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Name: Abdelhameed Khamis Abdelhameed

Section: 4

Student Number: 109


Measurement is A set of operations having the object of determining a value of a quantity,

Calibration is A set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship
between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values
represented by a material measure or a reference material, and the corresponding values realized
by standards., One problem with standards is that there are several kinds. In addition to
“measurement standards” there are “standards of practice or protocol standards” that are produced
by the various standards bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI), and the Standards Council of Canada (SCC).
Keywords: [Measurement, Calibration, standards, Protocol Standards]

Lego is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego
Group a toy plastic brick with studs which can be connected to other plastic
bricks and used to construct toy buildings, vehicles, etc.
1 X 1 Brick Standard

Lego pieces have been manufactured from a strong, resilient plastic

known as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

Dimensions To Be Measured:

X: Brick Height: Vernier caliper

Y: Stud Width: External micrometer

Vernier Caliper Characteristics

Range Range Limit Scale Value

157.2 mm 0:157.2 mm 0.05 mm

Relative position

Measuring Tool Calibration

Calibrating Vernier Using Block Gauges

Relative position

20 10

mm mm

Data collection

In Accuracy table

#NO True value M Value Error Accuracy

1 0.00
2 3.05
3 6.07
4 10.90
5 21.70
6 31.02
7 41.15
8 51.07
9 62.03
10 71.30
11 81.08
12 111.0
13 125.02
14 141.21
15 150.33

In precision Table
M.Value No of Reads In precision
71.30 1
71.30 2
71.30 3
71.30 4
71.30 5
Inspection by comparison methods:

In these methods the surface texture is assessed by observation of the surface. The surface to be
tested is compared with known value of roughness specimen and finished by similar machining

The various methods which are used for comparison are

1. Touch Inspection.

2. Visual Inspection.

3. Microscopic Inspection.

4. Scratch Inspection.

5. Micro Interferometer.

6. Surface photographs.

7. Reflected Light Intensity.

8. Wallace surface Dynamometer.


Comparators are one form of linear measurement device which is quick and more convenient for
checking large number of identical dimensions. Comparators normally will not show the actual
dimensions of the work piece. They will be shown only the deviation in size. i.e. During the
measurement a comparator is able to give the deviation of the dimension from the set dimension.
This cannot be used as an absolute measuring device but can only compare two dimensions.
Comparators are designed in several types to meet various conditions. Comparators of every type
incorporate some kind of magnifying device. The magnifying device magnifies how much
dimension deviates, plus or minus, from the standard size.

The comparators are classified according to the principles used for obtaining magnification. The
common types are: 1) Mechanical comparators 2) Electrical comparators 3) Optical comparators
4) Pneumatic comparators

Mechanical Comparator

Dial Indicator

A dial indicator or dial gauge is used as a mechanical comparator. The essential parts of the

instrument are like a small clock with a plunger projecting at the bottom as shown in fig. Very

slight upward movement on the plunger moves it upward and the movement is indicated by the

dial pointer. The dial is graduated into 100 divisions. A full revolution of the pointer about this

scale corresponds to 1mm travel of the plunger. Thus, a turn of the pointer b one scale division

represents a plunger travel of 0.01mm.

The dial indicator is used for:

(I) Determining the error in geometrical form, say, taper, roundness, ovality etc.

(ii) Determining the errors is surfaces, say alignment, Parallelism, squareness etc.

(iii) Used for comparison of two heights or distance within small limits

(iv) Used for compression and tension testing of materials.

Practical Application:

(I) To check the trueness of milling machine arbors.

(ii) To check the parallelism of shape machine ram with surface.
(iii) To check the alignment of lathe machine centers by using a bar between centers.


In conclusion the experiment is conducted to show what is measurement standard and calibration

methodology of the measuring tool and a brief summary about inspection process with an

example of mechanical comparators specially dial indicator


1. Bedford, Allan (2005). The Unofficial LEGO Builder's Guide. San Francisco: No Starch

Press. ISBN 1-59327-054-2.

2. Lipkowitz, Daniel (2012). The LEGO Book. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-1-


3. G.k.Vijayaraghavan, R.Rajappa, (may-2009), ENGINEERING METROLOGY AND


4. DeWayne B. Sharp. (2000), "Measurement Standards."

5. International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology, ISO, 1993.

6. Debapriya M, (Unknown publication date), Types of Comparators (With Diagram) |

Metrology, Retrieved from http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/metrology/types-of-