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Reinventing the Museum: Historical and Contemporary relevant to the dispute” (p. 316). Instead, she proposes
Perspectives on the Paradigm Shift. Gail Anderson, ed. an integrative approach that enfranchises overlooked
Marburg an der Lahn: Basilisken Press, 2004. 401 pp. considerations such as different beliefs concerning what
constitutes property and ownership in the first place.
H E L A I N E S I LV E R M A N Another topic of key interest to anthropologists in
University of Illinois several of the chapters is multiculturalism and museums.
Amalia Mesa-Bains argues that multiculturalism is “a kind of
The paradigm shift indicated in the volume’s title is the postcolonial diaspora” (p. 99) in which there are “dual stan-
dramatic transformation of museums from collections- dards of a Western subjectivity and those standards assigned
based, object-displaying, elite institutions to a wide range to otherness” (p. 102). Her proposed remedy is to recognize
of visitor-centered museums that are “more socially respon- different ways of knowing and being, and to use that cul-
sive cultural institution[s] in service to the public” (p. 1). To tural awareness to create programs, exhibitions, and educa-
illustrate this paradigm shift, Gail Anderson has compiled tion outreach based on “interethnic intimacy—not appro-
34 essays, 30 of which were published between 1990–2002. priation, nor co-optation” (p. 108). Edmund Barry Gaither is
The reinvention of the museum, as the editor terms it, is also concerned with multiculturalism. He rejects “models of
predicated on change in five key areas, which constitute American experience that express—directly or indirectly—
the organizing framework for the volume: (1) the role of the a concept of either/or” (p. 111). Rather, Gaither advocates
museum as it struggles to remain relevant; (2) the role of the the position that ethnic, racial, and other communities
public as central to the survival of the museum; (3) the evo- are part of larger communities, ultimately, the compre-
lution of exhibitions and programs as the primary vehicles hensive U.S. community. Claudine K. Brown’s solution to
serving the public; (4) the role of the object in the sense of the multiculturalism dilemma is to museologically con-
collections cared for by museums and implicating issues of ceive of all people as belonging to yet more inclusive fam-
stewardship and cultural responsibility; and (5) the role of ily, peer group, neighborhood, workplace, and educational
leadership for enabling museums to reach their greatest po- communities.
tential. As explicitly stated by its editor (p. xi), Reinventing This challenge to serve diverse communities and to
the Museum provides an informed basis for discussion and raise public participation in museums engenders considera-
action among staff members, trustees, museum students, tion of the very current issue of museum marketing. I would
and professionals, and a good overview of incisive thinking have liked to see an unpacking of the unproblematized no-
about museums in recent years. With only four chapters tion of the museum as an industry that appears in Anderson’s
written before 1990, however, it does not “outline the his- several introductory essays and other chapters. Several con-
torical evolution and dialogue about the museum” (p. 1) tributions build on this implicit concept to address the com-
in the 20th century as contended by Anderson, although petitive marketing of museums in an era of diverse and
the inclusion of John Cotton Dana’s seminal 1917 article, pervasive entertainment. Neil Kotler and Philip Kotler, a
“The Gloom of the Museum,” is a necessary starting point Smithsonian program specialist and a professor of inter-
for such an analysis. national marketing, respectively, confront this issue head-
Although anthropologists are not the primary audience on in their fascinating contribution, “Can Museums Be
for the volume, they will find many chapters of interest. All Things to All People? Missions, Goals, and Marketing’s
One issue of anthropological salience is the treatment Role.” Robert Janes’s “persistent paradoxes” are the conun-
of cultural property. Among the several chapters treating dra of how to make museums broadly popular when they
aspects of this theme, Karen J. Warren’s philosophical are knowledge based; recognition that even splashy multi-
perspective is particularly useful. She argues that in ad- media technology requires people to think to benefit and
dressing cultural property issues we need to consider our derive pleasure from the museum visit; and involving the
conceptual frameworks, the language used in discussions, public at a time when museum work is ever-more complex
ways of correcting bias, and alternative models of conflict for its staff (among other issues raised).
resolution. She identifies and rejects a dominant Western With its diverse voices and multifaceted relevance
model for dealing with cultural property, which is charac- to many contemporary museum anthropology problems,
terized by a “near exclusive reliance on a value-hierarchical, Reinventing the Museum should find ready course adoption
value-dualistic, and rights/rules ethic, which subordinates and is a worthy addition to AltaMira’s distinguished list of
the interests or claims of those in subordinate positions museum studies publications.

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 107, Issue 4, pp. 715–750, ISSN 0002-7294, electronic ISSN 1548-1433.  C 2005 by the American Anthropological

Association. All rights reserved. Please direct all requests for permission to photocopy or reproduce article content through the University of California
Press’s Rights and Permissions website, at http://www.ucpress.edu/journals/rights.htm.

716 American Anthropologist • Vol. 107, No. 4 • December 2005

Black Skins, French Voices: Caribbean Ethnicity and tion), and explores various attempts by different theatrical
Activism in Urban France. David Beriss. Cambridge, MA: and religious groups (members of the Catholic Church and
Westview Press, 2004. 156 pp. Seventh Day Adventists for instance) to ask and answer the
question: What does it mean to be Antillais in France?
RALPH GRILLO Antillais themselves, both in the islands and in France,
University of Sussex have undertaken various “experiment[s] with alternate ide-
ologies” (p. 129). There are different routes, trajectories
This short book by New Orleans anthropologist David Beriss and projects, some located in specific historical periods
is part of the Westview “Case Studies in Anthropology” se- (négritude, créolité), and others emerging through differ-
ries. This is a contemporary version of the long-established ent contemporary institutions. The “Eloge” theater troupe,
and similarly named “Case Studies in Cultural Anthropol- for example, uses “nostalgia for life in the Antilles to
ogy,” originally published by Holt, Reinhart, and Winston. build a sense of identity and community” (p. 87). Another,
The latter series was a staple of the undergraduate curricu- “Stand-Fast,” seeks a place in French society itself, and
lum and provided many of the ethnographies that stu- the middle-class intellectuals and professionals of CEDAGR
dents actually read. Like so much of the anthropology of (Centre d’Entre-aide at d’Etude des Antillais, Guyanais,
its period, the series tended to have a “tribal” and rural fo- Réunionnais) strive for the recognition of cultural differ-
cus: Many of the books were accounts of the Navaho, or ence within a broader, indeed global, context of créolité.
the Banyoro, and so on, though other contributions went These projects sit uneasily in contemporary France, with its
beyond that conventional remit. The Westview series is “republican” model of citizenship and culture emphasizing
also concerned with “particular communities,” as its author assimilation into French values, at least in theory. Over the
guidelines put it, but as in much modern anthropology, the last 25 years there has been a tension between forces push-
studies are not confined to a particular rural or urban lo- ing for some form of multiculturalism, best seen in practi-
cality. Indeed, Beriss’s excellent book is a wide-ranging ac- cal measures at the local level, and those that reasserted the
count of transnational migrants from the Caribbean islands classic model of the republic, one and indivisible, as most
of Martinique and Guadeloupe who, over the last forty years recently in the 2003 Stasi Commission on laicity. The latter
in increasing numbers (perhaps a third of the island popu- seem now to be in the ascendancy, and Beriss’s conclusion
lation), have gone to live and work in France. that “France is being creolized,” (p. 133) is overoptimistic,
The situation of the French Caribbean possessions, or at least premature.
whose inhabitants are known collectively as “Antillais,” is Overall, this is a rich, well-illustrated book that perhaps
a peculiar one. Since World War II, they have been adminis- needed a little more, a little earlier, on colonial history and
tered as overseas departments of France itself, with a status the development of the French Caribbean islands in the
equivalent to those on the mainland. Consequently, An- context of the transatlantic slave trade. Nonetheless it is an
tillais are juridically French citizens and, when in France, exemplary model of its kind that will be enjoyed by students
viewed as internal migrants with rights. For example, they and advanced scholars alike.
have access to certain public sector jobs that are denied
to other, non-French immigrants. Despite this, their po- Culture on Tour: Ethnographies of Travel. Edward M.
sition is ambiguous. They are French juridically, but as Bruner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. 308 pp.
Afro-Caribbeans they are by no means accepted as French
socially. Despite many decades during which they were sub- MIRIAM KAHN
jected to French policies of assimilation—notably through University of Washington
the education system—the culture of Martinique and
Guadeloupe, and of Antillais in France, has in many ways Edward Bruner, a seasoned scholar with five decades of
remained distinct. They are French, but different. Beriss’s ethnographic research behind him as well as one of the
book discusses how they (and to some extent the French most lucid voices in tourism studies, has collected sev-
institutional system) attempt to grapple with, and resolve, eral of his essays (all but one previously published) into
the problems this poses. a spirited and thoughtful volume, written in remarkably
Much of Beriss’s fieldwork dates from 1989 and con- unadorned prose. By approaching tourism from the com-
cerns a series of events and situations he investigated pounded and intertwined perspectives of ethnographer,
around the time of the Bicentennial celebrations of the tourist, tour leader, and tourism industry employee, Bruner
French Revolution (he includes an account of what that demonstrates that tourism is a system in itself. As an indi-
celebration meant, or did not mean, to Antillais migrants). vidual who has been both anthropologist and tourist (and
Later fieldwork in 1998 enabled him assess the significance occasionally also tour guide), he is perfectly positioned to
for Antillais of another grand celebration—the multicul- take such a multifaceted look at tourism.
tural, multiethnic French soccer team winning the World The nine chapters cover a range of geographical lo-
Cup. The meat of the book, however, is a series of chap- cations, tourism types, and theoretical viewpoints: Maasai
ters in which he examines debates about “culture” among tourist productions in Kenya; the historic Elmina Castle in
both French and Antillais (if one may make that distinc- Ghana with its competing narratives; the contested site of

Single Reviews 717

Abraham Lincoln’s New Salem, Illinois; the Israeli fortress of ing locals interact, each group comes to the setting with
Masada as site of dialogic narrative; Balinese border zones; different goals and expectations. Bruner provides a mar-
and the Javanese Taman Mini theme park as site of self- velous example of blurred boundaries between researcher,
construction. tour guide, tourist, and local resident from his personal ex-
One of Bruner’s greatest contributions is his construc- perience. When, in his capacity as tour guide, he took a
tivist position, from which he views cultures as continually group of tourists to a Balinese temple festival to see an event
reinventing themselves. Tourist practices are seen as neither not normally on the tour schedule, he noticed another an-
simulacra nor ersatz, but as social performances in their own thropologist, Hildred Geertz, in the temple compound con-
right. This position allows Bruner to free anthropologists ducting research. Although she accepted Bruner the anthro-
from their previous impasse of thinking along the binary of pologist, she shunned Bruner the tour guide, reacting coldly
authenticity–inauthenticity, a persistent focus of tourism to his offer to introduce her to his group of tourists.
scholarship ever since Dean MacCannell’s 1970s writing on This particular postmodern pastiche, which occurred
“staged authenticity.” Because culture is always emergent, in the temple compound, encapsulates much of the vol-
alive, and in process, every cultural act is authentic. Indeed, ume’s main message—namely that by engaging in border-
what tourists seek is a good show. zone activity, anthropologists can disrupt their previously
Bruner also contributes to discussions about narrative. dominant and limiting binaries of ethnography–tourism
Because he understands that all players in the tourist drama and authentic–inauthentic. By engaging with tourism as a
(tourists, travel agents, locals, etc.) have agency, what in- system in its own right, ethnography can become a much
terests him is who, in the entangled coproduction, gets to richer and more exciting enterprise.
tell which story. He draws the useful distinction between
metanarratives (produced and managed by the tourism in- REFERENCE CITED
dustry) and tourists’ tales (told by tourists). Metanarratives MacCannell, Dean
are essential to sell a tourist site. Pretour narratives—those 1976 Staged Authenticity. In The Tourist: A New Theory of the
Leisure Class. Pp. 91–107. New York: Schocken.
seen in brochures and guidebooks, and on websites—are
the “voice-over” that rouse tourists’ desires. Yet, once they After Kinship. Janet Carsten. Cambridge: Cambridge
are on tour, tourists seek experiences that they can turn University Press, 2004. 216 pp.
into narratives of their own, aided in their telling by the
show-and-tell mnemonics of postcards, snapshots, videos, K AT H L E E N B A R L O W
and souvenirs. Central Washington University
Several chapters are particularly successful in bolstering
Bruner’s ideas. Chapter 2, “The Maasai and the Lion King,” After Kinship is a crucial contribution to the paradigm
explores the general complexity of tourism by examining shift in anthropological analyses of kinship, initiated most
three examples within one country (Kenya), thus freeing prominently in the work of David Schneider and Marilyn
scholarship from working within the monolithic commer- Strathern. Janet Carsten quickly reveals that the title of
cial versions of their sites. The examples are Mayers Ranch, her book is playful, because “‘after kinship’ is—well, just
a reenacted colonial setting designed for foreign tourists, more kinship (even if it might be of a slightly different
where the Maasai are portrayed as timeless and ahistorical; kind.)” (p. xi). She connects contemporary issues in kin-
Bomas, a postindependence ethnic theme park for domestic ship to discussions of house, person, gender, substance,
tourists, which highlights tribal dances and national pride; and new reproductive technologies: discussions that have
and Sundowner, where wealthy U.S. citizens and Europeans largely supplanted kinship in anthropology for the past
on safari view Maasai dancers remade in postmodern images several decades. In doing so, she develops new ground for
of Hollywood pop culture. studying kinship and relatedness by questioning and mov-
Chapter 3, “Slavery and the Return of the Black ing beyond a series of limiting dichotomies: nature–culture,
Diaspora,” explores competing narratives at Elmina Castle biological–social, substance–code, and the reigning distinc-
in Ghana, once a staging area for the Atlantic slave trade. tions between Western and non-Western societies.
Although African Americans mainly visit the castle to con- She begins with intriguing contemporary examples:
nect to their ancestral past and “return home,” Ghanaians (1) the case of Diane Blood, whom British courts denied
visit the site because it glorifies their history. By explor- the right to be impregnated with her deceased husband’s
ing ironies, such as how Ghanaians see African American sperm; (2) rabbinic debates in Israel over solutions to in-
tourists as “white” and “foreign,” Bruner probes issues of fertility problems and the maternal basis of Jewish iden-
narrative authority—who owns the story and who gets to tity; and (3) adoption reunions in Scotland in which es-
tell it—and concludes that the main narratives are ulti- tablishing biological connectedness was but one poignant
mately bound up in the essential nature of tourism as an step in often problematic and emotional efforts to estab-
economic industry. lish relationships. Carsten explores how these activities ex-
Chapter 7, “The Balinese Borderzone,” champions press cultural expectations about kin and relatedness yet
Bruner’s ideas about the porous boundaries of tourist bor- confound conventional ways of thinking about them. She
derzones. Within these zones, where tourists and perform- weaves these stories into discussions of substance, gender,

and homeland as politically and relatedness differently in different societies. and hegemony moved into the foreground. NC: Duke University Press. new analytical project. Studies of gender reveal ways of marking vivalism has continued since the 1960s to seek a “pure” sameness and difference. investigating the meanings Clarke. can be appropriated ety are in some ways drastically individualized.S. of the first U. with disturbing new mythologies. time. Santerı́a. Village was founded in the mid-1960s by Serge King. Schneider. and sub. Strathern questioned “nature” as a universal concept associated with women. its interactions with Nigerian and Cuban–Cuban American scribe what is transmitted and mutable as well as what is traditions. French-. der Nigerian practitioners. structions of race. Appadurai. Samuel Johnson’s 1921 History of the Yorubas as the founda- Carsten concludes with several chapters that reveal the tional myth of Oyotunji Village. such as parent. body. or Portuguese-Catholic) elements. Thus. No. Her analytic syn.S. analysis of Oyotunji African Village.718 American Anthropologist • Vol. and the black power movement. and infor. Clarke’s transnational “mapping” of this express ideologies of nation and state. wide flow of religious myths and rituals that. she reveals that sion. questions of power. descent. strategic discourses invoked in discrete settings that both all point is that substance is a fruitful analytic term because replicate and challenge modern nationalist formations of it draws together material and abstract aspects of person. Oyotunji Several discussions have contributed to new under. fundamental to Euro-American D A R RY L V I C T O R C AT E R I N E folk models. and that our analyses need to explore the dynamics of kin- ferent communities have been ongoing. 107. King renamed himself ing domestic realms and wider political realities and full of Adefunmi and helped establish the orisha voodoo tradition emotional power and creativity. pointing out critical differences between questions and possibilities. Carsten productively charts Because earlier frameworks (alliance. that terrain and suggests some of the parameters for this riage as exchange) did not keep pace with the political re. who argues that late transnational capitalism Carsten also critiques the frequently used contrast be. gender. shift. Making of Transnational Communities. and mar. adultery. The most vivid illustration of mants in her Scottish adoption cases invoked relatedness as these transnational dynamics in Clarke’s study is the use of essential to their wholeness as persons. had unwittingly and inappropriately become Grinnell College the terms of anthropological analysis. bridg. dichotomies as cultural tropes. asserted that the biological and social aspects of kinship. How. an intentional reli- did societies and individuals form kin relationships? gious community in Beaufort.” (p. Yoruban re- tural worldview. whose le- porary instability of technology and scientific knowledge gitimacy is assured through their mimesis of hegemonic challenges conventional terms of kinship. to a lost homeland. of kinship in U. and illegitimacy. cultural. 345 pp. She develops a perspective on kinship as fluid. 4 • December 2005 and state politics. Kamari Maxine tics of everyday life. In conclu- examples from other ethnographic work. She examines the power of distinctively modern narrative of Yoruban identity. one standings about social relatedness. but powerfully motivated. sexual fluids. Kinship descriptively rich and theoretically nuanced ethnographic seemed set adrift. culture. Johnson’s work was pro- many ways in which issues of kinship are ubiquitous and duced during the era of British colonialism in Nigeria as a vital in contemporary societies. ded from their preexistent contexts. South Carolina. The contem. reproductive capacity. and tory. . 183) cesses by which kinship is established and negotiated in dif. has unleashed the imaginaries of communities seeking to tween the autonomous individual of Western societies and reestablish cultural orientation in the wake of ruptures and the relational person of non-Western societies. and to imbue such particular text illustrates how state-making apparatuses can ideologies with inordinate emotional power. Durham. alities of postcolonialism. a tale of kinship as metaphor to create new forms of relatedness. by communities elsewhere. race. For example. incest. ship in a broader comparative field and interrogate the old thesis of this refiguring is a tour de force. Mapping Yoruba Networks: Power and Agency in the ing attention from abstract theoretical debates to the poli. person. By analyzing orisha voodoo in Substance in relation to kinship has been used to de. be utilized by counterhegemonic communities. Her over. gender. women in patrilineal Chinese soci. Clarke’s theoretical departure point is the work of Arjun lated in kinship analyses. Transformed by the ideals of black nationalism stance. constructions of space. production. and metaphorical pro. but not necessarily according to African religiosity through academic study and tutelage un- “preconstructed” biology. and its continuities with African American his- permanent and essential. without a basis in biology or nature. disembed- tinctions. Carstens explores dis. Kamari Maxine Clarke’s Mapping Yoruba Networks: Power and then showed how gender and person were both fluid and Agency in the Making of Transnational Communities is a and partible in Melanesian (namely Hagen) society. and gender that previously have been underarticu. She points displacements. culture. but discussions about the social. Clarke succeeds brilliantly in problematizing con- food express qualities of spirituality. 2004. Using rich emotionally powerful. citizens to be initiated into Afro-Cuban cussions of the house (household). Houses and hearths sym. creative. “subtle and sophisticated. bolically encode the terms of relatedness as part of a cul. imaginative. Carsten suggests that kinship is not just complex. in an effort to rid Yoruban religion of its “white” (Spanish-. and community in religious ing. Globalization also contributes to a world- out that both types of societies may defy such polarized dis. Kinship beliefs are not only anthropological analyses and lived experiences. blood.

her commit- tional theories to Oyotunji Village. Lincoln: Mead. one When Ruth Landes journeyed to Brazil in 1938. own social dilemmas.” or when undermined by Margaret Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. in Kansas. Sally Cole. Its Such was her immense potential that we have to wonder transnational dimensions (websites. ditional ethnography of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids. what happened during her Brazilian field to Nigeria. in Minnesota. Combining prodigious archival research invoked and internalized by the participants. honed her considerable observational skills. and. and commodification and marketing of ritual work on race relations to relegate Landes and her pioneering objects) increasingly develop as the 20th century unfolds. under the guidance of her mentor. How personal jealousies. Single Reviews 719 Notwithstanding their reliance on the legitimacy of ate students to look to Latin America for insights into our nationalist imaginaries. Landes’s personal contradictions as the title of her most . raised in a forget African and African American ancestors in the con. And finally. Although Yoruban revivalism’s Ruth Benedict. cautionary tale. tus from the conflation of biological and cultural classifi. During this period. of Ruth Landes reads like a sophisticated 21st-century tioners is found in her analysis of divination in Chapter 5. deliberately framed to tell the intertwined Reading Victor Turner’s notion of “liminality” through the story of a smart. The author locates means of articulating collective identity and membership the life of one anthropologist into. and sexual rivalries might Northwestern University have contributed to Landes’s banishment is judiciously handled in this thoughtful and measured account. social L E N I M . as Sally Cole puts of the origins of Yoruban revivalism that predates the ac. S I LV E R S T E I N insecurities. who was possibly defending her preeminence as the University of Nebraska Press. She had also concluded field trips to other Native ® cations of race in the 1970s and 1980s. she was one of the first in Nevertheless. the in Chapter 4. At that time. the dual narrative communities—the Chippewa (Ojibwa) in Red Lake and the of slavery and African nobility–redemption emerged in the easternmost Siouan-language speakers near Red Wing. she one but two theses: an application of Appadurai’s transna.” respectively. and as part of. Herskovits as he ritual. how patron- might clarify the extent to which Yoruban revivalism is both age within “the academic old boys network” seamlessly the product of and precursor to the kind of globalized sub. the personal pension of inherited subjectivities so that new ones can be was political. principal female public intellectual and the interpreter of cross-cultural sexual mores. 2004. radical New York Jewish family of the 1920s. The reader of Clarke’s work is thus confronted not by ers. Clarke dis. multivocal. Oyotunji Village is the (p. careless comments. Cole meticulously unravels the story of a ability of Oyotunji villagers to selectively remember and feisty. virtually ignored until the interest of feminist anthropol- It is in fact the theme of redemption that emerges as ogists resurrected her innovative voice and celebrated her a central though somewhat submerged organizing frame. They might also reveal sumed that females would be taken care of by their spouses). she had completed her dissertation. that never stoops to facile psychological formulations. both 1960s as a continuation of earlier black nationalist narra. young. contributions to the field? work of Clarke’s study. among all her and are also noticed more clearly in its origins from the inter–World War anthropological colleagues. discipline that nurtured her creativity. even in its modernized forms. just be. does not derive and how the fierce competition for intellectual territorial its legitimacy solely or even primarily from its replication dominance left no room for naivete. Cole neither ignores nor trivializes a succession of Columbia University anthropology gradu. Cole uses a feminist cusses how the ritual of divination effects a momentary sus. routinized pilgrimages what went wrong. intelligent. creative. work to the periphery of anthropology? Why. Landes proved almost of nationalist constructs: Negative dialectics. the Pottawatomie. her “reflexive. lens to demonstrate that in Landes’s case. serve an end in themselves. attempted to exert his hegemony over “African cultures in the New World. 299 pp. Yorbuan revivalists ultimately de. The master key for understanding Sally Cole’s beautifully crafted intellectual biography how orisha voodoo redeems the subjectivities of its practi. the reader is given more insight into the contemporaries. stubborn. a tra- equation of blackness with African heritage received impe. Cole demonstrates to “movements”) of the 1960s that gave rise to Serge King’s how insufficient brains and brilliance were without the own “redemption” as Adefunmi. find redemption in the wake of slavery and oppression. ‘unscientific. She appeared to be poised to register her distinctive product of longstanding struggles by African Americans to mark on the emerging academic discipline of anthropology. provided jobs for the most promising male students (and as- jectivities discussed by Appadurai. and lusty female eyes of Andrew Apter and Giorgio Agamben as a “negative anthropologist who was marginalized. and the southernmost Algonquian speak- tives.’ writing style” celerated processes of globalization. In light of with interviews with surviving family and professional this discussion. the black power movement. produced by defenseless when maligned by Melville J. blocked by the very dialectic” and “state of exception. who discovers text of the Egungun ceremony. it. Landes was already a rive their moral authority from the ideals championed in seasoned researcher. Answers to these questions pivotal support of a mentor to secure funding. fore the onset of World War II. and a historical analysis ment to studying gender relations. how religion. and beautiful woman. which Clarke analyzes as a anthropology at Columbia University. 15). was her work vantage point of the globalized 21st century. Canada. the reader is curious to know political context and theoretical debates that led to the more about the discursive and social ruptures (as opposed shaping of anthropology as a discipline.

the Herskovits felt toward Landes. of what I call Brazilian etiquette rules. who formed an al. over the following: forms of production and social repro- ality or transvestism could be expressed. and beauty of Landes. so sensitive and insight.to natural support network. who. 195) in which homosexu. She was also a woman who where companies were a powerful community presence. and consumers are linked in a distinc- minority rights. “She-Bull in Brazil’s China Closet. Such observations duction in global garment factories. 2003. workers within their disparate and shared frameworks of duced. 4 • December 2005 revealing chapter. contradictions. can begin to appreciate how the field my own) at every step. Second. (2) was clearly a woman ahead of her time. sess corporate decision making. to cloud her judgment. ous. does Collin’s ethnography contribute to this vast literature? sional trajectory. I believe she neglects their commodity chain provides the entry point to “the social conflicting political agendas as well as their professional relations of apparel production as these are restructured projects. for example in U. by local and global forces and enacted by employers and This book is elegantly written and beautifully pro. ment industry is but one stage in the “evolution” of eco- ment of anthropological theory and methodology. Inspired by Landes’s the very social conventions she sought to understand. the imperative of knowing to whom you are speaking: voce sabe com quem Threads: Gender. 107.” Workers. how the evolution of Landes’s theoretical interests and profes. she became an object of gossip and social This ethnography of the new economy explores innova- approbation. Dalhousie University class society in preference to lower-class racialized com- munities. the and resistance. Conceptually. dustry. ideologies. as her chief informant. vivacity. magical. Cole arguments made by industry observers: (1) that the gar- reconstitutes Landes as a principal player in the develop. as she ducted in four plants (two in the United States.720 American Anthropologist • Vol. workers. she became isolated from her transformations of the industrial revolution. mill towns ities that her fieldwork revealed. well as all graduate students. both deal with the overarching impact of politics on These are the precursory debates for this volume. to progressive politics and her concomitant commitment to corporate managers. both theoretical and personal. Debates ensued and transgressive social space” (p. an Chicago Press. sonality. This City of Women. Threads provides a nuanced analysis of the complex- tradiction between Landes’s intensive childhood exposure ities of the industry’s reliance on “spatial fixes. Showing bad judgment and a lack of social tion in the global production and marketing of garments. she late 20th century. Ignoring the niceties of Bahian upper-class soci. Searching out new sites for cheap labor—“greenfields”— sons behind the antipathy both Arthur Ramos and Melville compels the globalization of the industry. however. First.” makes refused to dismiss intimacy and frequently allowed passion plain. Chicago: University of professional hierarchies. on reading this anthro- ical minefield that thwarted her investigation (as well as pological biography. autodidact ethnographer. Communist. and political world of division of labor whereby women in the global South pro- Candomblé. No. and mu- latto. particularly Arthur Ramos. or cult houses. Cole demonstrates the professional ful about non-U. whose terreiros. and Power in the Global Ap- voce esta falando? Unconsciously flaunting class. racial. I conducted my own field investigation of book is a must for all those interested in the history of the the Candomblé “matriarchies” during the 1970s and can. the significance of community and liance with Herskovits to silence her original contribution. Jane L. . provided a “new duced garments for Western consumption. It is a wonder that Landes. implications of new technologies in globally mobile firms. more humane labor practices. there appears to be an inherent con. bor practices were ruthless. and heavily reliant on labor as a production fac- a compelling analysis of the personal and professional rea. awareness uncommon in most students of culture. Through Carneiro. and. an anthropologist that high-end production. So. ico). Landes chose Edison Carneiro. of course. Snubbing upper. and lover. which is buyer driven. Collins. Each of the three sections is introduced by Sally meaning and power” (p. vouch for the tenacity of the social and polit. discipline. the flexibility Two aspects of Cole’s subtle analysis appear incongru. Much has been written about the ety and its finely tuned patronage network in favor of love textile industry’s pivotal role in the economic and social and ethnographic veracity. tor. requiring more skill. Landes nomic development for countries in the global South. con- Cole’s reflections. culture to production regimes. The book critically challenges three predominant dence of the intensity. the role of states in gatekeeper of Brazilian anthropology. results in who was unwilling to ignore such taboo subjects as homo. of low capital actively engaged in politics. appeared to be so consequences that could accrue to one so intent on ignoring clueless and self-destructive at home. the commodity chain. and Cole’s contention that Landes was not tive commodity chain. In the mid. trajectories of capitalism. feminist research described an emergent gained access to the sexual. 6). Multisited ethnography. Landes ignored the basic tenets has changed—somewhat.S. Labor. labor process control angered Brazilian scholars. two in Mex- follows and interprets Ruth Landes’s intellectual journey. and union activists as- was undone by her tempestuous and uncompromising per.S. and their consequences. thereby PA U L I N E G A R D I N E R B A R B E R attracting the enmity of those in power. and parel Industry. and (3) that paternalistic la- sexuality and who insisted on transmitting the social verac. chaperone. 207 pp. reveals dramatic transformations underway in the in- The accompanying photographs provide documentary evi. although Cole provides intensity. cultural interactions. reporter. for aspiring anthropologists and Brazilianists as therefore. Landes Interviews with managers.

places and lan- Skill. Paradoxically. Expressing from images of the state as a political or administrative form what seems to be an about face on the question of sewing that weakens at its margins. from which these chapters stem. wished to distance the discussion duced through culturally specific socialization. Because of a “naturalization paradigm. So companies now acknowledge shape the practices that constitute “the state. they wanted to look skill. repro. it is not that women lose the ability to sew. raphy of the state as embodied in practices. Colombia (Victoria Sanford). Three chapters deal with populations ologically. others as “operable” in that they may be are wage rates sufficient to sustain workers (let alone de. such arguments suggest that led them to formulate three concepts of margins. it relates to the volume’s political vision. The stage is then set. the separate stud- scholars. offers much empirically and analytically for informed As is customary in such volumes. workers. is that of margins as peripheries. (Mariane Ferme). 330 pp. her own chapter deals specifically with India. However.” enabled to receive the tissues of the oper- supplemental. But the reinvention of tween bodies. The editors say that their discussions tion offshore. Peru (Deborah Poole). Sierra Leone to skill (p. Despite the gendered logic of women’s wages as “supplemental. This makes the wages inhumane. Veena Das and of activists pressure greater accountability from the indus. Santa Fe: School of American Research try? How do we define development without considering Press. Quick-response systems and flexible work practices plus some bodies “bioavailable” as donors for the redistribution new skill requirements add more job stress. Instead. in this case by discernable flaw. telligible to the people on whom they are forced. focuses on the “illegibility” of state practices— the relentless quest for locations where the balance of gen. Deborah Poole. markets. well-researched ethnography biomass—a “biopolitical” state. and culture and community dynam. And nowhere of human tissues. to justify the relocation of production. and some are pendents). rather than technical capability. eds. realms of state assertion of control over the population as a In sum. in Guatemala (Diane Nelson). 2004. 176). Again there is resonance with other chapters in the their households. and South Asia. of its own to assemble a single product from the separate tions in direct competition with each other? One hopes not. but this is socially accomplished context by context. and geographic locations.” Explicitly that sewing requires skill and that they rely on the special. in Chad ization paradigm” become ineffective in countering claims (Janet Roitman). Cohen producing for the top and bottom ends of the fashion indus. Das and Poole remind us that although the margins . of revealing the warp and woof of the theoretical strands rative activism overly optimistic given that the industry that connect the various chapters. Collins unpacks the powerful ideologies that promote however. pieces. trol mechanisms over peoples displaced by wars. Veena sewing is typically regarded as a female aptitude. Das. Das and Deborah Poole. how state practices. 171). 172). Collins shows how discourses about skill decline The chapters themselves are of high quality but very in the United States provide a rationale for moving produc. Her challenge to contem. Das and Poole’s introduction does a skillful job Is the presentation of ethnographic evidence for collabo. as some workers come to appreciate the comparative value and South Africa (Adam Ashforth). by juxtaposing claims by managers and Latin America. the chapters here are on Africa. is subject to “claim guages conceived to be at the margins of the nation-state” making” (p. many sewers provide the primary income for able. seen as subjects to be man- argues. labor costs. heterogenous in focus. 3). students. H AY D E N social reproduction in local economies. The participants in the 2001 School of American Research its gendered qualities. thus. Rather. by most contributors. such as identification cards or passports in many of the skill becomes one determinant in decisions about subcon.” (p. If there is any tion by the editors and concluding remarks. and does some weaving pits workers producing for the same firm in different loca. managers lamented that “we’ve lost the ability to at how practices and politics at territorial or social margins sew in America” (p. Another focus. Das’s argu- porary ideas about a geographic division between high-end ments resonate with the analyses of the use of documents (better waged) and low-end production is relevant here. Single Reviews 721 How. ide. other chapters. documents. Yes. the margin as “a space be- tracting and outsourcing locations. keeping to the traditional role of anthropology as looking ized skills of workers in particular regions of global labor at the geopolitical margins. and words are often unin- dered skill. University of Pittsburgh Collins’s mapping of the industry exposes various fa- miliar and new contradictions in the discourse of skill. The conference conveners and volume editors. Although ics render production profitable. and a general readership curious about ies reported in the chapters are bracketed by an introduc- why clothing is usually from elsewhere. Talal Asad. Collins asks. Collins labeled “indigenous” and. management logic and the “natural. law and discipline. this readable. gives a close analysis of legal and social forms that render try. the perspective adopted tic transmission of sewing skills. Women’s (SAR) advanced seminar. lower wages are facilitated by ideologies about gender and were asked to “reflect on what would constitute the ethnog- skill. and Sri Lanka (Pradeep Jeganathan). The first women’s employment ruptures the process of the domes. social well-being? Here she speaks to the failure of the in- dustry to provide wages commensurate with the costs of R O B E RT M . might new transnational communities Anthropology in the Margins of the State.” is most clearly set out in Taylorism and intensified work routines operate in factories Lawrence Cohen’s chapter on “operability” in India. subjected to surgical intervention by the state. Three more analyze con- of their sewing skills. aged.

9). and even murder are other examples of gifts that sion in this volume is relevant to those cases. ing a sharp line. It is an important di- it misfires—its darker and murkier sides. 2000. and the third requiteth it” (pp.). (p. and Kings” is about gifts that have succeeded in the classical anthropological move of us. in any social group. Davis introduces gift practices in this collection could connect with long-standing theoreti. between gifts and sales. “sense of autonomy [was] quite distinctively masculine” talie Zemon Davis and Robert Darnton. . No. The state efforts at control and popular manipulation of the latter is expressed in “The Three Graces. interests. This leads her to conclude Davis. with indifference. 4 • December 2005 in question are defined by state efforts to control popula. tion was “not ‘caused’ by conflict in family and political life. The famous collaboration at the Shelby Cullom and gender of the individuals. . or Bosnia) or that may be failing when the future possibilities for children became more var- now (the “self-determination and autonomy” of the Basque ied. editors or the other contributors in asserting that the of.” with Davis’s incisive analyses of the exchange between the living and the dead. However. social occasions between kin and neighbors. are offered to the politically powerful or socially necessary. 283). Because the body is the seat of personhood (p. called “Gifts Gone alism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. . certain (p. ethnographically and theoretically. an organ is as inalienable as an object . thus. The theoretical framework of her “ethnography of gifts tions. Litigation. One dimension of the gift. reciprocity through which feelings and virtues were ex- volves abstraction from one context and its application to pressed. Never draw- and substantive rationalities and bureaucracy) and anthro. Thus. secular liberality (not anonymous). that the place and role of gifts in the Protestant Reforma- 196 pp. Bribes. to Asad the margins of the state al. Natalie Zemon laity and clergy. It is.722 American Anthropologist • Vol. etc. we return to the importance issues relevant to the metropolitan center as well. 30). social contexts. taxes. friendly affection.” which exists along with the mode of sales of the citizen-body” (p. Das and Poole went wrong. gross region of Spain). selves but for their family.” placement into formal categories it is always un. especially for their sons (p. and sacrifice. She finds that men’s between anthropologist Clifford Geertz and historians Na. initiated a long tra. 107. In Chapter 7. The next chapter. The Gift in Sixteenth-Century France. market economy and the mode of coercion (theft. and types of gifts. (1983). insult. But the is- EMIKO OHNUKI-TIERNEY sues it raised nourished long-term political reflection about University of Wisconsin. three circling sisters: “One of them bestoweth the good Asad’s conclusion goes beyond the arguments of the turne.” represented as state. Asad concisely reformu. 12–13). After a discussion of gift-giving practices along calen- ways rest on uncertainty. and “categorization always in. ing ethnography from the geopolitical margins to develop such as lawyers. is the relationship between the donor and the object two areas: the ambivalence of the gift and the gift when of gift—alienable versus inalienable. Illuminating passages from “Exodus. revocation of a donation. She begins with parental “gifts. sistently informed by anthropology.” the Iliad. he argues that because popula. King Lear. In her words. and modes gift—oil that greases the wheel of sociality in almost all of transactions with peoples in other times and places. author of The Return of Martin Guerre (pp. and neighborliness were the modes of tions are not homogenous. other times missing a step. 76). Yugoslavia. the manipulations that people make of state institu. intricate mosaics of the whole society. detailing the cal debates in Europeanist sociology (Max Weber’s formal occasions. societies—is a treasure. Davis illustrates how this Pandora’s box ference). in Chapter 4 Davis illustrates differences pology (Louis Dumont’s analyses of equality and individu. bodily harm. “The mension when we ponder such “new” gift phenomena as bad gift will also have an important role in this study” organ donation. state law and order continually have to be reestablished” The book begins with an introduction of two major (p. Throughout the book. perhaps contains mixed blessings. the other receiveth it.” is a gem. so that we get a picture of the Davis Center for Historical Studies at Princeton University. although Asad does not do so. 279). In turn. “Gifts. Wrong. is a preeminent figure both in history and anthro. nor was it a ‘reflection’ of the same. 124–25). because so much of the discus. whereas women sought public favor not for them- dition of vibrant interaction between the two disciplines. she pays attention to the class pology. For his part. Further. Christian charity (in which God alone offers the ficials of a state truly bound by law would treat citizens return to the donor). we learn from and descriptions of the Tupinamba remind us that the gift her how to historicize anthropology. not foregrounded in this The originality of her insight shines most brilliantly in book. in sixteenth-century France” (p. punitive lates the definition of the margins as being “the places where seizure.” unfortunate that this collection does not have an analysis which include the choice for marriage and religion for the of one of the European states that failed in the 1990s (the offspring—a historically specific phenomenon at the time Soviet Union. Davis’s book on the in 16th century France shares motives. Michael Herzfeld on the social production of indif. and prompted both Catholic reform and Protestant innovation” Natalie Zemon Davis. with the Three Graces sometimes in concert and another. Madison the obligations of kings and the claims of subjects. thus recognizing the locus as manifesting both principles—a gift of God and reciprocity in this world. Davis’s work on 16th-century French history has been con. of religion in “Gifts and the Gods. 76). At this point the themes raised in dric events in Chapter 2. 9) is a “gift register” or a tions may at times “reconfigure the state as a margin to the “gift mode.

Dawson provides readers with a to uproot the negative image of indı́genas common among richly contextualized history of a major episode in ap. tados emerged from the very programs that have often been verse actors shaped revolutionary hegemony through these described as failures: the Casa. Davis. 1940s. duced graduates who helped shape the nation. a new property regime. and new infrastructures” (p. and others—strove to national strength. indı́genas capacitados—to arise as leaders of Indian commu- dian school in Mexico City called the Casa del Estudiante nities and as their key intermediaries with the state. internados. as well as rich though its students demonstrated a capacity for education and complex historical ethnography. Roseberry. The DAI whose chief intellectuals—Manuel Gamio. Alexander phasis on creation of leaders who would become local S. and Bourdieu. Cambridge. But Cárdenas did not support cultural create a modern Mexico by creating modern Indians. or PRI). returned to a unilinear partamento de Asuntos Indı́genas (Department of Indigenous approach to modernization. support for the state and petitioned it for resources while at- gued that anthropology offered the potential to unite all tempting to preserve limited autonomy for their communi- Mexicans into one culture. he also compellingly argues that the capaci- ogy and practice of nationalism. agents of progress. the inter- 1983 The Return of Martin Guerre. but as a “common discursive studies intended to redeem Indians by denying their alleged framework” in which indigenous actors could contest and biological inferiority. In the Congresos. bicultural practices specific to their settings and an em- Indian and Nation in Revolutionary Mexico. undergraduates. and after 1917 used the Dirección ties. Dawson sees Revolutionary Indigenismo not sim- de Antropologı́a (Directorate of Anthropology) to carry out ply as an Orientalist enterprise. forcing Indigenistas to ac- knowledge that simple unilinear assimilation was unlikely REFERENCE CITED to succeed. They also provided an be rational political actors and developing participatory opportunity for a new cohort of bilingual young men—the citizens through a sequence of federal programs: an In. The first program designed to prove that Indians could Scholars interested in exchange. Natalie Zemon New rural Indian boarding schools after 1933. xvii). according to Dawson. 2004. whether the educated general public. but in today’s practice it is given to total strangers. and Congresos Regionales Indı́genas (Regional ing nationalistic. empowered local communities. adopted a pluralistic approach: bilingual– University Press. But Dawson nexus of social science. Manuel Gamio. Carlos Basauri. plied anthropology and a focused case study of the ideol. bringing ambiguous results as a conse. MA: Harvard nados indı́genas. modern set of cultural beliefs. was critiques of Indigenista social science that dismiss it as an the most important outcome of Revolutionary Indigenismo Orientalist stage in the history of Mexican anthropology. Al- ing methodological and analytical models. new The Congresos Regionales Indı́genas were instituted to political institutions. and citizenship. and for strengthening ethnic barriers. offer. Readers of all lev. a when Sáenz’s 1932 project in Carapan. In the Indı́gena. Communities BRIAN D. Mexico rejected pluralism. President Lázaro Cárdenas promoted the 240 pp. Luis Chávez Orozco. and played a central role in sustaining the rule of the A simplistic assimilationism underlay the Indigenistas’ Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolu- earliest efforts. ity. reinforced Indian alterity. Michoacán. revolutionary nationalism. HALEY welcomed the schools because of their openness and the State University of New York College at Oneonta opportunity they offered. and histor. abuses by di- In this well-crafted book. ar. be fully modernized was the Casa del Estudiante Indı́gena ical anthropology will find this book exceptional. The first round of programs ended or graduate students. Although they challenged biological shape national hegemony—albeit from a position of depen- determinism. and pro- ary indigenismo (indigenism) during the 1910s to 1940s. Thus. Their emergence. and social science ceased be- Affairs. tionary Party. and po.1 It provide the Cardenista state with a mechanism for building would require convincing Mexicans that indı́genas could alliances with indigenous Mexicans. The internados have been criti- cized for association with factional disputes. Single Reviews 723 can be. and other activi- programs in various ways. he challenges past influential ties of the DAI. Dawson notes that the Indigenistas failed Indigenous Congresses). Alexander S. Dawson. its emphasis on artistic achievement also els. (House of the Indigenous Student) boarding school. ties and that the internados overall succeeded in their edu- olutionary Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. sociality. This well-written . ideology and did not overcome the idea of Indian alter- easily turning the gift of self into a commodity. or DAI). Yet drawing from the ideas of Lomnitz. claims these shortcomings were specific to particular locali- litical participation by indigenous communities in postrev. they demonstrated quence. Dawson explores the rectors. mestizos. and Gamio’s and Basauri’s emphasis on poverty Indigenistas and supportive elites believed that achieving a rather than culture as the source of difference between modern nation hinged on “undermining local autonomy indı́genas and the mestizo mainstream played into the na- throughout the country by instituting a new secular and tionalists’ hands. cational mission. program after 1936 because the internados permitted his administration to create new political allies. who studied under Boas. By demonstrating that di. the indı́genistas were constrained by racial dence within revolutionary nationalism. De. because of native resistance. Dawson tells the history of revolution. internados indı́genas (Indian boarding schools). failed splendid gift to all of us. These pluralism. will learn from this book—indeed. under Orozco portrayed cultural diversity as a source of Moisés Sáenz.

as re- persuasive case. New York: Harper Collins Publishers. if self- Part 3 discusses modern-day Rwanda. This ters. 341). If we are to seriously explore the impact of In this book. Durham. 4 • December 2005 book should inspire a more nuanced reappraisal of other around practices that were successful in the past. Diamond’s own anal. which is followed by a section on he have had members of these societies make? Remain en- past failed societies. all of these perspectives model through which to understand patterns of present and need to be taken more fully into account. Yet an- NOTE thropological literature is replete with examples of dramatic culture change. China. and eco. Stitches on Time: Colonial Textures and Postcolonial fective. as it tention. for the fact episodes in the history of applied anthropology. and Norse Greenlanders. Jared a nation) as a measure of success. as collapse. but this can minimize the po- HECTOR QIRKO tential contribution of individual level dynamics. and. Press. It begins with an analysis two nations’ respective despots. Maya. notably The Third Chimpanzee (1992) All in all. of his earlier works. 259 pp. a span that might be REFERENCE CITED taken (esp. especially with respect to short. 1997 Guns. colonial powers. Diamond proposes and supports a five-factor cultural choices on societal survival. as well as on the differences between the sponses. colonial criticism. and occasionally even something of a per. NC: Duke University responses—it somewhat disappoints. “bounded” Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. histor- the environment. and implications for the future. ysis makes it clear that. big business’s impact on on its own choices” (p. The book is in four parts. New York: Viking. presumably to distinguish this specific group of professionals who influence the adoption and diffusion of innovations.724 American Anthropologist • Vol. nating when addressing environmental. and conformity. The book’s author capitalizes Indigenistas throughout his text. rather. his analysis of the dif- who are willing to negotiate its nearly 600 pages. to whom he devotes two chap. consequences of the Haitian slave revolt on relations with withdrawal of support of friendly neighbors. including Easter. as in the University of Tennessee case of competing leaders destroying societal resources for individual gain. Its use of archaeological data to inform past catastrophes is also ef. 575 pp. Jared rationality. this is a fine comparative overview and Guns. But in the area of “choice”—that is. centers on the environmental damage. rather than a historical anomaly or an is of course only part of a society. one is often left with. His Fifteen years ago.S. Norton and Company. hostile neighbors. and cultural re. Human Animal. however. ical. W. especially attracted criticism from David Washbrook and Rosalind . And Diamond. and political accidents play the largest role in societal Although Diamond’s writing is as strong and clear as success or failure. societies are not choosing at all but. rather than his suggestion that “a so- tled “Practical Lessons. It is also a well-told cautionary tale about the sonal travel journal. failure should be defined is also problematic—some of his collapsed societies survived 500 years.and long-term thinking. past societal collapse. How success or even the richest and most powerful nations. are at the mercy of processes D AV I D L U D D E N which they can have no awareness or control.” summarizes the factors associated ciety’s fate lies in its own hands and depends substantially with disastrous societal decisions. on human cognition. cost–benefit assessments. who is doing the choosing anyway? He often couches his discussion at the group level. nomic factors associated with societal collapse. citizens celebrating a scant 230 years as Diamond. the Dominican Re. 107. that Greenlanders failed to adopt innovations they had ev- ery opportunity to borrow from neighboring Inuit. enti. and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Haiti. There are also some methodological need for members of modern societies to start paying at- problems: The discussion of Montana is troublesome. it makes a ferences between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. by definition. the book is powerful and illumi. is also highly relevant. Doc but keep Trujillo because of the more benign. No. Gyan Prakash argued that historical writ- best case for the power of choice is the dramatic collapse ing about India reached its fulfillment by becoming post- of the Norse Greenlanders. and Australia. The final section. climate change. 2004. and Tikopia slaved to better promote friendly relations? Overthrow Papa Islanders. under the sign of subaltern studies. Germs. remains a very real possibility for on its own is not made sufficiently clear. climatic. 2005. And these forces are. Pitcairn. as well as discussion of specific forces that 1. in many cases. environmental practices of the latter? The answer public. Saurabh Dube. serving. and the Anasazi. He means his work to serve as a warn. for those choice are simplistic—for example. and Steel (1997). the book is less sure of what it wants to be than some the realm of choice at all. Germs. New York: W. is that environmental. by U. Work are his focus from a more general meaning of the term. vironment. It is at once analytical of a number of societies and their relationship to the en- and anecdotal. the discussion of cul- tural forces influencing them is less than persuasive. Thus. not in ever. some of Diamond’s conclusions with respect to ing of the dangers facing the modern world. Yet what “choices” would of the state of Montana. Why it merits inclusion archaeological mystery. of cultural Tangles. His model focuses on the societal impact of spectively successful and collapsing societies. 1992 The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the These issues aside. He ultimately blames cultural conservatism. Even where University of Pennsylvania societal choices can be and are made.

and where Indian history. it is difficult to Ramapo College imagine a postcolonial anything. Although trained as a political scientist. Although the 1930s Depression is important. Both promulgate skepticism about modernity. Both warranty. 2004. tellectual. and Hindutva’s hatred of missionaries. where postcolonialism has formed an aca. in to see how subaltern studies would treat convert ideas of her introduction. Enlightenment. for instance. by asking feminist questions and by taking women’s lives ing book missed numerous opportunities to make major and experiences seriously. ical present spanning the last century and a half. mous praise of the “fragment” appeared at the same time he dissolves Indian history into postcolonialism. scholars can make sense of a breakthroughs. But what does he make of this moment of here in narrative fragments plopped into an anthropolog. Dube has reduced the where. but instead. All traces of spatial and temporal context disappear in 1992 (p. of subaltern studies and Hindutva with political trends Indian history. without considering ei. It appears. Christian ideas about dalit and main accountable to established standards of veracity and adivasi uplift.” Dube implicitly endorses the Hindutva idea that mission. the index. ignored by subaltern studies and ob. Enloe argues that This rhetorically ambitious. Marxism. implied by Dube but dropped. demic niche inside cultural studies. in particular. magazine. that are four fascinating “conversations with Cynthia Enloe. The book reveals that Enloe is an unusual scholar who is aries in British India were elite aliens who bought poor committed to making political theorizing “part of the hub- converts with material benefits. The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in a New flict in the Chhattisgarh region of central India. For example. empiricism. 20). Dube says that Gyanendra Pandey’s fa- entanglements in the everyday subaltern life. Dube ignores critical work bub of the public arena” (p. and the labor practices of multinational corporations that venient anecdotalism that obscures obvious connections appeared in Ms. nial studies and India would have made this book more sity of Chicago in the late 1980s. One route into this topic. who argued that historical research should re. 176). Both deploy decontextu- progress under regimes of modernity” (p. It in several ways. without limiting their market to Indian as a topic for further research—concerns the imbrication history. by Gauri Viswanathan. in which she expounds on the value of . The first four chapters consider missionary activity and social con. need not be history anymore—it in India since 1980. Major university presses— useful. of colonial Christianity. All the The Curious Feminist serves as a retrospective of Enloe’s chapters could have been woven together powerfully by fo. and progress. rectly questions about Christian conversion in postcolo- ting universities. subaltern empowerment. thus. Princeton. anthropology. Interspersed with these chapters and intriguing possibilities. Single Reviews 725 O’Hanlon. as Hindutva’s demolition of the Babri mosque in Ayohdya. social sciences. including several short pieces critiquing militarism method of studying “fragments” to a theoretically con. In the absence of space and time. Enloe employs methods and theoretical approaches that are enced social conflicts and solidarities in Chhattisgarh and central to the anthropological enterprise. which straddles several would have been to compare colonial Christian conver- disciplines. Berkeley: University of so unimportant to the author that he omits its name from California Press. substantively disappoint. Was relevance. Such disputes have now disappeared in the conversion subaltern resistance or colonial capitulation? United States. and the touchiest of the postcolonial entanglements matically increasing the supply of books that consider dodged in this book—which Dube does raise implicitly Indian history. and also highlights her role as a public in- colonial problem. contextualization? Nothing. notably Chicago. which the 1990s. conversion and village fect women. Cynthia Enloe. he seeks to provide critical leverage on colonialism and its where they coexist. dra. which has been influential throughout the cusing on missionary conversion as a colonial and post. following a trend launched at the Univer. Cynthia Enloe seeks to demonstrate the and Hindu nationalism (Hindutva). Both represent possible means of calling into question the guarantees of the nation in its elemental form. tion. is where I would locate Saurabh Dube’s Stitches on Time. Subalternism and Hindutva attained can be many things—and marketing India as a postcolonial their current prominence amidst trends that distinguish problematic has produced various chameleon genres. but the last three chapters nonetheless jump into historical ideas in subaltern studies In this collection. Duke.” a “disposition” (not discipline). and sion in Spanish America and British India. 253). Most of these chapters have been published else- sessively embraced by Hindutva. it likewise disappears along with other markers of historical SUSAN HANGEN time. indicating his lack of concern for This volume is particularly relevant for anthropologists the ontology. Dube himself calls the “rubric” of his book “history without universalism. let alone politics. and Minnesota—have Dodging difficult issues weakens any critical interven- successfully marketed India as a postcolonial field. The first four chapters open new windows whole range of political processes. 367 pp. Both rose in opposition to Indian nationalism. above all. porary issues in international politics. would have been fascinating to see how conversion influ. In this book. The last three add nothing substantial. feminist work. alized fragments. not just those that af- into important subjects. relevance of feminist approaches for analyzing contem- ther as being located inside Indian history after 1947. which forms “a promise liberation from colonial legacies. Addressing di- cultural studies have become indistinguishable in trendset. a context Age of Empire. conflict. Both have flourished in the United States.

although patriarchy as a social force may demonstrates how historically situated actors make choices explain some of the ways in which foreign policy formation. Many a practice that has long lay at the heart of anthropology. we will have “an imperfect understand. in which Enloe demon. Yali’s Question: Sugar. and international narra- dently of explanations that focus on economic processes. That is. conflict. In the otherwise remote Upper Ramu Valley. Chicago: University of portance of examining the margins. A complex and contested decision- projects. empire building. and interna- when she praises research inspired by a feminist curiosity for tional studies. In using these anthropological RICHARD SCAGLION methods and concepts. Silences and Bottom Rungs. she presents a model for how scholars might go about which could then be employed to dominate peoples who investigating the gendered aspects of ethnic and nationalist had not developed immunities to disease. following the extensive ethnography on this topic. In 1972. industry was raised by a series of economic studies on de- periences and topics that became the focus of her research velopment alternatives. and Steel (1997). Enloe’s ultimate objective is not just University of Pittsburgh to understand women’s lives but also to understand what women’s lives can reveal about the workings of the wider The title of this engaging ethnography of a sugar estate. Errington and Deborah Gewertz. analyzed. the traditional focus Chicago Press. 4). even committed femi- (p. this experiment in reflexivity might work better if making process resulted in the establishment of RSL over it were integrated with the theoretical material and further other options. zling. but we black people had little cargo of our much inspiration from the astute questions that Enloe raises own?” (p. All the privileged position of the “haves” as resulting not from Women Are Victims. and challenge Diamond’s interpre- which she defines as “the structural and ideological system tation of 13. It begins in the 1950s and 1960s with government The final section of the book consists of six poem.S. However. temperate climates ing of how ethnic and nationalist processes actually oper. Enloe has fur. 7). Why did Europeans deny fundamental moral worth to ical processes (p. 257).000 acres of little-used grassland were purchased own girlhood and her early encounters with militarization.” Enloe hails the im. 4 • December 2005 a “feminist curiosity. the possibility of creating a national sugar pieces reveal the connections between her childhood ex. length pieces of prose in which Enloe ruminates about her Some 40. Yali of her more provocative arguments is that “patriarchy may was not asking about “things. merit. This argument is most fruitfully ap. rape. How. course of cultural evolution. Enloe writes in a clear.000 years of world history in his narrative of that perpetuates the privileging of masculinity” (p. of anthropological research. nists. Germs. there soon emerged “a vista of green cane fields. conversed with Yali. ters 3 and 4 on women in the global factory. a traffic of . author of the Pulitzer Prize– Some of the older essays in this volume. This engaging book may also inspire anthro- looking at informal conversations as well as public discourse pologists and other social scientists. gender.726 American Anthropologist • Vol.” “traditional. 251). stood Yali’s question. and History. The authors develop the story of RSL through detailed ther to go to prove that the concept can be used indepen. such as Chap. 1–3). According to the authors. from local people and leased to Australians to establish cat- This section will intrigue readers who have become inter. equals? Diamond’s account assumes that those in power strates how dominant constructions of masculinity have will invariably use it. Yet although these government. Herein lies an important lesson for anthro. and social experiment in the Upper pologists about the value and relevance of the discipline to Ramu Valley of Papua New Guinea (PNG) may be puz- understanding political processes. historically minded ethnography” in her own research and writing (p. and globalization take place. . Furthermore. officers’ development plans for the Upper Ramu Valley. a position refuted by Errington and contributed to the increasing militarization of U.” Here. to understand the complexity of the workings of the state. Papua New Guineans and refuse to engage with them as plied in Chapters 9. scholars of ethnic and nationalist politics could find much cargo . Yali had asked Diamond why “white people developed so ever. tives. informed. Ensuing warfare stimulated technological de- a Serbian militia group and was tried for committing mass velopment and advanced social and industrial organization. political system. 103). Diamond used Yali’s question to explain the in Chapter 7. 5). she argues that without ex. winning Guns. Jared Diamond. Culture. Enloe uses the term patriarchy. She notes that she makes extensive use of “feminist. 2004. in Chapter 2. In the early 1970s. . 11 and 13. to embrace Enloe’s mode of feminist investigation. Frederick “Margins.” and “always” (pp. 7). foreign Gewertz’s history of Ramu Sugar Limited (RSL) that richly policy. national. 107. development project. with the approach of self- ested in learning more about the author. 319 pp. By exploring the case of a man who joined mestication.” but about social inequal- hold the causal key” when explaining international polit. tle stations. that are culturally conditioned but not inevitable. “All the Men Are in the Militias. ity. of the chapters included here will work well in undergrad- In addition. accessible style.” she calls for scholars to question the Because of her interest in having her work read beyond concepts of “natural. One “grand inevitability” (p. she applauds ethnographic research methods uate classes on cultural anthropology. but from geographical advantages and the normal amining gender. were better suited for intensive agriculture and animal do- ate” (p. No. Errington and Gewertz say that Diamond misunder- Throughout the book. and intersecting local. the academy. will yield a well-known “cargo cultist” who sought to bring Western little new information for anthropologists who have been commodities (cargo) to his people with magic and ritual.

earth god shrines. written by a mix of junior and senior attachments to homes and local places as anybody else. gration and industrialization. TA M A R A J A C K A Zhao Bingxiang makes the case that places are made in The Australian National University terms of differentiation with other places. Thirty years of Tsuen Wan in Hong Kong. The degree with which they take up the themes iterated in the authors argue convincingly that the collapse of RSL would introduction. Fo Feuds of Quanzhou. is actually modest. 65). China studies and presents some important arguments. The nating discussion of place making in Tsuen Wan. the authors explore how theoretical chapter. Making sugar at RSL gues that territorial place making is not entirely deter- has. at least partially. and shows how this has occurred historically in one village in southeastern “Place making” has been a central concern in recent social Shandong and a second village in western Heilongjiang. Johnson shows that today. he ar- a new and diverse sense of community. the “natives”—that is. economic development. and else. the Hmong. have given way to In particular. it has received relatively little attention in Nicholas Tapp ruminates over whether or not people studies of China. thus. and ancestral halls. but often from the van. Globalisation and Local Territories—still maintain and express territorial rights and Responses in China. which inhabitants of the first village had migrated. tions . Single Reviews 727 heavy equipment. Hong book should appeal to those interested in sugar production. PNG elites. suggesting that “in general they have just as strong and an afterword. Feuchtwang makes a on it. Australia. “Mapping ‘Chaos’: The Dong Xi PNG’s troubled economy. territorialization and deterritorialization. this volume includes several excellent duce this even-handed and well-balanced trenchant anal. and seek to profit from it. and how his. research in PNG provides them with the background to pro. negative. 1). globalization. London: responsibilities through ritual and political activities fo- University College London Press. tion and Appadurai on globalization and “ethnoscapes” where. But Tapp answers his own question in the The book consists of an introduction. However. and it is dizzying to join Feuchtwang RSL developed as a place and social entity. to include two chapters on the same place— economic and social global controversies.” by Wang Mingming. and China. 2004. despite large-scale immi- Papua New Guinea. century. chapters. mined by global capitalism but is “a negotiation with But RSL is under threat. (pp. All and the local landowners who sell cane to RSL. . have a different sense of place to that of more ing in general. and other contributors’ concerns about place. as is the trade” and globalization would reduce or terminate. moved and accomplished by other ways of making although adequate for PNG’s needs. phy. This is a densely Through personal accounts. “Theorising Place” by Stephan of place making as it occurs around temples in west Hunan. Because RSL drew labor from valiant effort to draw China into theory and theory into all over the country. spite having to move about” (p. Kong. The selection of chapters also strikes me as a result in local hardship with little or no gain elsewhere in little peculiar. people whose ancestors owned or used land in Tsuen Wan when the British government took control of the New Making Place: State Projects. 1644–1839. 14–15). in a collection that ranges so widely across both complex social context at the very center of contemporary time and space. little sense of attachment or belonging to the land. RSL cannot compete with. nity. examines the multiple and changing nature The Introduction. it soon became a unique PNG location. As a . 136). both to China studies and to social theoriz. cused around the Rural Committee. and others. ed. fengshui to Edward Casey’s phenomenology of place. is Ethnographic studies in Papua New Guinea have taught the only chapter to focus on place making before the 20th us much about human nature. to theorizing. and a spect to recent debates over “space” versus “place. This book. Feuchtwang. who supervised the construction of the estate and to discussions of cosmologies and specifically of Chinese now manage it. who have traditionally been shifting cultivators. Elizabeth Lominska Johnson presents a fasci- and local landowners who together constitute RSL. especially in anthropology and human geogra. I found Chapters 5–8 particularly well written and ysis that gives equal voice to the expatriates. those tory is made. where local allegiances. its annual and a reappropriation of state and capitalist territorialisa- capacity of some 30. a rumble of cane-crushing rollers. Mary Rack. . introduces and explains the theme of the Rack shows that people in west Hunan commonly show book—“territorial place-making”—and positions it with re. It also struck In contrast. and state and capitalist smoke-belching. shaping the as he flies from recent anthropological studies of place to lives of the thousands who live there. These include the Deleuze and Guattari on capitalism and deterritorializa- expatriates from the United Kingdom. Australia. the Tian Hou temple. it is a fascinating flight. 214 pp. worthwhile. make claims the same. eight chapters.” moder- community of thousands” (p. therefore. been part of building a new Papua New Guinea. steam-shrieking factory” (p. makes a very wel. In particular. this chapter links only poorly with Feuchtwang’s tage point of small villages at the margins of global forces. de- anthropologists from the United Kingdom. North America. against Hardt and Negri. Errington and Gewertz depict a diverse and me as odd. settled peoples.000 tons of high-quality refined sugar. out the government tariff protection that advocates of “free The quality of the core chapters is variable. the Papua New Guineans who work there. Stephan Feuchtwang. and place than those of global capitalism or its state formations” the sugar is costly to produce. such as come addition. It is highly recommended. By worldwide standards. Nevertheless. postmodernity. as well as a “Dickensian.

America” (p. Lesley Gill. argues Gill. 59). 4 • December 2005 result of a series of in-migrations over time. No. and resorts to even further repression. And it is an ideology that depends on impunity. 225). Georgia. The United States has acknowledged the though. simplistic. This is the relevance of the School of the Americas—a fac- The School of the Americas: Military Training and tory of messengers and enforcers of ideology. the state is forced to control the ensuing chaos ground floor” that lays in “images of daily life” (1981:559). This “social testimonies from 11 top officials from the School of the energy” has existed in the past. Gill divides this discussion into two ADAM SGRENCI parts: the first on how the School of the Americas deals San Francisco State University with trainees on the subject of human rights. 19) in periurban Bolivia makes important contri- was also the only scholar or reporter permitted to attend butions across a range of ethnographic and theoretical . tion. find their defense of the institution as simple dissembling— “free-floating bureaucratic responsibility that is never as. 56). 189). attention she draws to this concept is quite central to the salience of her case. Speaking out becomes impossible” (p. Rack shows. 281 pp. Impunity is what triggered the campaign to shut down ney into these two realms.728 American Anthropologist • Vol.S. now called the Western Hemisphere Institute for Daniel Goldstein’s recent study of “dramas of citizenship” Security Cooperation (WHINSEC). “righteous anger . Gill explains that impunity places For Fernand Braudel. The dismissal as such is much too University Press. It does not War II was based less on unilateralism—‘telling them that address everything. . MARK GOODALE come part of deeply held personal feelings” (p. imperialism attribute its efforts but. Not only George Mason University did Gill observe classes at Fort Benning. peasant families “outside the law” and denies them a polit- cession of landscapes” composed of two levels of human ex. All in all. 5.S. was not second level that her argument gains real lucidity. Contrary to this general claim. 35 present. history is the presentation of a “suc. ical voice as well as aggravating their poverty (p. and [feeds] on rumor and specula- levels. activists who have ment of the 1980s that was preserved by an “enduring ac- mobilized for more than a decade to shut down the school. The NC. The Spectacular City: Violence and Performance in signed to specific individuals” (p. no one describes closed-door meetings in which military officials discussed west Hunan as their ancestral home. Gill goes beyond previous analy.S.S. 56). she (pp. In level one of human existence. word of its military preeminence will it hold on to its power. 2004. Although the 1989 Jesuit murders in the Monroe Doctrine and My Lai to the Cold War and the El Salvador had a profound impact on the religious organiz- post–September 11 “War on Terror. REFERENCE CITED sis. New York: Harper and Row. strategy and an organization” (p. and potential. and most express fear the ways in which a cosmetic change would improve the or even hatred of the terrain.” But it is in Braudel’s ers of the anti-SOA movement. Lesley Gill’s The School of the Americas takes us on a jour. Urban Bolivia. Gill situates the discussion in a geopolitical context—from failures. Fernand 1981 Civilization and Capitalism. 200). and is what will build a peaceful future. Gill salutes Braudel ficials and the soldiers. . of place from the same festival. 107. For example. none of the au. Daniel M. the impunity of state-sponsored terror “[imposes] a wall of veal the dialectical interplay between the upper and lower silence between people. Perspec. enough to generate a grassroots movement that required tives are drawn from three distinct groups: the military of. those that present history must re. NC: Duke Not so. something is going to happen’—than on a complex process thors examine in any detail the effects of class or gender of collusion in which U. is currently located. Goldstein. continues to do so in the Americas (SOA) including six former commandants. the repressed peasant coca growers when she refers to the Central America solidarity move- in Bolivia and Colombia. and the sec- ROGER BURBACH ond on how the dynamics of impunity affect the relation- University of California. and the U. where the school.] dominance in the aftermath of World This volume is full of questions and ideas. different people draw quite different senses to that of a unilateral actor. Gill argues that “[U. Most literature on the subject of military testimonials Braudel. Political Violence in the Americas. tivist subculture” and served as an “inspirational bridge” to These everyday images on the “ground floor” include the contemporary campaign to close the SOA. Be- istence: (1) the realm of major historical events and (2) “the cause of this. She also claims that According to Braudel. of course. Berkeley ship between state violence and social fragmentation in two Andean communities. 167). are a means of creating a sense of place in this wild terrain Many critiques of U. military power was effectively on senses of place within a community—that will have to joined with the indigenous military establishments of Latin be taken up in another volume in the future. this book provides plenty of food for thought for relative decline of its economic dominance since World War scholars and postgraduate students in China studies and II and knows that only by convincing others to spread the anthropology. Durham. 2004. It “misses the way that particular ideologies are shaped in specific social and institutional contexts and be. the SOA and Gill gives us an honest account of its successes. 275 pp. and ten major leaders of the anti-SOA campaign known as SOA Watch. Duke University Press. graduates. Temple worship and festivals school’s image in the public eye (p. Durham.

(This is actu- related to endemic poverty. Goldstein employs of Foucault’s analysis of “the public execution as a form of a series of innovative arguments for understanding the na. lynching in Cochabamba . cial and political framework. of “justice” or “due process?” Goldstein responds to these Hopper begins by placing homelessness in a broad so- challenges by adopting a position of reflexive neutrality. eventually led him to rethink prevailing discourses of vio. Kim Hopper. 216). people with a clear understanding of the way policy makers tic nor dependent on liberal—even if localized—narratives think. . 271 pp. tional bodies politic and social by a group of people who had been systematically excluded from full membership in the Bolivian nation. and the ever. has been conducted in New York City. to be simply senseless and chaotic acts of com. . problem at the end of the 1970s. Hopper has been studying homelessness and working lence. 216). how can a meaningful in. NY: Cornell University Press. 2003. and the poten- both events expressed a demand for inclusion in the na. Most of his research methodological responses and concerns: the fear of exploit. 3). although he is clearly ing either victims and victimizers (or both). stood as homelessness. that legitimates the dramatic. 30. people than to ask why Americans think—and act—about ological dilemmas rather than definitively resolving them. political ritual” (p. ing to found a variety of advocacy and service organizations. from the shantytowns of South Africa to the favelas of São Before that there were poor people and some of them did Paolo and the streets of New York’s El Barrio. or even a lifestyle choice. How. Villa Pagador. In countervailing expectations that he would either condemn. emotional. present possibility of engaged intervention. lessness. to refract the various ethical and method. along with neoliberal- ses of performative violence in urban landscapes of fear— ism. It would have not have places to live. which problem. help- or help to justify. I have one minor cri- tive space as an annual street carnival and festival in one tique. to combine insights into the survival strategies of homeless terpretation be derived that is neither unduly particularis. at least not in the same way we un- tion to both the lynchers and the local coterie of corrupt derstand it now. if exe- ture of violence. 89). Through absence of power means the use of lynching can never be his analysis of lynchings and fiestas. This has also been true of Homelessness appeared on the scene as a distinct social other anthropologists who have engaged in counteranaly. a contested public sphere. tially revolutionary. the pressure of familiar with work that has been done elsewhere as well. it was an extension of poverty. In locating the spectacle of public lynchings—or at. Although it does not detract from the book’s accom- tempted lynchings—in the same discursive and performa. because the Bolivia. In Goldstein’s formulation. Goldstein argues that one must view lynchings instead matize the sovereign’s power as part of a wider repertoire as one among a group of public dramas that serve to en. racial marginalization. but their situation was not under- been all too easy to adopt a critical ethical stance in rela. both performance reflects what could be understood as “commu- revealed the deep tensions and antagonisms underlying nicative irrationality”—a dialogic and intersubjective act the ordinarily placid façade of daily life. His long experience in this field allows him is primarily a sociopolitical act. a police officers and governmental officials. visual displays of collective identity” (p. Ronald Reagan. Hopper has been an activist. Kim Hopper provides a very personal his- rendered areas like Villa Pagador virtual zones of state ex. As Goldstein’s book demonstrates. and the decline of the welfare state. Single Reviews 729 issues. His objective is less to provide His reconceptualization of “vigilante justice” as spectacle is an ethnographic account of the experiences of homeless meant. Goldstein recognizes that the actual events. 3–4] Reckoning with Homelessness. tory of how the United States created this particular social clusion. in part. D AV I D I . This makes for a rather unique book. as elsewhere. And significantly. two seemingly distinct “theater” that “engrave[s] upon the observer’s memory a “vivid. the violent. addition to field research. One key concept he uses to . spectacular both represented appropriations of cultural or legal do- mains typically designated as arenas of state control. his including the National Coalition for the Homeless (he was a book raises another. vivid image of the [people’s] might” (p. Ithaca. which are considerable. their powerlessness” (p. and with homeless people since the 1970s. Instead. and the ally a double inversion—state : power :: the people : power- general failure of the state and its instrumentalities. more basic question for a postpositivist board member for that organization when I worked there in ethnography of violence: Where the destruction of bodies the mid-1990s). is lynchings and other expressions of “community justice” in an instrument that marginalized groups can employ to Bolivia represented a set of social and political dynamics demonstrate . result of alcoholism. marginality. B E R I S S munity outrage directed against the only available targets— University of New Orleans community members themselves—Goldstein is forced to walk a number of very thin lines. . . Many of us may have assumed that public display of his power. homelessness the way they do.) But because the function of executions is to dra- ever. whose system. it be. Moreover. and the distribution of power cutions “provided the sovereign with an instrument for the within insecure states. Perhaps a comes clear why they must be reconceptualized: better inversion would have been through Habermas and not Foucault. In reconfiguring our understanding of what appear. plishments. evoked a complex set of analytical. In Reckoning atic detachment from Cochabamba’s marginal barrios has with Homelessness. I am not entirely convinced by Goldstein’s inversion of Cochabamba’s barrios. the violence he witnesses. it is difficult to act group identity through the politicization of what is in reenvision the use of lynchings in these terms. 215). of “arts of governmentality” (pp. [pp. from the outside.

“Spaniard and Indian changing kinship practices and reduced government sup. In another chapter. I think. some of the underlying cultural assumptions that prevent Katzew offers intriguing new research throughout the problems of poverty and homelessness from being resolved. Hopper Throughout the century. social structure of New Spain were unfounded. however. first scholarly analysis of Mexico’s earliest satirist. over 100 sets of paintings were indicates what had and had not changed with the develop. public Anselmo Chreslos Jache who.730 American Anthropologist • Vol. Hopper argues. however. For example. Although he culture as natural occurrences within Mexico’s population. terial growth and changing ideologies of race and power. she uncovers the phenomenon of “blood cepts that frame these broader issues.” a concept more famil. tas. to enumerate the homeless population. mending.g. that it will be of “surplus” people. along with family’s mixed racial identity (e. mestizo cultures by depicting regional peoples.S. 107. have all combined to make at least temporary home. society. it assured Spanish people there are is framed reflects already existing evalua. over the course of four generations. mixed unions. that the institutionalization of homelessness as both a so. She is convincing in her ar- and homeless in the first place. By framing the some difficulty with Hopper’s assumptions. Spanish. of a colonial subjectivity rooted in race and social status. Hopper points out Katzew admirably argues that casta painting served a that the way in which the question of how many homeless paradoxical function. lessness much more common for young African American On the other hand. The book investi- he conducted of homeless people living in an airport ter. she offers the This is an elegantly written and passionate book. University Press. in writing the Decrees of the . Produce Mestizo”). Rather than ask whether or not home. Hopper draws on his earlier research to outline the J O A N D E L P L AT O contours of homelessness in New York. book. which are. legitimizing The last section of the book is devoted to an analy. to frame his arguments. Ilona Katzew. reflected in public policy. that blend- Hopper also devotes a chapter to the growth of homeless. in turn. a study he conducted with Ellen Bax. like exotic flora and fauna the pictures could be seen as an he is deeply pessimistic about the possibility of changing expression of the plenitude and variety ordained by God. anthropology that many anthropologists have been call- fer to the way industrialized societies address the existence ing for in recent years. points to some of the policy victories won over the years. and that Spanish–white culture was the port. as indicated ness among African American men in New York. ficial shelter spaces used by the city and further insights The focus of the book is a shared concern of the disci- into what makes an existence liminal in U. In those chap- ters. Hopper reviews a study the races: African. He depicting a pair of parents and at least one child—produced revisits. This provides a sharp contrast with the kinds of of. For people already familiar with that material. Hopper di. reference point and ultimately the most desirable position.. His focus is not Simon’s Rock College of Bard comprehensive—he focuses almost entirely on men. should center on what counts as an adequate solution to Undergraduates unfamiliar with that history may have the problem at any given moment (p. made for the consumption of elites in Peninsular Spain who ment of homelessness as a visible social problem during the harbored “anxiety” over the New World’s readiness to blend same period. gates how miscegenation contributed to the construction minal. 4 • December 2005 frame his approach is “abeyance. for instance—but he uses his data less to illuminate the world Ilona Katzew examines the phenomenon of 18th-century of homeless people than to show how research and public Mexican casta painting—portraits of racially mixed families debate have framed homelessness in the United States. it rects our attention to the society that makes people poor could be returned to whiteness. it seems to assume a familiarity with debates exists. exploring contemporaneous accounts of color hier- If there is a contribution that an engaged anthropology can archies to develop racial ideologies of the sistema de cas- make. in an urban colonial social system undergoing rapid ma- ter between 1979 and 1982 on homeless men in New York. 256 pp. 19). He also draws on “liminality. best appreciated by other anthropologists and by people lessness will be solved. Rather than simply review his older work. Although understand. He argues by each painting’s formulaic inscription that spelled out the that political–economic changes in New York.S. for instance. casta painting could be seen to celebrate men in recent decades. It pro.” in which Indian or black blood was thought to ing the lives of poor people is a useful project. this book is essential reading. it is in calling attention to the con. be obliterated when. On the one hand. He suggests to possess. CT: Yale U. ing was occurring but in finite permutations. No. Hopper is able to direct attention book provides quite a comprehensive set of references to to the broader ethnographic context in which homelessness the literature. New Haven. cial problem and as an object of a service industry indicates that some forms of liminality have become permanent in Casta Painting. 2004. Four chapters form the core of the book. and presenting their divergence from white sis of advocacy on behalf of homeless people. gument that racial concerns were pressing. and Indian. art buyers that their worries about the perceived chaos of the tive concepts.” which Hopper uses to re. Hopper argues that key questions who are already familiar with the history of social policy. Pedro vides an excellent example of the kind of engaged. society. about poverty in the United States that students are unlikely iar to anthropologists. although the question in this manner. The plines of anthropology and art history: the critique of visual next chapter examines the difficulties involved in attempts representation.

guage politics in a variety of communities within Israel’s ings she illustrates could be seen as ethnicized variations 1967 borders. with no indexing system her reading of seemingly innocuous pictures of casta moth. mores. century book on Chinese costumes. and Child. at once. thought to corrupt lighter-skinned children. Illustrations of baffling images can be far Still. the book could have fulfilled even more of casta painting had no equivalent in European art.” Indeed. Duke University otic Others from many geographical locales? Such a focus could serve Katzew’s ends. But she is less interested in applying the subtle con. and had she analyzed more closely their indi- In an appealing assertion that colonial culture was no vidual relationships to the documentation she has so ad- mere European derivative. reading the text paintings. systematically alongside the many pictures in Katzew’s book the major flaw of the book is that at the very places where is distracting. disturbing images ers pacifically nursing their children and accompanied by in chapter one showing scenes of domestic violence are not attentive fathers. eight color details. 269) as a means of understanding images. and power in the New World. and campujo. might its sources be a whole genre of European travel books de.and middle-class Mizrahim. and are consti- religious painting. it does not appear. Single Reviews 731 Baratillo of Mexico. two of the most popular themes in all of European Palestinian Israelis constitute themselves. attractive to a wide clientele. By guistic approach. Acknowledging this could strengthen her political their complex social locations within the nation-state. lobo. where much of the ethnography The book was the catalog to an exhibition of casta is conducted. however. of garnering interest of the Chicano/a. Was this “picture-stuffing” an editorial gamble to the complex relationship between “language and society” merge a coffee-table format with a scholarly study in hopes in early 1990s Israel. Her research reveals an objection among addressed until page 114. One wishes for more in-depth study of other nar. physically feuding spouses were thought to be the result of nurses. It is also an attempt to advance a method- painting held at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art ological argument about the value of a diversified sociolin- in the spring and summer of 2004. in which we finally learn that Spanish writers to the practice of hiring mulattas as wet. and of the social fabric of the so- ways. content to let them stand as “context. as well as and on Haifa that yielded some of the richest material. inverts the racial hierarchy so as to criti. art. STEIN scribing marriage customs. of perspective by implying that colonized peoples rework “in. For this reader. Her case is intriguing. 2004. which parallel the rise of secular family tuted. there are 39 analyses of linguistic form with qualitative interpretation color plates. Press. grifo. With this in mind. an especially satisfying exploration in the book is removed from their explanations. dants of those very groups whose identities were being tents of such thinkers about race to elucidate particular casta constructed in casta painting. “integrating quantitative sociolinguistic the end of the first chapter alone (37 pages). fered: First. Its format is lavish. Katzew claims that the genre mirably unearthed. and native dress of ex. lano. it was Lefkowitz’s ethnographic work in and Latino/a markets of Southern California. Still. rather than any single book in particular. captions are placed so as to make identifica- of male control over the female body. her utterly original and supremely important topic—race. called mixed city of Haifa. However. on the iconography of the Holy Family or Madonna and it is. and 23 black. casta painting’s origins Words and Stones: The Politics of Language and Identity could also be considered from the users’ viewpoint as much in Israel. The scope of this book is relatively broad. REBECCA L.white of speaking practices” (p. Plates are left undifferenti- a large corpus of research is expected to be brought to bear ated from each other in significant enough ways to warrant on the casta paintings. An appendix would help readers keeping with racial and gender ideals popular with officials unfamiliar with racial terms. Daniel Lefkowitz’s Words and Stones: The Politics of Language play the art historical convention of considering the artist’s and Identity in Israel employs ethnographic and sociolinguis- oeuvre and emphasize more the works’ social and politi. program. by language—and what language usage tells us about portraits. two suggestions are of. Also. Thus. to facilitate locating them. had in his library. 316 pp. at times confusing. paintings. the politics of representation within dominant Israeli media fluence” of the dominant culture in creative and resistant (namely. Ashkenazi . African American. their inclusion. For example. Second. a study of the ways Mizrahi. the earliest Mexican casta painter. including presumably descen- cize it. as she claims to want to down. slippery as they may have been in Spain as part of an ideologically motivated reeducation in their usage—for example. even the earliest set of casta paint. tente en el aire. Daniel Lefkowitz. effectively the promise of elucidating the complexities of she traces the origins of casta painting to a German 17th. It more generalized cultural interest in race studies? Such a is precisely the fiction of the “mixed city” that is at issue design could offer the art historian a golden opportunity for Lefkowitz. which Manuel Arel. rative or iconographical details that could yield similarly Had Katzew’s book considered fewer examples of casta rich results. coyote. the mismatching of races or overindulgence in intoxicating she interprets paintings of nursing mothers as the triumph pulque. New York: Oxford University as the creator’s. a position that was in tion of plates frustrating. Askhenazi. tic analysis to explore matters of Israeli identity and lan- cal contexts.and. For despite the city’s varied demographics— to produce a book that is both academically rigorous and home to working. the Hebrew press).

what results Middle Eastern Lives in America. sociologists Amir Marvasti and Karyn D. and their linguistic corollaries. such discourse marks Jews of (3) thin discussion of questions of gender as they articu- European descent as without ethnicity (cast. and as “normative” Israeli subjects). the Haifa case.” they argue that racial and the 1990s would change dramatically by the decade’s end. Lanham. powerfully exposing the And yet. they are remarkably resistant to acknowl. As Lefkowitz argues. these various communities usefully refute the popular the growing visibility of Mizrahi ethnoracial histories and Israeli myth of urban coexistence. and the radicalization of the internal Pales- ways spaces are used and delineated by ethnicity and race. religious. Interviews conducted within the West Bank and Gaza Strip. McKinney. age and identity politics at the time of the ethnographic project itself—namely.. certainly not within state. language and identity pol- tion within the nation-state). I would argue. “domi. terviews (most. the early 1990s. despite such strengths. ethnic discrimination against this population is real. As highly divergent intellectual traditions of language and Lefkowitz usefully notes. the social politics of intonation and pharyngeal variables in this is a useful volume. late with ethnonational. the legacy of the Karyn D. evidenced by the rise in prominence of the complexity of the city and its multiple histories. mythologies and a politically charged one. are the historical particulars of language us. as exemplified by their expressions of and the rather limited forms that interaction takes between solidarity with the Al Aqsa Intifada. More attention to the and within the city’s sectors. and ethnographic attention to the histories represents one of the few English-language studies on the and memories of interviewees (including personal histories social politics of language in the contemporary Israeli con- of the 1948–49 experience among Palestinian interviewees.g. No.S. in KHALED FURANI the process. sweeping histories (e. ways that language and identity articulate through the par- Although Lefkowitz’s ethnographic insights on matters ticulars of their historical moments. those of qualitative linguistics and Foucaultian analysis. despite its shortcomings. Indeed. it seems. this reader found the sociolinguistic terms of power and powerlessness within monograph problematic in crucial ways.g. and for those concerned with the re- instruction and acquisition within various communities. In . even as they illustrate political demands. respectively).. and racial identity. it attempts to tackle far too many themes and historical conjunctures. this being yet another index of their highly selective atten. in their brevity and preva- lence. tinian population. ulary. MD: Rowman and Littlefield. language usage.732 American Anthropologist • Vol. “race” is infrequently remarked on discourse analysis on which the monograph draws (e. the the Shas party. deemed a political liability). and Palestinians with Israeli itics in Israel had shifted considerably as a result of radical citizenship (the latter. East in the United States. ethnoracial history and culture. foreign workers from the “third world” (imported. typi- nant Israeli discourse simultaneously dichotomizes (exag. discussion of the utility of such a narrative practice within edging parallel divisions within Jewish society (in terms a study of Israeli identity. Lebowitz’s insights on matters of ethnoracial identity and of Mizrahi immigration to Israel). the politics of language usage within the ethnographic in- and space and spatial usage). 107. that although Jewish Israelis (particularly. within dominant Israeli discourses about the nation-state. Other shortcomings in the monograph include (1) the pre- elite Jews of European descent) are vividly attuned to the ponderance of self-reflexive ethnography (concerning the social fault lines separating Jews from Palestinians within status of the Jewish American researcher) without adequate the nation-state. cally by Jewish Israeli research assistants. and through those of of race and ethnicity are not new. Visiting Scholar. Sutured—sometimes loosely—by [singular] Jewish people. Echoing U. about whites and whiteness. Columbia University. By the turn of the 21st century. tion to modalities of intranational difference. by the tial nor social integration is prevalent. in turn. Amir Marvasti and is a set of rapid. The book’s For scholars interested in contemporary Israeli cultural other strengths include its discussion of Hebrew language and linguistic politics. (2) the relative inattention to of class. With a lucid yet at times awkward and imprecise vocab- nomena that Lebowitz describes are particular to this pe. lacking in normativity. McKinney riod (for Mizrahi and Palestinian subalternity within the focus on discrimination against peoples from the Middle state. it Hebrew usage. The book’s breadth Israel and unseating the dominant Israeli fiction of “the is something of a liability. 98). 4 • December 2005 Jews (typically of a higher-class position and symbolic loca. yet the political landscape of and prognosis of a social “ill. to replace the blue-collar Palestinian workforce from the city’s residential districts. as they are. violence and Israeli warfare) that. in Israel are sharp and important. they are crucial: namely. were conducted in Hebrew. whereas Mizrahi Jews are (4) truncated discussion of the relationship between the marked as “ethnic” and. text. Jewish victim complex or the history of Jewish–Palestinian 171 pp. would have made for a richer investigation.” the rubric of sociolinguistic analysis. including the following: the massive influx of flight during the course of the 1948–49 war)—neither spa. Not all the phe. what remains of the much larger demographic and cultural changes within the borders of the Palestinian population that lived in Haifa prior to their nation-state. cannot but fail to be partial. Given short shrift. as the monograph suggests). both precede and ex. even among Pales- gerates) Arab/Jewish difference while it erases (minimizes) tinian populations for whom Hebrew is a second language— Jewish/Jewish difference” (p. Straddling between analysis ceed this historical moment). lationship between language and identity more generally.

their sample includes six Pakistanis. they refer to a woman who is active in As if “social forces” and “daily lives” exclude each other. have us believe (p. their book could Arab groups composing “the Middle Eastern community. McCabe shows how these Kenyan pastoralists olence are Muslims in ways that Christianity is not when respond to their arid environment in ways predicted by dise- the perpetrators are whites or Christians. by which they mean biographical materials identity that transcends their differences. it is more useful to in. In the second part of the book containing the bulk of perfluous. And the second instance has to do with a man join- dle Eastern Americans—mainly in the form of statistics. demonizing Muslims of which was conducted under the auspices of the South and Arabs is so prevalent. much rather. grounds. colonial carving called “the Middle East. they refer to a gemeinschaft of sorts whereby peoples from getically explicate their resort to “experiential” and “for. Terrence McCabe provides a The second and third chapters focus on the question of convincing empirical demonstration of the “new thinking” Islam’s link to terrorism (terrorism itself is not the subject in ecology. some examine what they call ethnogenesis. the study’s interviews. Throughout the book. 73–74).” In the first instance. anthropologists may find it irksome that the authors apolo. J. of a more inclusive U. ing strategies. the authors convey highly engaging ulty of discerning the real from the unreal. obviously aims to reach readers who know little to nothing they generally mean Arabs and Muslims. The authors unconvinc. but no Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies: Turkana Ecology. (p. These are the sources eight respondents in that chapter. and loose coupling of livestock with forage resources. 146). (three chapters) on “social forces. which gives their presentation a quality of profiling. The book is based on McCabe’s long-term research quire not into how Islam’s diversity defies essentialism but.S. stands and mistrusts them. the existence of ethnogensis. the Council on American Islamic Relations. Therefore. pears more as a prescription of something yet to exist and This sense of profiling is intensified when one reads the hardly as probing of people’s realities as the authors would authors’ presentation of categories of Middle Eastern lives. Finally. Single Reviews 733 normal circumstances. dramatic fluctuations of livestock num- balanced individuals” (pp. ingly attribute the endemic misunderstanding of Islam to In his recognition of the multiple forces and factors im- the absence of “contextual” details and a “complex” debate plicated in Turkana survival strategies. or liberation reflections and testimonies by Muslim–Arab Americans on from occupation. the authors Nearly two decades after Writing Culture (1986). which by defi- in the first section of the book Marvasti and McKinney nition works on cultivating a religious not national identity present historical and sociological information about Mid. Because of the authors’ concern with the advancement the quantitative content of which they extend to non. ing the ACLU for its defense of Muslim. including education. McCabe calls for a about it. not Middle Eastern. external resources. . about the Middle East. their exercise is not so superfluous after how they live in and respond to a society that misunder- all. only two invoke the Mid- that Marvasti and McKinney largely reserve for the second dle East as an index of a collective identity and none identify part of the book (five chapters) devoted to “daily lives. and political involvement. a regrettable lack of a detailed inquiry into this intractable 2004. 150). rather causes (p. Through his detailed analysis of Turkana herd- remark that Islam is invoked when the perpetrators of vi. In Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies. yet what is clear is that it makes no sense to talk Washington University about empowerment when the very name one employs to identify one’s subjects remains unexamined. after Said’s Orientalism. the Middle East presumably forge a common panethnic malized” data. but in a public domain that targets the fac. 159).” benefit anyone interested in a liberal Durkheimian critique Here. bers. Otherwise Israelis. which posits that some ecosystems are in dise- of equal elaboration in this book). not ethnic. Seeing the misunderstanding of Islam as essen. political ecology that considers both politics and ecology. 163). Yet out of the and recorded interviews. (1980–96) among a section of Turkana pastoralists. Through this concept. they assert that Islam challenging both narrowly ecological and wholly political is too diverse. the only two instances of coalition forma- quantitative data can be found in the first part of the book tion the authors cite were on religious. respectively. should have been included in their sample. a work that explic- Eastern?” itly states that Arabs speak Arabic and Iranians speak Farsi The authors invoke “Middle Easterners” when. 299 pp. They demonstrate quilibrium theory: frequent and highly variable migrations. and Raiding in a Disequilibrium System. tially a cognitive or analytical failure. The authors insightfully quilibrium. but more than two decades approaches. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. another tension inhabits their book: Who is “Middle of domestic imperial excesses. The mere three paragraphs they dedicate to answer Politics. More specifically. for example. income. Turkana Ecosystem Project (STEP).” The as such. the question “who is Middle Eastern American?” stands as Terrence McCabe. That it surely is. in spite of its diversity. how. their argument would seem su. L E S O R O G O L (p. In fact. how the violence of white North Americans is presented in opportunistic herding strategies. democratic system. Indians. in fact. I suspect. Oddly enough. occasional dependence on the media as an isolated aberration of “psychologically im.” It is not clear how making sense of racial inequality helps with fighting it C A R O LY N K . ap- than narrating the lives of Middle Eastern North Americans.

2004. a necessarily brief summary follows. and the discussion would have been velopment there. Although it may not have ical thinking in cultural anthropology. His analysis of deci. availability of la. however. reciprocity. questions current notions of transnationalism. and a “post-national” order. . ogy. rationales are followed by a quantitative analysis of rea. group-level herding patterns. the in. this district to show that substantial remittances over sev- ficult to evaluate how generalizable the family growth pat. frequencies. The literature review (Chapter 2) delineates the rights are likely to be institutionalized. this book is an important contribution to the literature in anthropology. although at times te. McCabe also discusses the effects of marriage deci. Kohery village in northern Pakistan migrating to the Gulf toralists. nor on derstandings of ecosystems as self-regulating equilibrium the ongoing constitutional drafting process in which land systems. CA: Sage Publications. conflict mitigation programs conducted in Kenya. eds. evolving postcolonial rhetoric of national purity for mass sis of Part 4). there is still scope for individual choice and mobilization. and how these social goals intertwine with Pakistani migrants from Mirpur in Britain. Migration. That rium theory in ecology and behavioral and political ecology said. The book calls attention to intrana- background material on the Turkana and their environment tional migration and the consequences of migration for the in Part 1. It is dif. 4 • December 2005 he highlights key research findings of the STEP. The analyses of decision-making patterns among University of California. markets are cer- of cultural ecology in the mid-1900s. and trustworthiness of herding labor). The season ters address these theoretical issues vigorously.. in my view. Narrative accounts of movements and their simplistic notions of cultural hybridity versus essentialism. strength is the historical depth and cross-referencing char- dious. and durations. He documents the tainly an important force for the Turkana. again using the four families tion. These 13 ethnographic studies of international and intra- the most effective in making his case. not social institutions (e. are the core of the book and. at a University of Sussex conference and those plus others Herding strategies are also determined by individual per. duction by Katy Gardner and Filipppo Osella that reviews Following the literature review (which includes a nice the theoretical literature and compares the chapters along discussion of theories of violence in anthropology) and several dimensions. the Pakistani state has failed to provide infrastructural trans- The book is weaker in its conclusions about the impli. especially the rise been critical to the four families studied. KAREN LEONARD toralists. on East African pastoralism and an effective demonstration dividualism and rational choice theory in behavioral ecol. Ballard argues that both economic and strengthened by some theorizing of the operation of the social transformations have been seriously constrained. claiming that “the theoretical focus of this book can be seen as . the politics of movement and violence variation—something not well captured in disequilibrium and the history of border transgressions and hybridity theory. and national and international policies that affect Turkana pas. marriage. Another by season accounting of movements. including the role of methodological in. although by the contributors. . national migration in South Asia look at both the receiving sion making seems closer to rational choice (which can also and sending communities and are framed by a useful intro- accommodate exogenous factors) than he claims. through the failure of Mirpuri entrepreneurship but because ment of common property) in general. have left the district to seek employment elsewhere. but he does not analyze stronger families and kin ties at home and that a “more . Oaks. Parts 2 and 3 present a detailed analysis of herding migrants’ home communities. Filippo Osella and Katy Gardner. here. espe. Thus. clearly shows the influence of environmental factors acteristic of the studies (some chapters were given in 2001 and (in)security in the patterns of movement of the herders. redressing the greater atten- decision making among four families that McCabe followed tion often given to international migration and questioning from 1980–96. the environment (both natural and political) clearly puts Jonathan Spencer reviews population movements in Sri constraints on individuals and broadly patterns their move. thorough ethnographic and historical research conducted bor. cosmopolitanism. Thousand He does provide multiple levels of analysis including indi. comment on recent studies of pastoral land tenure or which constitutes a serious challenge to conventional un.734 American Anthropologist • Vol. focusing on that of increasing livestock numbers for survival. Lanka to show management by colonial officials and an ments (as further demonstrated in the group-level analy. were published in Contributions to Indian Sociology in 2003). McCabe takes an intermediate stance. Francis Watkins’s study of poor Pakhtuns from cations of disequilibrium thinking for policies toward pas. South Asia. vidual decision making. postnationality. Modernity and Social Transformation in tegration of individual-and systems-level analysis” (p. why such calls have not been effective to date. Irvine four herding families (particularly the male heads of these families). of disequilibrium ecology in action. He does not cially regarding the development of disequilibrium theory. market economy is downplayed. 380 pp. and manage. many of whom challenges to these approaches manifested in disequilib. 31). formations. and the like. McCabe rightly calls for East African governments states finds that money earned abroad is well spent to build to provide security for pastoralists. Roger Ballard looks at as examples. The chap- sons for movement.g. globaliza- sions and social reciprocity. The impact of the links between equilibrium thinking in ecology and ecolog. sonalities (more aggressive or more conservative) and by Because the outstanding feature of the volume is the individual circumstances (size of the herd. No. 107. eral decades have not produced sustainable economic de- terns observed here are.

and impede any success of the agenda Petchesky proposes. found strong disinclinations to return. where such organizations ranged from being tol- decisions to stay or return home. and the current U. But much of the book’s central thesis. the fruits of migrations. one is left with admiration for home and away are more significant than the distance trav. and highly contextualized nature of cultures of mi. Petchesky tion in Bangladesh. with passion. women’s health movements working toward advancing this discussing both positive and negative outcomes for them. mentation of women’s health rights programs by women’s are not stereotyped as less committed or hardworking than nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in several parts of local workers. and modern. region. Sivaramakrishnan present a sophisticated able health care worldwide. places. to earlier migrations and relates the University of North Carolina exchange of gifts and commodities to Islamic reform and the relative moral qualities attributed to different kinds of In her book. a universal human right. it would seem. and cultures at Petchesky makes excellent arguments against family different stages of development. repeated. Marital. sailors. Rosalind Petchesky envisions. finding that traditional networks were correctly criticizes major world institutions for their use of enhanced to consolidate positions in cities. which becomes conflated with human rights and citizens. IMF. and for programs that pro- the book’s achievement is to demonstrate the variety. in public not pri. the ambivalent nature of raised expectations shape their and Peru.” ily progressive political or cultural agendas. and caste. of local initiatives and lead to declines in fertility. Finally. She aspires to a globalized world that grants from eastern Sri Lanka to the Middle East and their reflects popular mandates and aspirations—one in which reconfiguration of everyday practices within a more pan. within increasingly power- cuses on intranational migration to Bengal. Tamil Nadu. consolidated by migration and association with other peo. Y. seeing this as enabling the women to ex. lary in such analyses that refers to “consumers” and “users. Gujarat. Thangarajah focuses on female Muslim mi. She calls attention to the vocabu- tangling cosmopolitanism from transnationalism. carefully disen. but may lead to a form of eugenics. in some measure. Single Reviews 735 international understanding of Islam” (p. 61) has added a in shaping the “modernities” differently understood and spiritual dimension to traditional Pakhtun notions of honor practiced in these fine case studies. investigating how self-identification was shifted or or The New York Review of Books. a new world order that would eliminate all injustices and tion from Kerala to the Gulf has produced changes in the inequalities and that would establish health as a human Hindu kuthiyottam ritual (human blood sacrifice). Brazil. care delivery will be equally distributed among the entire pand their rights and opportunities. with Daniel erated to neglected—providing the reader with interesting Coppard. Women may have become. For example. Jonathan Parry also fo. C. Abdur Rafique. Nigeria. adding social and religious practices (rival versions Global Prescriptions: Gendering Health and Human of Islamic orthodoxy) to gifts and ideas when considering Rights. Rosalind Pollack Petchesky. Simpson attributes social differ. Randall Kuhn studied rural–urban migra. and protect their bodily integrity. Cairo. exchanges. 2003. It would entail global governance based on having upwardly mobile people and innovative forms and senses of a civil society empowering women through local partici- religiosity. lost in the minute facts presented. entiation among Sunni Muslim ship owners. patory democracy. gener. Various significant points are raised that sometimes get ple and places. patronage. agenda—the small accomplishments and the various fail- Arjan de Haan describes labor migrants in Calcutta and their ures of women’s conferences. priority will be given to health over property. although most chapters over to achieve reproductive health rights. however. religion. Geert De Neve shows that rural migrants She describes the conferences and the attempts at imple- working in the garment industry in Tirupur. and their kin in the town of Mandvi and the village of Salaya KAJA FINKLER in Kachchh. for the workers. South Africa. and influence. in rich detail. planning movements that stress population control.S. frequently and Jhuma Biswas. reflecting right. London: Zed Books. which Several authors use the phrase culture of migration. gration. Vinay cost-benefit analysis to evaluate health and access to afford- Gidwani and K. com. mote broader economic and social changes that emerge out plexity. particulars. to reproductive anxieties and outcomes. pursue sexual also testify to the crucial roles played by the state or states pleasure. Filippo and Caroline Osella show how migra. empow- ation. concerns the adverse role of global capitalism in ing seasonal agricultural work and their recruiters in West modern society and will be familiar to readers of The Nation Bengal. Edward Simpson also takes up Islamic re- form. But one is also . India. particularly among administration contribute to reducing services for women those best placed in the labor market. Maya Unnithan-Kumar world’s people. vate sector jobs. ization theory that places people. Ben Rogaly. Petchesky’s exhaustive study of women’s efforts the world eled by migrants. and health Islamic framework. necessar. Amrita Sengupta. transnational in Jaipur. local networks and the world—including India. long-distance less national institutions. ered by these efforts. Globalization and privatization migration to the steel town of Bhilai from other states. 306 pp. he promoted by the World Bank. including those in Beijing and encounters with modernity as structured by gender. connects poor Rajasthani women’s migrations to a slum The book describes. studied interactions between those seek. Kumar Rana. and that. instead of regarding health as case for “rural cosmopolitanism” in India. and recruitment networks at After reading the book.

she had informants torical roots. it is important to note that rape and sterilization are not. and against rape. which is linked to abysmal Serendipitously. “I only began to ‘see’ when my attention was directed in a duction and motherhood. he con- tive health and how it is impeded by current globalization stantly adjusted his drawings of activities like smuggling. draw both the events and. ios described.” eties such as Egypt. who drew the scenar- scholars and readers concerned with women’s reproduc. The book will also be of in. thus “recreating social memories” with the participation of terest to those concerned with bioethical issues. 2004. and David dangerous to women’s health as the Western community MacDougall. Sarah Pink. but informative. New York: Routledge. This added a new dimension of women’s reproductive health rights and sexual pleasure to her studies of mythical narratives. process that builds on the active imagination techniques of . “the drawings corrob- lack sufficient contextual analysis and seem reductive rather orate visually the narrative structure of Pumé oral stories” than finely tuned. conflicts. 44). She sole source of identity and social status for women in de. 4 • December 2005 left with a sense of irony because the perspective presented REFERENCE CITED is unrelentingly absolutist—the very approach that the au. motherhood is often the exchange and evaluation of images of cattle” (p. 224 pp. and Working Images: Visual Research and Representation female genital surgery. to photograph nighttime ceremonies. Because the book details the activities of women’s or. using the camera merely to record. Gemma Orobitg Canal originally had no intention of using much more attention must be given to the poor health of visuals when working with the Pumé Indians of Venezuela. and privatization processes. later. ethnic wars. of reproductive health rights for women. informed by anthropological theory and embedded over. No. Jay Ruby. a commendable aim for women in the United States. poor diet. where this procedure is practiced. women in developing nations. Soheir thor wishes to combat. Should the customary practices within If anyone still equates visual anthropology only with ethno- a culture not be treated differently from those practices that graphic filmmaking. Initially motherhood ought not be the source of identity for women. Like an elaborate police sketch artist. some have rightly suggested that there is no universal in anthropological research questions” (p. not only community members. Although I am an admirer of some of Petch. unable and anguished social relations. By focusing chiefly on women’s repro. For example. universal justice and regards health as a right for all women whereas Iain Edgar argues for “imagework. who which “is appropriated and asserted through the scrutiny. most interestingly. 28). Medical Anthropology Quarterly 5(1):19–23. ELIZABETH BIRD accepted by a majority of women in the societies in which it University of South Florida is practiced. and even anthropologists who originate from soci. experience of sexual pleasure on which Petchesky seems to The contributors all stress that visual methods can- insist. developed her eye through filming. all of which have deep his. category as rape and sterilization? Petchesky mentions the arguments made by others that female genital alteration is S. More. often clitoris. may have various other options. It is also recommended to all munity. she found that photo elicitation with both public health conditions. take a practice that can be enriched through “visual ethnogra- exception to Western meddling (e. Morsy. ing effects of HIV/AIDS on women discussed in the book. and so she enlisted an artist. 107. ers watched cows to determine their aesthetic dimensions ductive health and sexual rights. phy . she argues for women’s 1990 Safeguarding Women’s Bodies: The White Man’s Burden Medicalized. 22). in surprising ways. It is true that vision” of dairy cattle breeders in northern Italy. László Kürti. and the devastat. it is an important document recreate past lifeways in a rapidly changing Portuguese com- for historians of feminism. reinforces the view that women’s identity is rooted in repro. this volume should finally put that no- the people themselves believe are heinous? In fact.” a visualization and men. One interesting case study is Cristina Another example of this sort of absolutism can be seen Grassemi’s account of using video to acquire the “skilled in the author’s reference to motherhood. Sarah Pink lays out the argument for visually claims. Petchesky and achieve the visual expertise that marked the masters. However. (p. . or what is identified as “mutilation” in Ethnography. Another fascinating use of the visual is by coeditor Ana ganizations and responses by world bodies in the latter Isabel Afonso. her arguments in this book in support world into which they entered. She found verbal descriptions inadequate to part of the 20th century. Anna Grimshaw. old and new photos produced rich narratives. based methods: “Our focus is on ethnography as practice. self-determination and sexual pleasure within the frame- work of human rights. Women’s eroticism may not rest universally in the not replace written ethnography but may enhance it. she gradually realized Yet the author fails to recognize that although this may be she had to learn to achieve the breeders’ “eye” for cattle. Other studies are less innovative.g. 2). paradoxically. and Ana Isabel (FGM). the spirit esky’s previous work. sterilization. Without denying the importance disciplined way” (p.. watching how breed- veloping nations. .736 American Anthropologist • Vol. from the standpoint of the four principles promulgated in Coeditor László Kürti contributes a lively study of com- bioethics but also from a broader perspective that seeks memorative postcards and community identity in Hungary. Should female genital surgery be placed in the same Afonso. Morsy 1990). Building on the groundwork of scholars such various studies showing that female surgeries may not be as as Marcus Banks. there are tion to rest.

cerns within the rules Pollock recommends. Empire by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri describes how Pollock indicates that in education. reflect on the exciting schooling by means of colormute race talk in which Pollock possibilities of ethnographic visuals incorporated into new initially shared. from the ethics of image use to the lack of technolog. by Olivia da Silva and Pink. by “Colormute” policies in the bay area of California re- Victoriano Camas Baena. like the ethnographer. Their case studies show the deft interweaving of ters. standards governing society and the pedagogy of schooling. Colormute power- edited collections. First. It notes but ditional images. adults protect racism mutates. 131). Ana Martinez Pérez. Important that obscures racial inequalities. This point is stressed in the most practical way. . These the national majority. Mica Pollock theorizes how the policy cre- cial transformation” (p. although informed by the forming traits into retrograde patterns of dominant race author’s work. she becomes an expert on how to manage fers great possibilities. rized. 2000:193). as in Coover’s account of his web-based chapter differentiates a race-talk dilemma. Intended to eradicate educational inequality. ilege while demographic shifts are making people of color participatory. An appendix for educators is included. Paul If colormute race talk permits us to integrate noncon- Henley’s is the only chapter that. The other. and Roderick Coover. Students exhibiting such traits are integrated racially into Pink alone. 110). Single Reviews 737 Jungian psychology. but problem. They argue convincingly that ates silences and projections. staff. Each visuals and words. I remain unconvinced that the tech. then managing race talk can circum- intended to “demonstrate what film can do for text-making vent an analysis of the race privilege that is the central anthropologists. Two chapters address ethnographic filmmaking. ing black and Latino students at a science fair. For instance. Citing Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. the new digital environment of. Rather than interrogating the structural risk that contradictorily threat- Colormute: Race Talk Dilemmas in an American School. E N O C H H . Even within an expanded definition of which endeavors to integrate nonconforming traits into in- visual anthropology. unskillful race talk obscures the superintendent’s “racial- ized expectations regarding ‘success’ patterns” (2004:169). ethnography. “said nothing pub- of degrees of deviance in relation to the White-man face. faculty. creasingly eccentric and backward waves” (Hardt and Negri nique was ethnography and not therapy. not just as a second-order visual aid . shows how national This book has a coherence not always apparent in racial disparities are reproduced in school. formats—interactive CDs. Three of the final chapters. and Manuel Ortiz Mateos. web links. Amherst expectations and his own need to achieve professional suc- cess and. action oriented. about how to discuss each race talk dilemma are summa- tions. sustain his own racial affiliation. and driven by theory. yet low-tech visual approaches can race talk. ied avoid public race language and privately project blame resenting marginalized cultures with the active participa. the to outtalk people of color who try to address their con- editors produced an accompanying website that offers ad. The race talkers that she stud- there is still a role for the ethnographic filmmaker in rep. her approach protects authors offer models of such work in a thought-provoking white privilege by personalizing a superintendent’s angst collection that will inspire many ethnographers to explore with teachers when he expresses frustration about not see- new methodological options. no doubt deriving from these chapters’ fully demonstrates that de-raced talk produces the race talk first lives at the Working Images conference. fails to analyze how colormute policies defend white priv- And finally. websites. then Pollock presumes that merely by writing this particular project. licly about the racial achievement patterns I actually saw” . They describe students tion of the community members—indigenous filmmaking whose nonconforming race traits clash with the whiteness as such is not always possible or appropriate. themes weave through the volume. her be just as valuable. beyond reproach. . Princeton. the value of dif. Pollock opposes how denial is spoken at work. contemporary ethnography must be reflexive. 268 pp. and all forms of digital Exposing her colleagues’ enforced denial that race mat- interfaces. Her ethno- ical capabilities in many academic settings. racial justice. and district administrators negotiate color- Felicia Hughes-Freeland offers a thoughtful epilogue on vi. Recommendations sual anthropology and the many issues raised by innova. is not a case study but more of a discussion thought and action. as a primary medium of research” (p. and other resources. words and images must work to. indicating how project exploring the lives of French wine growers. PA G E She fails to see the connections between his performance University of Massachusetts. visibly do not appear to succeed. NJ: Princeton University Press. Rafael Munoz cently “ordered the district and university people to actively Sotelo. she theorizes merely that 2004. Third. video clips. at the same time. study actually may enhance inequality by skilling whites gether. when people insisted on to make both anthropology and film “instruments of so. mute discussions of schooling problems. their positions and racial status at certain school meetings they emphasize that “racism operates by the determination where they all. ens his professional and racial status when such students Mica Pollock. graphic writing. for racial patterns of school failure. Finally. describes the making of refuse to talk in racial terms” (2004:3) as an effort to defuse two films that sought to uncover hidden aspects of culture liberating race talk of the 1960s. If Colormute aims to liberate race talk from policy con- ferent approaches hinges on their appropriateness for any trol. Second.

John Hoddinott. than 15 pages long. Pollock describes how racial privilege The subject matter of the volume. and Antonio Negri entitled “What have we learned from research on intra- 2000 Empire. before detail- ed. namely “what goes is reconfigured in school via private race talk but fails to on” within domestic units that affects women’s well-being. Asia. ported by the International Food Policy Research Institute nizes that racial order is reproduced. appropriately grounded. property. Well intentioned. Nevertheless. she relies on discourse analysis un. and their func. unitary model associated with Gary Becker. façade of reformed modernity. (2) agriculture and nat- ural resources. MA: Harvard University Press. (3) health and nutrition. Agnes R. 108). No. and empowerment. 4 • December 2005 (pp. Despite a rather surpris- ing omission of the work of Amartya Sen. found status. tive and noncooperative variants. calities across Africa. frequently cited as major contributory factors to women’s ence. Her evidence shows that source Allocation in Developing Countries. social capital. and to each section—on (1) power cation as “politically correct” race talk. come across a volume that is empirically as well as theo- knowledged racial inequalities would often be purposefully retically informed. This covers (in brief) the Synthesis of Recent Research. etc.). edited by Lawrence power is masked but does not demonstrate how those who Haddad. the book as a whole. household allocation. (4) social capital. Michael. She watches state authorities reconstitute schools hav. although in- terrogating the superintendent’s unwillingness to discover trahousehold power relations and gender dynamics are how racism organizes the exclusion of students from sci. not just by talk but by (IFPRI). What Pollock implies but fails to theo. submerged within colormute talk” (p. legal institutions. MD: Rowman and Littlefield. course mainly to primary data generated in different lo- ing to weaken and not mute the racial categories. An excellent alternative is Breaking an excellent source of illustrative material for essays and the Code of Good Intentions by Melanie Bush (2004). Pollock proposes colormute race talk as an analytical subordination. legal Colormute exemplifies the limits of discourse analysis institutions. Despite the comparative brevity of the case study chap- tentions to be racially dominant are routinely masked in ters. no-nonsense presentation of ideas and data. 169–170). The book consists of a collection of analyses sup- ing problems in racial discipline or achievement and recog. Fol- to reside in racialized minds. which is often S Y LV I A C H A N T cited in the feminist literature as representing one of the London School of Economics and Political Science first major breaks with Beckerian notions of joint utility. In an era in which gender and development (GAD) litera- ment in terms of the racial inequities she observes. editor Agnes Quisumbing’s introductory overviews to public by a discourse of good intentions articulated in edu. Pollock sug. and resources within households. and Latin America. their impacts on gendered access to re- categories. 2003. Melanie 2004 Breaking the Code of Good Intentions: Forms of Everyday bates and evaluating how far research to date has addressed Whiteness. Making re- gests that we must talk race while engaging in race bend. date. analyze this discursive defense of white privilege. is core to long-standing inquiry even among nonwhite faculty and staff. tification considerably further than many other studies to tle the racial dominance that sanctions colormute talk. 274 pp. Rather than analyze educational achieve. and property rights.” provides a useful. to emerge from this initiative. and (5) policies and REFERENCE CITED interventions—do a fantastic job of summarizing key de- Bush. However. sources (including nutrition. by expecting differential abilities jor program on gender and household decision making. and more general theoretical volume dollars.738 American Anthropologist • Vol. Pollock ture has become increasingly obfuscatory. One of my strongest feelings on rize are the repercussions that the dominated fear may come reading the collection was that students would find this from racial dominants. it is refreshing to found district people using de-raced speech so that “even ac. Rather than in. notably Intrahousehold Re- grounded in political economy. the are racially privileged benefit from its masking. core issues. this volume takes their analysis and quan- key and presumes that speaking more skillfully will disman. Her book would serve best Although none of the country-specific chapters is more had it shown how dominant racial subjects. distressed by adult 33 chapters cover indicators of gendered bargaining power race politics. who dissertations. readable review Household Decisions. Hardt. act with interests at stake in a racial minefield that age to convey a creditably concise contextual introduction motivates them to silence the race talk of others and censure such that the particular thematic issues they deal with are their own race talk. the . and by racially distributing lowing from a first. the vast majority of their authors man- tionaries. Gender and Development: A of models of household behavior. DC: International Food Policy Research ing various forms of collective model including coopera- Institute. Lanham. present one is fundamentally case study based. Quisumbing’s general overview. She ob. a total of served this practice among students who. Quisumbing. and Harold Alderman (1997). and possible policy options to enhance and shows how theoretical opportunities that otherwise women’s and children’s well-being—some of which have might be elaborated get buried behind the postmodern already been road tested in the field. corroborates and improves on Pollock by showing how in. and that is distinguished by a straight. Cambridge. Washington. into gender in developing regions. playfully challenge boundaries between racial within households. which from the mid-1990s has been running a ma- tracking racialized bodies. for example. 107.

The point is made that. there is confusion about how it mat- More interesting and informative still. this one does not go so far as to engage with the Culture and Public Action is an important statement of the question of the international relations of inequality within World Bank’s concern to come to grips with “culture” and which the World Bank is situated. Those by Sen and Douglas. point. especially those embarking on the study of gender So what is “culture” for the authors of this collection? and household dynamics for the first time or who need a re. different ways. In the Introduction. Although the bibliography is by expression (cultural sites or cultural practice) to culture as no means extensive—undoubtedly because. suggesting that current aspirations toward participa- Household Decisions. Vijayendra Rao and Michael is apparently something possessed solely by the poor in the Walton. culture is portrayed as being minimalist nature of the contributions—most of the criti. there is a sizeable litera- result in more effective public action—and that greater col. 9–18) presents two economists. With regard to policies and pro. vice” that is the focus of the concluding chapter is focused the distribution of power and resources within households on the improvement of interdisciplinary collaboration and continues to favor men everywhere in the South. Simon Harrigan. of the identity. Gender and Development will be tion will be impeded by the cultural traits of “traditional widely appreciated among academics and policymakers village societies” (p. to benefit from development interventions while also high. to bridge an apparent gap between anthropologists and In the Introduction. In so doing. Stanford: Stanford University Press. poorest countries. ture that sees ethnographic accounts of the institutions of . there is very little attention to the “culture” of the institu- tions. There are some very strongly argued and nuanced chap- lighting the importance of enforcing women’s legal rights. which are seen as undertaking public action. different contexts. they also endorse a com. 1). In setting out to correct this. alike. permodernist and anticulture. At one extreme are authors such as Lawrence Har- and include a number of eminent and respected thinkers. Amartya Sen. the account of the literature on economists in efforts to alleviate poverty. However. the aim is to establish the Quisumbing’s synthesis of the main findings of the IFPRI positive implications of taking culture “on board in improv- case studies. contain important insights into definitional prob- enhance their access to capability-building resources such lems and the politics of establishing what culture means in as education and credit. Alkire Sabina. like the other chapters. fail to consider contributions to the anthropology of devel- The introductory and concluding chapters. and Mary Dou. The exception to this is the chapter by 442 pp. however. and Shelton between these two extremes. 211). Single Reviews 739 conclusion that unitary assumptions about the household laboration between economists and anthropologists is part have little value in development interventions is one that of the key to this. The find. however. The book is wide ranging. lection claim to take a “moderate middle ground” (p. ELIZABETH HARRISON and notes that most analyses in the book fail to consider University of Sussex the culture of the World Bank itself. eds. culture Culture and Public Action. Not surprisingly. argue that a better understanding of culture can Escobar and others. broadly about “relationality”—the relations between indi- cal classics are included. for not only through legislative reform but through measures to example. The fact that the book comes ception of culture is that it is something principally held by with a CD-ROM should enhance its appeal even further to others. there are chapters that appear grams. although it is ac- will resonate with the gender and development community cepted (presumably principally by those in the World Bank) at large.” That tance of longer and better quality panel data to assess the by Anita Abraham and Jean Philiippe Platteau is a case in impact of different types of intervention. and at the other extreme are glas. who are seen as hy- including Amartya Sen. but contributors come from diverse disciplines extremes. In the Introduction. colonial conceptions of the “customs of the locals. conversation between economists and anthropologists. The “practical ad- monly found fact that despite variations in degree and kind. which sets out to answer the question of how agencies such as the World Bank should “address” culture. in part. that culture matters. The index is also extremely user viduals and groups. and indeed the book as a whole. Arjun Appadurai. is ters. Aside from the empirical weight they bring to ing how culture alleviates poverty and reduces inequality in the rejection of the unitary model. The editors of this col- to those that are more obviously strongly rooted in empir. However. rison and Samuel Huntington (2000). in- ings also emphasize the importance of directing resources cluding the relationship between qualitative and quantita- to women if the members of poor households as a whole are tive research. Equally. ters within the collection. they Davis). 11) ical examples (Carol Jenkins. particular attention is drawn to the need for proper rooted in a view of “culture” that resonates strongly with grassroots evaluations of project outcomes and the impor. 2004. from largely theoretical those who can be said to be cultural critics of development chapters (Mary Douglas. by the two opment that have constructively engaged with the work of editors. different contributors use the notion in liable and authoritative injection of information for teach. and Lourdes Arizpe) (Escobar 1995 and Ferguson 1990). Importantly. It ranges from a narrow focus on culture as ing or practical purposes. the book’s overarching con- friendly and comprehensive. It is edited by two “culture in development thought” (pp. the world’s less affluent countries” (p. those new to the field.

Par- previous interpretations of Native American community enthetically. Reid London: Berg. its lessons are ment of Native and lay teachers with nuns from the Sisters applicable to contemporary processes as well. David reserve. pivotal events in the establishment of the longhouse on the Mosse. write social studies materials. Cambridge: Cambridge the official version of events. Reid’s experience on the reserve began in 1980.” whereas nationalism is The editors acknowledge that “some important top. ing an elective system of government. autonomy.740 American Anthropologist • Vol. factional. Both traditionalism and nationalism were responses which “have been adequately treated elsewhere” (p. some worked within assimilationist models of adjust- “public action” is not. 107. In Reid’s book. Anne as one attempt to pological analyses of Native American politics and the dis. Depoliticisation interacted with the Kahnawa:ke community. 2003 The Making and Marketing of Participatory Development. although opposing the most overt forms of colonial control. tion in community schools that emphasize teaching the ferential political interests” (p. collected from 1997 to 2002. Reid asserts the human and political stance championing indigenous identity and agency in transformative events and directions for change. 2004. 235 pp. presents a persuasive analysis sues continue to be relevant in controversies over represen- of social and political change during several important peri. But to Canadian colonial policies toward indigenous peoples. I would argue that this omission is an important failing of Reid traces the reactions of different groups to these poli- the book. 4) and develop ties to the Iroquois Confederacy” (p. and Samuel P. are not addressed in the book. dynamics that view factionalism as a dysfunctional hin. Factions immediately arose alism in a Mohawk Community. 4 • December 2005 development and their location within broader global pro. as groups of people with differing attitudes and traditionalist Longhouse in the 1920s. ods of the community’s history. when he was hired by the Kahnawa:ke Survival School to drance to social unity. Reid. No. ramifications. is Seneca prophet. then. tation. and decision making at Kahnawa:ke. 43–75. Lincoln: in response to the act. temporary politics and cultural movements at Kahnawa:ke. Pp. Although its goal is to focus The second controversy revolved around the replace- on events occurring from 1870 to the 1940s. eds. eds. and Roderick Stirrat of people from Kahnawa:ke in the form of letters and peti- 1997 Discourses of Development: Anthropological Perspectives. Philip Quarles van Ufford Reid focuses on three central periods relevant for con- and Ananta Kumar Giri. squelch Native identity and language on a reserve that ac- course of factionalism. James ports of agents who molded and implemented policies and 1990 The Anti-Politics Machine: Development. Some groups opted to work Simon’s Rock College of Bard within assimilationist models. 4). Reid shows that much of an inherent part of processes of social and cultural change. Arturo multiple sources of information. REFERENCE CITED One of the strengths of Reid’s analysis is his reliance on Escobar. Others adhered to tradi- Gerald Reid’s study of Kahnawa:ke. tional models of kin and community leadership. Princeton. its repercussions on the reserve. Ferguson. overriding the tra- ditional leadership by clan chiefs within the framework NANCY BONVILLAIN of the Iroquois Confederacy. of St. Traditionalism is defined as pro- cesses as key analytical areas (e. Handsome Lake. These is- cated just south of Montreal. Anne. cesses that “revive and refashion indigenous political and Mosse 2003). Traditionalism. in Iroquoian communities. a Mohawk reserve lo. xix)—is a critique of many Mohawk language and indigenous culture and history. He uses the extensive files 1995 Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs containing re- of the Third World.g. cultural institutions and practices. In A Moral Critique of Development. the membership in the Longhouse results from its cultural Through the study of factionalism. Lawrence. Gerald F. London: Routledge. 2000 Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. particularly its provisions mandat- University of Nebraska Press. the local embodi- interests compete with each other to promote their visions ment of the religious and revitalization teachings of the for the future of their communities. in contrast. In addition to and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. NJ: Princeton University Press. Grillo. omy. tions as they reacted to government policies. leadership. Ralph. tent. Finally. jurisdiction to the Sisters of St. a “movement involving organized efforts to identify with ics at the intersection of culture and development” (p. Grillo and Stirrat 1997. ment while others opposed colonial control and developed indigenous systems of leadership and decision making. New ple who had personal or family knowledge of some of the York: Basic Books. xviii). uses oral histories. The first was the passage of the Indian Act in 1876 and Kahnawa:ke: Factionalism. the files contain the voices University Press. These issues find their contemporary reflec- teraction between informal political groups based on dif. These include globalization especially as it struggles for political and cultural auton- and the relationship between culture and economic growth. Factionalism. His definition of factionalism—“a tively opposed the Indian Act and its political and cultural political process within a community that involves the in. and Nation. rather than just narrowly from its religious con- Reid also stresses the role of factional disputes and inter. Longhouse members continue to be in the forefront ests in the development of traditionalism and nationalism of nationalist and traditionalist endeavors to strengthen . Reid shows how the government transferred Reid situates his argument in the context of anthro. ism is seen as an adaptive response to internal and external The third pivotal episode was the establishment of the pressures. Huntington. Culture is seen as analytically problematic but cies. from peo- Harrison. J..

two deal with . duction.E. process” in which a family sends one sibling to work so the ed.. and political organization. in 1993 Rosenfeld directed Reid’s study enlightens the discussion of current issues four assistants in an in-depth survey of 129 married couples. and the community. her tinian women in these struggles transform the power of pa. After occasional research visits to the camp dur- and cultural sovereignty. not as a disruptive element but as part of the yielded information of utmost importance. Also. although some professional women enjoy such references lest it appear immodest. It is strongly recommended for decades. the “sources that communities. ing the first Intifada (1987–93). creased hardships caused by the closures of the 1990s. perience and emphasize the uniqueness of individual lives. of her own inheritance from parents. education. generational processes in her analysis on Dheishians. 376 pp. 446 women over argues for the vitality of political discussion within these 16 years of age.E. However. Rosenfeld’s book is also noteworthy for something of AV R A M B O R N S T E I N which she writes little. Morris Rossabi. of Palestinian workers. But clearly. many of whom built and cleaned Israeli buildings is written for social scientists. allowing her to take activist and engaged social science to dence from patriarchy. And it successfully in a single neighborhood of the camp. This was followed by a second study of every adult female ical data and contemporary testimony. Rosenfeld’s book is divided into three sections. were the long-term. and the in. and family organi- south of Bethlehem in the West Bank and home to about zation. usually names her parents in the dedication but buries reference to occurring over generations. she selves so others can achieve. father Henry Rosenfeld. In Part 3. like younger Dheishians who “rarely ac- eleven thousand people. family struggle do not necessarily increase their indepen. rounds of criticism and refinement went into creating the and are not. and political main historical events in the relationships between Han prisoners have been explored elsewhere. Institute of Research on South-East Asia (IRSEA-CNRS) dence from patriarchal control. Her general conclusions are that knowledged the influence of the generation that preceded by working together. She situates herself as an Israeli John Jay College. Stanford: Stanford University ume and quality of her material preserve the diversity of ex- Press. camp and higher education outside the camp to achieve upward family mobility. The long-term cumulative consequences of employment and education benefit some families. can improve a family’s standard their work in the notes. and she discusses the politics of her In what circumstances and to what degree can family identity in fieldwork. in terms of both process of building consensus and achieving group goals. 296 pp. do the successes of Pales. joined later by her mother Shu- triarchy in their own lives? These are the main questions lamit Carmi. she describes her hosts’ experiences of lengthy imprisonment in Israeli jails This book evolved from a three-day conference called and how this imprisonment heightened the politicization “China’s Management of its National Minorities. new heights. and B. relationships that [she] established with many dozens Confronting the Occupation: Work. Seattle: University of Washington Press. this is the most ex. gender and patriarchy. 2004. their own (that of activists over age forty-five)” (p. wrote groundbreaking anthropological studies behind Maya Rosenfeld’s study of Dheisheh Refugee Camp. richness and depth. this relative autonomy on marriage. Each section cusing on an important aspect of life in the camp: wage of the book—work. This is an outstanding piece of research. stantial enough to be useful to the study of any one of these she documents the work histories of numerous men and topics. and of individuals and with more than twenty families” (p. Although it may be used as an introductory text. From the 1950s. 211). education. Maya Rosenfeld. In Part 1. as she points out. To be fair. she documents the importance of UN schools in the a wide audience for those teaching ethnographic methods. women’s contributions to book’s sophistication shows an intellectual accumulation. Single Reviews 741 alliances among the disparate Iroquoian communities in it stands above others for its remarkable wealth of docu- Canada and the United States as they struggle for political mentation. education. each fo. Political Activism of Palestinian Families in a Refugee Although she makes very insightful generalizations. She demonstrates a “chain-style Governing China’s Multiethnic Frontiers. Education. a cumulative process. the cramped housing in the camp. in Native communities through its meticulous use of histor. Several how the resources acquired over time by political labor are. However. Out of the seven chapters. real intellectual homogeneity of this volume. educa. D.C. But given the importance of trans- organizations confront the inequalities in work. next can study. and non-Han groups in China since the Han dynasty (206 tensive recent ethnography in English on these topics. City University of New York woman living in Jewish Jerusalem commuting to her Israeli- occupied field site. for those studying Israel–Palestine. families. in February 2001.–C.C. and political access suffered by Palestinians under the was a surprise to have relative silence on the importance Israeli occupation? Furthermore. class formation. 185) for women’s indepen.” which of individuals. In the Intro- ployment and education. it women. In or the struggle of dispossessed people. the vol- Camp. She examines convened in Washington. commensurable with resources attained in em. with some members sacrificing them. at times highly in- tense. it tion. and political prisons—is sub- labor. 2004. but have CHRISTIAN CULAS had “uneven development” (p. 220). 20). she might have avoided of living. Morris Rossabi gives a luminous panorama of the Although Palestinian work. but it may also find Part 2.

Jean usually approached as local inquiries in a specific context. Focusing on the role of literary answers in the face of continual oppression of public means work. stem from a top-down political system with a general view “to preserve the territorial integrity [and security] of the Threatening Others: Nicaraguans and the Formation of Chinese state” (p. This kind of analytical scale variation. and unhealthy people who “invade” Costa tries in Southeast Asia are “a potentially significant devel. drain the country’s social security system. we hope that comparative studies of. printed and electronic) in shaping everyday lives.” such as indigenous peoples. how. As many nic relationships are at the heart of all the chapters. however.” It focuses on the exclu- particular density and new articulations to the events de. and Jean People’s Republic of China (PRC). Evans. a Muslim group located in several areas of the and Cultural Change in the Border Regions (2000). and Vietnam).” as they are Rossabi suggests the studies of the relationships be. Michaud’s Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain A number of important questions concerning intereth. sion of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and how this scribed in this volume. the Dai-Tai. and cultural con- or as “inseparable twins” (p. and historical ac- uation in each region studied. con. and (always clearly thought out in hierarchical terms) to ex. More generally speak. and how do some “Ethnic Autonomous Re. Inner Mongolia. blacks. 2000 Where China Meets Southeast Asia. Christopher Hutton. Carlos ever. ethnic groups have settled in the mountainous regions tably an analysis of how the Chinese Communist Party of all the surrounding countries—China. tions not only in China but also in many countries dealing with ethnic groups (such as Burma. literature. political. these questions National Identities in Costa Rica. in conducting comparative studies in border countries to ties as “younger brothers in the great minzu family” (p. is not yet usual in collective publications. Social and Cultural ulation comprises recent Han migrants and most political Change in the Border Regions. Sandoval-Garcı́a contends that. called in Costa Rica. two fo. and Khun Eng Kuah tinue to have full meaning when a large part of the pop. have direct and deep political and anthropological implica. 146). and articulate picture of the current sit. and to the dynamic of diversity inside the same cultural how do they find a way for public expression of dissatis. Vietnam. 4 • December 2005 minzu (ethnic group or nationality) in Xingjiang.” such as Xingjiang. faction while all media and meeting activities are strictly controlled. ses. 27) highlight the historical. to establish links between these chap. 11). constructive orientations to the anthropology of change lations deal with the authoritarian political system in PRC. of the processes that underlie the (re)production of na- tional focus in China. These mul. Hani-Akha. diachronic. no. It would be very Threatening Others provides a well-documented exploration interesting to articulate studies on a local scale with a na. tional identities and their articulation with the “othering” ters. Hav- historical and political presentation in each chapter. and Burma—it is easy to understand the interest the Han within the minzu to represent the ethnic minori. Costa Ricans are represented as people . The historical background of counts. and today. and of the Yunnan province. Rican national identities and the racialization of the tidisciplinary approaches. and communications media (both of expression. On another level. The book traces the link between the formation of Costa ical science. and en- opment that could serve as the subject for a separate book gage in criminal activities or social protest on its terri- based on recent anthropological studies” (p. and illuminate the diversity of of some groups of people. another talks as the following: Grant Evans. Sandoval-Garcı́a combines textual and ethnographic analy- The authors of this book are specialists in history. one concerns Inner Mongolia.742 American Anthropologist • Vol. system uses the traditional hierarchical representation of Thailand. There are tory. REFERENCE CITED gions. both historically the editor Morris Rossabi also aids in this unity. Surrey: Curzon Press. social groups) and the official organization. TA N YA B A S O K This is especially the case when the local political culture University of Windsor does not accept negotiations and reciprocal compromises as a means of management between the people (ethnic or Theoretically sophisticated and analytically rigorous. group. historical texts. tween southwestern Chinese minorities and foreign coun. and Tibet. The unity is best illustrated by the relates to the representations of national identities. 263 pp. Grant. have been portrayed as uncivilized. 2000 Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples: Mountain Minori- This method. Carlos Sandoval-Garcı́a. through newspaper articles. and the last chapter discusses the Khun Eng Kuah’s Where China Meets Southeast Asia: Social Hui minzu. Miao-Hmong. local. following: how do the Han propagandists use family ties among others. polit. unveil a national logic. Christopher Hutton. and political dimensions of interethnic relationships. Laos. anthropology. By contrast. uneducated. 107. how do ethnic popu. Richmond. the book details a number of questions. ignores the fact that these issues ties in the South-East Asian Massif. Singapore: Institute of South- east Asian Studies. No. peasants. underlining the historical and “other. indeed recent publications dealing with this subject. Minorities in the South-East Asian Massif (2000). the Yao-Mien in different countries can provide new and press relations between two groups. Rica. 2004. and religious studies. Nicaraguan migrants or “Nicas. bring a various working-class “foreigners. such as the with Rossabi’s idea. such cus on Tibet. Continuing further ing. ditions producing current situations. 148). Athens: Ohio University Press. Laos. giving ing examined narratives on national identities expressed a rich. officials at all levels are also Han? All of these questions are Jean Michaud.

and cultural life. working-class “Nicas” as trouble makers. Not surprisingly. Sandoval-Garcı́a ness of Costa Rica as a “white” nation within Central discusses Nicaraguan networks of solidarity as a form of con- America. the idyllic depiction A N D R E W S T R AT H E R N of Costa Rica as akin to Europe in its pursuit of progress and University of Pittsburgh modernity is contrasted with the rest of Central America— and particularly with Nicaragua. The different parts of the volume are (1) Conquest and dents are mediated by the students’ age. Threatening Others is a commendable book of verse links within and between representations situated in great interest to students of ethnic and national identities. and temporal locations. tried to go through and refer to all or most of the collection tions (NGOs). S T E WA RT At the same time. therefore. 4). 2004. 5). cultural theory. for example. Sandoval-Garcı́a pursues three goals in this book. poignant. law and order. Although the representation of Costa Rica arguing that human action is always culturally mediated as a rural democracy may have been transformed. disturbing. peace. 14–15). eds. (pp. (2) The Holocaust. . peace. to an analysis of printed narratives. First. “killing can be explained by minded and uncivilized folks in literary works and through or linked to a specific set of biopsychological universals. that several NGOs have voiced their concerns about the ex- and public consensus. Colonialism. to ‘trouble’ the distinctions between public and nals. Sandoval-Garcı́a deconstructs hegemonic discourses on he documents how Costa Rican national identity is con. and explores the multiple and di. perhaps more difficult to use if one were an instructor who Nicaraguan immigrants. To ex. (10) Witnessing/Writing Vio- and nationals. . and (11) Aftermaths. He also explores Blackwell Publishers. Nancy democracy” with the peasant being the crucial figure in the Scheper-Hughes and Philippe Bourgois. forms of violence in times that can best be described as nei- Sandoval-Garcı́a does not wish to limit his research ther war nor peacetime in so many parts of the world” (p. The differences between the Costa ploitation and abuse of Nicaraguan migrants and have or- Ricans and Nicaraguans are related to the racial unique. (8) Gen- ciples apply similarly to Nicaraguans living in Costa Rica dered Violence. (3) The Politics of Commu- and income class. Malden. social. “violence . Although many students idealize Costa nal Violence. They employ instead their concept of “the con- age of Costa Rica as a predominantly white nation strongly tinuum of violence.” standards of living in Costa Rica to an analysis of the threats Second. Just as durable have been the portrayals of darker. At the same time. visible and invisible. he relates identities in public discourses in order to promote more specific configurations of national identities to their spatial tolerance and respect for cultural diversity. Sandoval-Garcı́a illustrates how this University of Pittsburgh idyllic image of Costa Rica as a rural democracy is ques- tioned in several novels and through historical research. Their volume. and order has endured small-scale or everyday actions and large-scale or dramatic over time. They also in the early history of this country. he examines how the hegemonic representations posed by neoliberal policies to Costa Rican social safety and of the Costa Rican nation and the undesirable other are de. welfare state. note the protean character of its topic. testation to the stigmatization. and redirects the explanations of deteriorating sired images onto the Nicaraguan (and other) “outsiders. He is similarly The readings here deliberately juxtapose different contexts interested in the readership of official discourses. Single Reviews 743 deeply committed to democracy. Sandoval-Garcı́a reports lence. (6) Violence and Political Re- Nicaraguans. and at times confus- Nicaraguan migrants are appropriated or contested in ev.). he finds that images of Costa in a specific class. PA M E L A J . In addition. (5) The State Amok: Rica as an “ecodemocracy” and express pejorative views of State Violence and Dirty Wars. recognizing that age is undermined by an emergent middle-class imagery. skinned. In the 19th century. 2. sistance. The editors of this volume aptly call it “this expansive. and Latin American studies. And third. any idea that. eclec- which has revealed social differentiation and inequalities tic. MA: country’s political.” other discourses. and nongovernmental organiza. Sandoval-Garcı́a conducts fieldwork research world today: easy to look into and follow certain themes. (7) Peacetime Crimes: Everyday Violence. 2). ones such as genocide. this im. defies easy categorization” (p. (4) Why Do People Kill?. bearers of epidemic diseases. how this representation has become a symbol of Costa Ri- can nationhood. some students believe that human rights prin. different temporal and spatial locations. above all. “strives. of violent actions so as to represent this approach (p. The plore how hegemonic representations of Costa Rica and result is a rich. And finally. school location. and burdens on the Costa private. the im. public security. Rica and the representation of Nicaraguan migrants by stu.” which implies continuities between committed to modernization. anthropologically informed anthology” (p. In sum. among Costa Rican primary and secondary school students. crimi. 496 pp. He also calls for the decentering of national coded and contested in everyday life. ganized to defend their rights. . legitimate and illegitimate Rican social welfare system. Nicaraguans as a threat to Costa Rican racial purity or its structed by means of exclusion and the projection of unde. ing set of observations on contexts of violence around the eryday life. (9) Torture. They reject accompanied by the stigmatization of peasants as simple. Sandoval-Garcı́a discusses how hegemonic historical texts portray Costa Rica in the 18th century as a “rural Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology.

Robert 1992 War in the Tribal Zone. and the Wild Man. Creative instruc. There are 62 chapters in all. with a panoply of Ferguson. the excerpt from his 1992 book. It is also akin faced with issues of coverage. for example. Pamela J. Stanley Milgram. introduction by Scheper. There is no gether. Silver- demonic possession in former times. like that of witchcraft and logical scheme mechanically and without comment. or perhaps like a ride to dergraduates. 1992 The Nervous System. Whitehead. Michel Cambridge University Press. particularly given not “Ash. 4 • December 2005 Scheper-Hughes contributes six chapters. We stress. The volume’s problems begin with the editor’s in- We have two specific comments: We appreciated the troductory chapter. and the Wild Blackwell Publishing. albeit with deepened insight and greater (Stewart and Strathern 2004) and our volume coedited with detail. there would seem to be little to do other than celebrate. Although some chapters in this volume rise Widdicombe Fair. 15. Elaine Scarry. Edited by Helaine Silverman. New York: Routledge. No. allows us to deface the man’s discussion of cultural landscape is an interesting but accused person and thereby deprive his or her most intimate stylistically dense contemplation that does little to set the humanity” (p. readers only a brief and truncated version of the thinking of a particular author. Sorcery. and Paul Stewart.. and Terrorist Violence” on this matter. London: Pluto Press. 29) on ethnic violence and gender and most prolific scholars. because potential consumers to an argument we have been developing for some time. Liisa Malkki. Malden. and Neil Whitehead. with such a large selection. Scientific American 266(1):108–113. sociologists: Michael Taussig. following the particu. notions of cultural landscape. many popular introductory textbook. There are pieces from Joseph Conrad. that witchcraft and sorcery are contemporary multiple authors with differing area specialties. It requires that the articles be visually attractive and shortage of choice here: The book is like a large supermar. Veena Das. Unfortunately. with everyone seated on the horse of the to this level. 342 pp. Santa Fe: School of American Re- Gordon. Man (Ch. Sorcery. we receive as University of Chicago Press. tors. volumes of this kind are always Law. for of a reader expect it to cover roughly the same subject mat- example in our Witchcraft. Noam Chomsky. 31) RICHARD L. such as tors. R. The Incas and Their Ances- of these excerpts do come over powerfully and well. and Gossip book ter as the textbook. Helaine Silverman. and Neil L. and those who teach tion or as a full representation of the argument developed this subject in universities will welcome the news that an in War in the Tribal Zone (Ferguson and Whitehead 1992). BURGER seems too short and elliptical. up-to-date replacement for Richard Keatinge’s Peruvian Pre- The abridgement of Joseba Zulaika’s work (Ch. Jean-Paul Sartre. the book is explic- titled “The Anthropologist as Terrorist”? The effect is more itly designed as a companion volume for Michael Moseley’s of a sound-bite than a chapter. 5) can in no way stand as It has been nearly two decades since the publication of the a full accounting for that category of planned. continuum of violence. and transactions in pain in India. Neil Whitehead on Terror and Violence: The Imagination and The editor attempted to deal with the challenge of par- the Unimaginable (in press). and Andrew Strathern 2004 Witchcraft. MA: from his 1987 book. anthropologists– 1992 Tribal Warfare. the creation of an outstanding undergradu- description. . one of the field’s broadest Begoña Aretxaga’s (Ch. on “terror as usual” (Ch. stage for the following chapters for the intended audience. Colonialism. This “shot- phenomena in many parts of the world. Colonialism. 54) plunges history (1988) has finally appeared. ed. hostile ac. Containing 13 chapters the reader into Basque politics and violence. and Gossip. many of the field’s most active senior and junior investiga- body. The discussion on chronol- Hughes and Bourgois). Giorgio Agamben. Brian Ferguson. as many oth. and Bour. 107. Foucault. The Nervous System. not safely confined gun wedding” approach produced uneven results. Hannah Arendt. 40) on language. Chicago: Inevitably. Strathern. Rumors. This echoes the much earlier observa. Cambridge: Farmer. and activist witnessing. 419). Michael among many others. even with brevity. Ferguson. REFERENCE CITED gois three.” We also were glad to read Zulaika’s observation that the following chapters all use the conventional chrono- that “the accusation of terrorism. and Wole Soyinka Taussig.” cases. Shamanism. eds. Orwell. Despite the editor’s caveats. tors must find their way through these thickets of analysis. ate reader requires more than bringing the right authors to- lar theoretical leads that they choose to employ. further. Renato Rosaldo. many do not. Stewart.744 American Anthropologist • Vol. Brian. tions by Edmund Leach in his 1977 discussion of “Custom. R. Allen Feldman. 2) comes through effectively. Yet. Michael Taussig’s well-known piece Andean Archaeology. which focuses on problematizing the editors’ sensible remarks about Yanomami warfare and chronological framework and the exploration of theoretical Patrick Tierney’s allegations (p. Rumors. 2004. Primo Levi. allel coverage by arranging for chapters to be cowritten by ers have done. and containing contributions by in Northern Ireland or Veena Das’s (Ch. Begoña Aretxaga. In some to “former times. search Press. Pierre Bourdieu. 1987 Shamanism. intellectually engaging while also being accessible to un- ket of representative case materials. George In press Terror and Violence: The Imagination and the Unimag- inable. but why is it commissioned especially for this volume. such as the chapter on the Late Intermediate Period. Frantz Fanon. but it should be Timothy Asch here ogy will mystify most undergraduates. eds. Andrew. The abridged summary of Yale University Brian Ferguson’s exposition in the journal “Scientific Amer- ican” on “tribal warfare” (Ch. last reader in Andean archaeology. Pamela J. Brian reprinted contributions by.

and this is central place. there are many strong authority. Whoever the readers may be. tribes bands. A myriad of philo- sophical terms (well beyond tautological and teleological) are REFERENCE CITED bandied about with hardly a definition.” which is an apparent attack on the bitious effort.g. nearest neighbor. Rick and on the emergence of the Incas by Juha time and across space (e. The answer. The Political Landscape: Constellations of Authority they will need substantial dedication.” room setting. as tioning of the concept of chiefdom. as is the sec- University of California.000-year “Forma. of the landscape and built environment varies from place tive” is discussed in little more than a single chapter.. and rank size). on the importance of location. and benefits are simply inadequate. 8.g. second half of the reader is particularly strong. the section on the intellectual his- JOHN M. graduate teaching. nization. 1988 Peruvian Prehistory: An Overview of Pre-Inca and Inca So. . assume a universality of landscape that reflects social orga- books. including this reviewer.g. enhance political authority. costs. He argues that theories of state-level derlying these chapters. such as the one role that the imagined city or the imagined landscape plays on the Preceramic. size of the reproduction (e. Even in the use of landscape and the built environment. Allen interpretations sharply different than those found in the Johnson. He charges that In the end... According to Smith. welcome addition. the results seem as if a committee had in forging the experience of an actual city or an actual land- written them. STEINBERG tory of the term state is thought provoking. social inequality that employ coercion. the quality of the printing (e. what these chapters gain in expertise they scape. and included. Berkeley: dense. For ex- ample. The Political Landscape. Smith specifically looks at the tangled sentences. fig. is not at all universal because the use of three-and-a-half chapters while the 2. use of physical form contributed to the creation and repro- Despite the editor’s best efforts. scapes and built environments and has therefore missed ter by Lisa DeLeonardis and George F. states are “illusionary. 9. if they are to use them in under. In several other chapters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2003. in Chapter 2. social contracts. archaeological features (e.. Hence. and Timothy Earle). was the case with the Keatinge volume. the Middle Eastern tell) that ciety.g. those put forward by Marshal Hiltunen and Gordon F. Smith de. Caucasia. Conversely. To demonstrate differences trations. and Janusek’s treatment of Tiahuanaco archaeology has been directed to find “temprocentric” reg- urbanism should not be missed. In Chapter 4. University of California Press. even. The and other tools of regional analysis (e. ple plays a critical role in creating and maintaining political Despite the book’s weaknesses. The intended audience of this book is unclear. A few sections and chapters are outstanding. Adam T. then Smith’s approach is a Moseley volume. with the five-century Middle Horizon being the focus according to Smith. is quite refreshing: Absent are the long. Smith’s discussion of his own work in Caucasia is excellent and relevant to his ideas In his new book. Smith posits that archaeological inves- may find these contributions to be deeply flawed. fig. Smith believes that much of past anthropological ularly interesting. are misleading because they welcome for those using the Moseley (or Richardson) text.. but it is probably not students of archaeology. Richard W. if one is dissatisfied with basic the- chapters on Chavin de Huantar by Sylvia Rodriguez Kembel ories of human social evolution that operate through and John W.” and “tautological. for the writing is in Early Complex Polities. offers a nice contrast to the textbook treatments. Lau on the Early Inter. the harsh criticisms of past research. instructors will need to program extra class time to ply reified a set of types and models (e.g. Smith asks where the elites were sited and how their lose in coherence and a distinctive voice or perspective.3) or the Mesopotamia. basic Keatinge. Ran Boynter’s general syn.” “teleological. dertheorized. But it is too soon to know whether. McEwan are more radical and offer Sahlins. the editor must be congratulated for an am. Two other Consequently. and evidence un. The one constant is that place is always impor- limitations in content are reinforced by the paucity of illus. Smith. The to place. chiefdoms. or the tem- almost useless. the city. the coverage remains un. 346 pp.. chapters that may lead some to adopt it for teaching. would be covered in any introductory archaeological text are defined in great detail. the book’s strengths arguments that employ textbook social evolution are “un- are ultimately judged to outweigh its weaknesses in a class.1 c and d) make them Smith argues that the landscape. Los Angeles tion on authority. Some scholars. The discussions of Huari and Tiahuanaco are partic. Elman Service. duction of constellations of political authority.g. that scribes how space and physical objects are used to create and he himself notes. tant and always idiosyncratic. Michael Mann.. methodology. and states). ed. analyze the assumptions. Single Reviews 745 it is a real success. In any tigations based on “mechanical evolutionism” have sim- case. the built environment’s active role in creating political mediate cultures of the South Coast and northern highlands authority. the results of settlement pattern studies. No specialist in Andean archaeology will want concept of the state that echoes Norman Yoffee’s ques- to miss this volume. Smith in those cases in which line drawings or photographs are employs three case studies: Central America. Marvin Harris. averaging less than two figures per chapter. ularities at the expense of the examination of specific land- thesis on Andean textiles is refreshingly lucid and the chap. The change in voice. Adam T.

Smith’s postmodern approach to the land. the extension of the specific role of the land. streets. rights). 632 pp. a discussion of the Classic and Post-Classic Maya. and historic litera- by the likes of Mary Douglas and Douglass North. but I am skeptical as to ars working in Salishan-speaking or other Northwest Coast how helpful it will turn out to be. and personal names. The book is written with a refreshing humility and BRIAN THOM respect for the limitations of this kind of inquiry as well McGill University as the complexities of practiced language and culture. tures. No. It is based on over 50 years of research in Coast with. with sections on phonology. a vides an important source of information for comparative cause of that structure. with scape to other areas and civilizations is not convincing. Canada. the rules of the game such as property pressed in Musqueam discourses. a study to address ques- Musqueam Reference Grammar is a monumental work by tions of theoretical linguistics. The examples that demonstrate the grammatical ing to Smith. fluently. ethnographic. and communicated. for generations to come. As a result. space and time. the reference grammar provides a traditionally refers to settled habits of thought common to consistently interesting sense of the cultural concerns ex- groups of people (i. one of the major Sal. Chapter 5. morphology. plainly stating what he is certain of and spelling out the ver: University of British Columbia Press.. either as commonly used in anthro. These and other exam- tools for research. arise from that provide comparative contexts and analyses of issues Thorstein Veblen’s work and have been productively used from relevant linguistic. lationship with the Musqueam people are brought to bear traordinary measures to create space and environments on his work. limits of his data and his grammatical analysis and assump- tions. providing significant depth of cultural con- that would both produce and legitimize their authority.e. forms being discussed show a consistent attention to pro- ined” city that contributes to the creation and reproduction viding not only clear examples but also culturally and se- of political authority. his idea of the idiosyn. This difference. ples are supplemented throughout with excellent footnotes Institutions. Wayne attention to providing a thorough discussion of a language Suttles. Reference Grammar is a rich analysis of the structure and thority flows easily and convincingly from his Caucasia functioning of a language with numerous distinctive fea- data. els of the grammar. This approach is certainly well the. Suttles has instead turned his the celebrated scholar of Northwest Coast cultures. to that environment. 4 • December 2005 and the philosophical jargon that fill the rest of the book. accord. reflects an elite strategy to create an “imag. Smith redefines the term institutions. only a few hundred fluent speakers. and syntax. Importantly. the built environment is not ples taken from the Musqueam dialect of Halkomelem pro- a reflection of the socioeconomic structure but. Suttles has is a strained attempt to refute the usefulness of regional demonstrated methodological rigor by having generated analysis. The book local and the scholarly communities are well served by this provides a detailed description of the grammar of the decision. ways metaphors of embodiment and dwelling are eluded sponding to economic or market forces—are unreliable to in directional and spatial terms.g. Wayne Suttles. Suttles’s Musqueam Reference Grammar pology (e. but the terplay of language and culture become an important and measure does not seem to relate in any obvious way to the dynamic factor in how local cultural lives are experienced nature of institutions. For Smith. Both the Salish communities in British Columbia. on Mesopotamia. Suttles’s Musqueam cratic role of the landscape in the creation of political au. Vancou. and structure by elicited responses from elders who speak ways.746 American Anthropologist • Vol. Taken as a whole. and neighborhoods. The structure of the book follows a typical grammar However. the addition of useful chapters on kinship. the fundamental links between lan- In the end. clarifying mechanics of grammatical form and the archaeological reality of highly fragmented walk. Suttles writes with an authoritative cautiousness. As a work of descriptive linguistics. including a detailing of how kin terms scape implies that basic tools of regional analysis—which reflect and reinforce social structures. These exam- In Chapter 6. from different lev- form. at best. remain the central descriptive work on a Salishan language ishan languages spoken on the Pacific Northwest Coast. Smith’s new definition attempts to tie institutions A descriptive grammar such as this is useful not only to the built environment. spon- ences between a textual impression of coherent city space taneous texts. text in describing this Salishan language and its use in local He makes it clear that the elites’ use of space was specific discursive contexts. Chapter 3. communities.. and a chapter on the rely on organic development of population clusters re. Musqueam Reference Grammar. as a socioeconomic focus of study. Suttles’s lifelong anthropological experience and close re- Smith effectively describes how elites in Caucasia took ex. as the Musqueam Reference Grammar will very likely Musqueam dialect of Halkomelem. This work is not. His analysis of Urartian temples as a linguistic reference work. rather. nor does it claim to be. guage and culture. . linguistic research and an invaluable reference for schol- orized and not at all teleological. 2004. centers on the differ. James Acheson’s work) or in Smith’s redefined gives numerous examples that illustrate. but in developing anthro- and fortresses using his measure of real relative asymmetry pological perspectives that seriously consider how the in- is creative (although I am not sure how robust it is). place names. the grammar largely from forms observed in recorded. The term ture. 107. mantically rich selections of language usage.

Consuming Motherhood may provoke caution among The issue of ethics in anthropological study has evolved scholars long concerned with mother as producer. the loss of full personhood by way of physical disability. Taylor addresses this perception. Showcasing North American mothers as consumers of and participants these mothers’ participation in the disability rights move- in services related to motherhood. Miller’s chapter serves as the refer. dren with disabilities. her instructive closing commentary. Albany: State adoptive mothers combine handcrafted and purchased ob. Landsman frames their consumption practices as care. coping strategies in an effort to have children “fit in” to The anthology begins with two framing chapters. respectively).S. In her Intro. “cult of the infant. 2004. 2004. Rothman em. Janelle S. Turner. Trudy R. Taylor. She points to the disconnect between the right the uncomfortable connotations inherent to this approach to own a child and the responsibilities of raising a child merely reflect the ways in which today’s capitalism forces in patriarchal societies. However. or the very consumer culture to which they are opposed. Single Reviews 747 Consuming Motherhood. persons to relate. Gail Landsman successfully weaves it into her chapter on mothers of chil- Contributors to this provocative anthology view mother. obstetrics. and materialism ways. eds. foster ment. East Brunswick. so- For example. and each of the subfields of anthropology now tures. Wozniak. City University of New York ills of Ireland has not yet come to mind. R O B E RT O D E L G A D O nection between sites of production and consumption in Hunter College.” U. now with the discipline. Linda L. or fancy. particularly as damaged of the approach ethnographically. the mother who eats her own children” (p. kinship. Ann Anagnost expands on her work on cial movements. to mat- pecially in light of slavery and historical guilt. the treatment of archaeological artifacts and sites. In contrast. in which she argues that disabled chil- hood through the lens of consumption and show the utility dren are classified as commodities. adoptive parents’ role in the creation of a “sentimental economy” in response to late-20th-century consumer capi. they would. from issues regarding may puncture our sacrilized notions of human relations. ed. NJ: Rutgers likened to the ingestion of food? The very suggestion seems University Press. the explicit commodification of persons recognizes its own unique concerns. reaching into many aspects of academia and scientific in- modification in relation to persons that varies across cul. Of particular interest is a focus on European and their children for “healthier” ones. jects to create “memory books”—a sincere task that Anag- nost may see as falling short of creating a meaningful con.” Miller suggests that mothers’ practices In light of the exhaustive span of inquiry this battlefront in- in shopping for infants may replace religion as a form of spires. as well as for feminists concerned with reproduction. ethical concerns have begun economism in kinship relations. consumption. Barbara Katz Rothman phasizes motherhood and questions the moral implications comments that it is “terrifying to see all this put together of the language of property in the context of mother–child this way” (p. Miller emphasizes con. 11). 270). More recently. 327 pp. it is the perception of com. Biological Anthropology and Ethics: From Repatriation talism. The compulsion of the remaining contrib- sumption. The subfield of Following a discussion of Marx’s definition of a commod. and midwifery. relations. ence point of the volume to which the remaining authors This text provides engaging reading for students of medi- respond—often in antagonistic yet theoretically compelling cal anthropology. and the professionalization of “women’s the adoption of female infants from China by exploring work. Layne. editor Janelle S. University of New York Press. City University of New York transnational adoption exchange. He experiments with psychoanalytic theory to utors to do battle with Miller’s seemingly superficial treat- propose that middle-class mothers have generated a new ment of mothers as shoppers does produce exciting results. es. In line with respect for those peoples and cultures that were the sub- Igor Kopytoff’s closing commentary on the ubiquity of jects of research. Taylor asks: “How can the bearing of children be and Danielle F. such as adoption.” by Barbara Katz Rothman and Daniel Miller Is consumption a useful approach to motherhood? In (reprinted from 1989 and 1997. In an attempt to archive children’s identities. Traditionally. not the least of which is the sup- identities at the crossroads of younger feminist ideals and posed inability of scholars to critically examine reproduc- aging desires to mother. vestigation. as both her chapters show. ters of obligations between field researchers and both the duction. biological anthropology is perhaps among those subject to ity and the nature of wants that may spring from stomach the most scrutiny by society and governing bodies because . human and nonhuman primates they study. 323 pp. “Con-Texts. LY N N H O R R I D G E If Jonathan Swift’s modest proposal to cure the social The Graduate Center. tion and consumption as mutual reinforcing phenomena. many to Genetic Identity. the concerns focused on asked to reconsider mother as consumer. to invoke that most frightening of all monsters. In the West. one walks away satisfied that the authors have done individual transcendence for women struggling to manage justice to the issues at hand. In discussing Peter Singer’s notorious claim about and reproduction have now moved beyond the usual an. Scholars of motherhood goods. thropological treatment of kinship as social relations based Landsman reveals these mothers’ constant struggle with an on persons to explore kinship as social relations based on assumed societal perception that if they could exchange things.

presenting specific case studies are excellent for exploring ume that addresses a selection of ethical issues encountered a particular issue in more detail including. ality. In LOUISA SCHEIN the field. Ara Wilson has deftly the least of which deals with prioritizing self-preservation reinvigorated the best of the tradition of anthropological at the cost of sacrificing funds and equipment bequeathed holism. go-go bars. No. 189) and also “moves Habituation of free-ranging primate groups has lasting con. The applied work of forensic specialists contributes human populations. count of socioeconomic actors that she presents as engaging The general theme coursing through the other sections the shifts in the Thai economy. primatologists both in captive settings and in the field. from an image of an external penetrating force to a view of sequences that affect patterns of behavioral ecology. the transformations unfolding within Thai society” (p. Ara Wilson. by professionals and students trained in biological anthro. siting her nerability of study populations to disease and hunting.” impact that researchers might have on their study sub. The first section of the volume offers contributions table exchange of resources between the research commu- on field and laboratory research on nonhuman primates nity and larger society. and “moral” economies of longer standing in Thailand. These groups include the scientific community tions in establishing and emphasizing close evolutionary and parties who claim either an ancestral–descendant rela- relationships between prosimians. sexu- Endangered nonhuman primate species already face multi. and the skeletal remains of living and fossil humans. or telecommunications companies—but from the vivid ac- serve valuable populations for future study. 272 pp. the complexity of articu- ments to local community members who were promised lations that constitute the Thai economy. in most cases. transporting biological samples to dealing with misconcep. including ological anthropology face unique ethical challenges and questions of accessibility and repatriation. She Only through long-term commitments that include pro. but in many ways the moting protected areas and establishing the infrastructure best of her data come not from the choice of multiple insti- and training necessary to withstand episodes of civil or po. in terms of describing the major ethical questions in each of search on nonhuman primates in the wild. The contributions Trudy’s Biological Anthropology and Ethics is the first vol. hunting. grates and remakes social worlds” (p. Berkeley: tions by local communities in host countries and needing University of California Press. 194). Intimate Economies takes as its chief goal to demon- by generous sponsoring agencies. In addition. and reneging on commit. health and well-being of research subjects. Not only does positions as camp staff. litical unrest can researchers be assured of helping to pre. is of human behavior. genet. rendering a decision on the investigations. These challenges may range from acquiring access to and The Intimate Economies of Bangkok: Tomboys. Wilson is innovative in her research design. biological anthropologists still another level of complexity to the discussion of ethical face a bewildering array of ethical dilemmas such as how to issues in biological anthropology because of their ties to the interact with and collect data from human adult and child legal establishment and frequent involvement in criminal subjects from other cultures. 4 • December 2005 of its multifaceted approach of studying the biological basis ics. a strong recommendation for addressing conflicting inter- pology. and live capture for biomed.” “kin. Her clearly argued dialectical model both include habitat loss. practitioners in each subfield of bi- disposition of recent and fossil skeletal remains. and Avon Ladies in the Global City. the summary chapters are the most insightful tings and the conservation implications of conducting re. and promotes institutionalized cooperation with an equi- ology.748 American Anthropologist • Vol. apes. and the trade in exotic pets. in which other domains of life—especially gender. and family—both impact and are impacted by eco- ple threats exacerbated by human population growth that nomic change. ters. and issues related must strive to behave responsibly in their activities. Clearly. the ways studies necessitate the habituation of endangered species. we meet multiple types of agents who are fashioning . 2004. In five substantive chap- of this text. and evolution. entertainment. and the vul. monkeys. ing groups. Not In this variegated ethnography. with specific case studies and commentaries under ests. primatology. calls this a “multi-sited” method. this edited volume galvanizes discussion in each of the five major subfields of the discipline: genetics. and skeletal bi. the subfields of biological anthropology. and this matter is particularly precarious when field but she also reveals. For example. tutional locations—whether department stores. paleontology. investigation across several social domains in Bangkok. tionship or a cultural affiliation with the remains in ques- mans. strate. jects. Overall. she provide a sustained treatment of the interaction be- Another important ethical consideration deals with the tween globalization and what she calls the “folk. 107. guides. Tycoons. insists that “the increasingly global market economy inte- ical research. and hu. This book will serve to spur further and collectively emphasizes the many challenges faced by deliberation. through intimate research. and research assistants. and describing genetic differences among modern tion. diversity. to the humane treatment of study subjects in captive set. dealing principally with human biology. Overall. to learn acceptable rules of conduct that should not harm study subjects and promote future research in the region. through case examples. that of opposing but legitimate claims presented by compet- there are potential biomedical and sociopolitical implica. this important matter of ethics in biological anthropology human biology. the quick and unpredictable turnaround of events Rutgers University in politically unstable nations also poses problems that raise another series of ethical issues with which to contend.

which poses a con. that is Rights attempts to recuperate. documents written by particular lanes—in which gay men and “kathoey” spend Bentian Dayak leaders protesting the arrival of Georgia Pa- their leisure time. We see Seas in Southeast Asia. as rational and logical. NC: her participating. or roe collection off the Mandar coast. the homosocial relations of tom and dee ap. treatment of the toms’ use of shopping malls.” a creator of such as neoliberalism and governmentality). is closely imbricated with consumption practices associated Poetic descriptions of place. and a pleasure to read. and practice. tral spirits. saunas. despite being a place where women pre. the Bangkok floating market. is an artifact of modernity. is. and the people about whom she or he writes. Culture and the Question of Rights: Forests. male clothing. sex workers. mulated at the intersection of the poetics and politics of na- omy. but displays it mostly in endnotes of the natural world around them imply the permeability of stunning bibliographical thoroughness to insure readability human and nonhuman worlds in contradistinction to the of the text. hanging out in malls. and immanent in the most intimate aspects of subjectivity counts her own engagements with these subjects. Yet her project an influential cable TV company and his cosmopolitanizing is never reducible to the global. Durham. ed. Each of the chapters in Culture and the Question of version of romance. distribution. As Anna Tsing writes. Without navel gazing. spirit-inhabited promontories of the Makassar dominate. and revamped entrepreneurial subjects of direct that what is important about the economic is that it is plural sales marketing. and histories (the Bagak past told through durian plant- she explains. 127). and their other words. and and going to training sessions for Avon and Amway. Because “consumers realize var. have been enriched with deployment of enabling notions cially the somewhat masculine-gendered “tom. Enlightenment separation of nature and culture.and marinescapes. pioneer. Single Reviews 749 themselves and their social worlds through their economic consumption—is also in full command of interdisciplinary practice: a business tycoon who founded the first depart. Toms not only work in malls. ment of flexible citizenship and entrepreneurship might memorative funeral texts). observing. “Meratus intimacies. Salako. ethnograph- family as target consumers. Marina Roseman. Mandar “heirloom” templates for contact with ances- mance of masculine attributes—short hair. 33). species. 289 pp. the arrival of British colonial cartographers. and their perfor. cultural studies. Temiar. ings. Wilson skillfully re. and cigarette smoking. The tom. tertwined with stories of property rights and ethnic and but they also use that space for socializing. cific and other logging corporations. ing a multifaceted research approach that included working at the telecommunications company. terlocutors throughout a narrative that is always attentive first to them and their socioeconomic milieux. as Wilson shows. In chapters by Tsing. She opens with a treatment of the noted tourist ture in the Malay world. and the Kalimantan swiddens of Bentian. prevailing discourses about the Thai economy Strait. and conversing with her in. ically informative on contemporary resource struggles in ious identities through commercial venues. 2003. which might have also been fascinating. combining the of their forests than any of the ‘experts’ I met in the region” insights of anthropology. and Bagak ways of comprehending contemporary theory. and the forced removal however. refreshing in its leanness (195 pages). and make this type of folk domain invisible. Meratus. rainforest. that it reveals itself to be a of Hakka Chinese from their cultivated rice fields in lowland site for the purveying of “commercial heterosexuality”— Kalimantan during Indonesia’s anti-Communist purges in dominant images in promotional culture that enshrine the the 1960s. instead gender. as she insists throughout employees. What is fascinating about the mall space. the interface between economy and gender–sexuality in her and marauding elephants that bestow dream song genres). (p. She opts for CELIA LOWE an athletic text. having a feminine “dee” on their arm— the contemporary Malay state into the Temiar homelands). University of Washington going additional thick descriptions. mall shoppers. In peoples’ ways of knowing land. Wilson goes further in exploring ship. The chapters provide phenomeno- attraction. espe. Coasts. species (fruit trees that tell the story of kin- ing the economy male. that makes Intimate Economies so rich. fies herself with the tradition of economic anthropology in Although each author attempts to reclaim reason for her integrative attention to production.” Wilson finds Southeast Asia. fore. bees that cross the River of Changes to provide honey. One never questions that Wilson—who identi. expressive forms for communicating about the social and propriate valorized images of romance to craft their own natural world around them. and Nancy ies. Charles Zerner. these chapters also . Meratus Dayaks). and area stud. Culture and the Question of Rights is a delightful volume for- One of Wilson’s key themes is the gendering of econ. Wilson employs Peluso. because they resource politics: court settlements governing flying fish do not have the kind of dedicated spaces—bars. Dayaks know a great deal more about the technical features It is this type of sophisticated argument. theories on the global economy (although her capable treat- ment store in Thailand (creatively researched through com. not the same-sex character. The book’s artful synthesis of poetics with poli- young romantic male–female couple or the reproductive tics makes its intervention theoretically astute. that these images of heterosexuality are no deterrent to Any emphasis on poetics is essentially an emphasis on tom self-fashioning through mall consumption: “It is the form. logical evocations of the following: place (the Malaysian tradiction because. and histories are in- with new forms of leisure. Malay ‘imported’ in the tom and dee phenomenon” (p. Duke University Press.

marginalized peoples claim legitimacy? He asks us to con- At the same time. Peluso. sea is “public. under conditions of social dislocation. contemplating the common fate of people and nature in strumental reason. From a different angle. bureaucratic and scientific forms of sider both renewing appreciation for local specificity and instrumental reason are also revealed as contingent and re. No. Zerner. Roseman. 107. new marine property arrangements. writes that. exposure to multiple lines of vision grant clarity or confu- tim of advertising” (p. the modern world. how best can Southeast Asia’s reaucracy recognizable to national authorities. Similarly. Culture and the Question of Rights will Although each chapter presents alternative logics of na. and history. be theoretically engaging to critical scholars of nature and ture and community. Fried cites a Dayak starting points.” Tsing writes graduates exploring Southeast Asian environments for the Meratus Dayaks are not “animal lovers”—like all other first time. tie the volume together. Atkinson asks “will farmer who argues the Indonesian state has “become a vic. challenging the terms of modernist frameworks as valuable liant on their own poiesis. 4 • December 2005 describe negotiated translations across instrumental reason people. and indigenous notions vie for wise. and hunting preserves. Brenneis tian Dayak leaders “write for their lives” to narrate Dayak asks. one by Jane Atkinson. like- and practical knowledge. Temiar people guide loggers into their dream-song forests law. . The eight chapters in this volume open up a space for and resource monopolies underwritten by narratives of in. For example. Stephanie Fried describes how Ben. and other authors here of the power of new narratives to contest Fried all observe that national elites are the beneficiaries the boundaries of reason. of land redistribution. and governmentality. one by Donald Brenneis and marine tenure.750 American Anthropologist • Vol. given different epistemological worldviews on nature. authority with more familiar bureaucratic forms of science. “Eco-philosophy” is always histori- scribes the decision of the Majene District Court that the cally contingent in these chapters. Charles Zerner de. and bu. culture. For example. swidden agriculture in the forms of nation. science. they know nature through culture.” thereby invalidating Mandar conventions of Two concluding chapters. property. the authors wisely avoid any claims culture hybridity. Likewise. and it will capture the attention of under- on behalf of “primitive conservationists. 246)? She seems less convinced than as the enemy of development. 167) in viewing swidden agriculture sion to the picture” (p.