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Structural Idealization and Loading

Structural Idealisation

This generally means breaking the complete structure down into single elements
that can be easily analyse and design. It is rarely possible to consider the three-
dimensional structure in its entirety. Consider a concrete beam carrying a water
tank as shown below. For analysis purpose we can neglect the thickness of the
members and assume the beam is simply supported. The idealized structure is
as shown below represented by line drawing for the beam and arrow for the
forces that acted on the beam. By applying the principle of structural analysis, if F
is known than we can calculate the reaction(R1 and R2) at the support and the
maximum shear force and bending moment in the beam. Eventually we can
design the suitable size of the beam that can safely carry the water tank.

F/2 F/2

R1 R2

(a) Actual structure (b) Idealised structure

Idealised Structure

Example

A reinforced concrete flat roof with a parapet wall at the end is as shown
below. Draw the idealised beam and name the forces that acts on the beam.

HJ ROSLAN BIN KOLOP


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Sectional and Plan View of a structure

Solution Uniformly distributed load

from live load + dead load

Concentrated Load (slab + beam)

from parapet

Support reaction

2.0 m 6.0 m

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Loads on Individual Structural Elements

A structural element is a portion of a structure that can be usefully


considered as a separate entity. At an appropriate time in the design
process a slab, a beam, a wall or a column can be visualised as
isolated from the rest of the structure and calculations can be
performed on that element to determine a suitable choice of size or
section.

EXAMPLE 1

Timber beams spanning 4.0 m and spaced at 3.0 m centres, as


shown in Figure below , supported timber floor comprising joists and
boards with a plaster ceiling. Other design data:
 Self-weight of boards and fl oor joists 0.23 kN/m2
 Self-weight of ceiling 0.22 kN/m2
 Imposed load on floor 1.50 kN/m2
 Self-weight of timber beam 0.6 kN (assumed)

A weight for the beam is assumed because at this stage in the design
process the size of the beam is not known.

Floor plan

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SOLUTION

To determine the uniformly distributed load (UDL), visualise a


single beam removed from the structure as shown below:

The load on one square metre of floor is multiplied by the area


supported, 4.0 m x 3.0 m,(tributary area) to give the total UD
load on the beam as follows:

Isolated timber floor beam

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Loads on timber beam Dead loads (self-weight) Imposed loads
kN kN
Joists and boards 0.23 x 4.0 x 3.0 2.76 -
Ceiling 0.22 x 4.0 x 3.0 2.64 -
Timber beam 0.60 -
Imposed load 1.5 x 4.0 x 3.0 - 18.0
Totals 6.0 18.0

Total UD load for ultimate limit states


= 6.0 x 1.35 + 18.0 x 1.50 = 35.1 kN

EXAMPLE 2

Steel floor beams arranged as shown below support a


reinforced concrete slab which carries a screed. Calculate the
total Uniformly Distributed load on each beam using this
design data:

 slab thickness =150 mm


● screed weight =1.2 kN/m2
● imposed load on slabs =5.0 kN/m2
● mass of steel beams =60 kg/m.
\

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SOLUTION

Unit weight of reinforced concrete = 25 kN/m2


Concrete slab self-weight = 0.15 x 25 = 3.75 kN/m2
Steel beam self-weight = 60 x 0.0098 = 0.59 kN/m

Loads on steel beam Dead loads (self-weight) Imposed loads


kN kN
Screed 1.2 x 6.0 x 4.0 28.8 -
Concrete slab 3.75 x 6.0 x 4.0 90.0 -
Steel beam 0.59 x 6.0 3.5 -
Imposed load 5.0 x 6.0 x4.0 - 120.0
Totals 122.3 120.0

Total UD load for ultimate limit states


= 122.3 x 1.35 + 120.0 x 1.50 = 345.1 kN
EXAMPLE 3

Find the beam loads and the reactions transmitted to the walls
for the steelwork arrangement shown below using this design
data:
● reinforced concrete (RC) slab thickness 100 mm
● screed weight 1.0 kN/m2
● imposed load on slabs 3.0 kN/m2
● mass of steel beams 80 kg/m.

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Floor plan

SOLUTION

Concrete slab self weight = 0.10 x 25 = 2.50 kN/m2


Steel beam self weight = 80 x 9.81/1000 = 0.78 kN/m

UD loads on beam A Dead loads (self-weight) Imposed loads


kN kN
Screed 1.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 12.5 -
Concrete slab 2.5 x 5.0 x 2.5 31.3 -
Steel beam 0.78 x 5.0 3.9 -
Imposed load 3.0 x 5.0 x 2.5 - 37.5
Totals 47.7 37.5

Total UD load for ultimate limit states


= 47.7 x 1.35 + 37.5 x 1.50 = 120.6 kN

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As beam A is loaded symmetrically each end reaction is half the total
load Loads and reactions are shown in diagram below:

Beam A isolated

Beam B

UD loads on beam B Dead loads Imposed loads


(self-weight) kN
kN
Steel beam 0.78 x 5.0 3.9 -
Total 3.9 -

Total UD load for ultimate limit states = 3.9 x 1.35 =_ 5.3 kN

The diagram below shows the loads on beam B and the reactions
transmitted to the walls:

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PUSAT PENGAJIAN DIPLOMA
Beam B isolated

EXAMPLE 4

A reinforced concrete mezzanine floor slab is simply supported


on steel beams and columns as shown in the Figure below.
Calculate the beam and column loads using this design data:
● slab thickness 200 mm
● weight of screed 1.5 kN/m2
 mass of steel beams 120 kg/m
● mass of steel columns 100 kg/m
● imposed load on slab 4.5 kN/m2

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PUSAT PENGAJIAN DIPLOMA
Arrangement of mezzanine floor

SOLUTION

Concrete slab self-weight = 0.20 x 25 = 5.0 kN/m2


Total self-weight of slab + screed = 5.0 + 1.5 = 6.5 kN/m2
Steel beam self-weight = 120 x 9.81/1000 = 1.18 kN/m
Steel column self-weight = 100 x 9.81/1000 = 0.98 kN/m

Beam A
UD loads on beam A Dead loads (self-weight) Imposed loads
kN kN
Concrete slab + screed 6.5 x 8.0 x 2.5 130.0 -
Steel beam 1.18 x 8.0 9.4 -

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Imposed load 4.5 x 8.0 x 2.5 - 90.0

Totals 139.4 90.0

Total UD load for ultimate limit states


= 139.4 x 1.35 + 90.0 x 1.50 = 323.2 kN

Reactions for beam A

Beam A isolated

Beam B
UD loads on beam B Dead loads (self-weight) Imposed loads
kN kN
Concrete slab + screed 6.5 x 8.0 x 5.0 260.0 -
Steel beam 1.18 x 8.0 9.4 -
Imposed load 4.5 x 8.0 x 5.0 - 180.0

Totals 269.4 180.0

Total UD load for ultimate limit states


= 269.4 x 1.35 + 180.0 x 1.50 = 633.7 kN

Loads and reactions for beam B

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Beam B isolated

Beam C

UD loads on beam C Dead loads Imposed loads


(self-weight) kN
kN
Steel beam 1.18 x 10.0 11.8 -
Total 11.8 nil

Total UD load for ultimate limit states


= 11.8 x 1.35 = 15.9 kN

Loads and reactions for beam C

Beam C isolated

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Columns

Self-weight of one column ULS = 1.35 x 2.4 = 3.2 kN

Column One

Total column load for ULS= 166.4 + 161.6 + 3.2 = 331.2 kN

Column Two

Total column load for ULS= 2 x 166.4 + 316.9 + 3.2 = 652.9 kN

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ASSIGNMENT 1

A series of reinforced concrete beams at 5.0-m centres span 7.5 m


onto reinforced concrete columns 3.5 m high, as shown in Figure
below . The beams, which are 575 mm deep by 250 mm wide,
carry a 175-mm-thick reinforced concrete slab, which can be
considered as simply supported. The columns are 250 mm by 250
mm in cross-section. The slab carries a screed weighing 1.4 kN/m2
and an imposed load of 3.0 kN/m2 .

Find the total UD load on one beam, the reaction to one column
and the loads from one column to its foundation.

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TUTORIAL 2

The floor plan of a composite structure (concrete slab plus steel beam) is
below. The reinforced concrete slab has an overall thickness of 200 mm
and is to be designed to carry an imposed load of 3 kN/m2 including floor
finishes and ceiling loads of 1 kN/m2. Calculate the design load(kN/m)
acting on steel beam A2 – B2. Assume weight of steel beam is 70 kg/m.

3m

2 6m

3m

6m 3m

A B C

Floor Plan

Solution

Assume the shaded region as the tributary area to be supported by beam A2 – B2.

Loading

Dead Load (kN/m)

Slab: 25 x 0.2 x 3 = 15 kN/m


Floor finishes and ceiling: 1 x 3 = 3 kN/m
Beam: 70 x 9.81 x 10-3 = 0.7 kN/m
Total = 18.7 kN/m
Imposed Load : 3 x 3 = 9 kN/m

Design load = 1.35gk + 1.5 qk


= 1.35 x 18.7 + 9 x 1.5 = 38.75 kN/m

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PUSAT PENGAJIAN DIPLOMA
Idealised beam A2 – B2: w = 38.75 kN/m

Exercise

Q1. What is the difference between dead and live load in a structure and
give two example for each type of load..

Q2. Calculate the self-weight of reinforced concrete beam of breadth 300


mm, depth 600 mm and length 6000 mm.

Q3. The floor of a classroom is made of 125 mm thick concrete. If the floor
is a slab having a length of 8 m and width of 6 m, determine the total
design load in kN for dead and live load. Use values in Table of dead
and imposed load given above.

Q4. Referring to the problem given above, calculate the design load of
(i) Beam A1-B1
(ii) Beam A1-A3
(iii) Column A1
(Assume all beams are simply supported)

Q5. Name the modes of failure that can occur on a reinforced concrete
(i) beam
(ii) column.

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DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD ON BEAMS FROM ONE- WAY AND
TWO -WAY SLAB

Floor slabs can be designed as either one-way spanning or two-way


spanning as shown in Figures (a) and (b)

In the case of one-way spanning slabs the entire load is distributed to


the two main beams. Two-way spanning slabs distribute load to main
beams along all edges.

The load of the slabs is distributed on the supporting beams as shown


below (based on cracked pattern of slab at yield):
Ly Ly

Lx

Lx

Two ways Slab One way Slab

One way slab and two-way slabs can be recognised by dividing


Ly(longer size) to Lx(shorter size).

When Ly/Lx ≤ 2 then it is considered as two- way slab


When Ly/Lx >2 then it is considered as one- way slab

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Given the floor plan as shown below. The types of floor can be
determined using the expression above.

The distribution of loads from slabs to supporting beams.

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Figure: The types of loading from slabs distributed to the supported
beams

EXERCISE

Given the following floor plan, plot the distribution of loading of the floor
on the surrounding beams.
5500 mm 2750 mm 2750 mm

A B

3000 mm

3000 mm

D
C

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The trapezoidal load, triangular load and rectangular load can be converted
to uniformly distributed load for ease of calculations using the following
expressions:

Trapezoidal load to Uniformly distributed load(kN/m):

Triangular load to Uniformly distributed load(kN/m):

Rectangular load to Uniformly distributed load(kN/m):

Where n = kN/m2

EXAMPLE

The figure below shows the plan of a precast concrete building. Determine
the design load, bending moment and shear force for beam 1a/D-E and beam
E/1-2 (assume as simply supported) if the characteristics variable action on
the floor is 3.0 kN/m2 and the characteristics self weight of slab is 4.6
kN/m2. The beam E/1-2 also carries a brick wall of 3 m height. Also given:

Weight of bricks: 2.6 kN/m2


Slab thickness : 150 mm

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Solution

Beam 1a/D-E

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Self weight of beam = 25 x 0.25 x (0.55 – 0.15) = 2.5 kN/m

Design load, w = 1.35 (9.2 + 2.5) + 1.5 (6) = 22.05 kN/m

Maximum Shear force (reaction) = wL/2 = 22.05 x 3/2 = 33.08 kN

Maximum bending moment = wL2/8 = 22.05 x 32/8 = 24.81 kNm

BEAM E/1-2

= 4.6 x 3/6 [ 3 – (3/3.75)2] = 5.43 kN/m

Wqk,1 = 3x3/6 [ 3 – (3/3.75)2] = 3.54 kN/m

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PUSAT PENGAJIAN DIPLOMA
Wqk,2 = nLx/2 = 3 x 3/2 = 4.5 kN/m

Self weight of beam = 25 x 0.25 x (0.55 – 0.15) = 2.5 kN/m


Self weight of brick wall = 2.6 x 3 = 7.8 kN/m

Design load, w = 1.35(5.43 + 6.9 + 2.5 + 7.8) + 1.5 (3.54 + 4.5)


= 42.61 kN/m

Point load (reaction from beam 1a/D-E) = 33.08 kN

42.61 kN/m 33.08 kN

3.75m 3.75 m

EXERCISE

1. Calculate the reaction (Maximum shear Force)


2. Calculate the maximum design moment
3. Sketch the shear force diagram
4. Sketch the bending moment diagram

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ASSIGNMENT 2

Q1 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan pelan lantai tingkat kedua sebuah bangunan pasang siap..
Data berikut diberi,
Ketebalan papak konkrit = 125 mm
Beban kenaan di atas papak = 3.0 kN/m2
Berat konkrit = 25 kN/m3
Berat dinding bata di atas rasuk = 2.0 kN/m
Kemasan lantai = 1.5 kN/m2

A. Dengan mengandaikan rasuk sekunder D/1-3 sebagai tupang mudah,

(i) Kirakan beban rekabentuk pada rasuk.


(ii) Kirakan momen rekabentuk.

B Kirakan beban rekabentuk danm momen r/b rasuk B1-B4 dalam kN/m

125

450

300
All dimensions in mm

Beam D/1-3

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Q2. The floor system of a building consists of a 15 cm thick
reinforced concrete slab resting on four steel beams, which in
turn are supported by two steel girders as shown below. The
cross-sectional areas of the floor beams and the girders are
94.8 cm2 and 337.4 cm2, respectively. Determine the permanent
action on the beams CG and DH and the girder AD.

Given the unit weight of the construction materials as follows:


Reinforced concrete: 25 kN/m3
Structural steel: 77.0 kN/m3

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