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Geotechnical Investigation of Black Cotton Soils

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

Geotechnical Investigation of Black Cotton Soils


Vinayak Kaushal Dr. S.P.Guleria
BTech. Final Year Student, Deptt. of Civil Engineering Head, Deptt. of Civil Engineering
Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College
Sundernagar, India Sundernagar, India
E-mail:vinayakkaushal4449@gmail.com E-mail:spguleria@yahoo.com

Abstract— Black cotton soils for the study were derived from constructions very difficult. The properties of the black
Indrasagar Rockfill Dam, Polavaram, Andhra Pradesh (India) cotton soil may be altered in many ways viz, mechanical
from a depth of 1m, 1.2 m and 1.5 meters. Physical and thermal, chemical and other means. Therefore, it becomes
geotechnical properties of the soil samples were studied in the very important to investigate the physical and engineering
laboratory. The tests conducted were grain size analysis, specific
properties associated with the black cotton soil especially
gravity, atterberg’s limits, standard Proctor compaction,
consolidation and direct shear test. Results as obtained were involved as a construction material and for foundation
compared with the Indian standard code. Further, relationships purposes. In the present study, three black cotton soils
of plasticity index with liquid Limit and optimum moisture specimens derived from depth of 1 to 1.5 m were studied in
content, compression index with liquid limit, optimum moisture the laboratory for investigation of physical and engineering
content and plasticity index, angle of internal friction with properties. The various tests like grain size analysis, specific
plasticity index were also derived. The test results have shown gravity, atterberg’s limits, standard proctor compaction,
that increase in the clay content in the black cotton soil attributes consolidation and direct shear test were conducted on the
an increase in the plasticity index. Beside this, with the increase soil specimens. Further, results were compared with the
in optimum moisture content, an increase in the plasticity index,
Indian Standard Code. Empirical models with the help of
compression index, liquid limit were also observed. The study
reveals that increase in the plasticity index induces decrease in regression analysis developed in this study can improve the
the angle of internal friction. The empirical models with the help understanding of parameters involved for describing the
of regression analysis were also suggested for the benefit of field characteristics of black cotton soil having medium plasticity
engineers for prediction of geotechnical properties of black and its use as construction material in roads and foundation
cotton soil. purpose for the site engineers.
II. BACKGROUND
Keywords- black cotton soil, geotechnical, specific gravity,
[3] Chen (1975) concluded in their studies that expansive
atterberg’s limit, dry density, plasticity index.
soils or Black Cotton Soils are normally found in semi –
arid regions of tropical and temperate climate zones. They
further highlighted that such soil exist in abundant in those
I. INTRODUCTION areas, where the annual evaporation exceeds the
[1] In India, Black cotton soils form a major soil group and precipitation.It was further stressed in the study that sticky
cover approximately 20% of the total area and are most plastic nature of black cotton soils particles causes them to
commonly available soil at all places Seehra (2008). It is pack up under wheels, animal’s feet and clog cultivation
mostly found in central and western parts in India. Black implements. They make the soil extremely difficult to
cotton soil is characterized as medium to high extract or dislodge.The cracks measuring 70 mm wide and
compressibility and plasticity, high shrinkage and swelling over 1 m deep were observed. The study has shown that
properties. Black cotton soil is also referred as expansive these cracks can extend up to 3m or more in case of high
soils with this reason; therefore its geotechnical properties deposits. [1]Seehra (2008) highlighted in his study that high
are required to be investigated before allowing any swelling and shrinkage characteristics of the Black cotton
construction above it. The mineralogy of this soil is soils are a challenge to the highway engineers. [4]Al-
dominated by the presence of montmorillonite which is Khafaji and Andersland (1992) concluded that the liquid
characterized by large volume change from wet to dry limit can be considered to be a measure of the quantity of
seasons and vice versa. [2] Rajakumar (2014). Black cotton water attracted by these particles for a given value of
soil also facilitates compaction for obtaining the desired undrained shear strength thus making it possible to correlate
density with comparatively less compactive effort. Due to this parameter with the compressibility.Study has also
peculiar characteristics of Black Cotton Soil, it forms a revealed that the black cotton soil is very hard when dry, but
very poor foundation material for road construction. The loses its strength completely, in wet condition. Study has
black cotton soils also possess low strength and undergo shown that 40 to 60% of black cotton soil has a size less
excessive volume changes, making their use in than 0.001 mm. Compaction characteristics are very much

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

essential for the field considerations. [5]Similar trend for placed in the polythene covers. The various laboratory tests
clays was observed by (Terzaghi and Peck 1967, Bowles as mentioned in the Table 2 as per Indian standard code
1996)[6] and Pal and Ghosh (2011) in case of fly ash[7]. were conducted on the soil specimens.
Plasticity index of any soil depends up on the water
TABLE II. IS Codes Used
attraction capacity of that soil.
Tests Performed IS Code Used
III. SOIL USED AND EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Grain Size Analysis IS:2720 (Part 4)-1985
The black cotton soil for the present study was procured
from Indrasagar Rockfill Dam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The Atterberg’s Limit Test IS:2720 (Part 5)-1985
Table 1 shows the codification for the soil used in study.
Further, Fig.1 (a,b,c) shows the photograph of the soil Specific Gravity IS:2720 (Part 3)- 1980
specimens derived from the depth of 1m, 1.2 m and 1.5 m,
respectively. Standard Proctor Compaction IS:2720 (Part 29) -1975
TABLE I. Codification of Soil Used in the Study Test
Soil Depth
Direct Shear Test IS:2720 (Part 13) -1986
A 1.0 m
B 1.2 m
Consolidation IS:2720 (Part15) -1965
C 1.5 m

Classification and IS:1498-1970


Identification of Soils for
General Engineering
Purposes[14]

IV. RESULTS
1. Physical Properties
1.1 Grain Size Analysis
[8]Grain Size Analysis Test was conducted as per IS:
(a) (b) 2720 (Part 4)-1985 Fig.2 shows the particle size distribution
of A, B and C soils. Fig.2 reveals that at point W
(observation at 0.003 mm), close lines corresponding to soil
specimens A, B and C were observed. It reveals that all the
soil specimens almost retain almost same percentage of clay
particles. Further, at point X (corresponding to point 0.006),
the percentage of silt retained was on higher side in case of
Soil A and lowest in case of Soil C. As we move further at
point Y (corresponding to pont 0.6), maximum percentage
of fine sand has been found in soil C and minimum for Soil
A. Beside that at point Z (corresponding to point 3.1),
percentage of medium sand retained was maximum for Soil
(c) B and minimum for Soil A. The results of particle size
present in Soil A, B, C have also been shown in the Table3
Fig.1. (a), (b), (c) shows the photographs of samples of black cotton soils .Further, investigation of Black Cotton Soils A, B and C
A,B,C. was carried out with the help of Atterberg’s limit tests and
are discussed in section 1.2.
The specimens were extracted from the ground with the help
of auger. Further, to avoid any change in moisture content
arising due to increase or decrease in the atmospheric
temperature, the specimens as derived were immediately

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

the recommended values of LL is between 35-50%,PL is


below 40 % and PI greater than 10 %.Therefore, the values
of atterberg’s limits found in Table 4 are within the
permissible limits.

TABLE IV. Observed and Recommended Values of Atterberg’s limit for


Black Cotton Soils A, B, C
Atterberg’s Soil A Soil B Soil C Recommended
Limit values as per IS
1498-1970

Liquid Limit 48.66 40.8 38.2 35-50

Plastic Limit 26.61 20.3 18.2 Less than or equal


to 40

Plasticity Index 22.08 20.5 20 Greater than 10

1.3 Specific Gravity


[10]Specific Gravity Test was carried as per IS: 2720 (Part
3)- 1980. Table 5 shows the values of specific gravity for
Fig.2. Particle Size Distribution Curve for three black cotton soils A, B, C
the soil A, B and C. A close examination of Table 5 reveals
TABLE III. Results of Particle Size Analysis of Black Cotton Soils that the observed value of specific gravity was on higher
Particle Size Soil A Soil B Soil C side for Soil A as compared to the values for soil
specimens B and C .For example, value of specific gravity
for soil A was found to be 2.76 for soil A, whereas the
Medium Sand 0.1 2.6 0.8 observed values of specific gravity for soil specimens B and
C was found to be 2.70 and 2.68 respectively. As per IS
Fine Sand 15.31 6.4 16.9 1498-1970), the recommended value of specific gravity is
2.72.Therfore,the values of specific gravity found in Table 5
for soil samples A,B and C are within the permissible limits.
Silt 58.5 48.4 52.6
TABLE V. Observed and Recommended Values of Specific Gravity for the
Black Cotton Soils.
Clay 26.1 32.6 29.7 Property Soil A Soil B Soil C Recommended
Values as per IS
1498-1970

Specific 2.76 2.70 2.68 2.72


1.2 Atterberg’s Limit Gravity
[9]Atterberg’s Limit Test was carried out as per IS:2720
(Part 5)-1985.Table 4 shows the observed and
recommended values of Atterberg’s limit corresponding to 2. Engineering Properties
the soil specimens A, B, C. A close examination of Table 4 2.1 Standard Proctor Compaction
reveals that value of liquid limit was on higher side for the [11] Standard Proctor compaction test was carried out as
soil specimen A than B and C. For example, value of liquid per IS:2720 (Part 29) -1975for different percentage of
limit for soil A was found to be 48.66 %, and for B and C as moisture content. The corresponding values of dry density
40.8 and 38.2 respectively. Further examination of Table 4 were observed for the 10 %, 12%, 14%, 16% and 18%
reveals that plastic limit was on higher side for the Soil A. moisture content in the soil specimens A, B and C. Table 6
For example, value of plastic limit for soil A was found to shows the values of maximum dry density corresponding to
be 26.61%, and for B and C as 20.3 and 18.2 respectively. the optimum moisture content for the soil A, B and C. A
Further, Table 4 reveals the corresponding values of Plastic close examination of Table 6 reveals that value of maximum
Indices (PI) for the soil sample A, B and C. For example, dry density corresponding to optimum moisture content was
for soil A, value of PI was found to be 22.08 and for soil B higher for the Soil specimen A than B and C. For example,
and C to be 20.5 and 20 respectively. As per IS 1498-1970, the corresponding value of maximum dry density for soil A

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

was specimen 1.92 g/cc in comparison to 1.71g/cc and 1.67 observed to be 28.800 and 26.400 respectively. Further,
g/cc for soil specimens B and c, respectively. Further Table 7 reveals that value of cohesion was on higher side for
examination of Table 6, reveals that optimum moisture the soil specimen A as compared to soil B and soil C. For
content was on higher side for the soil A than B and C. For example, a value of cohesion of soil specimen A was 18,
example, corresponding optimum moisture content of soil whereas for the soil specimens B and C the values were
specimen for Soil A was 19.6 %, whereas for soil specimens observed to be 16.2 and 14.5 respectively. As per IS 1498-
B and C the values of corresponding moisture content were 1970 the recommended range for the values of angle of
17.7 % and 17.2 %, respectively. The variation of maximum internal friction and cohesion are 25-35 and 12-24
dry density corresponding to optimum moisture content in respectively. Therefore, the values of angle of internal
respect of Soil specimens A, B and C is also shown in Fig.3. friction and cohesion for soil samples A, B and C found in
As per IS 1498-1970, the recommended values of OMC and the Table 7 are within the permissible limits.
MDD is 21 % and 1.92 g/cc respectively. Therefore, the
values of OMC and MDD for soil samples A,B and C TABLE VII. Observed and Recommended Values of Angle of Internal
Friction (ɸ) and Cohesion (C) for Black Cotton Soils A,B,C
found in the Table 6 are within the permissible limits.
Property Soil A Soil B Soil C Recommended
Values as per IS
1498-1970

Angle of 26.400 28.800 30.200 25-35


Internal
Friction
(degree)

Cohesion 18 16.2 14.5 12-24


(KN/m2 )

2.2 Consolidation
[13] Consolidation Test was carried out as per IS:2720
(Part15) -1965. Table 8 shows the values of compression
index for the soil samples A, B and C. A close examination
of Table 8 reveals that values of compression index (Cc) for
soil specimen A was on higher side as compared to the soil
specimens B and C. For example, value of compression
Fig.3. Relation between Dry Density (g/cc) and Moisture Content (%) of
Black Cotton Soils A, B and C index for soil A was observed to be 0.338, whereas the
values for soil B and C were recorded to be as 0.2772 and
TABLE VI. Observed and Recommended Values of Optimum Moisture 0.2538, respectively. Further, as per IS 1498-1970, the
Content and Maximum Dry Density for Black Cotton Soils A,B,C recommended range for the values of compression index is
Property Soil A Soil B Soil C Recommended
Values as per IS between 0.225-0.360. It shows that the observed values of
1498-1970 compression index are within the permissible limits.

Optimum 19.6 17.7 17.2 Up to 21% TABLE VIII. Observed and Recommended Values of Compression Indices
Moisture for Black Cotton Soils A,B,C
Content Property Soil A Soil B Soil C Recommended
Values as per IS
1498-1970
Maximum 1.92 1.71 1.67 1.92
Dry Density Compression 0.3380 0.2772 0.2538 0.225-0.360
Index

2.2Direct Shear Test


V. DISCUSSION
[12] Direct Shear Test was carried out as per IS: 2720 (Part
13) -1986. Table 7 shows the values of angle of internal It can be concluded from above that soil specimens A, B
friction and cohesion for the soil specimens A, B and C. A and C retain almost same percentage of clay particles and
close examination of Table 7 reveals that value of angle of have medium range of plastic indices. Further, as observed
friction was on higher side for the soil specimen C than B liquid limit of soil specimen A was found to be higher than
and A. For example, value of angle of internal friction for the soil specimen B and C. On similar lines, it was also
soil C was 30.200 whereas for Soil B and A the values were observed that plastic limit of soil specimen A was higher

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

than B and C. It reveals that increase in liquid limit In this study, empirical relationship through regression
attributes increase in the plasticity index for the black cotton analysis was derived to predict Optimum Moisture Content
soils. The specific Gravity and dry density of the soil (OMC) on the basis of known Plasticity Index (PI) values
samples A was found to be higher than soil sample B and C. for the soil. The STATICA software was used to drive the
Contrary to this, the value of value of angle of internal empirical relationship. The Equation 2 shows the
friction of soil specimen C was observed to be higher than relationship between optimum moisture content (OMC)
soil specimens B and A. Whereas, cohesion and with the variation of plasticity index (PI).
compression index were observed to on higher side for the OMC = 1.163 PI- 6.111 Eq. (2)
soil specimen A than B and C. The corresponding value of coefficient of determination
(R2) was 0.998. Further, in order to validate the results of
VI. CORRELATIONS OF PARAMETERS model as obtained, the predicted values were computed with
1. Relationship between Plasticity Index (PI) and Liquid the help of empirical model. The Fig. 5 shows the plot
Limit (LL) of Soil between predicted values of Optimum Moisture Content
In this study, empirical relationship through regression (OMC) for the soil specimens A, B and C. It can be seen
analysis was derived to predict Plasticity Index (PI) on the from the Fig.5 that the predicted values of Optimum
basis of known liquid limit (LL) values for the soil. The Moisture Content (OMC) as computed with the help of
STATICA software was used to drive the empirical suggested empirical model were very close to the
relationship. The Equation 1 shows the relationship between experimental value. For example, from Fig.5 for soil
optimum moisture content (OMC) with the variation of specimen A, the predicted value of optimum moisture
liquid limit (LL) content (OMC) as computed with the help of empirical
PI = 0.199 LL + 12.37 Eq. (1) model was 19.56 % in comparison to an experimental value
The corresponding value of coefficient of determination of 19.6 %. Similar close values as evident from Fig.5 were
(R2) was 0.999. Further, in order to validate the results of also observed for the soil specimens B and C.
model, the predicted values were computed with the help of 3. Relationship between Compression Index (Cc) and
empirical model. The Fig.4 shows the plot between Liquid Limit (LL) of Soil
predicted values of plasticity index with experimental values In this study, empirical relationship through regression
for the soil specimens A, B and C. It can be seen from the analysis was derived to predict Compression Index (Cc) on
Fig.4 that the predicted values of plasticity index as the basis of known liquid limit (LL) values for the soil. The
computed with the help of suggested empirical model are STATICA software was used to drive the empirical
very close to the experimental value. For example, from relationship. The Equation 3 shows the relationship between
Fig.4, for soil specimen A, the predicted value of plasticity compression index (Cc) with the variation of liquid limit
index as computed with the help of empirical model was (LL)
22.053% in comparison to an experimental value of 22.08%. Cc=0.008 LL-0.049 Eq. (3)
Similar close values as evident from Fig.4 were also
observed for the soil specimens B and C.

Fig.4.Experimental and Predicted Value of Plasticity Index (PI) for Soils A,


B and C
Fig.5. Experimental and Predicted Value of OMC for Soils A, B and C
2. Relationship between Optimum Moisture Content
(OMC) and Plasticity Index (PI) of Soil

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

The corresponding values of coefficient of determination as computed with the help of empirical model was 0.334 in
(R2) was 0.999.Further, in order to validate the results of comparison to an experimental value of 0.338. Similar close
model as obtained, the predicted values were computed with values as evident from Fig.7 were also observed for the soil
the help of empirical model. The Fig.6 shows the plot specimens B and C.
between predicted values of Compression Index (Cc) for the
soil specimens A, B and C. It can be seen from the Fig.6
that the predicted values of Compression Index (Cc) as
computed with the help of suggested empirical model are
very close to the experimental value. For example, from
Fig.6 for soil specimen A, the predicted value of
Compression Index (Cc) as computed with the help of
empirical model was 0.3402 in comparison to an
experimental value of 0.338. Similar close values as evident
from Fig.6 were also observed for the soil specimens B and
C.

Fig.7. Experimental and Predicted Value of Compression Index( Cc) for


Soils A, B and C

5. Relationship between Compression Index (Cc) and


Plasticity Index (PI) of Soil
In this study, empirical relationship through regression
analysis was derived to predict Compression Index (Cc) on
the basis of known plastic index (PI) values for the soil. The
STATICA software was used to drive the empirical
relationship. The Equation 5 shows the relationship between
compression index (Cc) with the variation of plasticity
index (PI)
Cc=0.041PI-0.569 Eq.(5)
The corresponding values of coefficient of determination
Fig.6. Experimental and Predicted Value of Compression Index(Cc) for (R2) was 0.991.Further, in order to validate the results of
Soils A, B and C
model as obtained, the predicted values were computed with
4. Relationship between Compression Index (Cc) and the help of empirical model. The Fig.8 shows the plot
Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) of Soil between predicted values of compression index for the soil
In this study, empirical relationship through regression specimens A, B and C. It can be seen from the Fig.8 that the
analysis was derived to predict Compression Index (Cc) on predicted values of compression index as computed with the
the basis of known Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) help of suggested empirical model are very close to the
values for the soil. The STATICA software was used to experimental value. For example, from Fig.8 for soil
drive the empirical relationship. The Equation 4 shows the specimen A, the predicted value of Compression Index (Cc)
relationship between compression index (Cc) with the as computed with the help of empirical model was 0.336 in
variation of optimum moisture content (OMC). comparison to an experimental value of 0.338. Similar close
Cc=0.034 OMC- 0.332 Eq. (4) values as evident from Fig.8 were also observed for the soil
The corresponding values of coefficient of determination specimens B and C.
(R2) was 0.994.Further, in order to validate the results of
model as obtained, the predicted values were computed with
the help of empirical model. The Fig. 7 shows the plot
between predicted values of Compression Index for the soil
specimens A, B and C. It can be seen from the Fig.7 that the
predicted values of compression Index as computed with the
help of suggested empirical model are very close to the
experimental value. For example, from Fig.7 for soil
specimen A, the predicted value of Compression Index (Cc)

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

Fig.9. Experimental and Predicted Value of Angle of Internal Friction


Fig.8. Experimental and Predicted Value of Compression Index(Cc) for (degree) for Soils A, B and C
Soils A, B and C

6. Relationship between Angle of Internal Friction (ɸ) VII. CONCLUSIONS


and Plasticity Index (PI) of Soil Black cotton soils for the study were derived from
In this study, empirical relationship through regression Indrasagar Rockfill Dam, Polavaram, Andhra Pradesh
analysis was derived to predict angle of internal friction (ɸ) (India) from a depth of 1m, 1.2 m and 1.5 meters. Physical
on the basis of known plastic index (PI) values for the soil. and geotechnical properties of the soil samples were studied
The STATICA software was used to drive the empirical in the laboratory. The test conducted were grain size
relationship. The Equation 6 shows the relationship between analysis, specific gravity, atterberg’s limits, standard Proctor
angle of internal friction (ɸ) with the variation of plasticity compaction, consolidation and direct shear test. Results as
index (PI) obtained were compared with the Indian standard code.
ɸ= -1.821PI+66.61 Eq.(6) Further, relationships of plasticity index with liquid Limit
The corresponding values of coefficient of determination and optimum moisture content, compression index with
(R2) and error as in case of soil specimen B was 0.999 and liquid limit, optimum moisture content and plasticity index,
1.635 respectively. Further, in order to validate the results of angle of internal friction with plasticity index were also
model as obtained, the predicted values were computed with derived.
the help of empirical model. The Fig. 9 shows the plot Based on the above test results and discussions the
between predicted values of angle of internal friction for the following conclusion can be derived:
soil specimens A, B and C. It can be seen from the Fig.9 1. The increase in the clay content and liquid limit in
that the predicted values of angle of internal friction as the black cotton soil attributes an increase in the
computed with the help of suggested empirical model are plasticity index.
very close to the experimental value. For example, from 2. Soil specimens A, B and C retain almost same
Fig.9 for soil specimen A, the predicted value of angle of percentage of clay particles and have medium
internal friction as computed with the help of empirical range of plastic indices.
model was 26.4020 in comparison to an experimental value 3. Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Specific Gravity and Dry
of 26.40. Similar close values as evident from Fig.9 were Density of soil specimen A was found to be higher
also observed for the soil specimens B and C. than the soil specimen B and C.
4. The value of value of angle of internal friction of
soil specimen C was observed to be higher than
soil specimens B and A. The value of cohesion and
compression index was observed to on higher side
for the soil specimen A than soil specimens B and
C.
5. Predicted values of the parameters viz. Plasticity
index (PI), Optimum Moisture Content (OMC),
Compression Index (Cc) and Angle of Internal

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International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences Vol.5, Issue 2, April, 2015

Friction (ɸ) for the soil specimens A, B and C from


empirical models derived through regression
analysis were observed to be very close to the
experimental values.
6. The increase in the optimum moisture content
attributes an increase in the plasticity index,
compression index and liquid limit.
7. Increase in the plasticity index induces decrease in
the angle of internal friction and the compaction
Characteristics were observed to be fair with fair
workability as construction material for black
cotton soils.
VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors are thankful to the Director Central Soil and
Materials Research Station (CSMRS), New Delhi, India for
every support and services provided.
REFERENCES
[1] Seehra (2008) “Practical Problems of Highway Construction
in Black Cotton Soil Areas and In-Place Remedial Measures:”
A Case Study
[2] Rajakumar (2014) “California bearing ratio of expansive Sub
grade stabilized with waste materials” International Journal
of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering Vol.
03, No. 01, January 2014
[3] Chen, F. H. (1975) Foundations on Expansive Soils, Elsevier
Scientific Pub. Co. Amsterdam.Adeniji, F. A. (1991)
“Recharge function of vertisolic vadose Zone in sub-sahelian
Chad Basin”. Proceeding Ist International Conference on Arid
Zone Ideology Hydrology and water resources, Maduguri, pp.
331 – 348.
[4] Al-Khafaji, A. W. N., and Andersland, O. B. (1992).
“Equations for compression index approximation,” Journal of
Geotechnical Engg., ASCE, 118(1), 148–153.
[5] Terzaghi, K. and Peck R.B. (1967) “Soil mechanics in
engineering practice” 2nd edn. Wiley, New York.
[6] Bowles, J. E. (1996). “Physical and geotechnical properties of
soils,” McGraw-Hill international editions.
[7] Pal, S.K and Ghosh, A (2011) “Compaction and hydraulic
conductivity characteristic of Indian fly ash,” Indian
geotechnical conference, December 2011, Kochi, P-773-776
[8] IS:2720 (Part 4)-1985 “Code of practice for Grain Size
Analysis”
[9] IS:2720 (Part 5)-1985 “Code of practice for Determination of
Liquid and Plastic Limit”
[10] IS: 2720 (Part 3) -1980 “Code of practice for determination of
Dry Density”
[11] IS: 2720 (Part 29) -1975 “Code of practice for Standard
Proctor Test”.
[12] IS: 2720 (Part 13)-1986 “Code of practice for Direct Shear
Test”
[13] IS: 2720 (Part 15) - 1965 “Code of practice for Determination
of Consolidation Properties”.
[14] IS:1498-1970 “Classification and Identification of Soils for
General Engineering Purposes”

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