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Theory of Structural Analysis & Design

1. General
2. Design Procedure
3. Loads
4. Preliminary Analysis and Design
5. Analysis and Design of Slabs
6. Analysis and Design of Main Beams
7. Analysis and Design of Columns
8. Analysis and Design of Footings
9. Design of Staircase
10. Design of Water Tanks
11. Analysis of Frames
12. Analysis of Wind Loads

13. Analysis of EarthQuake Loads


Any engineering structure should satisfy the functional and structural, have
a sufficient degree of performance, a reasonable cost and should be
aesthetically attractive. The purpose of structural analysis and design is to
enable the designer to design the structure with adequate strength, stiffness
and stability. The general procedure is as follows

1. Based on space requirements and shape, suitable structural frame

works are selected.
2. Based on preliminary analysis and experience approximate
dimensions of various structural members are fixed.
3. Detailed analysis is performed to determine the bending moments,
shear force, axial forces etc at the required section.

4. Using the result of analysis the various members are designed

ensuring adequate factor of safety(FS).

Theory of Structural Analysis & Design - Design Procedure

The vertical loads are taken by slabs and transferred to main beams.
Columns take the loads from main beams and transfers it to the foundation,
which finally transfers to the ground. Hence it is important that the design
procedure also be in that order.

3. Loads
A structure should be strong enough to support the loads acting on it. Hence
estimation of the loads with sufficient accuracy is very essential in structural
design. A structure may be acted up on by many types of loads. Dead Loads
are estimated based on unit weight of materials. The live load on floors and
the wind loads are obtained. The effect of earth quake load is also
considered and loads are calculated according to the standards of building

4. Preliminary Analysis and Design

Inorder to analyze statically indeterminate structures the dimensions of the

member should be known. Moreover any member is acted upon by its own
self weight and hence to design such a member its self weight must be
known. Hence the approximate dimensions of various members are fixed,
before carrying out a detailed analysis and design. This is done by
performing a preliminary analysis from experience. The allowable span-
depth ratio is taken from IS456 - 1978 clause 22.2.1

5. Analysis and Design of Slabs

Live loads on slab are taken from IS 875-1964. Depending on the support
condition and span ratios the slabs are analyesd in accordance with IS456
-1978 clause 22.2.1. Slabs were designed by limit state using SP16.

6. Analysis & Design of Main Beams

The loads acting on main beams are self weight, loads from slabs and
weight of wall. The main beams were analyzed by two cycle moment
distribution method and designed by limit state method.

7. Analysis & Design of Columns

The load acting on the columns are these transferred by beams and self
weight. The frames were analyzed by two cycle momet distribution method
and designed for axial loads and bending moments using SP16.

8. Analysis & Design of Footings

The footings were proportioned so that the bearing pressure does not
exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil. The bending moments and
shears were determined at critical sections and the footings as isolated
footing were designed by limit state method.

11. Analysis of Frames

Multi storied frames have high degree of static and kinematic indeterminacy.
A rigorous analysis of such frames consume considerable resources, time
and effort. Hence the building codes allow approximate methods based on
many simplifications and assumptions, there by affecting a compromise
between the expenses, time and effort incurred in performing a rigorous
analysis and the savings resulting there from.

Two cycle moment distribution method is used to analyse frames. It is an

approximate method based on the assumptions that transfer of moments
does not take place from floor to floor. The method gives sufficiently
accurate results due to the fact that moments carried from floor to floor
through columns are small compared t beam moments.

The analysis of multi story frame is done by considering one floor at a time.
Each floor is taken with column above and below and maintain and shears
are calculated in beams and columns.

12. Analysis for Wind Loads

Wind loads acting to the building are taken into consideration. Analysis for
wind loads are done using portal frame method and the loads are calculated
using IS 875 (Part 3) 1987.

13. Analysis for Earthquake Loads

Earthquake effects are considered. Load calculations are done by seismic

coefficient method using IS 1893-1984. Analysis is done by portal frame