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# TM 4112

## Karakterisasi dan Permodelan Reservoir

Laporan Kemajuan #2

## Nama : Maria Indira Puspita Sari

NIM : 12215091
Tanggal Penyerahan : 6 November 2018
Dosen : Dr. Eng. Ir. Sutopo, M.Eng
Asisten : Wilson Wiranda (12214008)

## PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK PERMINYAKAN

FAKULTAS TEKNIK PERTAMBANGAN DAN PERMINYAKAN
INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG
2018
FLOW EQUATION DERIVATION

CONTINUITY EQUATION

where :

## 𝑚̇𝑜𝑢𝑡 = (𝜌𝑄)𝑥+∆𝑥 + (𝜌𝑄)𝑦+∆𝑦 + (𝜌𝑄)𝑧+∆𝑧 = (𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑥+∆𝑥 + (𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑦+∆𝑦 + (𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑧+∆𝑧

∆(𝜌𝜙𝑆)
𝑚̇𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝑉𝑏
∆𝑡

## thus, substitute those to the mass balance equation, we get

∆(𝜌𝜙𝑆)
[(𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑥 + (𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑦 + (𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑧 ] − [(𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑥+∆𝑥 + (𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑦+∆𝑦 + (𝜌𝐴𝑣)𝑧+∆𝑧 ] − 𝑚𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘 = 𝑉𝑏
∆𝑡

## ∆(𝜌𝑣𝑥 ) ∆(𝜌𝑣𝑦 ) ∆(𝜌𝑣𝑧 ) ∆(𝜌𝜙𝑆)

−𝑉𝑏 [ + + ] − 𝑚𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘 = 𝑉𝑏
∆𝑥 ∆𝑦 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑡

## 𝜕(𝜌𝑣𝑥 ) 𝜕(𝜌𝑣𝑦 ) 𝜕(𝜌𝑣𝑧 ) 𝜕(𝜌𝜙𝑆)

−𝑉𝑏 [ + + ] − 𝑚𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘 = 𝑉𝑏
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑡

## Then, we obtain the continuity equation for black oil:

𝜕(𝜌𝜙𝑆)
−𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ (𝜌𝑣⃗) = 𝑚𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘 + 𝑉𝑏
𝜕𝑡

Fluid Model

## In gas reservoir, there are only gas and water:

for Gas:

𝜌𝑔𝑠
𝜌𝑔 =
𝐵𝑔

𝑉𝑔
𝐵𝑔 =
𝑉𝑔𝑠

for Water:
𝑠
𝜌𝑤
𝜌𝑤 =
𝐵𝑤

𝑉𝑤
𝐵𝑤 =
𝑉𝑤𝑠
for sink / source :

𝑚𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘 = 𝜌 𝑠 𝑞

Based on the EOS stated above, the continuity equation for each phase become:

for Gas:

## 𝜌𝑔𝑠 𝜌𝑜𝑠 𝜕 𝜌𝑔𝑠 𝜌𝑜𝑠

−𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ ( 𝑣⃗𝑔 ) + 𝑅𝑠 (−𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ ( 𝑣⃗𝑜 )) = 𝜌𝑔𝑠 𝑞𝑔 + 𝑅𝑠 𝜌𝑜𝑠 𝑞𝑜 + 𝑉𝑏 ( 𝜙𝑆𝑔 ) + 𝑅𝑠 (( 𝜙𝑆𝑜 ))
𝐵𝑔 𝐵𝑜 𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔 𝐵𝑜

for Water:

𝑠 𝑠
𝜌𝑤 𝑠
𝜕 𝜌𝑤
−𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ ( 𝑣⃗𝑤 ) = 𝜌𝑤 𝑞𝑤 + 𝑉𝑏 ( 𝜙𝑆𝑤 )
𝐵𝑤 𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑤

## Then, divide both arms by surface density.

for Gas:

𝑣⃗𝑔 𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑔
−𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ ( ) = 𝑞𝑔 + 𝑉𝑏 ( )
𝐵𝑔 𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔

for Water:
𝑣⃗𝑤 𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑤
−𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ ( ) = 𝑞𝑤 + 𝑉𝑏 ( )
𝐵𝑤 𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑤

MOMENTUM BALANCE

Here is Darcy Equation for both phases using the relative permeability:

𝐾𝑘𝑟𝑛
𝑣⃗𝑛 = − (∇𝑃𝑛 − 𝜌𝑛 𝑔∇𝑧)
𝜇𝑛
𝑣⃗𝑛
= −𝜆𝑛 (∇𝑃𝑛 − 𝛾𝑛 ∇𝑧)
𝐵𝑛

Where,
𝐾𝑘𝑟𝑛
𝜆𝑛 =
𝜇𝑛 𝐵𝑛
𝛾𝑛 = 𝜌𝑛 𝑔
𝑛 = 𝑜, 𝑔

With assumption that reservoir is modeled with grid in the form of horizontal block:

𝜕/𝜕𝑥 𝜆𝑥 𝑝𝑥
𝑣⃗
−∇ ∙ ( ) = ∇ ∙ [𝜆(∇𝑝 − 𝛾∇𝑧)] = [𝜕/𝜕𝑦] ∙ [ 𝜆𝑦 𝑝𝑦 ]
𝐵
𝜕/𝜕𝑧 𝜆𝑧 (𝑝𝑧 − 𝛾∇𝑧)

𝑣⃗ 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕
−∇ ∙ ( ) = (𝜆𝑥 ) + (𝜆𝑦 ) + (𝜆𝑧 ) − (𝜆𝑧 𝛾∇𝑧)
𝐵 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

## MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATION

Combining the continuity equation for each phase with momentum balance equation from
Darcy’s Equation, The equation for each phase becomes:

for Gas

𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑔
𝑉𝑏 [ (𝜆𝑔𝑥 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑦 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑧 ) − (𝜆𝑔𝑧 𝛾𝑔 ∇𝑧)] = 𝑞𝑔 + 𝑉𝑏 ( )
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔

for Water:

𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑤
𝑉𝑏 [ (𝜆𝑤𝑥 ) + (𝜆𝑤𝑦 ) + (𝜆𝑤𝑧 ) − (𝜆𝑤𝑧 𝛾𝑤 ∇𝑧)] = 𝑞𝑤 + 𝑉𝑏 ( )
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑤

Unknown Parameters:

## 1) Saturation (Sw and Sg)

2) Pressure (Pw and Pg).
The additional equation necessary for solving the multiphase flow equation are :

𝑆𝑔 + 𝑆𝑤 = 1

𝑝𝑐𝑔𝑤 = 𝑝𝑔 − 𝑝𝑤

## Left term of of gas equation ( the transmissibility term ) is

𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕
𝑉𝑏 [ (𝜆𝑔𝑥 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑦 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑧 ) − (𝜆𝑔𝑧 𝛾𝑔 ∇𝑧)]
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

## For the z-direction :

𝜕 𝜕𝑝
𝑉𝑏 . (𝜆𝑔𝑧 ) ≡ 𝑉𝑏 . ∆𝑧 (𝜆𝑔𝑧 . ∆𝑧 𝑝𝑔 )
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

Since

𝑉𝑏 = ∆𝑧𝑘 . 𝐴𝑘

Therefore,

## Using concept of central difference in space :

1
∆𝑧 (∆𝑧𝑘 . 𝐴𝑘 . 𝜆𝑔𝑧 . ∆𝑧 𝑝𝑔 ) = [(∆𝑧𝑘 . 𝐴𝑘 . 𝜆𝑔𝑧 . ∆𝑧 𝑝𝑔 )𝑘+1 − (∆𝑧𝑘 . 𝐴𝑘 . 𝜆𝑔𝑧 . ∆𝑧 𝑝𝑔 )𝑘−1 ]
∆𝑧𝑘 2 2

𝑘+ 𝑘−
2 2

## Using the concept of difference in the pressure term:

𝑝𝑔,𝑘+1 − 𝑝𝑔,𝑘 𝑝𝑔,𝑘 − 𝑝𝑔,𝑘−1
= (𝐴𝑘 . 𝜆𝑔𝑧 . ) 1 − (𝐴𝑘 . 𝜆𝑔𝑧 . ) 1
∆𝑧 1 𝑘+
2 ∆𝑧 1 𝑘−
2
𝑘+ 𝑘−
2 2

Transmisibility,

𝐴𝑘
𝑇𝑍 1 = 𝜆 1
𝑘+
2 ∆𝑧 1 𝑔,𝑘+2
𝑘+
2

Therefore,

For x-direction

𝜕 𝜕𝑝
𝑉𝑏 (𝜆 ) ≈ 𝑇𝑋 1 (𝑝𝑖+1 − 𝑝𝑖 ) − 𝑇𝑋 1 (𝑝𝑖 − 𝑝𝑖−1 )
𝜕𝑥 𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝑖+
2
𝑖−
2

For y-direction

𝜕 𝜕𝑝
𝑉𝑏 (𝜆𝑦 ) ≈ 𝑇𝑌 1 (𝑝𝑗+1 − 𝑝𝑗 ) − 𝑇𝑌 1 (𝑝𝑗 − 𝑝𝑗−1 )
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑗+
2
𝑗−
2

For z-direction:

𝜕 𝜕𝑝
𝑉𝑏 (𝜆𝑧 ) ≈ 𝑇𝑍 1 (𝑝𝑘+1 − 𝑝𝑘 ) − 𝑇𝑍 1 (𝑝𝑘 − 𝑝𝑘−1 )
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑘+
2
𝑘−
2

## For gravity term,

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕𝑧
(𝜆𝑤𝑧 𝛾𝑤 ∇𝑧) = (𝜆𝑧 𝛾𝑧 )
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

𝑧𝑘+1 − 𝑧𝑘 𝑧𝑘 − 𝑧𝑘−1
𝜆 1(
∆𝑧 ) − 𝜆𝑧,𝑘−12 ( ∆𝑥 )
𝜕 𝜕𝑧 𝑧,𝑘+
2
(𝜆𝑧 𝛾𝑧 ) ≈
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 ∆𝑧

𝜕 𝜕𝑧 𝑧𝑖+1 − 𝑧𝑖 𝑧𝑘 − 𝑧𝑘−1
𝑉𝑏 (𝜆𝑧 𝛾𝑧 ) ≈ 𝜆 1 ∆𝑥∆𝑦 ( ) − 𝜆 1 ∆𝑥∆𝑦 ( )
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑘+
2 ∆𝑧 𝑘−
2 ∆𝑧
Submitting again the term of transmissibility,

∆𝑥∆𝑦
𝑇𝑍 1 = 𝜆 1
𝑘+
2 ∆𝑧 𝑘+2

𝜕 𝜕𝑧
𝑉𝑏 (𝜆𝑧 𝛾𝑧 ) ≈ 𝑇𝑍 1 𝛾 1 [𝑧𝑘+1 − 𝑧𝑘 ] − 𝑇𝑍 1 𝛾 1 [𝑧𝑘 − 𝑧𝑘−1 ]
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑘+ 𝑘+
2 2
𝑘− 𝑘−
2 2

## Thus, the complete left hand side can be discretized as :

𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕
𝑉𝑏 [ (𝜆𝑔𝑥 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑦 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑧 ) − (𝜆𝑔𝑧 𝛾𝑔 ∇𝑧)]
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧
= 𝑇𝑋 1 (𝑝𝑔,𝑖+1 − 𝑝𝑔,𝑖 ) − 𝑇𝑋𝑔,𝑖−1 (𝑝𝑔,𝑖 − 𝑝𝑔,𝑖−1 )
𝑔,𝑖+
2 2

𝑔,𝑗+
2 2

𝑔,𝑘+
2 2

## + 𝑇𝑍 1𝛾 1 [𝑧𝑘+1 − 𝑧𝑘 ] − 𝑇𝑍 1𝛾 1 [𝑧𝑘 − 𝑧𝑘−1 ]

𝑔,𝑘+ 𝑔,𝑘+ 𝑔,𝑘− 𝑔,𝑘−
2 2 2 2

𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕 𝜕𝑝 𝜕
𝑉𝑏 [ (𝜆𝑔𝑥 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑦 ) + (𝜆𝑔𝑧 ) − (𝜆𝑔𝑧 𝛾𝑔 ∇𝑧)]
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

## = 𝑇𝑋 1 𝑝𝑔,𝑖+1 − [𝑇𝑋 1 + 𝑇𝑋 1 ] 𝑝𝑔,𝑖 + 𝑇𝑋 1 𝑝𝑔,𝑖−1

𝑔,𝑖+ 𝑔,𝑖+ 𝑔,𝑖− 𝑔,𝑖−
2 2 2 2

## + 𝑇𝑌 1 𝑝𝑔,𝑗+1 − [𝑇𝑌 1 + 𝑇𝑌 1 ] 𝑝𝑔,𝑗 + 𝑇𝑌 1 𝑝𝑔,𝑗−1

𝑔,𝑗+ 𝑔,𝑗+ 𝑔,𝑗− 𝑔,𝑗−
2 2 2 2

## + 𝑇𝑍 1 𝑝𝑔,𝑘+1 − [𝑇𝑍 1 + 𝑇𝑍 1 ] 𝑝𝑔,𝑘 + 𝑇𝑍 1 𝑝𝑔,𝑘−1

𝑔,𝑘+ 𝑔,𝑘+ 𝑔,𝑘− 𝑔,𝑘−
2 2 2 2

## + +𝑇𝑍 1𝛾 1 [𝑧𝑘+1 − 𝑧𝑘 ] − 𝑇𝑍 1𝛾 1 [𝑧𝑘 − 𝑧𝑘−1 ]

𝑔,𝑘+ 𝑔,𝑘+ 𝑔,𝑘− 𝑔,𝑘−
2 2 2 2

with :

## ∆𝑦∆𝑧 ∆𝑦∆𝑧 𝑘. 𝑘𝑟𝑔

𝑇𝑋 1 = 𝜆 1= [ ]
𝑔,𝑖±
2 ∆𝑥 1 𝑖±
2 ∆𝑥 1 𝜇𝑔 . 𝐵𝑔 𝑖±1
𝑖± 𝑖± 2
2 2

## ∆𝑥∆𝑧 ∆𝑥∆𝑧 𝑘. 𝑘𝑟𝑔

𝑇𝑌 1 = 𝜆 1= [ ]
𝑔,𝑗±
2 ∆𝑦 1 𝑗±2 ∆𝑦 1 𝜇𝑔 . 𝐵𝑔 1
𝑗± 𝑗± 𝑗±
2 2 2

## ∆𝑥∆𝑦 ∆𝑥∆𝑦 𝑘. 𝑘𝑟𝑔

𝑇𝑍 1 = 𝜆 1= [ ]
𝑔,𝑘±
2 ∆𝑧 1 𝑘±
2 ∆𝑧 1 𝜇𝑔 . 𝐵𝑔 𝑘±1
𝑘± 𝑘± 2
2 2
 RIGHT HAND TERM
The right term for this equation is:

𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑔
( ) + 𝑄𝑔
𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔
Since LHS is multiplied by Vb, then the RHS is also multiplied by Vb. Using
𝜕 ∅𝑆
backward method, the value of 𝑉𝑏 𝜕𝑡 [ 𝐵 ] is obtained:

𝜕𝑝 𝑝𝑡+1 − 𝑝𝑡
=
𝜕𝑡 ∆𝑡

𝜕 ∅𝑆 𝑡 𝑉𝑏 ∅𝑆 𝑡+1 ∅𝑆 𝑡
𝑉𝑏 [ ] = [( ) −( ) ]
𝜕𝑡 𝐵 ∆𝑡 𝐵 𝐵

## Therefore, for gas equation, the RHS becomes:

𝑡 𝑡+1 𝑡
𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑔 𝑉𝑏 𝜙𝑆𝑔 𝜙𝑆𝑔
𝑉𝑏 [ ] + 𝑄𝑔 = [( ) −( ) ] + 𝑄𝑔
𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔 ∆𝑡 𝐵𝑔 𝐵𝑔

By procedure of discretization for RHS and LHS, thus the diffusivity equation for gas and
water becomes:

- GAS EQUATION
𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑔
𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ (𝜆𝑔 (∇𝑃𝑔 − 𝛾𝑔 ∇𝑧)) = 𝑉𝑏 ( ) + 𝑄𝑔
𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔

2 2

2 2

2 2

## − (𝑇𝑍𝑔,𝑘+1 𝛾𝑔,𝑘+1 (𝑧𝑘+1− 𝑧𝑘 ) − 𝑇𝑍𝑔,𝑘−1 𝛾𝑔,𝑘−1 (𝑧𝑘− 𝑧𝑘−1 ))

2 2 2 2
𝑡+1 𝑡
𝑉𝑏 𝜙𝑆𝑔 𝜙𝑆𝑔
= [( ) −( ) ] + 𝑄𝑔
∆𝑡 𝐵𝑔 𝐵𝑔
- WATER EQUATION
𝜕 𝜙(1 − 𝑆𝑔 )
𝑉𝑏 ∇ ∙ (𝜆𝑤 (∇𝑃𝑤 − 𝛾𝑤 ∇𝑧)) = 𝑉𝑏 ( ) + 𝑄𝑤
𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑤

2 2

2 2

2 2

## − (𝑇𝑍𝑤,𝑘+1 𝛾𝑤,𝑘+1 (𝑧𝑘+1− 𝑧𝑘 ) − 𝑇𝑍𝑤,𝑘−1 𝛾𝑤,𝑘−1 (𝑧𝑘− 𝑧𝑘−1 ))

2 2 2 2
𝑡+1 𝑡
𝑉𝑏 𝜙(1 − 𝑆𝑔 ) 𝜙(1 − 𝑆𝑔 )
= [( ) −( ) ] + 𝑄𝑤
∆𝑡 𝐵𝑤 𝐵𝑤

## JACOBIAN MATRIX FOR RESIDUAL FLOW FUNCTION

Jacobian matrix can be used to find solution for the flow equation of gas and water contains 2
primary variable, water pressure ( or gas pressure) and water saturation (or gas saturation).
- Gas
𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑔
𝑉𝑏 ∇[𝜆𝑔 (∇𝑝𝑔 − 𝛾𝑔 ∇𝑧)] = 𝑞𝑔 + 𝑉𝑏 ( )
𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔

𝜕 𝜙(1 − 𝑆𝑤 )
𝑉𝑏 ∇[𝜆𝑔 (∇(𝑝𝑐𝑔𝑤 + 𝑝𝑤 ) − 𝛾𝑔 ∇𝑧)] = 𝑞𝑔 + 𝑉𝑏 ( )
𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑔
- Water
𝜕 𝜙𝑆𝑤
𝑉𝑏 ∇[𝜆𝑤 (∇𝑝𝑤 − 𝛾𝑤 ∇𝑧)] = 𝑞𝑤 + 𝑉𝑏 ( )
𝜕𝑡 𝐵𝑤

## Using Taylor expansion:

- Gas
𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑔
𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤 ) = 𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 ) + ∆𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤
𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤

- Water

𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑤
𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤 ) = 𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 ) + ∆𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤
𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤

The first guess for the New Rhapson solving method gives:
𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤 ) = 𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤 ) = 0
Then, the equations above become:
- Gas
𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑔
−𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 ) = ∆𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤
𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤
- Water
𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑤
−𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 ) = ∆𝑆𝑤 + ∆𝑝𝑤
𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤

The system of the equations of gas and water then can be represented in the form of Jacobian
Matrix:

𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑔
𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 ∆𝑆𝑤 𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )
[ ] = −[ ]
𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑤 ∆𝑝𝑤 𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )
[ 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 ]

𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑔 −1
∆𝑆 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )
[ 𝑤] = − [ ]
∆𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )
[ 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 ]

𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔

𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )
−[ ][ ]
𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )

∆𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤
[ ]=
∆𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑔
𝜕𝑝 𝜕𝑆𝑤
| 𝑤 |
𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑤
𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤

𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔

𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝐹𝑔(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )
[ ][ ]
𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝐹𝑤(𝑆𝑤 , 𝑝𝑤 )

∆𝑆 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤
[ 𝑤] =
∆𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑤

𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤

## Solving the problem for each primary variable will give:

𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔
𝐹𝑤− 𝐹𝑔 𝐹𝑔 − 𝐹𝑤
𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤
∆𝑆𝑤 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∆𝑝𝑤 =
𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑤 𝜕𝐹𝑔 𝜕𝐹𝑤
− −
𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑆𝑤 𝜕𝑝𝑤

## Print the Time =

results (10) tmax C
Start

Evaluate mat.
Read data (1) Balance error (9)
Inputdata.f90 Mbal_error.f90
End
C

Intialize (2)
Check
Init_con.f90 convergence

direction (3)

variable (7)

Time = time + dt

## Swn (I, j, k) = swk (I, j k)

Solve for primary
Pn (I, j, k) = Pk (I, j, k) variable (6)

Solver.f90

## Evaluate sink/ Evaluate

source tem Jacobian

Well.f90 Jacobian.f90

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