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liderazgo y desarrollo

Editores Asociados: Michael R. Bleich, PhD, RN, FAAN

Jan Jones-Schenk, DHSC, RN, NE-BC
autores: Stacy H. Werner, EdD, RN; y Michael R. Bleich, PhD, RN, FAAN

Critical Thinking as a Leadership Attribute

cisiones se pueden hacer con el conocimiento de para procesar la experiencia donde un pensamiento
abstract consecuencias aguas abajo y aguas arriba. trabajó a otra experiencia, donde también puede
Leaders are tasked with making decisions trabajar o no trabajar. Se se sabe que la ciencia del
that have substantial Paul y Elder (2008) afirmaron que el cerebro ahora informa sobre cómo los pro- cesos
impact on an organization’s well-being. pensamiento crítico es “el arte de la ana- lyzing y cerebrales, conserva, citaciones, y utiliza la
Decision making requires critical thinking and el pensamiento evaluación con el fin de mejorarla” información en la vida (Howard, 2012).
requisite action taking. The nature of critical (Pág. 2). El profesional tor desarrollo edu-, con
thinking and how professional development esta definición en mente, se encarga de ayudar a Cuando la formación de líderes, se ini- cialmente
educators can strengthen this attribute are los líderes elimi- nar el sesgo, la distorsión, la importante pasar tiempo en la validación del concepto:
presented. parcialidad, y más para cultivar la eficacia líder en ¿cuál es el pensamiento crítico? En la película Hombres
la toma de decisiones de sonido. estrategias ING de Negro
J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(1):9-11. aprender- que ayudan a las personas aplican el (Spielberg, Parkes, MacDonald, &
pensamiento crítico dentro de sus roles de trabajo Sonnenfeld, 1997) is a scene in which a
group of job applicants taking an aptitude
añaden valor para el bienestar de la organización.
ll organizaciones
Los líderes dependen
hacen las decisiones de sonido test, not knowing what they are being tested
para cumplir su cometido. Criti- cal pensamiento, el for (Nagendran,
precursor analítica para la toma de decisiones y la 2012). They do this awkwardly on their laps,
acción de ING tak-, enriquece las mejores prácticas juggling paper, clipboards, and writing
organiza- resultados zational. En el cuidado de la LÍDERES ayudar a definir instruments. Only the character portrayed by
salud, estas decisiones van desde la gestión de CRITICIDAD Will Smith questioned the test and adapted
recursos, la prestación de servicios, desarrollo de En la vida, todo el mundo tiene la capacidad de to the setting by rearranging his seat to use
programas, y más. Además, surgen problemas pensar y resolver problemas. Desde el inicio a table. This simple example re- quired
ético-morales, constitut- ing un tipo diferente de temprano de la vida, el juicio y ROR ER- surge como critical thinking—a low-risk adaptation to the
decisión MAK- ción de los mencionados. La toma una forma de aprendizaje. Cuando se alcanza el environment to ease and focus on the task at
de decisiones puede ocurrir sin el pensamiento éxito, las personas comienzan a probar cómo aplicar hand.
crítico cuidado. La relación entre el pensamiento un resultado satisfac- Sat a otras situaciones. En este
crítico y la toma de deci- sión debe estar proceso, se dis- intuitivamente cubierto que algunas Later in the film clip, the char- acters
estrechamente vinculado. Los autores postulan que, estrategias de trabajo en un escenario, pero no engage in a scenario where the stakes are
con una mejora de pensamiento crítico, mejor de- necessar- ily en todas las situaciones. Este es el considerably higher. At this juncture rests a
inicio en la infancia temprana del pensamiento crítico, decision about who to—or to not—shoot.
The scene includes a little girl in the midst of
multiple monsters. The girl is shot. On
analysis, this is because she did not fit the
Dr. Werner is Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, Kearney Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, context, therefore, was suspect by the
Kearney, Nebraska; and Dr.Bleich is President and Chief Executive Officer, NursDynamics, Chesterfield, Missouri. shooter. Critical decisions like this scene
unfold in real life, not just in movies. Imagine
The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. Address correspondence to the critical thinking made in war or acts of
Michael R. Bleich, PhD, RN, FAAN, President and Chief Executive Officer, NursDynamics, 2702 Wynncrest Manor violence when police offi- cers are involved.
Drive, Chesterfield, MO 63005; e-mail: mbleich350@gmail.com. In organizations,


The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · Vol 48, No 1, 2017 9

leaders can be asked to dissect the context Intellectual Humility made. It is closely linked to intel- lectual
and decision making linked to their own low- No one has unlimited talents, skills, and integrity, which allows lead- ers to use the
and high-risk sce- narios. These scenarios, abilities, nor the capac- ity to capture the wisdom and lessons learned from each life
like those in the movie, are fraught with unlimited knowl- edge in our midst. Leaders and leadership experience to recognize that
assump- tions, context, and time pressures who are intellectually humble are those who truth evolves. Those who believed the world
as influencers to the criticality of thinking. wisely use the knowledge they pos- sess but was flat held to intellectual autonomy, but
are equally aware of knowl- edge they need would never have set sail for the New World
or do not have within their grasp. They were it not for the integrity to use the science
Paul and Elder (2008) would ex- amine humbly seek this knowledge. of the day to comprehend the world as a
this file clip and identify that leaders must be globe, linked to the function of gravity.
self-aware to the point where they can Critical thinking guided the risk to sail.
examine the situation or problem for clarity,
ac- curacy, precision, relevance, depth, Intellectual Courage
breadth, logic, and fairness. Using these Leaders with this type of courage are
filters, professional develop- ment educators willing to speak out against group norms
can train leaders to respond to any variety of when it is called for. Best de- cisions, based Intellectual Perseverance
organi- zational or clinical situations pre- on critical analysis and best thinking, may In the midst of adversity, those who
sented. In a learning session, a par- ticipant require go- ing against the grain of group exercise critical thinking con- tinue to use it.
could be asked to present to the group a think, specifically in high-stakes decision In times of a severe staffing shortage, it is
high stakes real-life scenario. As a group, making. Poise and tact complement hard to hold out for the right kind of hire
questions can be asked: intellectual courage. rather than hiring someone for the sake of
filling a staffing void.

Intellectual Empathy
l How clear is the problem? Leaders who are able to think beyond Confidence in Reason
l Is the situation accurately pre- their own life experience, surrendering to the Some things are reasonable, logi- cal, and
sented, and to what extent are the data perspective of others affected by the follow a sequence. The lead- er, who is a
surrounding it accurate? decision, un- doubtedly enrich the quality of critical thinker, relates to those things that
l Is there an inherent logic linked the decision. A simple exercise can pro- make sense and trusts that instinct.
to the problem, or is it unclear? duce this empathy. Ask the deci- sion maker
l What is the level of precision to identify an individual who will be affected
needed to solve the problem to begin to by the decision. Once named, have the Fairmindedness
frame potential solu- tions? leader role- play—in first person—the Critical thinking and decision making that
decision receiver. Also in first person, have evolves from what is equitable advances the
l What is the depth and breadth of the leader respond to questions about the reputation of being an authentic leader to
the problem—do the implications run deep effects of the decision. The learning focus is self, others, the problem, and the context.
for a single situation, or do the to have the leader speak in first person, Equitability differs from equality, in that an
implications have wide- spread despite seem- ing awkward. The result is equitable decision ensures that the needs of
consequences? that the decision maker must use a different all are considered. The idea of equality is
These questions help professional part of the brain to experience and have that all are treated exactly the same,
development educators provide pro- cess to empathy related to the decision impact. regardless of need. Decisions that
enriching critical thinking. emphasize equality are usually not fair
Decision making backed by sound critical
thinking requires CAN LEADERS BE TAUGHT
moral character, in addition to cog- nitive Intellectual Autonomy and CRITICAL THINKING?
reasoning and skills in manag- ing. The Integrity In conclusion, the authors believe that all
authors believe that the best decisions are Autonomy implies that self- awareness of leaders have unique life and professional
made through the lens of criticality when they one’s beliefs, values, and inferences has experiences that shape how they solve
are coupled with the following traits. merit and will re- flect in the quality of the problems and take actions. Computer-aided
decisions decision

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making is adding new dimensions to expose breath, logic, and fairness. Concept maps, REFERENCES
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Learning ac- tivities can be designed and on requires problem aware- ness, critical
(Productores) y Sonnenfeld, B. (Director). (1997). Los
studied individually and in groups for the thinking, decision mak- ing, and action.
hombres en [negro Imagen en movimiento]. Estados Unidos:
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precision, relevance, depth,

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