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Background Paper

Preparing Pakistan for Participation in

Fifteenth Session of Conference of Parties to
December 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark


Saadullah Ayaz
Climate Change Coordinator
IUCN Pakistan

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper

1. Introduction

Climate change due to human- induced activities is widely recognized as a key challenge to humankind
in the twenty first century. It is a serious problem, and humans are contributing to it. There is ample
scientific evidence to suggest that climate change is and will have far reaching and direct impact on
economies, societies and ecosystems, especially on the lives of people throughout the world.
Addressing this global challenge requires substantial global reductions in greenhouse gas emissions

Realizing the urgency of the matter, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992, followed by Kyoto Protocol in 1997, that set commitments for the
period 2008-2012 and developed a roadmap for addressing climate change holistically.

2. The UNFCCC Background and Process

i. Genesis: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the
foundation of global efforts to combat global warming. The Convention was opened for
signature on 04 June, 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED), the so-called “Earth Summit”, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and came into
force on 21 March 1994. Presently, 186 governments, including the European Community, are
Parties to the Convention.

ii. Objective of UNFCCC: The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is the “stabilization of
greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous human-induced interference with the climate system”. Such a level should be
achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate
change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development
to proceed in a sustainable manner

iii. Guiding Principles of UNFCCC: The Convention sets out some guiding principles. The first
principle says that “the developed countries being high emitters should take a lead in reducing
global carbon emissions”. The other principle says that “since the developing countries will be
more impacted by climate change thus sustainable development is the rightful priority of
developing countries.

The precautionary principle says that the lack of full scientific certainty should not be used, as
an excuse to postpone action when there is a threat of serious or irreversible damage. The
principle of the “common but differentiated responsibilities” of states assigns the lead to
developed countries in combating climate change. Other principles deal with the special needs
of developing countries and the importance of promoting sustainable development.

iv. Grouping of Countries under UNFCCC:

Each Party to the Convention is represented at sessions of the Convention bodies by a
national delegation consisting of one or more officials empowered to represent and negotiate
on behalf of their government.

Based on the tradition of the United Nations, Parties are organized into five regional groups,
mainly for the purposes of electing the Bureaux, namely: African States, Asian States,
Eastern European States, Latin American and the Caribbean States, and the Western
European and Other States (the "Other States" include Australia, Canada, Iceland, New
Zealand, Norway, Switzerland and the United States of America, but not Japan, which is in
the Asian Group).

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The five regional groups, however, are not usually used to present the substantive interests of
Parties and several other groupings are more important for climate negotiations. Developing
countries generally work through the Group of 77 to establish common negotiating positions.
The G-77 was founded in 1964 in the context of the UN Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) and now functions throughout the UN system. It has over 130
members. The country holding the Chair of the G-77 in New York (which rotates every year)
often speaks for the G-77 and China as a whole. However, because the G-77 and China is a
diverse group with differing interests on climate change issues, individual developing
countries also intervene in debates, as do groups within the G-77, such as the African UN
regional Group, the Alliance of Small Island States and the group of Least Developed

The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is a coalition of some 43 low-lying and small
island countries, most of which are members of the G-77, that are particularly vulnerable to
sea-level rise. AOSIS countries are united by the threat that climate change poses to their
survival and frequently adopt a common stance in negotiations. They were the first to
propose a draft text during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations calling for cuts in carbon dioxide
emissions of 20% from 1990 levels by 2005.

The 49 countries defined as Least Developed Countries by the UN regularly work together in
the wider UN system. They have become increasingly active in the climate change process,
often working together to defend their particular interests, for example with regard to
vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.

The 27 members of the European Union meet in private to agree on common negotiating
positions. The country that holds the EU Presidency - a position that rotates every six months
- then speaks for the European Community and its 27 member states. As a regional economic
integration organization, the European Community itself can be, and is, a Party to the
Convention. However, it does not have a separate vote from its members.

The Umbrella Group is a loose coalition of non-EU developed countries which formed
following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. Although there is no formal list, the Group is
usually made up of Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Russian
Federation, Ukraine and the US. The Umbrella Group evolved from the JUSSCANNZ group,
which was active during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations (JUSSCANNZ is an acronym for
Japan, the USA, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, Norway and New Zealand).

The Environmental Integrity Group (EIG) is a recently formed coalition comprising Mexico, the
Republic of Korea and Switzerland.

Several other groups also work together in the climate change process, including countries
from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a group of countries of
Central Asia, Caucasus, Albania and Moldova (CACAM), and countries that are members of
organizations such as the League of Arab States and the Agence intergouvernementale de la

Based upon commitments, the Convention divides the countries (also called “Parties”) into two
main groups:

- “Annex-I countries/ Parties” are the industrialized countries are (total 41 countries),
including the relatively wealthy industrialized countries that were members of OECD

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(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) in 1992, plus countries with
economies in transition (the EITs), including the Russian Federation, Baltic States, and
several Central & Eastern European States. The OECD members of Annex-I, excluding the
EITs, are also listed as Annex-II.

- Non Annex-I countries/ Parties” are the developing countries (total 151 countries), which do
not have any emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. These countries
can benefit from the participation in CDM projects (either bilaterally, with a
participating Annex-I country, or unilaterally with participation of only Non-Annex-I

v. Commitments under UNFCCC: Both developed and developing countries accept a number of
general commitments. Which are as follows:

- All Parties will develop and submit “national communications” containing inventories of
greenhouse gas emissions by “source” and greenhouse gas removals by “sinks”,

- Will adopt national programmes for mitigating climate change and develop strategies for
adaptation to its impacts,

- Will also promote technology transfer and the sustainable management, conservation, and
enhancement of greenhouse gas sinks and “reservoirs” (such as forests and oceans),

- In addition, the Parties will take climate change into account in their relevant social,
economic, and environmental policies; cooperate in scientific, technical, and educational

- Promote education, public awareness, and the exchange of information related to climate

Annex-I countries specifically committed themselves to adopting policies and measures aimed
at returning their greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2012. They must also
submit national communications on a regular basis detailing their climate change strategies.
Several states may together adopt a joint emissions target. The countries in transition to a
market economy are granted a certain degree of flexibility in implementing their commitments.

The Annex-II countries take the responsibility with a condition that the richest countries shall
provide “new and additional financial resources” and facilitate technology transfer. These so-
called Annex-II countries, essentially the OECD, will fund the “agreed full cost” incurred by
developing countries for submitting their national communications. These funds must be “new
and additional” rather than redirected from existing development aid funds.

Annex II Parties will also help finance certain other Convention-related projects, and they will
promote and finance the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies,
particularly for developing country Parties.

Kyoto Protocol: was adopted in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. It is a continuation of the
process started by UNFCCC and is an instrument for implementing of commitments under
UNFCCC. It also binds the developed countries (Annex- I Parties) to quantified emission
limitation/ reduction commitments in respect of six (6) GHGs, during the period from 2008 to

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The Kyoto Protocol has set up three frameworks to help the developed countries achieve their
emission reduction targets. Besides two other mechanisms (“Joint Implementation” and
“Emission Trading”), it also establishes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under
Article 12. The KP thus supplements and strengthens the UNFCCC. Only countries that are
already Parties to the UNFCCC can ratify (or accept, approve, or accede to) the Protocol, and
thereby become Parties to it. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were
adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the “Marrakesh Accords.”

vi. Conference of Parties (COP): The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the “supreme body” of
the UNFCCC. About 186 states of the world have become the members of COP. The COP
comprises all the states that have ratified or acceded to the Convention. It held its first meeting
(COP-1) in Berlin in 1995. The COP’s role is to promote and review the implementation of the
Convention, by periodically reviewing existing commitments in light of the Convention’s
objective, new scientific findings, and the effectiveness of national climate change programme.
The COP can adopt new commitments through amendments and protocols to the Convention.

Since the Convention’s entry into force, Parties have met annually in the Conference of the
Parties (COPs) to monitor its implementation and continue talks on how best to tackle climate
change. When governments adopted the Convention, they knew that COP’s commitments
under the Convention would not be sufficient to seriously tackle climate change. The many
decisions taken by the COP at its annual sessions now make up a detailed rulebook for the
effective implementation of the Convention.

Meeting of Parties (MOP) sessions of the Kyoto Protocol are also simultaneously held with
COP sessions. Thus the yearly event is also referred to COP/ MOP

vii. Subsidiary Bodies of UNFCCC: Besides COP, the Convention also establishes two
subsidiary bodies. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
provides the COP with timely information and advice on scientific and technological matter
relating to the Convention. The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) helps with the
assessment and review of the Convention’s implementation. Two additional bodies were
established by COP 1: the Ad-hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM), which concluded its
work in Kyoto in December 1997, and the Ad-hoc Group on Article 13 (AG13), which concluded
its work in June 1998.

viii. UNFCCC Secretariat: The COP and its subsidiary bodies are serviced by a Secretariat. The
Secretariat arranges for sessions of the COP and its subsidiary bodies, drafts official
documents, conducts meetings, compiles and transmits reports submitted to it, facilitates
assistance to Parties for the compilation and communication of information, coordinates with
secretariats of other relevant international bodies, and reports on its activities to the COP. It is
based in Bonn, Germany. www.unfccc.int is UNFCCC’s official web-site.

ix. Major Decisions & Achievements of COP in past: Annex- I

x. Role/ Participation of Pakistan in Previous COPs: Government of Pakistan (GOP) has been
playing a very active role in climate change negotiations in the past and was among first few
countries to become a party to UNFCCC and signed it in Rio in 1992. It was ratified in June
1994 and it became effective for Pakistan, as Party (non- Annex I), with effect from 30 August

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper

Pakistan has been a regular participant of the COPs under UNFCCC and its related
Committees. Pakistan has been a member of the Consultative Group of Experts on National
Communications and was nominated for membership of the “Expert Group on Technology
Transfer (EGTT)” during COP 7. Pakistan is also an elected Vice President for COP 9 and
represented as Chair of Group of 77 (G 77) at COP 13 held in Bali in 2007.

At the 14th session of the Climate Change Convention (COP 14) held in 2008 in Poznań,
Poland, Pakistan expressed a strong commitment to further work on the Bali Road Map (that
was agreed upon at COP 13), and to reach to a final strengthened commitment on addressing
climate change holistically by all countries that is expected to be decided at COP 15 that will be
held in December 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark.

As a result of its efforts in the past, the developing world respects Pakistan’s contribution to the
global climate change dialogue/ negotiation process, and values its guidance and support in
future negotiations. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for GOP to prepare itself well, to be
able to plead its case effectively and also to continue playing the leadership role efficiently, as it
has done in the past.

xi. The COP 15 Event: The upcoming event will be held from 7-18 December 2009 at
Copenhagen, Denmark and will be the Fifteenth Session of Conference of Parties (COP 15).
Simultaneously, the Fifth Session and Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the
Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 5), Fifth session and sessions of the Subsidiary Bodies.
The session will also comprise of bilateral and multilateral meetings as well as side events and

The event will be attended by:

Parties: Governments nominate their respective representatives to participate and

negotiate at the sessions of the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This may
include ministers, negotiators, and those who the Governments consider are
necessary to achieve their goals during the sessions.

UN System: United Nations bodies, specialized agencies and related organizations (such
as WMO, UNEP, IPCC, UNDP, the World Bank, GEF, convention secretariats
etc.) are allowed to observe the proceedings.

Observers: The Convention allows intergovernmental organizations and civil society

organizations to observe the sessions of the Convention and the Kyoto
Protocol. For that purpose, the Conference of the Parties has created an
application process which is under the responsibility of the UNFCCC

Media: Press and media participation at UNFCCC Conferences is subject to

accreditation by the UNFCCC secretariat. Accreditation is strictly reserved for
members of the press - print media, photo, radio, TV, film and news agencies.

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3. Standpoint of Different Countries at Present/ Climate Change Politics

i. Overview: The Kyoto Protocol does not define emission reduction targets for China, India and
Brazil which are developing countries but have significant emissions of greenhouse gases. The
United States is not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.

Critics of the Kyoto Protocol focuses on the fact that it levied restrictions only on the developed
nations of the world, and not on developing countries like China, India, and Brazil, which are
also big emitters. There are disagreements over whether a country was allowed to establish
carbon sinks instead of reducing emissions or whether emissions reduction was an absolute
requirement. There are controversies on how to enforce the Protocol and penalize
noncompliant countries.

Developing countries support the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol, which provides legally
binding obligations for industrialized countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% below
1990 levels (polluters pay principle). These countries also take a united stand on rejecting
binding emissions cuts, arguing that carbon caps will hinder them in their quest to alleviate

The standpoint of different key players/ group of countries in global climate change talks is
presented as below:

United States: The United States is the only developed country outside the Kyoto Protocol.
The developing countries (China and India) in particular has criticized US for not showing any
seriousness in taking effective part in cutting its emissions and has balmed US for making
political attempts to kill and sabotage Kyoto Protocol.

Unlike his predecessor George W. Bush, President Barack Obama is pledging to make his
country a leader in tackling climate change. Obama's team has yet to make its position clear,
but has promised "vigorous engagement" at Copenhagen. Will want greater effort from
developing countries, China in particular.

European Union: The European Union is touted as a leader in the fight against climate
change. EU has shown commitment of cutting its emissions by at least 20 percent below 1990
levels by 2020. It also says it wants a 30 percent reduction from developed countries as a
group if there is agreement at Copenhagen. The EU is also calling on the developed world to
generously assist developing countries in climate change programs.

The European Commission, meanwhile, says that the Kyoto Protocol was suffering not only
from the US not ratifying it but also from large-sized developing countries not signing up to any

Japan: Japan is has individually committed itself to reduce emissions by 25 percent from
1990 levels by 2020 and pledging other countries to follow. The target is much higher than the
8 percent of the previous government, and the rest of the world. The goal is based on the
premise major developing economies set ambitious goals in cutting emissions. But it violates
the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities set forth by the UN. Japan is also
very critical about the role of other countries and said that high emission cuts are very doubtful
and ambitious and is stressing of making serious efforts to cut down global carbon emissions.

Major developing countries: China, India, Brazil and other major developing countries
already set out national plans to adapt to and mitigate climate change over the past year. They
demand developed countries agree to cut emissions by 25 percent to 40 percent from 1990

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levels by 2020. They also called for developed countries to support developing countries with
funds and technology transfer.

China: China is very strongly resisting binding emission reduction targets, in view of the fact
what so ever emission level are at present, China has not be huge emitters in historic global
carbon emissions and any imposition of binding emission reduction targets will very adversely
impact economic growth of the country.. China has also taken a standpoint that rich countries
pay 0.7% of GDP to poorer ones to help them adapt to the effects of global warming.

India: Has taken a hard line so far and voiced its opposition to legally binding targets. India has
indicated it would be willing to work to keep its growing per capita emissions below those of
industrialized countries. India also pledges that developed countries should support other
developing countries through financial assistance.

4. Four (04) Political Essentials for a Copenhagen Deal

A successful Copenhagen deal needs to map out how further global cooperation can be catalyzed
by agreement on a number of political essentials.

i. Ambitious emission reduction targets for developed countries

Developed countries have accepted to continue taking the lead in reducing GHG emissions.
Doing so requires agreement on an ambitious mid-term target for the group of developed
countries as a whole, with each one of them making an effort of comparable scale in line with
their historical responsibility and current capabilities.

To date, most developed countries have announced their mid-term target for emission
reductions for 2020. However, despite the fact that key developed country forums such as the
G8 have recognized a 2° C limit, pledges for mid-term targets by industrialized countries fall
woefully short of the IPCC range (25% to 40% below 1990 levels by 2020.) Negotiations
could raise the current level of ambition to get to a reduction level in line with the imperatives
of science by focusing on international mechanisms and cooperation.

ii. Nationally appropriate mitigation actions of developing countries

The biggest contribution to the global emission increase over the next decades is projected to
come from developing countries, though their average per capita CO2 emissions will remain
substantially lower than those in developed country regions. In 2007 at Bali, developing
countries indicated their willingness to undertake additional nationally appropriate mitigation
actions, provided that they receive support for such actions.

A major concern of developing countries is that mitigation actions could distract resources
away from their overriding priorities, which are poverty eradication and economic growth. The
Copenhagen deal could build on domestic mitigation actions underway or planned in
developing countries, and identify how they can be enhanced with international support.

iii. Scaling up financial and technological support for both adaptation and mitigation

Adequate financial, technological and capacity-building support is the engine for advancing
international cooperation on climate change as well as national action. An essential part of a
comprehensive deal at Copenhagen is identifying how to generate new, additional and

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predictable financial resources and technology. Resources needed for both adaptation and
mitigation have been estimated to total up to USD 250 billion per annum in 2020.

Start-up funding is essential: The financial challenge is unique and particularly stark when it
comes to current finance. At the moment, adaptation costs are primarily borne by the affected
countries, including poor vulnerable communities which have no responsibility for emissions.
Likewise, costs for the planning of additional mitigation actions are borne by developing
countries. Kick-starting the action initiated in Copenhagen requires start-up funding in the
order of USD 10 billion. Such funds need to be rapidly available to developing countries.

iv. An effective institutional framework with governance structures that address the needs
of developing countries

Copenhagen needs to deliver on an efficient mix of financial instruments with effective means
for disbursement and for measurement, reporting and verification. Much of the currently
available funding has not reached developing countries in a way that is regarded as efficient
or beneficial. It is critical that the funds that are agreed as part of the Copenhagen outcome
have governance principles that are founded on equity, respecting the interests and needs of
developing countries, and that includes them as equal decision-making partners.

Furthermore, the agreed outcome needs an institutional arrangement that optimizes the
allocation of funds and provides for a transparent system to monitor, report and verify actions
and support. There is also a need to strengthen existing institutions, while at the same time
explore proposals for the creation of new institutions. The United Nations stands ready to
assist countries in implementing a Copenhagen agreed outcome in a practical way.

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5. Pakistan’s Concerns

Contribution in global carbon emissions: Pakistan is not a significant contributor to current or

historic emissions of greenhouse gases with a total annual GHG emissions of 107.5 Million tCO2 in year
th th
2002 (0.43% of world’s total, 35 in world’s ranking) and per capita emissions of 0.7 tCO2 (134 in
world’s ranking).

Pakistan’s Vulnerability to Climate Change: In a recent vulnerability index published by a group of

researchers (Maplecroft 2007), Pakistan is rated 12th on the list of countries most vulnerable to the
impacts of climate change. Sir Nicholas Stern, in his report, “Stern Review on the Economics of Climate
Change”, says that the overall costs and risks of climate change will be equivalent to losing at least 5%
of GDP each year. If a wider range of risks and impacts is taken into account, the estimates of damage
could rise to 20% of GDP, or more. This means that for a developing country, such as Pakistan, climate
change is an economic and development issue as well as an environmental issue.

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Pakistan: Climate change is irrevocably harming Pakistan,
with its tremendous social, environmental and economic impacts. According to IPCC, Pakistan has
observed an increase of 0.6 to 1.0°C rise in mean temperature in coastal areas since early 1900s.

The agricultural productivity in Pakistan is being affected due to changes in land and water regimes.
Dry land areas, in arid and semi- arid regions are most vulnerable, as these regions are already facing
significant water shortages and temperatures are already close to the tolerance limits. This is negatively
affecting agricultural productivity by altering bio- physical relationships like changing growing periods of
the crops, altering scheduling of cropping seasons, increasing crop stresses (thermal and moisture
stresses), changing irrigation water requirements, altering soil characteristics, and increasing the risk of
pests and diseases.

Water demands of Pakistan mainly depend upon a single river system of Indus, that is fed by glacier
systems in Hindukush and Himalayas, which are believed to be receding over the last few decades.
These impacts are changing the hydrology of the upper Indus Basin, having serious consequences on
people living in the entire river basin and will result in water shortages for millions of people.

Studies suggest that climate change has adverse impacts on forest resources and natural ecosystems
of the country. Forest lands in northern mountain areas of Pakistan would shift from one biome to
another, which would result in an increase in the total potential coniferous forest area and decrease in
the productivity of forest resources.

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6. Basis for Pakistan for Adopting a Position in COP 15

The developing countries of the south, including Pakistan, have consistently taken the lead in
supporting meaningful global action for climate change. Pakistan has to join its stance with colleagues
from Group of 77 and China in reiterating that the integrity of the UNFCCC must not be compromised.
Our collective efforts must now be directed at strengthening what has been agreed to, rather than
reopening or weakening of existing agreements. We seek to see progress in the areas of actual
emission reductions on the part of the largest emitters (the developed countries) and at the same we
seek such action from these developed countries in terms of actual adaptation programmes in our
regions, including Pakistan, that are at the greatest risk due to climate change. We need to emphasize
the implementation of capacity building programmes, actual transfer of technologies and resources
mobilization to cope with the adverse impacts of climate change. Access to cleaner technologies in the
areas of energy efficiency, renewable/alternate energy and adoption practices for sustainable land use
and forestry practices are our top priorities.

The basis for Pakistan to adopt any position depends on the following facts:

 Kyoto Protocol will expire in 2012 and will have to be replaced by another agreement, to meet
challenges posed by climate change. COP15 is the forum where the next agreement will be
negotiated. This session is of great importance because it will determine how climate change
will be addressed post 2012. Pakistan has not significantly benefited from the instruments
under the Kyoto Protocol (like CDM). Effective participation through projection of Pakistan’s
standpoint will help us to position ourselves to utilize opportunity and get a strategically
effective position in any future arrangement.

 The negotiations are likely to impact the shape of the future climate regime and architecture of
global climate policy. Pakistan must make sure that any commitments/ binding obligations are
not imposed on developing countries, which may have direct adverse effect on Pakistan.

 As an individual country, Pakistan needs to push an agenda for carving out a broader and more
comprehensive strategy to address climate change and political bottle- necks are removed.

 Being member of G- 77 Pakistan needs to support the common standpoint of other members of
the group to ensure that the common concerns are effectively projected. Pakistan also would
support its strategic ally “China” in these climate change dialogue so that any binding emission
reduction are not imposed on China.

7. Pakistan’s Stance on Priority Issues:

Under the “Bali Road Map” the parties have identified four key elements that a Bali Roadmap will need
to address: mitigation, adaptation to the impacts of climate change, finance, and technology.

Climate change is a multitude of problems that is being faced by all countries with different rolls, needs
and concerns. Any serious effort to control the future carbon emissions will require strong cooperation
between all the parties on the principle on common but differentiated responsibilities and respective
capabilities, social and economic conditions.

i. Mitigation:

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Kyoto Protocol has proven to be an effective first step towards addressing the climate change issue,
through which a large scale investment is being transferred to developing countries including G-77. The
competence of Kyoto can further be enhanced by:

 Kyoto must remain the backbone on all present and future measure.
 Developing countries cannot and must not accept any legally binding emission reduction
targets. Since they are not the major historic emitters. Such an action would adversely effect
development efforts of these countries.
 Strengthening international efforts through enhanced market based instruments like Clean
Development Mechanisms (CDM), which is the only viable option. CDM should be enhanced
and expanded to extend support to developing nations, especially in African region to
implement the CDM process.
 Ending of first Kyoto commitment period by 2012 is causing uncertainty to both governments
and project developers in developing countries. Extension of Kyoto Protocol for another span of
years with arrangement of clear cut targets for developed countries and incentives for
developing countries will create a positive impact in this regard.
 Global pressure must be built to involve the active participation of all major emitters, including
the United States as well as emerging powers like China and India to take part in future Kyoto
 Rich nations must not hold the power and dictating terms to developing nations for carbon
trading, instead small industries in developing countries should be facilitated to negotiate their
own terms or prices of carbon based on market forces so that the process can further be
 Penalties should be imposed on a country that ratifies the Protocol and fails to meet its
emission reduction targets. Effective negotiations should be conducted to establish details for
such penalties. Possibilities could include financial penalties, trade sanctions, and emissions
 Developed countries should take necessary measures to address the inequitable distribution of
CDM through creating capacity building opportunities for developing countries.
 Developing countries should be assisted for promotion of technology transfer by bringing
investments in clean energy and other energy efficient technologies.
 The CDM seems to be developing in favor of large commercial type of projects which generate
substantial amount of carbon credits and have lesser impacts on sustainable development in
host country. Ways must be explored to increase the number of small scale community based
projects in order to increase the sustainable development benefits of CDM in developing
 Methods need to be developed for monitoring the sustainable development benefits from CDM
projects, so that the project proponents/ investors must ensure the direct benefits of such
projects on sustainable development of the host country.
 Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (RED) must be supported and endorsed by all Parties.

ii. Promotion of Adaptation Measures

Adaptation to climate change is needed to reduce vulnerability particularly in poor countries. There is a
need to integrate adaptation into future planning and investment. More densely populated and less

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developed countries are the most vulnerable and also the least able to adapt. The proposed measures

 Encouraging the development of partnerships by bringing together multiple sources of funding.

This includes; availing opportunities and processes for accessing Global Environment Facility
(GEF) resources for adaptation projects for supporting the interventions that increase resilience
to the adverse impacts of climate change.
 Adaptation Fund should be immediately operationalized which is being exclusively dedicated
for funding of concrete adaptation activities. Efforts must be undertaken to support poor
countries to access a due share from this Fund.
 Technical assistance should be made available for institutional development in climate change
adaptation in countries that lack such capabilities. Basic research among countries (particularly
vulnerable) must be promoted. There is also a need to establish global and regional
partnerships to conducted joint research activities to better access impacts of climate change.
 Developed countries must assist the developing countries for establishment of regional
adaptation centers.

iii. Realizing full Potential of Technology

The development and deployment of technology is fundamental to combating the challenges posed by
climate change and for achieving sustainable development. The mitigation and adaptation of climate
change poses a technological challenge. Therefore, climate change innovation and infusion of GHG-
efficient technologies require sustained long term investment. There is need to stimulate research and
development into new technologies and equally important is transfer of these technologies to those who
need them particularly in the developing world.

 Addressing the challenges of developing sustainable energy systems, mitigating and adapting
to climate change, reducing atmospheric pollution and promoting a sustainable path to
industrial development requires strong and focused national, regional and global S&T systems.
However, it is now clearer than ever that these challenges have thus far outstripped the
capacities both of the S&T community and of society to forge effective and comprehensive
responses. Nothing less than a massive effort will be needed in order to strengthen scientific
and technological capacity in all regions of the world and in particular in developing countries
like Pakistan.
 Developed countries employ 12 times the per capita number of scientists and engineers in R&D
than developing countries, where there is often woefully weak institutional capacity. This gap in
S&T capacity between the developed countries and a majority of developing countries is
generally still widening.
 Developed and Developing countries must address this problem jointly and significantly
enhance investment in higher education and S&T capacity. Bi-lateral donors and other funding
mechanisms should include S&T capacity building among their priority areas of development
cooperation. Special attention should be given to the areas of energy, climate change, air
pollution and industrial development.
 International cooperation and capacity building. Almost all nations share similar challenges in
dealing with Global change and pollution, but the capacity to address these challenges varies
tremendously. In many developing countries, there is a need to better characterize the current
impacts of air pollution, and to better illustrate the future risks that may result from different
development pathways, in order for decision-makers to design effective policy responses.

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper

 Transfer of Technology: Environmentally Sound Technology not only needs to be developed

but also need to be widely used world wide. Unfortunately technology market is skewed in
nature. Intellectual property Rights are a mechanism to protect interests of the technology
producers and buyers. However, the need for transfer of environment friendly technologies to
the developed and developing nations is so urgent that it can not be left to the mercy of market
forces alone. On one hand, there is an urgent need to revisit the IPR regime and, on the other,
to devise new global financial mechanisms capable of assessing real technology development
costs and paying them to the producers.
 Pakistan’s Position: Pakistan needs generous support of the International Community in
becoming an effective and efficient Partner in saving the planet. We need cooperation and
collaboration of global S&T Community in Technology identification, adoption, adaptation,
assimilation and development for effective mitigation of global change phenomenon.

iv. Financial Mechanisms:

The financial instruments under the UNFCCC like CDM have proven to be an efficient tool to scale up
investments for climate change mitigation.

 Extension of Kyoto Protocol beyond 2012 will prove to be a positive role in promotion of further
secure investments for climate change mitigation.

 CDM should be enhanced and expanded to extend support to developing nations, especially in
African region to implement the CDM process. Positive participation from major emitters (USA,
China and India) on the bases of “equity) will promote further investments in CDM.

 Developed countries should take necessary measures to address the inequitable distribution of
CDM through creating capacity building opportunities for developing countries.

 Developing countries should be assisted by developed countries for promotion of technology

transfer by bringing investments in clean energy and other energy efficient technologies.

 To meaningfully address climate change, private capital flows into clean energy and low carbon
alternatives must be scaled up. To enhance the scale of private investment in climate change,
governments and the development community must structure their response to climate change
mindful of the needs of private capital.

 A fund needs to be developed that complements existing bilateral and multilateral efforts in
providing financial support for the deployment of clean technologies in developing countries.

 Market-based policies, which include taxes and emission trading, needs to be further promoted
for combating climate change.

 Encouraging the development of partnerships by bringing together multiple sources of funding.

This includes; availing opportunities and processes for accessing Global Environment Facility
(GEF) resources for adaptation projects for supporting the interventions that increase resilience
to the adverse impacts of climate change.

 Efforts must be undertaken to support poor countries to access a due share from resources
available under Adaptation Fund.

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper

 Technical assistance should be made available for institutional development in climate change
mitigation and adaptation in countries that lack such capabilities.

 The UNFCCC negotiations held in Marrakech in 2001 created several funds to support the
adaptation efforts of developing countries, such as the Least Developed Countries Fund
(LDCF) to plan National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) and the Special Climate
Change Fund (SCCF). They join the Adaptation Fund (under the Kyoto Protocol) and the
Global Environmental Fund (GEF) as potential sources of adaptation funding.

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper

Annex- I
Major Decisions & Achievements of COP in Past

COP-1 (Berlin, Germany. March-April 1995)

Decision known as the “Berlin Mandate” deciding on stronger and more detailed commitments for
industrialized countries. Parties agreed that the commitments in the Convention were "inadequate" for
meeting the Convention's objective. It established a new subsidiary body the Ad hoc Group on the
Berlin Mandate (AGBM) to draft a protocol or another legal instrument for adoption at COP-3. This
protocol was later on adopted as the Kyoto Protocol, at COP-3, in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997.
The Ad hoc Group on Article 13 (AG13) was also established during COP-1.

COP- 2 (Geneva, Switzerland. July 1996)

COP-2 took stock of progress on the Berlin Mandate. The Geneva Declaration endorsed the “1995
Second Assessment Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)” as the most
comprehensive and authoritative assessment of the science of climate change, its impacts and
response options. The Geneva Ministerial Declaration was noted, but not adopted. A decision on
guidelines for the national communications to be prepared by developing countries was adopted.

COP-3 (Kyoto, Japan. December, 1997)

Concluded the Berlin Mandate process. Kyoto Protocol was adopted to help Parties reduce emissions
cost-effectively while promoting sustainable development. It includes three “mechanisms”, i.e. Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM), an Emissions Trading (ET) regime, and Joint Implementation (JI).
Issues for future international consideration include developing rules for emissions trading, and
methodological work in relation to forest sinks.

COP-4 (Buenos Aires, November 1998)

In COP-4, a new round of negotiations was launched at to adopt a two-year Plan of Action to finalize
Kyoto Protocol’s outstanding details. This ambitious work plan is known as “Buenos Aires Plan of
Action (BAPA)” was adopted, that focuses on strengthening the financial mechanism, the development
and transfer of technologies and maintaining the momentum in relation to the Kyoto Protocol was
adopted. . To ensure that the agreement would be fully operational when it entered into force,
governments agreed to a COP-6 deadline for deciding just how “mechanisms” of KP will function.

COP-5 (Bonn, Germany. November 1999)

COP-5 set an aggressive timetable for completing work on the Kyoto Protocol focusing on the adoption
of the guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Annex I countries, capacity
building, transfer of technology and flexible mechanisms.

COP-6 (a) (Hague, Netherlands. November 2000)

The deadline for negotiations under the Buenos Aires Plan of Action was set. However, the volume of
the work facing that session, and the difficult political issues at stake, led to a breakdown in
negotiations. The session was, therefore, suspended and resumed some months later in Bonn, in July

COP-6 (b) (Bonn, Germany. July 2001)

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper

Talks suspended at The Hague, were reconvened at a resumed. Consensus was reached on the so-
called Bonn Agreements. Work was also completed on a number of detailed decisions based on the
Bonn Agreements, including capacity-building for developing countries and countries with economies in
transition. Decisions on several issues, notably the mechanisms land-use change and forestry
(LULUCF) and compliance, remained outstanding.

COP-7 (Marrakech, October-November 2001)

Negotiators built on the Bonn Agreements to finally adopt a comprehensive package of decisions–
known as the “Marrakech Accords”, containing a detailed rulebook for the Kyoto Protocol, as well as
important advances in the implementation of the Convention and its rulebook. Parties agreed on a
package deal, with key features including rules for ensuring compliance with commitments,
consideration of LULUCF Principles in reporting of such data and limited banking of units generated by
sinks under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (the extent to which carbon dioxide absorbed
by carbon sinks can be counted towards the Kyoto targets). The meeting also adopted the Marrakech
Ministerial Declaration as an input into the World Summit on Sustainable Development in

COP-8 (New Delhi, India. October- November 2002)

It was realized intensely that “Climate Change” is a long-term problem and the climate change process
is far from over. However, it was pledged that the governments will continue to meet to discuss how
best to implement the Convention and the Protocol, and to decide on next steps to combat climate
change. The “Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable Development” reiterated
the need to build on the outcomes of the World Summit.

COP-9 (Milan, Italy. December 2003)

Pakistan won the seat for Vice President through an election. During COP-9 the emphasis was laid on
good practice guidance and other information on LULUCF (land use and land use change in forestry).
The Parties adopted decisions focus on the institutions and procedures of the Kyoto Protocol and on
the implementation of the UNFCCC. The formal decisions adopted by the Conference intend to
strengthen the institutional framework of both the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. New emission
reporting guidelines based on the good-practice guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change were adopted to provide a sound and reliable foundation for reporting on changes in
carbon concentrations resulting from land-use changes and forestry.

Another major advance was the agreement on the modalities and scope for carbon absorbing forest-
management projects in the clean development mechanism (CDM). This agreement completes the
package adopted in Marrakesh two years ago and expands the CDM to an additional area of activity.
Two funds were further developed, the Special Climate Change Fund and the Least Developed
Countries Fund, which will support technology transfer, adaptation projects and other activities.

The COP also invited parties’ submission on simplified modalities and procedures for small scale
projects and their implementation and requested the Secretariat to prepare a technical paper on the
matter based on parties’ submissions to be considered by COP-10.

COP-10 (Buenos Aires, Argentina. December 2004)

Parties gathered at COP-10 to complete the unfinished business from the Marrakesh Accords and
to reassess the building blocks of the process and to discuss the framing of a new dialogue on the
future of climate change policy. They addressed and adopted numerous decisions and conclusions
on issues relating to: development and transfer of technologies; land use, land use change and
forestry; the UNFCCC’s financial mechanism; Annex I national communications; capacity building;
adaptation and response measures; and UNFCCC Article 6 (education,training and public awareness)

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper

examining the issues of adaptation and mitigation, the needs of least developed countries (LDCs), and
future strategies to address climate change

COP-11 (Montreal, Canada. December 2005)

COP 11 addressed issues such as capacity building, development and transfer of technologies, the
adverse effects of climate change on developing and least developed countries, and several financial
and budget-related issues, including guidelines to the Global Environment Facility (GEF), which serves
as the Convention’s financial mechanism. The COP also agreed on a process for considering future
action beyond 2012 under the UNFCCC.

COP-12 (Nairobi, Kenya. November 2006)

The Nairobi conference primarily focused on four issues: Moving forward with adaptation; improving
equity and accessibility of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); reviewing the mandate of the
Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT); and maintaining momentum in discussions on the post-
2012 climate regime.

The dialogue focused on basis on the "Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change", which
cautioned that impacts of climate change could cost as much as 5 to 20% or even more of annual GDP,
while costs of cutting GHG emissions to avoid the worst impacts could be limited to 1% of GDP per

COP-13 (Bali, Indonesia. December 2007)

The conference culminated in the adoption of “Bali Road Map”, which consists of a number of forward-
looking decisions that represent the various tracks that are essential to reaching a secure climate
future. The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan, which charts the course for a new negotiating
process designed to tackle climate change, with the aim of completing this by 2009.

Decisions were made that are essential to securing the climate’s future. Although specific numbers for
cutting emissions were not agreed, it was agreed that developed countries’ emissions must drop
dramatically by 2020 (between 10-40%) and even further by 2050 (40-95%). Adaptation Fund was
launched following on the course of the Kyoto Protocol. It was agreed that industrialised countries
would find ways to facilitate the transfer of clean technologies to developing countries. A course was set
for reductions in levels of deforestation.

COP-14 (Poznań, Poland. December 2008)

A clear commitment from governments was seen to shift into full negotiating mode next year in order to
shape an ambitious and effective international response to climate change, to be agreed in
Copenhagen at the end of 2009. Parties agreed that the first draft of a concrete negotiating text would
be available at a UNFCCC gathering in Bonn in June of 2009.

At Poznań, the finishing touches were put to the Kyoto Protocol’s Adaptation Fund, with Parties
agreeing that the Adaptation Fund Board should have legal capacity to grant direct access to
developing countries. Progress was also made on a number of important ongoing issues that are
particularly important for developing countries, including: adaptation; finance; technology; reducing
emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD); and disaster management.

The Parties also showed commitment for further work on the components of an agreed outcome at
COP- 15 in Copenhagen.

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources- Pakistan
UNFCCC- COP 15. Background Paper



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