCEPT OF CER/ CARBON CREDITS
Developing Country (host)

reduction
GHG
Sold to
GHG Emission Projections

CERs Developed
country
($)

Baseline Scenario CDM Project


IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
AREAS ADDRESSED BY KYOTO PROTOCOL

The KPs emissions targets cover the six main GHGs:

Name Formula GWP (CO2 eq.)


1. Carbon- dioxide (CO2) 1
2. Methane (CH4) 21
3. Nitrous oxide (N2O) 310
5. Per- fluorocarbons (PFCs) 92,00
4. Hydro- fluorocarbons (HFCs) 11,700
6. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 23,900

Sinks (carbon sequestration)

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


BENEFITS FROM CDM (CARBON FINANCE)
(An Example)
Benefits to Host country

CDM Project Additional


(e.g., alternate energy Energy
production) Production

Direct
Foreign
Investment &
Revenue

Certified Carbon Credits


Emission (Developed
Plus other Benefits
country Buyer)
Reductions (Jobs, Clean Env.
Tech. Transfer)

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


CDM INCENTIVE FOR DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

Developed countries have been subjected to legally binding


emission targets…..2008/12.

Due to un-localized nature of CO2…it does not matter for


environment where reduction occurs.

Costs of abatement or reduction of emissions :


Developed Countries : U$ 50-100/ton
Developing Countries : U$ 1-10/ton

Reductions of GHG is much cheaper in developing countries.

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


CDM INCENTIVES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Capitalize an “unvalued” commodity…… CER

“Additional” financing for local Sustainable Development


priorities and as such has potential of “Catalyzing” large
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows
Instrument for “appropriate” Tech. Transfer
Linkage with local environmental issues – (air pollution
etc.)
Financial viability ~ Carbon financing can increase
project Internal Rate Returns (IRRs) between 0.5 to 50%
(WB)

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


TYPE OF CDM PROJECTS
Unilateral, bilateral and multilateral CDM projects allowed in:
Energy
- renewable/alternate energy,
- energy efficiency/conservation and cogeneration
Waste Management
- landfill gas capture
- recycling
Transportation
- alternative fuel vehicles
- mass transit systems, cleaner engines, CNG
Industrial processes (sugar, cement, fertilizer, textile)
Land, Land use and Forestry (A/F)
Agricultural and livestock practices
IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature
CC MITIGATION IN PAKISTAN

Pakistan adopted Kyoto Protocol in 1997 acceded to it in January


2005.

Pakistan established a Designated National Authority for CDM in


Pakistan in 2005.

A Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Cell was established in


Aug. 2005.

Pakistan National Operational Strategy for CDM has been approved


in February 2006.

Pakistan granted Host Country Approval to Three (14) CDM


Projects. Expected Emission reduction 3.33 million tonnes of CO2
eqv. / yr

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


ONLINE RESOURCES

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:


http://www.ipcc.ch/

Official CDM official Website:


www.cdm.unfccc.int

CDM Pakistan official Website:


http://cdmpakistan.gov.pk

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature


Thank You

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature