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Classification of Structural Steel

1. All Purpose Carbon Steel (A 36) (A 529)

Theses steels contains 1.7% Carbon, 1.65% Manganese, 0.60% Silicon and 0.60% Copper. The common
type the A 36 has a yield stress of 248 kPa, is suitable for bolted, welded or riveted bridges and

2. High Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel (A 441 and A 572)

Besides containing carbon and manganese, these steels obtain higher strength and other properties by
the addition of more alloys such as Columbium, vanadium, chromium, silicon, copper, and nickel. These
steels have yields stresses as low as 276 MPa and high as 484 MPa. Theses steels have much greater
atmospheric corrosion resistance than carbon steels.

3. Atmospheric-Corrosion-Resistance High Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel

Theses structural steel are alloyed with small percentages of copper to become more corrosion
resistant. When exposed to the atmospheric, the surface of these steel oxidize and form a very tightly
adherent film which prevents oxidation and thus eliminates the need for painting. This type of structural
steel is particularly used for structures with exposed members that are difficult to paint, such as bridges,
electrical transmission towers.

4. Quenched and Tempered Allow Steel

These structural steels have an alloy in excess of those used in the carbon steels, and they are heat-
treated by quenching and tempering to obtain strong and tough steel with yield strengths which ranges
from 484 MPa to 760 MPa. Some if the ASTM grades of steel under theses type are (A53, A500, A501,
A570, A606, A618 and A709).

Steel Sections

Steel Sections are usually designated by shapes of their cross sections. The commons types are W
section (wide flange), S-beam (American Standard Beam), American Standard Channels, Tee sections
and Angular Sections.

W Shapes – American wide flange I or H-shaped steel beams are referred to as W shapes and are
designated by the letter W followed by their nominal depth in millimeters, with their mass in kg/m as
the last designation.
S Shapes – These shapes were formerly called I-beams and American Standard beams. The difference
between W and S-shapes are: the flange width of the S-shapes is narrower than W-shape and the inner
face of the flange of the S-shape has a slope of about 16.7”.

M shapes – These are doubly symmetrical shapes which are not classified as W or S-shapes. They are
symmetrical both x and y-axis. M shapes is also known as HP shapes.

C shapes – These are channel shapes formerly called American Standard Channels. The inner face of the
flange has the same slope as S-shapes.

MC shapes – Theses were formerly called ship building or Miscellaneous Channels and are not classified
as C shapes.

L shapes – These are either equal or unequal leg angles. All angles have parallel flange faces. Example:
Equal angle section 1,200x200x30

Structural Tee or Split Tee – Structural Tees are obtained by splitting W, S, or M shapes such that each
split section has one half of the original shape. Normal depth is 300 mm and a mass of 119.3 kg/m
obtained by splitting W 600 x 238.6 shape.

Bolted Connection for Tension Members

Types of Bolts

Bolting and welding have been used for making, structure steel connection for the past few decades and
riveting is almost obsolete because they no longer provide the most economical connections. Rivets are
still occasionally used for fasteners, but their use has declined to such a degree that most steel
fabricators have discontinued riveting altogether.

Types of bolts for connecting members.

1. Unfinished bolts – sometimes called ordinary or common bolts. They are classified by the ASTM as
A302 bolts and are made from carbon steels with stress-strain characteristics similar to those of A-36
2. High Strength bolts – they are made from medium-carbon heat treated steel and from alloy steel and
have tensile strengths greater than those of ordinary bolts. They are designated as A 325 and A 490

Types of bolted connection

Slip critical or Friction type connection – bolted connection where high slip resistance is desired. When
high-strength bolts are fully tensioned, they clamp parts being connected tightly together, this results on
a considerable resistance to slipping on the surface equal to be clamping force times the coefficient of
friction. So, if the shearing load is less than the permissible frictional resistance, the connection is
referred to a slip-critical or friction type.

Bearing type connection – bolting connections where high slip resistance is not necessary.

Sizes and types of holes for bolts

1. Oversized Holes – they are used in all plies of connection as long as the applied load does not exceed
the allowable slip resistance. They should not be used in bearing type connection.

2. Short Slotted Holes – they are used regardless of the direction of the applied load if the applied
permissible slip resistance is larger than applied force. If the load be applied in a direction normal to the
slot, these holes maybe used in any bearing type connections.

3. Long Slotted Holes – They are used in only one of the connected parts of friction type or bearing type
connections. For friction type these holes maybe used in any direction but for the bearing-type
connection the load must be normal to the axis of the slotted holes. If long-slotted holes are used in an
outer ply, they will need to be covered by plate washers.

Types of Beams

Beams are structural members that support transverse loads, either horizontal, sloping, or vertical loads,
depending upon their end connection. Simple beams have end connection which are considered not to
have any end moments with its end free to rotate. A beam is considered continuous beams if it extend
continuously across three of more supports and it is considered fixed beam beams if its ends are rigidly
attached to other members so that a moment can be transmitted across the connection.
1. Joist – these are closely spaced beams supporting the floors and roofs of buildings.

2. Lintels – are beams over openings in masonry walls such as windows and doors.

3. Spandrel beams – these beams support the exterior walls of the building.

4. Floor beams – these are larger beams found in many bridges perpendicular to the roadway of the
bridges and they are used to transfer the load floor loads from stringers to the supporting girders or

5. Stringers – these are beams in the floor of bridges which are running parallel to the roadway.

6. Girder – these are large beams into which smaller beams are framed.

Shear Center – is the point on the cross section of a beam through which the resultant if the transverse
loads must pass so that no twisting or torsion occurs.

Web Yielding – occurs when heavy concentrated loads procedures stress at the junction of the flange
and web of a beam where the load is being transferred from the relatively wide flange to the narrow

Axially Loaded Compression Members

Axially Loaded Compression Members – A column is a compression member that is so slender compare
to the length that usually it fails by buckling rather than crushing. They are classified into three groups:

1. Short Column – For the short column, the failure will be by crushing and no buckling will occur.

2. Intermediate Column – For intermediate columns, some of the fibers will reach the yield stress and
the member will fail by a combination of crushing and buckling and their behavior is said to be elastic.

3. Long Columns – For the long columns, the axial buckling stress usually remains below the
proportional limit and the column will usually buckle elastically. Long columns usually fail by buckling or
excessive lateral bending. The longer the column is, the greater its tendency to buckle and the smaller
load it will support.
Welded Connection

Welded connection – is the process of joining two pieces of metal by heating their surfaces to a plastic
or fluid state and allow the parts to fuse together usually with the addition of other molten metal. The
bond between the members is compelled after the molten metal solidifies. Structural welds are usually
made either by the Shielded-Metal-Arc Welding Process (SMAW) or by the Submerged-Arc Welding
Process (SAW).

Types of Welding Process

1. Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process – This is the most common welding method using metallic rod
which is used as the electrode. In arc welding an electric arc is formed between the pieces being welded
and an electrode weld be the welder with a special type of holder. The electrodes produce a continuous
spark which upon contact brings the electrode and the pieces being welded to the melting point. At the
end of the electrodes, small droplets of molten metal are formed and are forced by the arc across the
metal being connected, penetrating the molten metal to become part of the weld.

2. Submerged Arc Welding Process – This method of welding is most often in fabrication shop. The joint
is aligned and covered with a blanket of granular fusible material and the electrode is inserted into the
granular material, the arc produced and the melting of electrode and base metal takes place.

Three Classification of Welds

1. Based upon the types of a welds.

a.) Fillet welds – are usually used for structural connection but they are weaker compared to the
groover welds, which are welds made in grooves between members to be joined are they are used when
the members to be connected are lined up in the same plane.

b.) Groove welds

Complete – penetration welds which extend for the full thickness of the part being connected

Partial – penetration welds which extend only part of the member thickness.

c.) Plugged welds – is a circular weld passing through one member to another and joining and two

d.) Slot welds – is a weld from in a slot or elongated hole which joins one member to the other member
through the slot. The slot maybe partly or fully filled with weld material.
2. Based upon the type of joint used:

a.) Butt Joint

b.) Lap Joint

c.) Tee Joint

d.) Edge

e.) Corner

3. Based on the position of weld:

a.) Flat weld

b.) Horizontal weld

c.) Vertical weld

d.) Overhead weld

Reference: Simplified Steel Design by Besavilla

Reference used by: Simplified Steel Design by Besavilla

Basic Structural Design – Kurt H. Gersille, McGrawhill Book Co

Structural Engineering for Professional Engineer’s Examination – Max. Kurtz, McGrawhill Book Co

Essential of Structural Design – Anthony Hoadly, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Structural Steel Design – Jack C. McCormac, Internation Tectbook Co.

Elementary Theory of Structures – Wang and Eckel, McGrawhill Book Co

Design of Steel Structures – Kazimi and Kindal Prentice Hall of India

Standard Engineering Handbook (2nd Edition) – Gaylord and Gaylord, McGrawhill Book Co

Design in Structural Steel – John Lothers, 2nd Edition Prentice Hall, India

Steel Structure – Vazirani and Ratwani, Khanna Publishers, Delhi

Elementary Structural Analysis – Norris, Wilbur and Utka McGrawhill Book Co

Structural Design – Sutherland and Bowman, John Wiley and Sons

Professional Engineers Examination Questions and Answers – Willian La Londe, Jr, McGrawhill Book Co

Modern Framed Strcutures – Johnson, Turneaure and Bryan, 10th Edition John Wiley and Sons

Designed of Modern Steel Structures – Lincoln E. Grinter Macmillan Company

Elementary Structural Problem in Steel and Timber – Young and Morrision ,3rd Edition, John Wiley Sons

Simplified Design of Structural Steel – Harry Parker, 4th Edition, John Wiley and Sons

Basic Steel Design – Johnson, Lin and Galambos, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall

Structural Steel Design – Jack McCormac, 3rd Edition, Harper and Row

Steel Design Manual – Brockenbrough and Johnson, United States Steel Corporation

Fundamental Structural Steel Design (ASD) – Thomas Burns, Delmar Publisher Inc.

Steel Structure Design and Behavior (2nd Edition) – Charles G. Salmon and John E. Johnson, Harper and
Row Publisher

Steel Design (4th Design) – Willian T. Segui, Thompson Publisher

Structural Steel Design – Jack McCormac (LRFD Method)

National Structural Code of the Philippine. 2001 – ASEP Publisher (NSCP C101 – 01)

LRFD Steel Design (3rd Design) – William T. Segui, Thompson Publisher

Manual of Steel Design and Construction – Jose A. Bernales, Webster School and Office Supplies
Appearance Assessing the suitability of a piece of timber for non structural uses, based on
rating the appearance of its surface characteristics. (Appearance grading should not
be confused with visual grading which only applies to strength grading of
structural timber). There are three main approaches:

• Defects system – Each piece of timber is assessed against rules for the
maximum allowable size or degree of each type of feature that is permitted
within a grade. The grades describe the whole piece of timber including, in
some cases, defects that will have to be removed by resawing.

• Cutting system – This system is based on the amount of timber free of

defects, or with acceptable features, assessed as rectangular areas called
cuttings. The grades are defined in terms of the minimum area of cuttings
(rectangles clear of defects) that are allowed within a single piece.

• Fit-for-purpose – grading rules that describe timber characteristics affecting

the performance of a plank or board in demanding product uses such as
steam bending, or gun stocks. For example BS 3823 gives rules for ash
timber intended for use as tool handles [13]. Some of these grades, such as
those for decking, are effectively strength grades.

Historically the defects system was used to grade timber cut to specified
dimensions (scantlings) for a particular use, while the cutting system was
used for pieces not dimensioned for a known market. Nowadays, in countries
having large volumes of clear timber, the cutting system is more common,
while the defects system tends to be used where the timber is more variable.

Most North American hardwood timber coming into Europe is graded to a

cutting system developed by the NHLA (National Hardwood Lumber
Association of North America) . These rules have been summarised in a well-
illustrated booklet by the American Hardwood Export Council. The NHLA
grades are frequently used in modified form in other parts of the world. In
contrast, European Standard EN 975-1 is a hybrid of the defects and cutting
system. In the case of oak it follows a defects system derived from French
grading practice whereas the beech grades in the standard combine both
systems; In practice, sawmillers who are aware of EN 975-1 usually work from
the summary information on grading contained in two guides to French
hardwoods as opposed to using the standard itself. No other species are
covered in EN 975-1 although a standard for appearance grading of poplar is
being prepared.

Arris Sharp external angle of a piece of wood where two surfaces meet

Bark The outer protective covering of a tree.

Bark pocket A small section of bark that is partly or wholly enclosed within the inner wood.
Basic size The size by which a piece of sawn timber is known or specified, at a stated
moisture content, regardless of sawing tolerances or subsequent reductions
by processing.

Baulk A squared timber with a minimum cross section of 100 x 100 mm.

Black knot See non inter-grown knot.

Best face Face that, using a particular grading rule, is judged to be superior to the other

Board A piece of square- or waney-edged sawn timber 50mm or less in thickness.

Board foot The North American unit of lumber measurement. A board foot is equivalent to
a piece of timber measuring one foot long, one foot wide, and one inch thick;
in other words a volume of 144 cubic inches. There are thus 12 board feet to
the cubic foot.

Boule A stack of timber formed from a log that is sawn longitudinally by a series of
successive parallel cuts with the resultant waney-edged pieces then
assembled to recreate the original form of the log.

Boxed heart A piece that has been sawn so that it contains the core of the tree known as
the pith.

Brown oak See Tiger oak

Burr A spectacular feature comprising the distorted growth rings of large numbers
of small knots caused by groups of epicormic shoots.

Cell One of the small, often microscopic, units that make up the structure of wood.

Character Hardwood timber with a mix of inter-grown knots, pin knots, heart shake, and
colour variation.

Cat’s paw A cluster of pin knots.

Check Short, narrow, separation of fibres along the grain; often the result of drying
stresses. Checks in the ends of a piece of timber are particularly common.

Colour A mix of colour caused by fungi, chemical reaction or other causes.


Conversion See log conversion

Crown-cut See log conversion

Curly grain Grain that occurs in irregular curves

Cutting See appearance grading

Dead knot See non inter-grown knot

Defect An imperfection that lowers the timber quality

Defect system See appearance grading

Discolouration Stain in timber, due to fungi, chemical reaction, or other causes, that may
lower its merchantable value in some markets

Dote Early stage of fungal decay recognisable by frequent discoloured spots,

streaks or patches.

Drying The process of bringing timber to a moisture content range that is suitable for
an intended use.

Edge Either of the narrower longitudinal opposite surfaces of a square- or waney-

edged piece.

Epicormic Small buds and branches which appear on the trunk of some timber species
shoots usually as a result of an increased exposure to sunlight. Eventually these
shoots become engulfed by the enlarging trunk, which creates a decorative
feature called a burr.

Durability See natural durability

Exposed heart Timber sawn so that the pith is visible on a face or edge

Face Either of the wider longitudinal opposite surfaces of a square- or waney-edged


Feature Physical, morphological, or growth characteristic of a piece, which could affect

its use

Fibre A zone at which virtually all moisture has been removed from the cell cavities
saturation of timber but where the cell walls remain saturated. In most species it equates
point (FSP) to a moisture content of 25 – 30%. Many timber properties change as the
moisture content passes the FSP.

Figure Ornamental markings on the cut surface of timber, formed by the structural
features of the wood.

Finished size The size of a piece after machining, subject to machining tolerances

Grading A way of sorting pieces of timber into broadly similar groups, according to
quality or mechanical performance, so that marketing can be rationalised and
selection for a specific use is simplified; it is usually divided into structural and
appearance grading.

Grain Character of wood as revealed by touch or reaction to cutting tools. It is

determined by the distribution and size of the various cells.

Growth ring Layer of wood produced in one growing season.

Hardwood Wood of broadleaved trees, that is, trees from the botanical group

Heartwood The inner zone of wood that, in growing trees, has ceased to contain living
cells. In some species, such as oak, the heartwood is darker than the
sapwood while in other species such as sycamore it is not easily identifiable.
Heartwood is often more durable than sapwood.

Heart shake A radial shake originating at the centre of the log.

Heart stain See discolouration

Hoppus foot A unit of roundwood measurement where the cross-sectional area of a log is
taken as the square of one quarter of its circumference. One hoppus foot is
equivalent to 1.27 cubic feet. A hoppus foot is thus about 21% short of a cubic
foot – the reduction helping to compensate the sawmiller the volume loss
involved in converting roundwood to sawnwood. Nowadays hoppus measure
is generally restricted to hardwoods.

Included An area of sapwood enclosed within the heartwood and showing as a light
sapwood coloured patch. Included sapwood can be a problem in oak and sweet
chestnut whenever sapwood free timber is required either for its appearance
or for use out of doors where it may be exposed to fungal decay

Inter-grown A knot that, on the surface considered, is inter-grown with the surrounding
knot wood over all or most of its perimeter. Also called a live knot.

Insect attack A characteristic tunnel caused by one of several species of beetle larvae that
burrow into wood.

Knot A portion of a branch that became embedded in the wood as the tree grew
around it.

Knot cluster A group of knots around which the wood fibres are deflected.

Live knot See inter-grown knot

The way in which a log is sawn into planks and boards determines the type of
Log grain and figuring that will appear in the finished sawn timber, and may also
conversion affect its stability. There are three main types of log conversion used with
hardwood timber:

• Plain sawn – a log sawn longitudinally with a succession of parallel cuts.

Initially this yields planks or boards that are sawn tangentially to the growth
rings. Later, as the cuts get near the centre of the log, the pieces will be
quarter sawn (i.e. with the growth rings running near vertical to the face). Plain
sawn timber is also known as 'crown cut' or 'through-and-through'.

• Rift sawn – a log sawn longitudinally through the middle and then at right-
angles to the initial cut. Rift sawing yields sawn timber with grain and moisture
movement characteristics between plain sawn and quarter sawn

• Quarter sawn – a method of radial sawing used to produce pieces where the
growth rings run vertically or near vertically to the face of the plank or board.
In practice a grain angle of over 45˚ is generally accepted as being quarter
sawn. When the angle is close to 90˚ the pieces are very stable and, in the
case of oak, have a distinctive silver ribbon figure running across the face.
Quarter sawing is expensive and so it is seldom undertaken as part of a
normal milling operation. Some mills will, however, select quarter sawn timber,
to order, from logs that are plain or rift sawn.

Manufacturing Large volume or specialised joinery fabrication, often for public or commercial
joinery buildings.

Marbling A term sometimes used for an attractive brown colouration in sycamore.

Measuring-out A measurement technique, most commonly applied to waney-edged timber,

where the final dimensions are quoted as if the area containing any defects
had already been removed before measurement. This guide permits
measuring out in both square- and waney-edged pieces.

Moisture The amount of moisture that is present in timber, usually expressed as a

content percentage of the oven dry mass. European Standard EN 942 gives
recommended moisture contents for four typical situations. Modern houses
are becoming increasingly dry and so the moisture content recommendations
given in this standard are lower than earlier guidance. They are also different
to the moisture content recommendations for structural timber, which are
generally less demanding.

Moisture Ongoing moisture-induced change in across-the-grain dimension exhibited by

movement timber after its initial shrinkage due to drying.

Movement Classification of relative moisture movement


Natural Resistance of timber to damage by wood destroying organisms such as fungi

durability or insects. For example European Standard EN 350-2 gives a relative
classification of the inherent resistance of wood to attack by wood destroying
fungi. Note that all sapwood should be considered as being not durable
Non inter- A knot that, on the surface considered, is detached from the surrounding
grown knot wood over all or most of its perimeter. Non inter-grown knots can sometimes
become loose and fall out. Also known as a dead knot or black knot.

Occasional This term should be interpreted according to normal trade usage, e.g. up to
10% of pieces in a parcel.

Off-the-saw A piece of timber immediately after conversion and before any drying
shrinkage has occurred.

Olive ash An attractive dark brown stain in ash.

Oval knot Knot cut more or less perpendicular to its long axis so that the exposed cross-
section is approximately oval.

Oven dry Moisture content of timber that has been dried in a ventilated oven at 103°C
until there is no further fall in moisture content.

Pin knot An inter-grown or non inter-grown knot with a maximum diameter of 5mm.

Pip Pieces with intermittent pin knots, either singly or in clusters, giving a much
sought after grain feature. (See also burr)

Piece One plank or board.

Pith Zone of soft tissue within the first growth ring.

Plain sawn See log conversion.

Planed-all- A piece that has been machined, on all faces and edges, resulting in a square
round (PAR) or rectangular cross-section.

Plank A piece of square- or waney-edged sawn timber more than 50mm in


Processing Machining one or more surfaces of sawn timber to specified tolerances at an

appropriate moisture content.

Quarter-sawn See log conversion.

Resawing Sawing of timber into smaller cross sections

Ripple See wavy grain.

Ring shake A shake that follows the line of a growth ring.

Rot See fungal decay.

Rotten knot A knot that is softer than the surrounding wood due to fungal decay

Sapwood The outer zone of a tree underneath the bark that, when the tree is growing,
contains living cells and conducts sap. Sapwood is frequently paler than the
heartwood though is not clearly differentiated in all species. Sapwood has a
low natural durability.

Shake A longitudinal fissure in timber, irrespective of the extent of penetration

Sloping grain A divergence in the direction of the grain from the longitudinal axis of the

Softwood Wood of coniferous trees; that is, from the botanical group Coniferae

Sound knot A knot that is free from decay and at least as hard as the surrounding wood.
Some splits are generally permitted in sound knots but limits may be set in the
supply agreement.

Spalting Irregular dark lines showing on a wood surface caused by individual wood
inhabiting fungi forming sharp boundary zones to separate themselves from
other decay organisms of the same or different species. If arrested in the early
stages of decay these zones can be a decorative feature in some light
coloured timbers, particularly beech. In other timbers such as birch, however,
spalting only becomes visible in the later stages of decay by which time the
timber is too degraded to be usable.

Splay knot A knot cut approximately parallel to its axis so that the exposed section is
elongated and emerges on the arris.

Spiral grain Grain that follows a spiralling course in one direction around a log.

Square-edged Sawn timber of regular cross section, with wane, if permitted, not exceeding a
specified limit.

Steaming Steam is sometimes used as a convenient heat source to enable some timber
species such as ash to be bent into tight curves. In other cases steam is used
to darken timbers such as beech and pear, and to make them easier to work.

Straight grain Grain that is parallel or nearly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piece.
Sticker marks Unsightly stain on light coloured timbers resulting from oxidative reactions
between the piece of timber and the spacer (or sticker) used for separating
the planks or boards as they dry. It is particularly common in beech, ash, and

Assessing the load-bearing characteristics of a piece of timber. There are two

Strength main strength grading systems:
• Visual grading – assessing the load-bearing capacity of a piece of timber
visually, using grading rules that define limits for rate of growth, and for
strength reducing factors such as: knots, sloping grain, fissures, and fungal
attack. Hardwood timber is almost always visually graded. Note that visual
grading and appearance grading should not be confused - appearance
grading only applies to grading for non-structural purposes.

• Machine grading – measuring the strength of timber using special grading

machines, which, in most cases, exploit a correlation between the deflection
of a piece of timber under load and particular mechanical properties. Because
it is so accurate, machine grading is preferred to visual grading wherever
possible. At present however its use is generally restricted to softwood timber
less than 80mm thick. Larger section softwood timber and all hardwood
species, except poplar, still have to be strength graded visually.

In the UK the current engineering design code for timber is BS 5268-2 [20]
though this is due to be replaced by Eurocode 5 . These codes require that
timber used for load bearing purposes is strength graded. In practise,
however, many building projects using structural hardwoods are approved via
an engineers certificate as opposed to formal engineering calculation. In this
case the timber quality is selected to a 'framing grade' agreed between the
engineer and carpenter, with only a few key structural members being formally
strength graded.

Where timber is strength graded it is assigned to specific 'strength classes',

based on characteristic values for timber strength, stiffness, and density. In
European Standard EN 338 the strength classes for softwood timber are
prefixed by the letter C, while hardwood classes are assigned the letter D. The
only exception is poplar, which, though it is a hardwood, is given a C class in
the standard.

The current British Standard for visual grading of hardwoods is BS 5756 ,

which gives four strength grades for temperate hardwoods. These correspond
to specific strength classes in EN 338. BS 5756 is sometimes criticised
because there is a large gap between the two highest and the two lowest
grades, and because it does not distinguish between heartwood and
sapwood. Thus for specific purposes, such as building conservation, some
companies using structural oak still work to the grades in CP 112 , which was
withdrawn in 1980. Whatever visual grading system is used it is important that
the grader is properly trained, the grades chosen are specified by a structural
engineer, and that the system follows the requirements for visual grading in
European Standard EN 518
Tiger oak An attractive dark brown stripy colouration in the heartwood of oak caused by
the beef steak fungus Fistulina hepatica. Unlike most wood inhabiting fungi, F.
hepatica does not cause significant breakdown of the timber until a late stage
of colonisation. Very rarely the whole cross section of the heartwood is
affected, this is known as brown oak. Similar stripy markings are occasionally
seen in other hardwoods particularly sweet chestnut.

Unedged See waney-edged.

Visual grading See strength grading.

Wane Original rounded surface of a log, with or without the bark, which occurs on
any face or edge.

Waney-edged Sawn timber having parallel faces and with one or both edges left unsawn so
that the bark or irregular surface is retained. Also called un-edged.

Wavy grain Grain occurring in fairly uniform waves. A decorative feature, particularly in
sycamore. Occasionally found in other species, particularly ash. Also known
as ripple.

Warp Distortion of a piece of timber during the process of log conversion, drying, or

Worst face Face that, using a particular grading rule, is judged to be inferior to the other

The glossary is an extract from 'Making the Grade: A guide to appearance grading in UK grown
hardwood timber' by Ivor Davis and Guy Watt.

Parts of Timber in Building Structure

Rafter - is one of a series of sloped structural members that extend from the ridge or hip to the
wall plate, downslope perimeter or eave, and that are designed to support the roof deck and its
associated loads.

Fascia - The horizontal "fascia board" which caps the end of rafters outside a building may be
used to hold the rain gutter.

Soffit Bearer - is an exterior or interior architectural feature, generally the underside of any
construction element. A structure to fill the space between the ceiling and the top of cabinets
mounted on the wall is called a soffit, as is the material connecting an exterior wall to the edge of the
roof under the eaves.

Lintel - a horizontal support of timber, stone, concrete, or steel across the top of a door or
Jack Stud - Jack studs and king studs. The header is supported by a jack stud at each end.
Jacks, sometimes called trimmers, fit under each end of a header, and they transfer the load
that the header carries down to the bottom plate and the framing beneath.
Sill Trimmer – Floor framing member that supports the floor joists. Bottom jack studs. Short
studs between the sill trimmer and bottom plate, used to support the sill trimmer and provide
fixing for linings. Bottom plate. The horizontal member at the bottom of a wall frame, used to
secure the bottom of the studs.

Jamb Stud – A jamb stud is a stud immediately adjacent to an opening, so it supports a greater
share of load than a common stud. Jamb studs can be large single ones or two or
more stud nails laminated together. Jamb studs in external walls and other load bearing walls
must not be: notched within the middle half of their height.

Termite Shield (ant cap) - A termite shield is a sheet metal fabrication used in light frame
construction to reduce the movement of termites from the soil into wood framing members such as
floor joists and studs.[1] Although there are several types of non chemical termite barriers now in use,
termite shields are the original. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Termite_shield

Hanging Beam - A 'hanging beam' is generally a deep timber beamlocated perpendicular (at
right angles or 90º) to ceiling joists and directly above them. The function of ahanging beam is
to reduce the span of the ceiling joists.

Ceiling Joist - The term binding joist is sometimes used to describe beams at floor level running
perpendicular to the ridge of a gable roof and joined to the intermediate posts.Joists which land
on a binding joist are called bridging joists. A large beam in theceiling of a room
carrying joists is a summer beam.

Top Wall Plate - Also called a wall plate, raising plate, or top plate, An exception to the use of
the term plate for a large, load-bearing timber in a wall is the bressummer, a timber supporting
a wall over a wall opening.

Noggin - Noggins, sometimes called bridging or blocking are timbers used all over the place
during first fix structural carpentry to strengthen and stiffen wall, floor other timber structures in

Bottom Wall Plate - Also called a wall plate, raising plate, or top plate, An exception to the use
of the term plate for a large, load-bearing timber in a wall is the bressummer, a timber
supporting a wall over a wall opening.

Floor Joist - Wood joists were also used in old-style timber framing. The invention of the circular saw
for use in modern sawmills has made it possible to fabricate wood joists as dimensional lumber.

Bearer - Bearers carry the loads from the floor joists across large spans. On lower storeys,
the bearer may span between the stumps. The bearers rest on top on the piers and usually run
the direction of the longest wall.