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1.

1 BRIEF ON INTERN ATTENDED

I worked as software trainee intern in DLK Technologies from 04/06/18 to 14/06/18.This


report is prepared on the basis of my Ten days practical experience at DLK Technologies.
This internship program helped me to learn about the practical scenario of IT Company.
DLK Technologies is a Research and Development centre in Chennai .DLK Technologies
provides a complete suite of IT services in the business applications domain, specializing in
multiple verticals including constructions, financial services, healthcare services, education
and allied Industries .During a internship I surveyed a project named "Online Voting
System”.
The word “vote” means to choose from a list, to elect or to determine. The main goal of
voting (in a scenario involving the citizens of a given country) is to come up with leaders of
the people’s choice. Most countries, Kenya not an exception have problems when it comes to
voting. Some of the problems involved include ridging votes during election, insecure or
inaccessible polling stations, inadequate polling materials and also inexperience personnel.
This online voting/polling system seeks to address the above issues. It should be noted that
with this system in place, the users, citizens in this case shall be given ample time during the
voting period. They shall also be trained on how to vote online before the election time.

Apart from the vocational skills that interns gain, they also get lots of soft skills which are
crucial to not only finding a job but succeeding at one as well. Choosing your career happens
at a very young age, and most of us are not certain what we want to do with the rest of our
lives. Many people find themselves going from school to university and then into the
workforce before realising that their degree and career are not what they expected them to be.
So to get a correct career path , An internship can help you identify a particular area in your
industry or profession that you’re interested in and help you acquire more knowledge
regarding this area.
Of course, there’s a good chance you’ll realise that you have no interest in the particular field
that the company you’re interning with operates, but that’s an important lesson to learn.
Internships can also benefit your resume as they are a fool proof way to demonstrate that you
have work experience, as well as other workplace skills. The skills can be relevant to your
chosen profession, which is admittedly crucial in a resume, but they could also be other skills,
including communication and people skills that employer’s value. A common problem many
graduates face is that they’re offered a lot less than someone with experience to do the same

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job. Employers feel justified paying someone a lot less when they don’t have a lot to offer,
but if you are interested in getting paid what you’re worth, then doing an internship can help
remedy the situation.

And it’s not just your first job, or salary, that will benefit from an internship; your overall
market value will increase. Studies have demonstrated that people who have sufficient work
experience when they enter the workforce continue to make significantly more even a decade
after they first start working. So these are the reasons why I attended internship at DLK
Technologies, Chennai.

1.1.a About The Company

fig 1:Logo Of DLK technologies

DLK technologies is the one-stop point for Software Development, Online


Marketing, SEO, Web Designing, and Web Development. Not just these, we are
also into Human Resource Management and Consulting and a variety of IT
services. “Customer Satisfaction” is our motto. At DLK, we are committed to
exceed our customer expectations and add value to the services they receive.
"We highly value your partnership…and are dedicated in enabling you succeed.
With our cutting-edge technology and services, we are sure you will certainly
avail the maximum gains and have an edge over your competitors”. We as a team
with zeal and vivid values at DLK technologies, create a bonding relationship among
customers in order to nurture various organizations with our services. We don’t just deliver
results; we deliver it with values and resolute solutions to each of our clients.

They providing the services are:

 Web Designing

 Web Development

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 Hosting Services

 Application Development

 Domain Registration

 App development

DLK Technologies success in satisfying its customer’s stems from its commitment to a
consistent methodology, effective project management techniques, proven automated tools,
quality assurance, testing and dedicated professionals. We follow rigorous quality
management techniques, which along with our mature development processes ensure that a
high quality is delivered in every phase of our software development and maintenance cycles.
We have predefined processes for software development life cycle, quality assurance and
documentation.
DLK Technologies success in satisfying its customer’s stems from its commitment to a
consistent methodology, effective project management techniques, proven automated tools,
quality assurance, testing and dedicated professionals.

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1.2 Abstract on Internship attended

In the ten days internship training we are study about so many language and we are
choosing to learn PHP in our internship training because easy to manage and it is object
oriented and availability of debugging tools. We had to finish doing an internship in a
company. And then we are started to search for a company who give us industrial training in
PHP, and Then we are find the DLK technology is our relative known Company. We are went
to the company because they gave a suggestion then we start our ten days. Internship training
from DLK technology. First we learnt how to make web page in html with the help of CSS.
Then we start PHP with PHPmyadmin. PHP is a server side script then we want make server
in our computer then we learnt about XAMPP. Then we learnt about bootstrap and
LARAVEL in PHP. But only ten days training is not possible to learn everything. But since I
know a little bit, we are able to develop a web page on PHP. Still since quite long time going
to the polling booth and standing in long queue to cast vote has been persistent and it was
challenging for the Government to motivate the public to participate in the election system
and cast their vote, as there was no such online voting system available. They shall also be
trained on how to vote online before the election time. “ONLINE VOTING SYSTEM” is an
online voting technique. In this system people who have citizenship of Kenya and whose age
is above 18 years of age and any sex can give his\her vote online without going to any
physical polling station. There is a database which is maintained in which all the names of
voters with complete information is stored.
In “ONLINE VOTING SYSTEM” a voter can use his\her voting right online without any
difficulty. He\She has to be registered first for him/her to vote. Registration is mainly done by
the system administrator for security reasons. The system Administrator registers the voters
on a special site of the system visited by him only by simply filling a registration form to
register voter. Citizens seeking registration are expected to contact the system administrator to
submit their details.

We implement this technology to develop a real estate website.

Keywords: PHP, CSS, HTML, XAMPP.


1.3 CERTIFICATE BY THE COMPANY
1.4 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT

The word “vote” means to choose from a list, to elect or to determine. The main goal of
voting (in a scenario involving the citizens of a given country) is to come up with leaders
of the people’s choice.
Most countries, Kenya not an exception have problems when it comes to voting. Some of
the problems involved include ridging votes during election, insecure or inaccessible
polling stations, inadequate polling materials and also inexperience personnel.
This online voting/polling system seeks to address the above issues. It should be noted
that with this system in place, the users, citizens in this case shall be given ample time
during the voting period. They shall also be trained on how to vote online before the
election time.
 Now a days replacing physical banking to internet banking, ordering food online,
buying movie tickets, buyinh any kind of
clothes or house hold items, bill payments of any kind etc.
 Still since quite long time going to the polling booth and standing in long queue to
cast vote has been persistent and it was challenging for the Government to
motivate the public to participate in the election system and cast their vote, as
there was no such online voting system available.
 But all the credit goes to the internet and the Software developers who are going to
made it possible
soon for everyone by online voting
The word “vote” means to choose from a list, to elect or to determine. The main goal of
voting (in a scenario involving the citizens of a given country) is to come up with leaders
of the people’s choice.
Most countries, Kenya not an exception have problems when it comes to voting. Some of
the problems involved include ridging votes during election, insecure or inaccessible
polling stations, inadequate polling materials and also inexperience personnel.
This online voting/polling system seeks to address the above issues. It should be noted
that with this system in place, the users, citizens in this case shall be given ample time
during the voting period.
They shall also be trained on how to vote online before the election time. “ONLINE
VOTING SYSTEM” is an online voting technique. In this system people who have
citizenship of Kenya and whose age is above 18 years of age and any sex can give his\her
vote online without going to any physical polling station. There is a database which is
maintained in which all the names of voters with complete information is stored.
In “ONLINE VOTING SYSTEM” a voter can use his\her voting right online without any
difficulty. He\She has to be registered first for him/her to vote. Registration is mainly
done by the system administrator for security reasons. The system Administrator registers
the voters on a special site of the system visited by him only by simply filling a
registration form to register voter. Citizens seeking registration are expected to contact the
system administrator to submit their details. After the validity of them being citizens of
India has been confirmed by the system administrator by comparing their details
submitted with those in existing databases such as those as the Registrar of Persons, the
citizen is then registered as a voter.
After registration, the voter is assigned a secret Voter ID with which he/she can use to
log into the system and enjoy services provided by the system such as voting. If
invalid/wrong details are submitted, then the citizen is not registered to vote.
The Online voting system (OVS) also known as e-voting is a term encompassing several
different types of voting embracing both electronic means of counting votes. Electronic
voting technology can include punched cards, optical scan voting systems and specialized
voting kiosks (including self contained direct-recording electronic voting systems or DRE). It
can also involve transmission of ballots and votes via telephones, private computer networks,
or the internet.
Online voting is an electronic way of choosing leaders via a web driven application. The
advantage of online voting over the common “queue method” is that the voters have the
choice of voting at their own free time and there is reduced congestion. It also minimizes on
errors of vote counting. The individual votes are submitted in a database which can be queried
to find out who of the aspirants for a given post has the highest number of votes.
This system is geared towards increasing the voting percentage in Kenya since it has been
noted that with the old voting method {the Queue System}, the voter turnout has been a
wanting case. With system in place also, if high security is applied, cases of false votes shall
be reduced.
With the “ONLINE VOTING SYSTEM”, a voter can use his\her voting right online without
any difficulty. He\She has to register as a voter first before being authorized to vote. The
registration should be done prior to the voting date to enable data update in the database.

Fig.2 online voting system


1.5. Tools & Technology used

i. MYSQL DBMS- It allows combination, extraction, manipulation and organization of data


in the voters’ database. It is platform independent and therefore can be implemented and used
across several such as Windows, Linux server and is compatible with various hardware
mainframes.

ii. NetBeans IDE 7.1.2- The NetBeans IDE is an award-winning integrated development
environment available for Windows, Mac, Linux, and Sola

iii. Testing- is done via XAMPPSERVER.

iv. Web browsers: Mozilla Firefox, Google chrome, Opera and Internet Explorer.
HARDWARE
i. Microsoft Windows XP Professional /Vista /Windows 7 :
a. Processor: 800MHz Intel Pentium III or equivalent

b. Memory: 512 MB

c. Disk space: 750 MB of free disk space


ii. Ubuntu 9.10:
a. Processor: 800MHz Intel Pentium III or equivalent

b. Memory: 512 MB

iii. Disk space: 650 MB of free disk space


FRONT END
i. Register account: This module enables the user to register himself as voter. Once the user
is registered he will be redirected to the login page.

ii. Login: This module enables the user to login. His user name and password is validated and
voter and admin are redirected to their respective pages.

iii. Manage admins: This privilege is only available only for admin. The admin can be able
to add a new admin.

iv. Manage positions The admin can be able to add one or more positions for the election.

v. Manage candidates: The admin can be able to add the candidates for the poll.

vi. Results: The admin cab be able to view the results after each time a voter polls.

vii. Manage profile: This module is for a voter. The voter can be able to update their
information.

viii. Vote: This module enables the voter to poll for his favorite candidate.

ix. Logout: This module is common for both admin and user which logout from their
respective portal.
BACKEND
i. Poll: This is a Mysql module which creates database tables..

ii. Connection: This module creates a connection.

BACK-END :

WEB SERVERS:

 Apache,

 NGINX, and

 IIS

DATABASES:

 MySQL,
 Oracle,

 MS SQL Server,

 PostgreSQL, SQLite,

 NoSQL, MongoDB, Redis, and

 CouchDB

MYSQL:

MYSQL (my S-Q-L, or “My-sequel”) is a relational database management system (RDBMS)


which has more than 6 million installation. My SQL stands for my structure query language.
MySQL is an Oracle-backed open source relational database management system (RDBMS)
based on Structured Query Language (SQL). ... Originally conceived by the Swedish
company MySQL AB, MySQL was acquired by Sun Microsystems in 2008 and then by
Oracle when it bought Sun in 2010. The program run has a server providing multi user access
to a number of database. The application is used for a wide range of purposes, including data
warehousing, e-commerce, and logging applications.

The most common use for MYSQL however is for the purpose of a web database. SQL is the
most popular language for adding, accessing and managing content in a database. It is most
noted for its quick processing, proven reliability, ease and flexibility of use.

The project source code is available under term of GNU general public licence as well as
under a variety of proprietary of agreement. MYSQL is commonly used by free software
projects which require a database management system such as WordPress, PHPBB, and other
software build on the lamp software stack. It also used in very high-scale World Wide Web
products including google and Facebook etc.

Major Advantages of Using MySQL

 Data Security. ...

 On-Demand Scalability. ...

 High Performance. ...


 Round-the-clock Uptime. ...

 Comprehensive Transactional Support. ...

 Complete Workflow Control. ...

 Reduced Total Cost of Ownership. ...

 The Flexibility of Open Source.

Features of MySQL

 Relational Database System: Like almost all other database systems on the market,
MySQL is a relational database system.

 Client/Server Architecture: MySQL is a client/server system. ...

 SQL compatibility: MySQL supports as its database language -- as its name suggests
– SQL (Structured Query Language).

 A broad subset of ANSI SQL 99 as well as extension.

 Cross platform support

 Stored procedures

 Triggers

 Cursors

 Update views

 True varchar support

 Strict mode

 Query caching

 Full text indexing and searching using MYISAM engine

 Embedded query library

PHP/MYSQL WEB APPLICATION

PHP is the most popular scripting language for web development. It is free, open source and
server-side (the code is executed on the server). MySQL is a Relational Database
Management System (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL). It is a central
component in the LAMP stack of open source web application software that is used to
create websites. LAMP stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. This platform is an
effective alternative to a commercial software for building and running dynamic and high
performance web system. Most web hosting providers already have MySQL installed on their
web servers as it is widely used in many open source web applications such as WordPress.
Community website offer PHP/MYSQL web design and program for various client needs.
PHP: hypertext pre-processor is a server-side scripting language designed for script language.
But also used as a general purpose programming language. PHP is used to generate dynamic
web pages. PHP support many popular database such as MYSQL, ORACLE, etc.75%of web
2.0sites are built in PHP.PHP is used by 81.7%of all the websites whose server-side
programing language we known There about 5 million PHP developers worldwide.

SQL is a universal database query language. SQL is used to interact with databases, which are
a part of every backend web application. No matter what language or framework you choose
to build your web application, you will likely use SQL, or some abstraction of it, to interact
with the database.

PHP is a server-side back-end programming languages. It helps us to send and get request and
data from and to databases like MySQL, and if you are using PDO, you can communicate to
up to 12 different databases like SQLite, Oracle, MS Access, MS Server, and more. PHP can
communicate with client-side languages like JavaScript and HTML. Using AJAX you can
send request to Server using PHP and get results into your HTML page with no need to
refresh. The PHP interpreter will process a portion of an HTML page when it see the
following tag: <? PHP and stop the processing when it sees the PHP end tag?>.

PHP and MYSQL are two leading open sources scripting and database technology in the web
design today. Over the year they have each evolve and grown in complexcity and
functionality and yet they are tied together to provide a powerful and flexible platform for
web application. They run on both LINUX and windows server so your web host most likely
support it. With the advent of PHP5, PHP language as an evolved to be an object oriented
language enabling more robust and standard for web applications.

Community websites leverages both PHP and MYSQL to build a rich database driven
dynamic and interactive websites and websites applications. Our services include MYSQL
and PHP web development open source office carts PHP, MYSQL offshore development and
PHP programming services.
FRAMEWORKS:

 Zend,

 Symfony,

 Yii,

 CodeIgniter,

 Laravel, and

 CakePHP, Node.js

FRONT-END:

 JavaScript

 jQuery

 Backbone.js

 AngularJS

HTML

HTML (hypertext Mark up language) All code in a web application is eventually translated to
HTML. It’s the language that web browsers understand and use to display information to
users. A web developer’s understanding of HTML is analogous to a carpenter’s understanding
of a screwdriver. It’s so important and necessary that it’s often assumed for employment.

HTML is also used for reading documents on the internet from different computer
The HTTP protocol which allows user to remotely access document to store the information
at a specific network is called the URL. The web is the worldwide network of all the
document which are connected one another by hyperlink. Web pages usually organised
around a main pages which as a hub for browsing another page with hyper link. This group of
web page join together by a hyper link and a centred around a main page is called web page.
The web page is vast living archive composed of a myriad of websites, giving people access
to web pages that may contain formatted text, images, videos etc. The web is composed of
web pages stored in the web servers, which are machine constantly connected to the internet
which provide the pages that user request. A key element for viewing web page is a browser
the software program which send the request to the webservers, then the processor resulting
the data and display the information as intended based on instructions in the HTML page.
The most commonly used browser on the internet is
 Mozilla fire fox
 Microsoft internet explorer
 Netscape navigator
 Safari.

CSS

CSS (Cascade style sheet) by itself, HTML is quite plain. HTML does provide some basic
style options, but to build a good frontend, developers must have experience with CSS. CSS
provides the paint, templates, glitter, buttons, tassel, lights, and many other things that can be
used to improve the presentation of a web page. CSS is so commonly used that languages
have been built to make writing CSS easier. These languages – like Sass and LESS – are also
known as CSS pre compilers, but they are simply used to write more efficient and
manageable CSS code. A CSS file allow you to separate your website (X) HTML connect
from its styles. As always you user your (X) HTML file to arrange the content, but all of the
presentation (fonts, colours, background, borders, text formatting, link effects, and so on.) are
accomplished within a CSS.

In CSS there are two different type of style sheets, they are

 Internal stylesheet
 External stylesheet

Internal stylesheet

In this method the CSS code within the <head> </head> tag of each (X) HTML you want to
style with CSS the format for this is shown in the example

<head>

<title><\title>
<style type=”text/CSS”>

CSS content goes here

</style>

</head>

<body>

External stylesheet

An external CSS file can be created with any text or HTML editors such as notepad or
Dreamweaver. A file contains no (X) HTML only CSS .you simply save it by dot CSS

Extension. You can link to the file externally by placing one of the following link in the
head section of every (X) HTML you want to style with CSS

<link rel=”stylesheet” type =”text/CSS” href=” path to stylesheet.css”>

By using external stylesheet, all of your (X) HTML file is link to one CSS file in order to
style the pages. This mean if you need to alert the design of all your page. You only need to
edit one dot CSS file to make global change to your entire website.

Java Script

Java script is most commonly used as a client side scripting language. This mean that the
java script code is written into a HTML page. When a user request an HTML page with java
script in it. The script is send to the browser and it’s up to the browser to do something with
it. Java script can be use other contexts then a web browser. Netscape created a server side
java script as a CGI-language that can do roughly same as a Perl or ASP. This no reason why
java script could not be used write real complex program. Java script is a dynamic computer
programming language. It is lightweight and most commonly used as a part of web pages,
whose implementations allow client-side script to interact with the user and make dynamic
pages. It is an interpreted programming language with object-oriented capabilities.

Feature of java script:

 JavaScript is an object-based scripting language.


 Giving the user more control over the browser.

 It Handling dates and time.

 It Detecting the user's browser and OS,

 It is light weighted.

 JavaScript is a scripting language and it is not java.

 JavaScript is interpreter based scripting language.

 JavaScript is case sensitive.


1.6. Importance of the project

The great advantage of website development company and website design company is that
the website will be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and can be viewed from anywhere
in the world. Therefore anyone can collect suitable information from the website at any time.
In today's business environment and to beat the competition large or small companies
definitely need to develop a good website. Many business owners use the excuse that their
business is "word-of-mouth" and they do not need a website. But a great way to reinforce the
personal recommendations of other clients is through professional website development.
Web development services help your company to increase product knowledge, maintain
communication between you and potential clients, sell your products or services, generate
leads for the business, and increase the popularity of your company and much more.

Web Development Company has emerged as an industry in the last decade. In the field of
website development, a company or a person develops web sites to be placed on the World
Wide Web. The number of websites on the web are increasing at a very fast pace. The web
developers and web designers make a good amount of money while constructing these web
sites. Web development is a field which can pay you a lot if you are interested in taking it
seriously. At present the number of web sites on the web is in millions. Thus website
development can be used as a tool to make money online these days.
When you decide that it is important and in the best interest of your business to have a
website, there a few important things you should consider for your web design and
development.

 . Firstly, you need to consider the cost it will take to have your web design and
development. The cost should be expensive or cheap, this is up to you. If you hire out
it will be costly, or if you try to learn yourself it can be time consuming.

 b. Secondly, it is important that you take your time to learn about web design and
development.

 c. Thirdly, you are going to need tools to build a website. With the proper tools and
know how, it shouldn't be too hard for you to construct a good website.
 d. Fourth, knowledge is power when it comes to web design and development. Take
the necessary time to do some research and find out what is best for you. Remember,
you can always outsource this project to web designers, but it will be costly!

REASONS WHY WEB DEVELOPMENT IS IMPORTANT IN BUSINESS

Convenience
With a well-developed website, people can always tune in and look for what they need. They
would pretty much appreciate to cut the effort of going down to a physical location while
they can get it all online. So, if you are a service provider or a product seller, put it all on your
website to earn business which you otherwise might not. Make sure your website is
developed to ease things up and not to confuse the visitors in order to catch a greater
audience with positive ratings.

Worldwide Marketing
With an online website, you can link up to social forums and market your product/service to a
massive audience all around the globe. You can regularly advertise and share your work on
social forums to gain more than actually targeted audience. Great isn’t it? Put your keen focus
in your company’s website. It is not less than a brochure and it develops your company’s
image.

Credible Source

A website is the most credible platform of a company/organization. Your official website can
even function as your sole office. If your company’s physical location is not on an easy
access or it is not being managed well, you can overcome the worries by focusing on your
website.

Promote your services by a few clicks and you can grab the attention of consumers from
various parts of the world. The website of a company can prove remarkable to gain business
not only in a shorter time but also with a much bigger audience.
1.7 Results And Discussion

With the “ONLINE VOTING SYSTEM”, a voter can use his\her voting right online without
any difficulty. He\She has to register as a voter first before being authorized to vote. The
registration should be done prior to the voting date to enable data update in the database.
However, not just anybody can vote. For one to participate in the elections, he/she must have
the requirements. For instance, he/she must be a registered citizen i.e. must be 18 and above
years old. As already stated, the project ‘Online Voting' provides means for fast and
convenient voting and access to this system is limited only to registered voters. The ONLINE
VOTING SYSTEM shall reduce the time spend making long queues at the polling stations
during voting. It shall also enable the voters to vote from any part of the globe as explained
since this is an online application available on the internet. Cases of vote miscounts shall also
be solved since at the backend of this system resides a well developed database using
MYSQL that can provide the correct data once it’s correctly queried. Since the voting process
shall be open as early as possible, the voters shall have ample time to decide when and whom
to vote for.
CHAPTER - 2

ANALYSIS

2.1. Survey on Dream Company

A dream job is one that allows you to do something you truly enjoy doing, allows you to
achieve a goal or ambition, and is a role in which you’re capable and confident.

We think about a dream job, or dream situation that enables us to be financially independent
with enough to provide for our loved ones, both now and into the future.

When you are working in a dream job you love coming to work – it absorbs you, you relish
each day, you are stimulated and feel good about life!

Some people do say they have this experience. They may even work for a dream company
with these three essential qualities:

 Cares about your well-being;


 Provides opportunities to learn and grow; and
 Promotes a healthy work-life balance.

Google

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-


related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine,
cloud computing, software, and hardware. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry
Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California.
Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder
voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held
company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19,
2004, and Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed
the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests
as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will
continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was
appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page who became the CEO of Alphabet.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products,
acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine (Google Search). It offers
services designed for work and productivity (Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides), email
(Gmail/Inbox), scheduling and time management (Google Calendar), cloud storage (Google
Drive), social networking (Google+), instant messaging and video chat (Google
Allo, Duo, Hangouts), language translation (Google Translate), mapping and navigation
(Google Maps, Waze, Google Earth, Street View), video sharing (YouTube), note-taking
(Google Keep), and photo organizing and editing (Google Photos). The company leads the
development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser,
and Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has
moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics
manufacturers in the production of its Nexus devices, and it released multiple hardware
products in October 2016, including the Google Pixel smartphone, Google Home smart
speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router, and Google Daydream virtual reality headset.
Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. In February 2010, it
announced Google Fiber, a fiber-optic infrastructure that was installed in Kansas City; in
April 2015, it launched Project Fi in the United States, combining Wi-Fi and cellular
networks from different providers; and in 2016, it announced the Google Station initiative to
make public Wi-Fi available around the world, with initial deployment in India.

Alexa Internet monitors commercial web traffic and lists Google.com as the most visited
website in the world. Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited
websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as
of 2017,but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax
avoidance, antitrust, censorship, and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to
organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful", and its
unofficial slogan was "Don't be evil". In October 2015, the motto was replaced in the
Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase "Do the right thing", while the original one
was retained in the code of conduct of Google. Around May 2018, the slogan was silently
removed from the code's clauses, leaving only one generic reference in its last paragraph.
GOOGLE

2.2. Survey on Current project in Dream Company


The Liftware spoon
This spoon enables patients who suffer from tremors (such as Parkinson’s) to eat food
without spills. It’s essentially a stabilizer that reduces the tremor by making a series of
counter-motions relative to the hand. This means that if a hand moves up, a stabilizer will
move the spoon down, thus keeping it in place. It reduces the tremor-induced movement by
an average of 76%. Lift Lab, which designed the Liftware spoon, was acquired by Google
in 2014 and is now owned by Alphabet under the Google X subsidiary.

Fig.3.1 Liftware spoon

Google DeepMind
What separates DeepMind from other artificial-intelligence systems is the way its algorithms
are built. Instead of focusing on a single task, DeepMind’s algorithms are general, allowing it
to perform well across a variety of tasks straight out of the box. This unique ability enabled it
to learn on its own how to play and win Atari 2600 games, navigate a 3D maze and, in
January, for the very first time win against a human in a complex game of Go. DeepMind
was acquired by Google in early 2014. It was Google’s largest European acquisition to
date.
Fig.3.2 DeepMind

Google Fiber
Imagine Internet without buffering. Imagine all your videos, movies, games and data
downloading from the cloud or any other online location as if they were already on your hard
drive. If you’re no longer imagining things, you probably live in Atlanta; Austin or San
Antonio, Texas; Charlotte or Raleigh-Durham, N.C.; Kansas City, Mo.; Nashville, Tenn.; or
Salt Lake City or Provo, Utah. The rest of us can keep dreaming about Google Fiber, a
service that, among other things, provides you with a connection speed of up to 1,000 Mbits
per second. Google Fiber is a subsidiary of Alphabet, a part of its “Access and Energy” unit.

Fig.3.3 fiber

Project Soli

While the majority of human-device interactions pivot around using peripherals such as a
mouse, a keyboard or a touchscreen interface, Project Soli by ATAP (Advanced Technology
And Projects, a Google-owned company) goes in a totally different direction: It’s using radar
to detect minute hand and finger movements, which could then be used to manipulate real
devices, or even allow an unprecedented level of interaction in virtual environments. The
main idea behind the project is to increase the ease of use of various wearables and other
digital devices, regardless of their size.

Fig.3.4 Project soli

Smart contact lenses

Lenses designed by Verily, an Alphabet company, have the potential to do much more than
correct your vision. Equipped with various sensors, they could measure the glucose level in
your system, as well as detect if you’re intoxicated or feverish. Data collected this way could
then be transmitted to a mobile device or laptop for further processing. The lenses themselves
need no external power source, since all the energy they require would be provided by the
solar cells on their surface.

Project Skybender

Skybender is all about Internet-beaming solar drones, designed to stay airborne for up to five
years. During that time, they won’t only provide 5G Internet, but also take aerial photographs
when needed, which makes them perfect for situations where surveillance and
communications are of the utmost necessity (such as natural disasters or search-and-rescue
operations). The drone project is run by Google X.
Fig.3.5 Project skybender

Project Loon
These helium-filled balloons are designed by Google X to reach an altitude of almost 13
miles, nearly twice that of commercial airplanes. Once airborne, the balloons provide a
reliable and cost-effective way to beam Internet service from the sky to places that lack it. It
must be remembered that 4.3 billion people are still offline.

Fig.3.6 project loon


2.3 Identification of skill demand in Dream Company

AI

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer program or a machine to think


and learn. It is also a field of study which tries to make computers "smart". John
McCarthycame up with the name "artificial intelligence" in 1955.

In general use, the term "artificial intelligence" means a machine which mimics
human cognition. At least some of the things we associate with other minds, such
as learning and problem solving can be done by computers, though not in the same way
as we do.

An ideal (perfect) intelligent machine is a flexible agent which perceives its


environment and takes actions to maximize its chance of success at some goal. As
machines become increasingly capable, mental facilities once thought to require
intelligence are removed from the definition. For example, optical character
recognition is no longer perceived as an exemplar of "artificial intelligence": it is just a
routine technology.

At present we use the term AI for successfully understanding human speech, competing
at a high level in strategic game systems (such as Chess and Go), self-driving cars, and
interpreting complex data. Some people also consider AI a danger to humanity if it
progresses unabatedly.

An extreme goal of AI research is to create computer programs that can learn, solve
problems, and think logically. In practice, however, most applications have picked on
problems which computers can do well. Searching data bases and doing calculations
are things computers do better than people. On the other hand, "perceiving its
environment" in any real sense is way beyond present-day computing.

AI involves many different fields like computer


science, mathematics, linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy.
Eventually researchers hope to create a "general artificial intelligence" which can solve
many problems instead of focusing on just one. Researchers are also trying to create
creative and emotional AI which can possibly empathize or create art. Many
approaches and tools have been tried.
MACHINE LEARNING

Machine learning is a field of computer science that uses statistical techniques to


give computer systems the ability to "learn" (e.g., progressively improve performance
on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.[2]

The name machine learning was coined in 1959 by Arthur Samuel.[1] Machine learning
explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and make
predictions on data[3] – such algorithms overcome following strictly static program
instructions by making data-driven predictions or decisions,[4]:2 through building
a model from sample inputs. Machine learning is employed in a range of computing
tasks where designing and programming explicit algorithms with good performance is
difficult or infeasible; example applications include email filtering, detection of
network intruders, and computer vision.

Machine learning is closely related to (and often overlaps with) computational


statistics, which also focuses on prediction-making through the use of computers. It has
strong ties to mathematical optimization, which delivers methods, theory and
application domains to the field. Machine learning is sometimes conflated with data
mining,[5] where the latter subfield focuses more on exploratory data analysis and is
known as unsupervised learning.

Within the field of data analytics, machine learning is a method used to devise complex
models and algorithms that lend themselves to prediction; in commercial use, this is
known as predictive analytics. These analytical models allow researchers, data
scientists, engineers, and analysts to "produce reliable, repeatable decisions and results"
and uncover "hidden insights" through learning from historical relationships and trends
in the data.
Chapter -3- Platform/Language/Framework/Tools

3.1. History

Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed


for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language. It was
originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now
produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now
stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.

PHP code may be embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with
various web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks. PHP
code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in the web server or
as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of
the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images,
with the generated web page. PHP code may also be executed with a command-line
interface (CLI) and can be used to implement standalone graphical applications.

The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under
the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on
almost every operating system and platform, free of charge.

The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014,
with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations
aimed to follow. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification.

During the 2010s there have been increased efforts towards standardisation and code sharing
in PHP applications by projects such as PHP-FIG in the form of PSR initiatives as well as
the Composer dependency manager and associated Packagist repository. PHP hosts a diverse
array of web frameworks requiring framework-specific knowledge, with Laravel recently
emerging as a popular option by incorporating ideas made popular from other competing non-
PHP web frameworks, like Ruby on Rails
PHP development began in 1994 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote
several Common Gateway Interface (CGI) programs in C,[11][12][13] which he
used to maintain his personal homepage. He extended them to work with web
forms and to communicate with databases, and called this implementation
"Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI.

PHP/FI could be used to build simple, dynamic web applications. To


accelerate bug reporting and improve the code, Lerdorf initially announced the
release of PHP/FI as "Personal Home Page Tools (PHP Tools) version 1.0" on
the Usenet discussion group comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi on June 8,
1995.[14][15] This release already had the basic functionality that PHP has today.
This included Perl-like variables, form handling, and the ability to embed
HTML. The syntax resembled that of Perl, but was simpler, more limited and
less consistent.

Early PHP was not intended to be a new programming language, and grew
organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it,
there was never any intent to write a programming language [...] I have
absolutely no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding
the next logical step on the way." A development team began to form and, after
months of work and beta testing, officially released PHP/FI 2 in November
1997.

The fact that PHP was not originally designed, but instead was developed
organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent
ordering of their parameters. In some cases, the function names were chosen to
match the lower-level libraries which PHP was "wrapping", while in some
very early versions of PHP the length of the function names was used
internally as a hash function, so names were chosen to improve the distribution
of hash values.

PHP 3 and 4

Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the
base of PHP 3, changing the language's name to the recursive acronym PHP:
Hypertext Preprocessor.[6][20] Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, and
the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans then started a
new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999. They also
founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel.

On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. As
of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 is no longer under
development nor will any security updates be released.

PHP 5

On July 14, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II.
PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented
programming, the PHP Data Objects (PDO) extension (which defines a
lightweight and consistent interface for accessing databases), and numerous
performance enhancements. In 2008 PHP 5 became the only stable version
under development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was
added in version 5.3.

Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code


as of February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a
consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5.

Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and 64-
bit operating systems, either by building them from the PHP source code, or by
using pre-built binaries. For the PHP versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only
available Microsoft Windows binary distributions were 32-
bit x86 builds, requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while
using Internet Information Services (IIS) on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP
version 5.5 made the 64-bit x86-64 builds available for Microsoft Windows.

PHP 6 and Unicode

PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking native Unicode support at the core
language level. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to
bring native Unicode support throughout PHP, by embedding the International
Components for Unicode (ICU) library, and representing text strings as UTF-
16 internally. Since this would cause major changes both to the internals of the
language and to user code, it was planned to release this as version 6.0 of the
language, along with other major features then in development.
However, a shortage of developers who understood the necessary changes, and
performance problems arising from conversion to and from UTF-16, which is
rarely used in a web context, led to delays in the project. As a result, a PHP 5.3
release was created in 2009, with many non-Unicode features back-ported
from PHP 6, notably namespaces. In March 2010, the project in its current
form was officially abandoned, and a PHP 5.4 release was prepared containing
most remaining non-Unicode features from PHP 6, such as traits and closure
re-binding. Initial hopes were that a new plan would be formed for Unicode
integration, but as of 2014 none had been adopted.

PHP 7

During 2014 and 2015, a new major PHP version was developed, which was
numbered PHP 7. The numbering of this version involved some debate. While
the PHP 6 Unicode experiment had never been released, several articles and
book titles referenced the PHP 6 name, which might have caused confusion if
a new release were to reuse the name. After a vote, the name PHP 7 was
chosen.

The foundation of PHP is a PHP branch that was originally dubbed PHP next
generation (phpng). It was authored by Dmitry Stogov, Xinchen Hui and
Nikita Popov, and aimed to optimize PHP performance by refactoring the Zend
Engine while retaining near-complete language compatibility. As of
14 July 2014, WordPress-based benchmarks, which served as the main
benchmark suite for the phpng project, showed an almost 100% increase in
performance. Changes from phpng are also expected to make it easier to
improve performance in the future, as more compact data structures and other
changes are seen as better suited for a successful migration to a just-in-
time (JIT) compiler. Because of the significant changes, the reworked Zend
Engine is called Zend Engine 3, succeeding Zend Engine 2 used in PHP 5.

Because of major internal changes in phpng, it must receive a new major


version number of PHP, rather than a minor PHP 5 release, according to PHP's
release process. Major versions of PHP are allowed to break backward-
compatibility of code and therefore PHP 7 presented an opportunity for other
improvements beyond phpng that require backward-compatibility breaks. In
particular, it involved the following changes:

 Many fatal- or recoverable-level legacy PHP error mechanisms were


replaced with modern object-oriented exceptions

 The syntax for variable dereferencing was reworked to be internally


more consistent and complete, allowing the use of the operators -
>, [], (), {}, and :: with arbitrary meaningful left-hand-side expressions

 Support for legacy PHP 4-style constructor methods was deprecated

 The behavior of the foreach statement was changed to be more


predictable

 Constructors for the few classes built-in to PHP which returned null
upon failure were changed to throw an exception instead, for consistency

 Several unmaintained or deprecated server application programming


interfaces (SAPIs) and extensions were removed from the PHP core, most
notably the legacy mysqlextension

 The behavior of the list() operator was changed to remove support for
strings

 Support for legacy ASP-style PHP code delimiters (<


% and %>, <script language=php> and </script>) was removed

 An oversight allowing a switch statement to have


multiple default clauses was fixed

 Support for hexadecimal number support in some implicit conversions


from strings to number types was removed.

 The left-shift and right-shift operators were changed to behave more


consistently across platforms
 Conversions between integers and floating point numbers were
tightened and implemented more consistently across platforms

PHP 7 also included new language features. Most notably, it introduces return
type declarations for functions which complement the existing parameter type
declarations, and support for the scalar types (integer, float, string, and
boolean) in parameter and return type declaration.

The original, only complete and most widely used PHP implementation is
powered by the Zend Engine and known simply as PHP. To disambiguate it
from other implementations, it is sometimes unofficially called "Zend PHP".
The Zend Engine compiles PHP source code on-the-fly into an internal format
that it can execute, thus it works as an interpreter. It is also the "reference
implementation" of PHP, as PHP has no formal specification, and so the
semantics of Zend PHP define the semantics of PHP. Due to the complex and
nuanced semantics of PHP, defined by how Zend works, it is difficult for
competing implementations to offer complete compatibility.

PHP's single-request-per-script-execution model, and the fact the Zend Engine


is an interpreter, leads to inefficiency; as a result, various products have been
developed to help improve PHP performance. In order to speed up execution
time and not have to compile the PHP source code every time the web page is
accessed, PHP scripts can also be deployed in the PHP engine's internal format
by using an opcode cache, which works by caching the compiled form of a
PHP script (opcodes) in shared memory to avoid the overhead
of parsing and compiling the code every time the script runs. An opcode
cache, Zend Opcache, is built into PHP since version 5.5. Another example of
a widely used opcode cache is the Alternative PHP Cache (APC), which is
available as a PECL extension.

While Zend PHP is still the most popular implementation, several other
implementations have been developed. Some of these are compilers or
support JIT compilation, and hence offer performance benefits over Zend PHP
at the expense of lacking full PHP compatibility. Alternative implementations
include the following:
 HHVM (HipHop Virtual Machine) – developed at Facebook and
available as open source, it converts PHP code into a high-level bytecode
(commonly known as an intermediate language), which is then translated
into x86-64 machine code dynamically at runtime by a just-in-time (JIT)
compiler, resulting in up to 6× performance improvements.

 Parrot – a virtual machine designed to run dynamic languages


efficiently; Pipp transforms the PHP source code into the Parrot
intermediate representation, which is then translated into the Parrot's
bytecode and executed by the virtual machine.

 Phalanger – compiles PHP into Common Intermediate Language (CIL)


bytecode

 Quercus – compiles PHP into Java bytecode

 HipHop – developed at Facebook and available as open source, it


transforms the PHP scripts into C++ code and then compiles the resulting
code, reducing the server load up to 50%. In early 2013, Facebook
deprecated it in favor of HHVM due to multiple reasons, including
deployment difficulties and lack of support for the whole PHP language,
including the create_function() and eval() constructs

PHP includes various free and open-source libraries in its source distribution,
or uses them in resulting PHP binary builds. PHP is fundamentally an Internet-
aware system with built-in modules for accessing File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
servers and many database servers, including PostgreSQL, MySQL, Microsoft
SQL Server and SQLite (which is an embedded database), LDAP servers, and
others. Numerous functions familiar to C programmers, such as those in
the stdio family, are available in standard PHP builds.

PHP allows developers to write extensions in C to add functionality to the PHP


language. PHP extensions can be compiled statically into PHP or loaded
dynamically at runtime. Numerous extensions have been written to add
support for the Windows API, process management on Unix-like operating
systems, multibyte strings (Unicode), cURL, and several popular compression
formats. Other PHP features made available through extensions include
integration with IRC, dynamic generation of images and Adobe
Flash content, PHP Data Objects (PDO) as an abstraction layer used for
accessing databases, and even speech synthesis. Some of the language's core
functions, such as those dealing with strings and arrays, are also implemented
as extensions. The PHP Extension Community Library (PECL) project is a
repository for extensions to the PHP language.

Some other projects, such as Zephir, provide the ability for PHP extensions to
be created in a high-level language and compiled into native PHP extensions.
Such an approach, instead of writing PHP extensions directly in C, simplifies
the development of extensions and reduces the time required for programming
and testing.

The PHP Group consists of ten people (as of 2015): Thies C. Arntzen, Stig
Bakken, Shane Caraveo, Andi Gutmans, Rasmus Lerdorf, Sam Ruby, Sascha
Schumann, Zeev Suraski, Jim Winstead, Andrei Zmievski.

Zend Technologies provides a PHP Certification based on PHP 5.5 exam for
programmers to become certified PHP developers.

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to server-


side web development, in which case PHP generally runs on a web server. Any
PHP code in a requested file is executed by the PHP runtime, usually to
create dynamic web page content or dynamic images used on websites or
elsewhere. It can also be used for command-line scripting and client-
side graphical user interface (GUI) applications. PHP can be deployed on most
web servers, many operating systems and platforms, and can be used with
many relational database management systems (RDBMS). Most web
hosting providers support PHP for use by their clients. It is available free of
charge, and the PHP Group provides the complete source code for users to
build, customize and extend for their own use.
Dynamic web page: example of server-side scripting (PHP and MySQL).

Fig.4 webpage to server

PHP acts primarily as a filter, taking input from a file or stream containing text
and/or PHP instructions and outputting another stream of data. Most
commonly the output will be HTML, although it could
be JSON, XML or binary data such as image or audio formats. Since PHP 4,
the PHP parser compiles input to produce bytecodefor processing by the Zend
Engine, giving improved performance over its interpreter predecessor.

Originally designed to create dynamic web pages, PHP now focuses mainly
on server-side scripting, and it is similar to other server-side scripting
languages that provide dynamic content from a web server to a client, such
as Microsoft's ASP.NET, Sun Microsystems' JavaServer Pages, and mod_perl.
PHP has also attracted the development of many software frameworks that
provide building blocks and a design structure to promote rapid application
development (RAD). Some of these
include PRADO, CakePHP, Symfony, CodeIgniter, Laravel, Yii
Framework, Phalcon and Zend Framework, offering features similar to
other web frameworks.

The LAMP architecture has become popular in the web industry as a way of
deploying web applications. PHP is commonly used as the P in this bundle
alongside Linux, Apache and MySQL, although the P may also refer
to Python, Perl, or some mix of the three. Similar
packages, WAMP and MAMP, are also available for Windows and OS X, with
the first letter standing for the respective operating system. Although both PHP
and Apache are provided as part of the Mac OS X base install, users of these
packages seek a simpler installation mechanism that can be more easily kept
up to date.
As of April 2007, over 20 million Internet domains had web services hosted on
servers with PHP installed and mod_php was recorded as the most
popular Apache HTTP Servermodule. As of June 2018, PHP was used as the
server-side programming language on 83.5% of websites where the language
could be determined. Web content management systems written in PHP
include MediaWiki, Joomla, eZ Publish, eZ Platform, SilverStripe,
WordPress, Drupal, and Moodle. Websites written in PHP, in back-end and/or
user-facing portion, include Facebook, Digg, Tumblr, Dailymotion, and Slack.
For specific and more advanced usage scenarios, PHP offers a well defined
and documented way for writing custom extensions in C or C++. Besides
extending the language itself in form of additional libraries, extensions are
providing a way for improving execution speed where it is critical and there is
room for improvements by using a true compiled language. PHP also offers
well defined ways for embedding itself into other software projects. That way
PHP can be easily used as an internal scripting language for another project,
also providing tight interfacing with the project's specific internal data
structures.

PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking support for multithreading at the
core language level, though using threads is made possible by the
"pthreads" PECLextension. As of January 2013, PHP was used in more than
240 million websites (39% of those sampled) and was installed on 2.1
million web servers.

A command line interface, php-cli, and two ActiveX Windows Script


Host scripting engines for PHP have been produced.
3.2.Features

PHP is first an interpreted scripting language (actually precompiled opcodes),


free, open source and distributed under a license authorizing the modification
and redistribution. PHP is supported on multiple operating systems. This is for
example the case of Microsoft Windows ™ versions as well as systems based
on UNIX base (Apple Mac OS X ™, Linux or Sun Solaris).

It will be very easy to move an application written in PHP an original


Windows server to a Linux server without having to modify (or very little).

With his wealth, PHP is not necessarily limited to the editing of dynamic web
pages. It can for example be used from the command line through the use of
the executable php. This use case then allows to execute scripts directly on the
machines. A PHP script would then be in favor of the machine. We can very
well imagine a PHP program that can remove a number of files in a folder. It
is even possible to couple the use of PHP with a manager like cron tasks a
Linux server.

PHP is also the ability to create heavy applications operating without server or
browser. That traditional applications, autonomous and with windows. All this
is done using the PHP GTK available at: http://gtk.php.net
Another highlight of PHP is its ability to interface easily with many relational
database management systems (RDBMS). Among them we can find MySQL,
Oracle, SQLite, MSSQL, PostgreSQL ... With these systems coupled to the
PHP language, it becomes possible to distribute applications across multiple
servers (Web server + database server). The second interest is to make it an
even more dynamic application. Indeed, the data (content) of the application is
now in the database and PHP will retrieve and manipulate them (processing
strings, check in files, generation of RSS feeds .. .).

The possibilities are many PHP and we will not detail them all because we
would stay there for hours. Nevertheless retain a list of its key capabilities:

• Handling a file system (create, edit, delete, access rights ...)


• Managing user sessions
• Generation and parsing XML documents through the SimpleXML library
• Generating images with GD2
• PDF generation
• Simplified access to databases with the PDO library
• Shell Command Execution
• E-mail management in POP and IMAP
• Compression and decompression of ZIP archives
• MD5 and SHA1 encryption
• LDAP Directory Management
• Manipulating dates
• URL manipulation
• Sending and reading cookies
• Dialogue with Java
• Using Ajax

The current version of PHP brings a great breath of fresh air to the language
and professional. The main lack was far too succinct its object model.
Developers are then addressed this issue and finally implemented a
programming model object close to the Java language. With such a model, still
hesitant to use PHP professionals are becoming more numerous. Applications
completely object also emerging and include a design pattern (design pattern)
MVC. Best known today are the frameworks Zend and Symfony respective
companies and Zend Technologies Sensio (French agency).

It is most popular and frequently used world wide scripting language, the
main reason of popularity is; It is open source and very simple.

 Simple

 Faster

 Interpreted

 Open Source

 Case Sensitive

 Simplicity

 Efficiency

 Platform Independent

 Security

 Flexibility

 Familiarity

 Error Reporting

 Loosely Typed Language

 Real-Time Access Monitoring

Simple

It is very simple and easy to use, compare to other scripting language it is


very simple and easy, this is widely used all over the world.

Interpreted

It is an interpreted language, i.e. there is no need for compilation.

Faster
It is faster than other scripting language e.g. asp and jsp.

Open Source

Open source means you no need to pay for use php, you can free download
and use.

Platform Independent

PHP code will be run on every platform, Linux, Unix, Mac OS X,


Windows.

Case Sensitive

PHP is case sensitive scripting language at time of variable declaration. In


PHP, all keywords (e.g. if, else, while, echo, etc.), classes, functions, and
user-defined functions are NOT case-sensitive.

Error Reporting

PHP have some predefined error reporting constants to generate a warning


or error notice.

Real-Time Access Monitoring

PHP provides access logging by creating the summary of recent accesses


for the user.

Loosely Typed Language

PHP supports variable usage without declaring its data type. It will be taken at
the time of the execution based on the type

.
3.3.Concepts

Fig.5 concept of online voting system

The PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is a programming language that allows web
developers to create dynamic content that interacts with databases. PHP is basically used for
developing web based software applications. We live in a democracy and voting is one of our
fundamental duties as responsible citizens of the country, but nowhere around the country a
100% people come to vote during the elections in their territory (country).

· There have been many reasons for that some of them are: In the rural areas the influential
people keep their men at the polling booths to threaten the common man to vote for them

· There are many portions of the country like the North East where there is locally sponsored
terrorism, at such places the security conditions are also not very bright, so naturally people
feel afraid to come out of their houses and go to vote

· Net savvy new generation want free voting system. Also the people in metros want a system
through which they can vote for their country without traveling.Keeping in mind these
situations and to improve the state of democracy in the country Online Polling System can be
thought as a solution, in conjunction with the ongoing current manual voting system.

Online registration for the voter id card which will be verified by the field officers (address
and identity validation) and after receiving the field officer's report only the registration will
be validated and a voter id will be issued (a photograph will have to be uploaded). You can
also think about any other secure method like digital signature. Those already having a voter
id card can register for the online voting system, they will use their voter id as their user name
and a separate password will be used for secure authentication. The election commission will
be able to use the site to let the candidates register for their nomination on the site and their
officers will validate it. Candidates can run their election campaign through forums or chat-
room. A detailed profile of all the candidates constituency wise will be maintained so that
voters can always know about the candidates of their area. Once registered when ever polling
is done in any area that areas' people will be able to vote for their favorite candidates. Later
when the voting ends the administrator can add the manual poling results to the database to
calculate the final results which will immediately be flashed on the site. Facilitate appropriate
communication between all stakeholders – Chat/Mails Candidates should be able to modify
selected portions of their profile after registration for nomination like the promises they make
about the things to do after winning the election, their previous works, their experiences and a
comprehensive about me, etc.

CODE SNIPPETS
USER VOTING
<script type="text/javascript">
function getVote(int)
{
if (window.XMLHttpRequest)
{// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();
}
else
{// code for IE6, IE5
xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
}
if(confirm("Your vote is for "+int))
{
xmlhttp.open("GET","save.php?vote="+int,true);
xmlhttp.send();
}
else
{
alert("Choose another candidate ");
}
}
function getPosition(String)
{
if (window.XMLHttpRequest)
{// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();
}
else
{// code for IE6, IE5
xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
}
xmlhttp.open("GET","vote.php?position="+String,true);
xmlhttp.send();
}
</script>
<script type="text/javascript">
$(document).ready(function(){
var j = jQuery.noConflict();
j(document).ready(function()
{
j(".refresh").everyTime(1000,function(i){
j.ajax({
url: "admin/refresh.php",
cache: false,
success: function(html){
j(".refresh").html(html);
}
})
})
});
j('.refresh').css({color:"green"});
});
</script>
MANAGE CANDIDATES
?>
<?php
// inserting sql query
if (isset($_POST['Submit']))
{
$newCandidateName = addslashes( $_POST['name'] ); //prevents types of SQL injection
$newCandidatePosition = addslashes( $_POST['position'] ); //prevents types of SQL injection
$sql = mysql_query( "INSERT INTO tbCandidates(candidate_name,candidate_position)
VALUES ('$newCandidateName','$newCandidatePosition')" )
or die("Could not insert candidate at the moment". mysql_error() );
// redirect back to candidates
header("Location: candidates.php");
}
?>
WEBPAGES

Fig 6.1: Administrator login


Fig6.2:ManageCandidates
Fig6.3:Uservoting
Fig 6.4: Results
3.4.Applications

Every business wants to make a splash on the web. Due to some or the other constraints they
end up purchasing a WordPress or some other template to enjoy the ease of web development
in the least possible price. If you really want your business to perform better then you should
hire professional web designers and avail their website development services that help your
business grow and guarantee better return on investment. There are numerous benefits
associated with choosing professional web development services. Some of the major benefits
have been discussed below. Professional Appeal The professional web designers are experts
in imparting a professional look to your website. From layouts to color schemes; from
content to navigation; they take care of every aspect of your website to ensure that it looks
professional.

Organized and Structured Website developed by experienced web developers is very finely
organized and structured both from the front-end and the back-end. It is helpful in easy
management and maintenance of site. A site which is well organized helps in motivating the
visitors to explore it further by spending some more time on the web pages.Unique and
Customized Look Having a team of professionals working on your site, you can be sure of
the originality appeal of your site which is customized as per the requirements of your
business. They make sure that the site is a perfect reflection of your business in every
possible manner.

Better Navigation and User Experience A site developed by experts has a smooth and
intuitive navigation which makes it very comfortable for browsing and ensures a pleasant
user experience. A great web experience works as a compelling factor for users to keep
visiting your site again and again. Easy to Modify With time many changes take place. A
website designed by professionals is easy to update and modify as and when needed. If you
have hired professional designers to accomplish the task of web development for your
business in the initial stage then editing and updating the content on the regular basis can be
done very easily without any technical help.
No Maintenance Issues You do not need to worry about the maintenance of your website as
the experts are there to take care of your site. And as the site is designed and developed the
professional way, the chances of everyday issues emerging are lesser. Long-Term Benefits A
company which has got it website designed from experienced experts reaps many benefits in
future. The site actually gets better return on investments and shows gradual increase in
traffic, organic ranks and sales which are very important for the survival of any site. Though
the investment involved in the initial stage is not a small amount but a website developed by
experienced and professional experts can lay a strong foundation for your online business.

These are some of the advantages attached with hiring professional designers and developers
for having a better performing website which promises to be competitive enough to survive
the fierce competitions in the web market.
Students take advantage of total immersion in the latest technologies and techniques. This
enables them to develop effective approaches and styles to solving a broad range of
challenges. Effective web design concepts solve the needs of both businesses and consumers
in a creative way.

However, it is becoming common for aspiring web designers to skip school in favor of
acquiring knowledge through free online resources. The significant costs of attending school
often compel individuals to weigh the benefits of enrolling for a formal course.

On the other hand, top schools offer flexible training options, including web-based and
instructor-led classes. Fee-based online education is a more affordable option. It comes with
the added benefit of obtaining a recognized qualification from accredited institutions. You can
learn at your own pace. Interaction with instructors is conducted through email, live chats,
and video conferences.

A web design degree provides a sure-fire way to stand out from the crowd. A combination of
work experience and formal education allows you to earn higher salaries than self-taught
designers. Many companies require a degree for candidates to be considered for web design
positions. This means graduates are eligible to more job opportunities.

IT schools offer programs that cover the latest technologies and trends. As a result, you gain
up-to-date knowledge, which helps you stay at the top of your game. The institutions
combine a variety of subjects in their core and elective curriculum. The extensive selection of
subjects includes web client scripting, introduction to psychology, introduction to business,
principles of communication, and more.
3.5 Future Scope:

Today the world is dominated by web. Every business is now conducted globally using the
web. In this digital world, the online presence on the web is very important for every
organization to advertise, promote and sell their products and services to worldwide user.

But the question is:

How this can be done?

How online marketing or web presence can play a huge role in the overall business of an
organization?

The answer to the above question is having an online presence; by having a professional
website that represents the company’s overall profile and business.

If you’re someone who is interested in computers, then you can choose various courses
ranging from short term certificate courses to degree level courses. There are various areas
where you can work in a Computer field. Web designing or web development is one such
field.

The person who deals with the creation of websites and web application is known as a web
designer or web developer. The best part of being a web developer is that they are employed
by almost every organization and they can even work independently as a freelancer.

SCOPE:

Web designing or web development is a short term professional job oriented course. There
are huge opportunities available for the students who want to work in this field. Many private
and public organizations hires web designer for their online work and website development.
With the rapid advent of online industry, the demand of web development professionals is
increasing and this has created a huge job opportunities for the aspirants in the upcoming
days.

Also an experienced person in this field can also work as a freelancer; there are many online
companies which provide online projects to the individuals.
After getting enough information about this field, you may be wondering how “I can become
a web designer”? To answer all your doubts here is the answer:

There are various short term courses that one can pursue in order to become a web designer;
these courses can range from 6 months to one year. In these courses you will be learning
about the basic of web designing and online business, the subjects and languages you will
learn in this course include HTML, CSS, Php, Photoshop, Dreamweaver, Word press, Joomla,
and Magneto.

Once you will become a master in this field, you will be able to work with most of the
reputed companies. It is easy to make your career after completion of your degree. A little bit
of hard work and self confidence is enough to become a successful web designer.

“Web Designing has a vast scope with the booming IT industry not in India but also in
abroad”.

After completing your web designing course, you can work in a web designing company or
you can work as a freelancer. There are thousands of companies that hire web developer for
their front end and back end web development projects. Also you can work independently as
a web designer and setup your own enterprise. The major career fields in this field include:

Front end Developer: The front end developer generally works at client side dealing with
the web page design, graphics that is accessible to the user.

Back end Developer: The back end developer is a person who is responsible for the back
end development that interacts with the server. This type of web developer specializes in the
languages like Php, ruby, ASP.Net, Java, Cold Fusion, and Perl.

You can also work in education industry.

The job profiles for the web developer includes:


 Front end web developer
 Back end web developer
 Web application developer
 Design and layout analyst
 Senior web analyst
 Web marketing analyst
Job Areas:
 IT Companies
 Advertising Agencies
 Audio-Visual Media Agencies
 Publishing Houses
 Marketing Firms
 Institutions
 Design Studio
Recruiters:
 IDC Technologies Solutions India Pvt Ltd
 HCL
 Infosys
 Wipro
 IIM
 ORACLE
 Conizant
 Netcracker
 Quislex
 Lava
 Mindteck
 Virtusa
Salary:

The salary of a web designer vary from company to company, if you are a fresher working in
this field then you may get a starting salary of 10000 to 25000 per month. After some
experience you can easily make anywhere between 25000 to 40000 per month. There are
many professional web designers who earn a six figure income.

In Abroad, as a web designer you can earn $71,714 per year.


Conclusion

One of the main advantage of internship is the biggest benefit of internships is that they
offer a safe space for students and graduates to gain work experience. This is important
because most employers are reluctant to hire someone who’s never worked before; they
think that with no experience, you’ll probably be unreliable and not know what to do or
how to work. Of course, this creates a vicious circle with no way out which is why lots of
graduates end up in completely unrelated fields. I worked as a Software Trainee-intern in
DLK technologies from 04th June to 14th June 2018`. In this Internship I got equipped
myself and got a bright vision on what society needs from as an engineer when I am
graduated, and also got a understanding of how the society is and what and all basic
requirement a company or organization while developing a website of them. During the
period of internship I surveyed many websites and content in different websites so as to
make the website more users friendly and eliminate the bugs in the websites. A main
principle of web content developer is that it allows a non-technical people to make
changes on their websites without having much technical knowledge.