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Research on Simulation and Experiment of Fast

Response Frequency Control Valve in Hydraulic Free


Piston Engine

Mingzhi Song,Yang Wang,Qian Xiong,Xudong Zhen,Shuaiqing Xu, Tao Xu,Yongsheng Zhu,Chengjun Tao
State Key Laboratory of Engines
Tianjin University
Tianjin, China
Smz86@163.com

Abstract—A design of large flow fast response solenoid valve used ༫ˈࡼ䪕㢃˄㸨䪕˅ǃ䴭䪕㢃ǃ㒓೜੠໡ԡᔍㇻDŽᇐ⺕ᴤ
in Hydraulic free piston engine was proposed based on collision ᭭Ў催㒃ᑺ⬉䪕 DT6DŽ⬅Ѣ݊㒧ᵘⱘᇍ⿄ᗻˈ䞛⫼݊ 1/4
mechanism in this paper. A numerical simulation model of large
῵ൟ䅵ㅫˈབ Figure 2 ᠔⼎DŽ
flow fast response solenoid valve has been generated based on
Amesim and 3D Electromagnetic Finite Element Analysis.
Through the simulation and experiments, the principle of this
electromagnetic valve was verified, and the parameters of free lift,
turns of coil, pressure of high source have great effect on the
performance of the solenoid valve.

Keywords- Hydraulic free piston engine, large flow fast response


solenoid valve, collision, electro-magnetic force, transient flow.

I. ҟ㒡
⎆य़㞾⬅⌏าথࡼᴎ˄HFPE˅ˈ੠Ӵ㒳ⱘ‫➗ݙ‬ᴎⳌ
↨ˈ‫݋‬᳝᮴᳆ᶘ䖲ᴚᴎᵘˈࡼ࡯Ӵ䕧♉⌏ˈय़㓽↨ৃবˈ
ࠍ䔺㛑䞣ಲᬊㄝӬ⚍ˈ㹿䅸Ўᰃ 21 Ϫ㑾᳝ᏠᳯⱘĀࡼ࡯
П᯳ā [1][2] DŽ⬅Ѣ༅এ᳆ᶘ䖲ᴚᴎᵘⱘ㑺ᴳˈ⌏าⱘ㸠⿟
Figure 1 ໻⌕䞣ᖿ䗳ડᑨ⬉⺕䯔ॳ⧚೒
᥻ࠊϔⳈᰃ HFPE থࡼᴎⱘᡔᴃ䲒⚍ˈ䖭೼ᕜ໻⿟ᑺϞপ
‫އ‬Ѣ⬉⺕䯔ⱘડᑨ䗳ᑺ੠⌕䗮㛑࡯ˈ಴ℸᓔথ⒵䎇 HFPE ೼㸨䪕ⱘ䖤ࡼ䖛⿟Ёˈᮑࡴᔍㇻ
㽕∖ⱘ໻⌕䞣ᖿ䗳ડᑨ⬉⺕䯔ᰃ䖯㸠 HFPE ᓔথⱘࠡᦤᴵ ࡯ ǃ⎆य़࡯ㄝ䰏࡯ⱘԡ⿏ߑ᭄ҹঞ
ӊПϔDŽ 䋼䞣ব࣪ⱘԡ㕂ߑ᭄ˈᗑ⬹㉬ᗻ䰏ሐ
੠ᨽ᪺࡯ˈ݊Ёⱘ⎆य़࡯ᰃϟ᭛᠔䗄
ᴀ᭛䩜ᇍᇍ㕂ᓣঠ⌏า HFPE ḋᴎⱘ㽕∖[3][4]ˈ䆒䅵ᓔ ⱘϔ㓈⎆य़࡯ӓⳳ῵ൟ㗺ড়䕧ܹⱘDŽ
থњ෎Ѣᩲߏॳ⧚ⱘᖿ䗳ડᑨ໻⌕䞣⬉⺕䯔ˈҟ㒡њ⬉⺕ ⬉⺕䅵ㅫ䞛⫼༛ᇍ⿄䖍⬠ᴵӊˈ䗝⫼
䯔ⱘӓⳳⷨお੠ᅲ偠ⷨおᎹ԰DŽ ⶀᗕ㾷ㅫ఼ᕫߎ⬉⺕䯔ⱘ⺕എⱘߚᏗ
ব࣪ঞ㸨䪕ⱘ⬉⺕࡯੠ԡ⿏ㄝ䖤ࡼⱘ
II. ⬉⺕䯔᭄ؐ῵ൟⱘᓎゟঞ݊ӓⳳⷨお ᯊඳব࣪᳆㒓ˈ݊Ё⬉⺕࡯ⱘᯊඳߑ
᭄԰Ўϟ䗄⎆࡯ӓⳳ῵ൟⱘ䕧ܹDŽϞ Figure 2 䅵ㅫ῵ൟ
A. ⬉⺕䯔Ꮉ԰ॳ⧚ 䗄㗺ড়䖛⿟㒣䖛໮⃵ড໡ˈ᮶㛑ᕫࠄ
⬉⺕ᛳᑨߚᏗѥ೒

Figure 1 Ў⬉⺕䯔ॳ⧚೒DŽ߽⫼⬉⺕䪕⬉⺕਌࡯᥻ࠊ㸨 ᬊᬯⱘ㒧ᵰDŽ


䪕Ϟⱘ乊䩜䖤ࡼ˗߽⫼ᩲߏॳ⧚ᴹ‫ܟ‬᳡⬉⺕࡯ⱘϡ䎇DŽ⬉
⺕䯔䗮⬉‫ܜ‬䗮䖛乊䩜ⱘᩲߏ԰⫼ᠧᓔᇣ䯔⠛ˈ⎆य़⊍㒣ᇣ C. ϔ㓈⎆࡯ӓⳳ῵ൟⱘᓎゟ
ᄨ⌕ܹ⎆य़㜨ˈ䰡Ԣ䯔⠛ϸッⱘय़Ꮒˈᔧय़Ꮒ䰡ࠄϔϾ䕗 ᑨ⫼ AmesimˈᓎゟњĀ催य़⑤—⬉⺕䯔—⎆य़㔌ā
ᇣؐᯊˈ乊䩜‫᥼ݡ‬ᓔ໻䯔⠛ˈᅲ⦄໻⌕䞣կ㒭DŽ ໻⌕䞣ᖿ䗳ડᑨ⬉⺕䯔ⱘ⎆࡯ӓⳳ῵ൟˈབ೒ Figure 3 ᠔
⼎DŽ䅵ㅫߚЎ⊍䏃䅵ㅫ੠乊䩜ԡ⿏䅵ㅫDŽ⊍䏃䅵ㅫᇚ㋏㒳
B. ϝ㓈⬉⺕᳝䰤‫ܗ‬ӓⳳ῵ൟⱘᓎゟ ԰Ўϔ㓈䴲ᅮᐌ⌕ࡼ໘⧚ˈϨ㗗㰥⎆य़⊍ⱘ⠽⧚খ᭄ⱘব
⬉⺕䪕䞛⫼਌ܹᓣ㶎㒓ㅵ㒧ᵘˈࣙᣀᇐ⺕༫ˈ䱨⺕ ࣪ˈय़࡯ᤳ༅䞛⫼ Colebrook-White ῵ൟ[5]DŽ⬅Ѣ㸨䪕䖤ࡼ

978-1-4244-8039-5/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE


䖛⿟᳝⺄ᩲথ⫳ˈ߽⫼῵ൟᑧЁⱘ elasticendstop ῵ഫᅲ ԚᰃӮᇐ㟈ᓔਃᓊ䖳ᯊ䯈˄Ң䗮⬉ࠄ䯔⠛ᓔྟϞछⱘᯊ
⦄DŽ䗮䖛῵ൟⱘ䅵ㅫৃҹᕫࠄ໻⌕䞣ᖿ䗳ડᑨ⬉⺕䯔ⱘᇣ 䯈˅๲໻DŽϝ⾡㞾⬅छ⿟ϟᇣ䯔⠛ⱘᓔਃᓊ䖳ᯊ䯈ߚ߿Ў
䯔⠛ⱘԡ⿏ǃ໻䯔⠛ⱘԡ⿏ˈ⎆य़⊍⌕䗳ǃ⎆य़⊍կ⊍ 0.625msǃ0.955msǃ1.023ms˗བᵰ㞾⬅छ⿟䖛ᇣˈᩲߏ㛑
䞣ǃ⎆य़࡯ঞ໻⌕䞣ᖿ䗳ડᑨ⬉⺕䯔ᠧᓔ੠݇䯁ડᑨᯊ 䞣䖛ᇣˈӮߎ⦄ᇣ䯔⠛ᓔਃৢজ݇䯁ⱘ⦄䈵ˈབ Figure 4
䯈DŽ ᠔⼎DŽ಴ℸ䳔㽕ḍ᥂䳔㽕䗝ᢽϔϾড়䗖ⱘ㞾⬅छ⿟DŽ೼ϟ
䴶ⱘⷨおЁˈ㞾⬅छ⿟䗝Ў 0.38mmDŽ
(2) 㒓೜᭄ࣱᇍ⬉⺕䯔ડᑨ⡍ᗻⱘᕅડ
Ңࡼᗕ⡍ᗻ䆆᭄ࣱ๲ࡴӮᇐ㟈㒓೜⬉ᛳঞ⬉䰏ⱘ๲
໻ˈ‫ޣ‬㓧⬉⌕ⱘϞछ䗳ᑺˈҢ㗠ᕅડ⬉⺕࡯Ϟछ䗳ᑺDŽ㗠
‫ޣ‬ᇥ᭄ࣱˈ߭ᇐ㟈⬉⌕੠⬉ࡳ㗫๲໻ˈ಴ℸ䳔㽕䞛⫼ᡬЁ
ⱘ㒓೜᭄ࣱDŽ

Figure 3 ⬉⺕䯔ᅲ䰙Ꮉ԰䖛⿟ӓⳳ῵ൟ

D. ⬉⺕䯔῵ൟⱘӓⳳⷨお
(1) 㞾⬅छ⿟ᇍ⬉⺕䯔ડᑨ⡍ᗻⱘᕅડ

Figure 7 ϡৠ᭄ࣱᇍ⬉⺕࡯ડᑨ᳆㒓

Figure 4 0.1mm 㞾⬅छ⿟ϟ⬉⺕䯔ડᑨ⡍ᗻ

Figure 8 ϡৠ᭄ࣱᇍ⬉⌕ડᑨ᳆㒓

Figure 7 ੠ Figure 8 ᰃϝ⾡ϡৠ㒓೜᭄ࣱ(㒓ᕘ 1mm)೼


偅ࡼ⬉य़Ў 24V ੠ᮍ⊶㛝ᆑЎ 2ms ᯊⱘࡼᗕ⬉⺕࡯੠⬉⌕
ⱘડᑨ᳆㒓DŽҢ೒Ёⳟߎ䱣᭄ࣱ㒓೜‫ޣ‬ᇥˈ݊⬉⺕࡯Ϣ⬉
Figure 5 0.4mm 㞾⬅छ⿟ϟ⬉⺕䯔ડᑨ⡍ᗻ ⌕ҹঞ⬉⌕Ϟछડᑨ䗳ᑺ䛑ᰒ㨫ᦤ催ˈ⬉⺕࡯ⱘ㹄䗔䗳ᑺ
ϝ㗙෎ᴀⳌৠDŽ45 ࣱ㒓೜㛑೼᳔ⷁⱘᯊ䯈‫ݙ‬䖒ࠄ⬉⺕࡯᳔
໻ؐDŽԚ݊⬉⌕᳔ؐ໻ؐ᥹䖥 110Aˈࡳ㗫ᰃ 50 ࣱ㒓೜
1.3 ‫ˈס‬㱑✊བℸˈབᵰৢᳳৃ߽Ѣ PWM ⊶偅ࡼ䰤ࠊ⬉
⌕ˈ 45 ࣱⱘ㒓೜ᰃϔϾৃ䗝ᮍḜDŽ
(3) 催य़⑤य़࡯ᇍ⬉⺕䯔ડᑨ⡍ᗻⱘᕅડ
Figure 9ǃFigure 10ǃFigure 11 ᰃ催य़⑤य़࡯ߚ߿Ў
10MPaǃ15MPaǃ20MPa ᯊˈ乊䩜ǃᇣ䯔⠛ǃ໻䯔⠛ⱘछ
⿟᳆㒓ˈ݊ᅗᴵӊ˖偅ࡼ⬉य़ 24Vˈ䍋ྟ㚠य़Ў 0MPaˈ
Figure 6 0.5mm 㞾⬅छ⿟ϟ⬉⺕䯔ડᑨ⡍ᗻ
೎ᅮᆍ⿃ᅮЎ 8cm3˄῵ᢳ⎆य़᷅า䴭ℶ೼Ϟ⅏⚍˅ˈ㞾⬅
Figure 4ˈFigure 5ˈFigure 6 ߚ߿Ў 0.1ǃ0.4ǃ0.5mm छ⿟Ў 0.38mm ˈᮍ⊶㛝‫ކ‬ᆑᑺЎ 1.5msDŽৃҹⳟߎˈ⬉
㞾⬅छ⿟ϟⱘ⬉⺕䯔ડᑨ⡍ᗻˈ݊ᅗᴵӊ᳝˖ᮍ⊶㛝‫ކ‬ᆑ ⺕䯔ⱘᓔਃ䖛⿟ߚЎϝϾ䰊↉˄བ Figure10 ᠔⼎˅˖a-乊
ᑺ 1.5ms,催य़⑤य़࡯ 15MPaˈ偅ࡼ⬉य़ 24VDŽ๲໻㞾⬅छ 䩜ⱘ㞾⬅छ⿟䰊↉ˈ䆹䰊↉ϡফय़࡯⑤य़࡯ⱘᕅડ˗b-ᇣ
⿟᳝߽Ѣᦤ催㸨䪕ⱘᩲߏ㛑䞣ˈᦤ催ᇣ䯔⠛ⱘᓔਃ䗳ᑺˈ 䯔⠛ᓔਃ䰊↉ˈ⬅ѢЏ㽕ձ䴴㸨䪕ⱘᩲߏ㛑䞣ᠧᓔˈফ催
य़⑤य़࡯ⱘᕅડ䕗ᇣ˗c-໻䯔⠛ᓔਃ䰊↉ˈ⬅Ѣ䯔⠛ᡓय़ III. ⬉⺕䯔կ⊍⡍ᗻⱘᅲ偠偠䆕
䴶⿃䕗໻ˈࡴϞ㸨䪕ᩲߏ㛑࡯Ꮖ㒣໻䚼ߚ㹿⍜㗫ˈℸ䰊↉
ফय़࡯ⱘᕅડ䕗໻ˈFigure 10ǃFigure 11 䛑ৃҹথ⦄᳝ϔ A. ⬉⺕䯔⌟䆩㋏㒳ⱘᓎゟ
Ͼᯢᰒⱘ‫ذ‬⒲䖛⿟ˈᔧय़࡯䕗Ԣᯊˈ‫ذ‬⒲䖛⿟ϡᯢᰒˈབ 䗮䖛ᇍ޴⾡஋⊍㾘ᕟⱘ⌟䆩ॳ⧚↨䕗ᑊ㒧ড়⎆य़⊍ⱘ
Figure 9 ᠔⼎DŽ ⠽⧚⡍ᗻҹঞ⎆य़㞾⬅⌏าথࡼᴎⱘᎹ԰⡍ᗻˈᴀ᭛䞛⫼
෎Ѣ W.Zeuch ॳ⧚ᅮᆍবय़⊩ˈ䆹ᮍ⊩䴲ᐌ䗖ড়Ѣᖿ䗳ડ
ᑨ⬉⺕䯔ⶀᗕ⌕䞣ⱘ⌟䆩DŽFigure 13 ᰃ⌟䆩㺙㕂Џԧ✻
⠛DŽFigure14 Ў⌟䆩㋏㒳⼎ᛣ೒DŽ


⬉⺕䯔 ࡯

Figure9 10MPa ᯊछ⿟᳆㒓

Figure 13 ⌟䆩㺙㕂Џԧ✻⠛

⎆य़⊍㹿催य़⋉ࡴय़ˈ䕧䗕ࠄ⬉⺕䯔ܹষˈֵোথ⫳
఼᥻ࠊ⬉⺕䯔ⱘ偅ࡼ⬉䏃ᴹ᥻ࠊ⬉⺕䯔ˈᑊ᥻ࠊ᭄᥂䞛䲚
वⱘ䞛䲚ᯊࠏDŽ㊒ᆚय़࡯㸼ⲥ᥻ᅮᆍय़࡯ᅸⱘ߱ྟ㚠य़DŽ
य़࡯ᅸय़࡯ǃ⏽ᑺǃ⬉⺕䯔㒓೜⬉⌕ֵো䗮䖛Ӵᛳ఼䖯ܹ
Figure 10 15MPa ᯊछ⿟᳆㒓 ᭄᥂䞛䲚व䖯㸠䆄ᔩ੠໘⧚DŽϔϾ⌟䆩਼ᳳ㒧ᴳৢˈ䗮䖛
ߎ⊍ㅵৃᇍय़࡯ᅸ䖯㸠⊘य़៪㚠य़䇗㡖DŽ
Figure14 ⌟䆩㋏㒳⼎ᛣ೒

Figure 11 20MPa ᯊछ⿟᳆㒓

Figure 12 ЎϞ䗄޴⾡Ꮉ‫މ‬ϟⱘ⬉⺕䯔ⶀᗕ⌕䞣᳆㒓DŽ
Ң೒Ёৃҹথ⦄ˈ᳆㒓ߚЎᇣ䯔⠛‫⊍ܙ‬䰊↉੠໻䯔⠛‫⊍ܙ‬
䰊↉ˈᔧ໻䯔⠛ᠧᓔৢˈⶀᗕ⌕䞣䕗໻ˈ೎ᅮ⊍㜨‫ⱘݙ‬य़
࡯䖙䗳Ϟछࠄय़࡯⑤य़࡯ˈय़Ꮒ⍜༅ⶀᗕ⌕䞣ᖿ䗳‫ޣ‬ᇣࠄ
0ˈ催य़⑤य़࡯䍞໻ˈ䖭Ͼ䖛⿟ᣕ㓁ᯊ䯈䍞䭓DŽ

B. կ⊍⡍ᗻᅲ偠ⷨお
(1) ϡৠ㒓೜᭄ࣱᇍկ⊍⡍ᗻⱘᕅડ
䆩偠ᴵӊ˖偅ࡼ⬉य़Ў 24.9Vˈय़࡯ᅸᆍ⿃Ў 8cm3,偅
ࡼֵোЎ 1.2ms ⱘᮍ⊶ࡴ 1.0msPWM ⊶ˈPWM ⊶ⱘऴぎ
↨Ў 70%ˈ⬉⺕䯔ⱘ㞾⬅छ⿟ৠЎ 0.38mmˈ催य़⑤य़࡯
Ў 17MPa,य़࡯ᅸ䍋ྟ㚠य़Ў 2MPaDŽ㒓೜᭄ࣱ˖34ǃ45
ࣱDŽ
Figure 15 Ўϡৠ᭄ࣱϟⱘ⬉⌕᳆㒓ˈৃҹⳟߎ 34 ࣱ↨
45 ࣱⱘ⬉⌕Ϟछ䗳ᑺᖿˈ⬉⌕᳔໻ؐৃ䖒ࠄ 148Aˈ45 ࣱ
Figure 12 ϡৠ催य़⑤ᯊⱘⶀᗕ⌕䞣 ߭Ў 72ADŽ᭄ࣱ䍞ᇣˈ⬉⌕Ϟछ䗳ᑺ䍞ᖿˈ᠔㛑䖒ࠄⱘ⬉
⺕࡯᳔໻ؐ䍞໻ˈᇣ䯔⠛ᓔਃડᑨᓊ䖳䍞ᇣDŽ䖭ᰃ⬅Ѣ㒓
೜᭄ࣱⱘ๲໮ˈϔᮍ䴶㒓೜ⱘ⬉䰏๲໻ˈՓᕫ⬉⌕᳔໻ؐ
Ӯ‫ޣ‬ᇣˈ᳈䞡㽕ⱘϔ䴶ᰃ㒓೜⬉ᛳ๲ࡴˈ䰏⹡⬉⌕ⱘϞ 22MPaDŽৃҹথ⦄˖ᓔਃᓊ䖳ᯊ䯈ϡফय़࡯ᕅડˈᅲ⌟ؐ
छDŽҢ Figure 16 ᅲ偠⌟ᕫⱘⶀᗕ⌕䞣᳆㒓ⳟˈ᭄ࣱ䍞ᇣˈ Ў 1.6msˈ↨ӓⳳ㒧ᵰ๲໻њ 0.65ms˗ 22Mpa ᯊ,ⶀᗕ⌕䞣
⬉ ⺕ 䯔 ᓔ ਃ ડ ᑨ ᓊ 䖳 䍞 ᇣ ˈ 34 ࣱ ⱘ ᓔ ਃ ડ ᑨ ᓊ 䖳 Ў Ϟछ䗳⥛ড㗠↨ 12ǃ17MPa ᴵӊϟᇣˈߎ⦄њѠ⃵ᠧᓔ⦄
1.135ms,45 ࣱ߭Ў 1.585msDŽ 䈵DŽϞ䗄ᅲ偠Ϣӓⳳ㒧ᵰⱘᏂᓖॳ಴ৃ㛑ᰃ˖1ǃᅲ䰙Ꮉ
԰䖛⿟Ӯᄬ೼ᨽ᪺࡯ˈӓⳳЁ䲒ҹ㗗㰥˗2ǃሑㅵ䞛⫼њ
ϔᅮ䍋ྟ㚠य़ᡥࠊय़࡯㜨Ёⱘ⇨⊵ᑆᡄˈԚᰃᅲ䰙䖛⿟Ё
থ⦄䲒ҹᕏᑩ⍜䰸ˈ䖭Ӯᇐ㟈⌟䞣ᕫࠄⱘᓊ䖳ᯊ䯈ব䭓ˈ
ዄؐⶀᯊ⌕䞣বᇣDŽ

IV. ᘏ㒧
ᴀ᭛ᦤߎњϔ⾡෎Ѣ໻⌕䞣ᖿ䗳ડᑨ⬉⺕䯔ⱘᎹ԰ॳ
⧚ˈᑊᓔথߎњ⬉⺕䯔ḋᴎDŽӓⳳϢᅲ偠偠䆕њ݊Ꮉ԰ॳ
⧚ⱘৃ㸠ᗻDŽⷨお㸼ᯢ˖
(1) 催य़⑤य़࡯ϡᕅડᓔਃડᑨᓊ䖳ᯊ䯈ˈԚᰃᕅડᓔ
ਃᣕ㓁ᯊ䯈ˈ䱣ⴔ催य़⑤य़࡯ⱘ๲໻ˈᓔਃᣕ㓁ᯊ䯈ব
Figure 15 ϡৠ᭄ࣱϟ⬉⌕᳆㒓 䭓DŽ
(2) 䱣ⴔ㞾⬅छ⿟๲໻ˈ⬉⺕䯔ᓔਃડᑨᓊ䖳ᯊ䯈ব
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(3) 䱣ⴔ㒓೜᭄ࣱ๲໻ˈ⬉⌕Ϟछ䗳ᑺ੠᳔໻⬉⌕ؐ
ϟ䰡ˈ⬉⺕䯔ᓔਃડᑨᓊ䖳ᯊ䯈ব䭓DŽ

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ᴀ᭛㦋໽⋹໻ᄺ㞾Џ߯ᮄ෎䞥䌘ࡽ˄60305004˅DŽ
References

Figure 16 ϡৠ᭄ࣱᯊⶀᯊ⌕䞣⡍ᗻ
[1] Hua-Yong Yang, Bizhong Xia and Xin Fu,A Hydraulic Free Piston
Engine -- The Power of The Stars In The Fulture. Chinese Journal of
(2) ϡৠ催य़⑤य़࡯ᇍկ⊍⡍ᗻⱘᕅડ Mechanical Engineering. 3rd ed., vol. 12, pp. 1̅5, 2001. (In Chinese)
[2] Hua-Yong Yang, Bizhong Xia and Xin Fu,Hydraulic Free Piston Engine
Evolution Process and Recent Studies. Chinese Journal of Mechanical
Engineering. 2rd ed., vol. 37, pp. 437-445, 2001. (In Chinese)
[3] Tao Zhu,Yang Wang,Chao Gai and Xiao Zhang,Performance Analysis
of Hydraulic Free Piston Engine Based on Multidisciplinary System
Modeling, International Journal of Plant Engineering and
Management .in press. (In Chinese)
[4] Tao Zhu, Yang Wang, Qian Xiong, Zhong Zhang.Performance
Optimization of Two-Stroke Compression Ignition Hydraulic Free
Piston Engine. International Journal of Plant Engineering and
Management.. in press. (In Chinese)
[5] R. Payri*, B. Tormos, F.J. Salvador,Using one-dimensional modelling
Figure 17 ϡৠ催य़⑤ᯊⱘⶀᗕ⌕䞣 codes to analyse the influence of diesel nozzle geometry on injection
rate characteristics. Int. J. Vehicle Design , 1rd ed., vol. 38, pp. 58-79,
䆹 ᅲ 偠 ೼ 24.4V 偅 ࡼ ⬉ य़ ǃ 䞛 ⫼ 1.5ms ᮍ ⊶ 2005. .
+1.2msPWM ⊶ⱘ㛝ᆑDŽFigure 17 ᰃϝ⾡催य़⑤य़࡯ϟⱘ
ⶀᗕ⌕䞣᳆㒓ˈ催य़⑤य़࡯ߚ߿Ў˖12MPaǃ17MPaǃ