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102098 - Contemporary Teacher Leadership

Professional report – Unit of work evaluation


By My Y Lay Nguyen 17644671
102098 - Contemporary Teacher Leadership

Table of Contents

Executive summery ............................................................................................................................... 3

Objective ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

Context ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

Goal ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

Background information ...................................................................................................................... 5

Comparative table ................................................................................................................................. 6

Recommendation................................................................................................................................... 9

Reconstructed Unit outline ................................................................................................................. 13

Scope and sequence ..................................................................................................................................... 13

Concept map ................................................................................................................................................ 14

Assessment task and marking criteria ...................................................................................................... 15

Redesigned unit outline............................................................................................................................... 15

References ........................................................................................................................................... 21

Appendices of original documents ..................................................................................................... 23

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Executive summery

Objective

The objective of this report is to evaluate an English stage 4 unit of work, provided by the

Cabramatta High School, located in Western Sydney. A critical evaluation will be made to the unit

of work to make recommendations and adjustments to achieve relevance and meaningful for

students’ learning outcome. To improve the design of the unit, the adjustments will align with the

Understanding by Design (UbD) framework with the focus on improving literacy and numeracy

skills, critical and creative thinking skill and social and personal capabilities. The suggested

modification of the unit is created with the consideration of research-based strategies and the school

context to achieve goals for students that could be applied to all aspect of life.

Context

This unit of work was focused on the subject of “Tell Me a Story” taught during term 2 of school. It

was taught in a Year 7 English classroom with higher streamed students. Due to their achievement in

the STEM area, they were placed in this particular class. While the class consisted primarily of

students from a lower socioeconomic background where their family are identified as LBOTE, their

abilities are on the higher end of the spectrum with students above the average. However, this class

did not consist of any gifted and talented students or low achieving students.

Goal

The goals of this report are to make recommendations based on the following outcome;

- Incorporate literacy skill that is meaningful for the students

- Incorporate certain aspect within an English lesson to enhance numeracy skills

- Promote critical and creative thinking so students can apply to all aspects of life

- Provide an environment that will promote pro-social behaviour, enabling social and

personal capabilities
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- Implement the UbD framework throughout the outline, in order to prepare students for

their assessment task and also build skills that that can be applied to all aspect of life.

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Background information

Cabramatta High School is located in the western Sydney region, with a multicultural community.

This school is a co-educational comprehensive school with an Intensive English Centre located on

site, with dedicated staffs that specialise in ESL teaching (MySchool, 2018). There are

approximately 1340 students enrolled with 97% of students identified as LBOTE. The school is

provided funding by the Priority Action funding programs where they are able to provide ample of

support and resources for students’ learning needs of all levels (MySchool, 2018). The school has

implemented STEM education for the high archiving students. The school believes that working with

the community will ensure success in the future. The school also ensures personalised learning,

which includes “constant feedback, assessment for learning, reporting to parents, newsletters,

monthly school council meetings and the Annual School Report” (MySchool, 2018). Cabramatta

High are equipped with enthusiastic staffs who are committed to ensuring academic success and

meeting the needs of all students.

Fig 1. Screen capture of the Cabramatta High School profile from MySchool.

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Comparative table
Area of Strengths of the area Concerns of the area of consideration Suggested Changes to counteract Research support for the
consideration of consideration concerns changes suggested.

Due to the nature of While literacy was mentioned, further Explaining and providing examples According to the Australian
the subject, literacy is emphasis is needed to build on the students’ will enable students to have a better curriculum, it highlights the
Literacy the core component understanding. Such as definitions and understanding of certain words and importance of implementing
that is embedded understanding the different modes of context general capabilities such as
throughout the unit of representation of the text. numeracy and literacy
work (ACARA, 2018).

Different modes of
representation is a way
where students are able to
retain information (Elia,
Gagatsis, & Demetriou,
2007).
Outcome did identify Not providing comprehension questions of the Provide more discussion approach Implementing activities with
the use of language text with probing question that would discussion encourages
and structure elicit students’ active engagement students work on their
with the text. spoken response and be able
- Things they found to comprehend the text that
interesting they are learning
- Things they want to question (Alvermann, 2002).
This also hopes to achieve
the threshold concept where
students will be able to
understand the text with
different meanings (Rooney,
2013)
Due to the nature of Students to refer to a page number when When referring to a reference in the According to the Australian
the subject, numeracy suggesting a response that includes evidence text, include page numbers curriculum, it highlights the
Numeracy is not embedded as a from the text importance of implementing

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core component for general capabilities such as


English numeracy and literacy
(ACARA, 2018).

Understanding dates as an important aspect to Emphasising the important of dates


context which influences the way novels are for context teaching
written.
Does emphasis in the Critical and creative thinking process Activities such as Think-Pair-share The Australian curriculum
Critical and outcome the embedded throughout the unit of work as the or predictive activity is a way to highlights the importance of
Creative importance of critical nature of English is all about critical and enable critical and creative thinking developing the critical
Thinking and creative thinking creative thinking thinking (ACARA,2018).
The predictive activity
allows students to develop
their own argument by
providing supporting
evidence so that they can
hypothesis and challenge
their own understanding of
the world. The Think-Pair-
Share will enhance their own
critical thinking skills
(Kaddoura, 2013).
Students are given an Students are not given the opportunity to have A take home creative task where The following task is for
opportunity as a the time to explore their own creativeness students could use their visual ques students to make their own
formal assessment to to demonstrate what they know and interpretation of a quote,
create their own understand where they can transfer to
narrative their own perception in a
creative way (Conti,
Amabile, & Pollak, 1995).
This is also highlighted in the
Australian curriculum where
they will be able to develop
their creative thinking
capabilities (ACARA, 2018)

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The unit of work does The unit of work briefly mentions discussion Include Think-Pair-Share and This approach is about
Personal and mention discussion and have not further elaborated or included reflective exercises to encourage developing their
Social other strategies that is encouraged throughout class participation. communication skills and
Capabilities unit of work. team work so that they can
work together (ACARA,
2018).
The unit of work does not invite students to Whole class reading as a way to As students are reading
actively participate in active reading of the ensure that all students has the together as class, opportunity
novel opportunity to engage with the text, to discuss about the text after
then discuss about the chapter on would allow them to reflect
their thoughts and feelings on their own experience
when connecting and
emphasising with the text
while improving self-
efficacy (Bandura, 2006).
Core components are Informal assessment and reflective exercises Add Kahoot and reflective exercises Self-assessment and
mentioned to build are not provided to ensure what students know to confirm what they know in order reflection enable an
Understanding skills that would lead to prepare them for the assessment. to readjust lessons if needed to understanding on how the
by Design up to their assessment prepare students for the assessment students are doing in order
task at a later date task and ultimately for the many for the teacher to prepare for
years to come future lessons (McTighe &
Wiggins, 2012)
Does provide an There are no proactive approaches where it is Include activities that students will Accoding to the UbD
opportunity to assess engaging for the students to connect with the actively engaged with the text to framework, engagement is
what the students text demonstrate certain themes of the critical for student within the
understand with text such as Think-Pair-Share classroom (McTighe &
comprehension Wiggins, 2012; UDL, 2014).
questions When the students are
engaged, they could apply
their understanding of the
text and use it to achieve
their outcomes. This is also a
requirement from AITSL
(2017).

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Recommendation
In recent years, the English syllabus has undergone a revision of the syllabus content that is more

suited for the 21st-century learner. With the changes being made, the English faculty had to develop

a new unit of work that is aligned with the syllabus. The faculty did acknowledge that the unit of

work provided was still in their testing stage, where the unit that was developed, needs adjusting.

With this in mind, it had enabled an endless possibility for further modification to the unit of work.

This had led to the original unit of work with limited information provided. A scope and sequence

was given, enabling an understanding of what was being taught. Due to the way that the faculty had

sequenced their program, no assessment notification was provided as they had set their formative

assessment towards the end of the year. Another area that lacks clarity on structuring the unit was not

providing a concept map. Essentially, the lack of certain documents provided little direction for how

the English faculty would structure their unit to develop students’ skill where it is engaging so that

students could achieve threshold concepts and academic outcomes. The threshold concept is how a

text can produce different effect and meaning so that students are able to engage with the content

within the class (Rooney, 2013). Unfortunately, the formative assessment being placed at the end of

the year may have a negative consequence of students forgetting what they have learnt because they

would have taken in two new content area before attempting their assessment task (Arnett, 2014).

However, there is a possibility for students to achieve their goal will depend on how the teacher

structures the lesson leading up to the assessment. As such, adjustments and recommendations are

made to the unit of work that corresponds to the Understanding by Design (UbD) framework

(National Centre on Universal Design for Learning [NCUDL], 2014; Wiggins, Wiggins & McTighe,

2005), with the focus of improving literacy and numeracy skill, promote critical and creative

thinking, improve social and personal capabilities. By implementing the UbD framework, the teacher

will have the opportunity to explain skills that are needed for their assessment task, as well as

“teaching and assessing for learning transfer” (Wiggins, Wiggins & McTighe, 2005, p. 1), where

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students are able to face challenging task, in order to gain confidence in learning and extend their

understanding beyond the classroom setting that could be applied to all aspects of life.

The UbD framework focuses on backward mapping from the assessment task as a way to sequence

activities of the unit of work. The framework ensures that the relevant skills are developed in order

for the students to prepare for the assessment task, where they will be able to achieve academic

outcomes (NCUDL, 2014). This will also allow students to transfer skills that are not only useful for

the assessment but become contributors to society and apply them to all aspect of life (Wiggins,

Wiggins & McTighe, 2005). Throughout the unit of work, informal formative assessment task was to

ensure that students were on the right track and that it enabled the teachers to be informed how their

lessons were performing so that they could scaffold for future lessons (Ruiz‐Primo & Furtak, 2007).

However, the issue of the sequencing of the assessment task allotted time is questionable. The

effectiveness of whether if students are able to achieve their academic outcomes may be undermined

by future content that is going to be taught. This disjoints their learning experience and will require

additional learning support (Dickson, 2013; Mellanby & Theobald, 2014). The human development

can only retrieve two to four bits of information and requires time and constant repetition in order for

student build their schema so that they can automate the information that is given to them (Arnett,

2014; Dickson, 2013; Kalguya, 2015; Mellanby & Theobald, 2014). When implementing the UbD

framework for sequencing, it is recommended that when structuring the sequence of lesson must take

into consideration how the school should arrange certain task would maximise the students’ learning

experience.

Literacy and numeracy skills have been incorporated into the unit of work. This is also a requirement

from all subject areas, where teachers must target general capabilities for all students to include

literacy and numeracy skills (Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority

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[ACARA], 2018). While the nature of the subject itself does not allow room to build numeracy skill,

such as learning dates or understanding page number is an aspect that students must incorporate

(ACARA, 2018). When students are able to reference correctly, they can ensure the validity of any

information that is presented to them. this is essential to their everyday aspects, such as the media

and anything that is presented online (ACARA, 2018). On the other hand, teaching literacy skills is

the core aspect of an English lesson. The activities that are set must allow students to transfer what

they know so that they can become long-life learners (ACARA, 2018; Wiggins, Wiggins &

McTighe, 2005). Since the original of work did not provide any specific activities that would enable

students to build their literacy skill, careful consideration of the type of activities must be provided

for students. in this case of teaching a certain contextual concept, using the method “multiple modes

of representation” (Elia, Gagatsis, & Demetriou, 2007) is an approach that could allow students to

retain the information. Many students learn differently and so my providing different ways of

representing things, this could ensure that learning is retaining and that it is meaningful for them

(Arnett, 2014).

The student-centred approach is key to building critical and creative thinking. This has been

implemented throughout the unit of work. Getting the students to work collaboratively with others in

a student-centred approach would enhance their critical thinking skills (Kaddoura, 2013). While

there is certain aspect within the unit of work that enables discussion, however, no particular

activities were set. Many of the activities had probing questions where they could reflect and apply

their own experiences such as apply different context to the novel could change the story (Kaddoura,

2013). Probing questions allow their own personal response to the story, such as their thoughts and

feelings towards a particular character or a situation as the students read in class.

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Building the students’ personal and social capabilities have been implemented throughout the unit of

work. It is important to implement activities that would improve students’ self-efficacy (Bandura,

2006). Activities such as Think-Pair-Share and whole class reading, where students are working with

one another is an effective approach to develop their teamwork skills.

In conclusion, this report is an evaluation of the unit of work, ‘Tell Me a Story’ that provides

evidence-based pedagogical strategies to improve the learning environment for Year 7 students. It is

important to understand that making modifications that aligns with the Understanding by Design

framework to any unit of work allow relevancy towards students’ learning outcome so that they

could apply to all aspects of life. Furthermore, there is an emphasis on personalising lessons that

would cater to all students, regardless of their learning level abilities.

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Reconstructed Unit outline
Scope and sequence
The World Around Me Tell Me a Story The Moral of the Story is Growing Up Exploring Drama
Term 1, Week 1 to Term 2, Week 1 to Term 3, Week 1 to Term 4 Week 1 to Term 4, Week 6 to
Term 1, Week 11 Term 2, Week 10 Term 3, Week 10 Term 4, Week 5 Term 4, Week 10
Students explore their own lives Students examine different forms and Students explore the ways that Students investigate the theme Students explore the
and the lives of others through structures of narratives and complete animals are represented in of Growing Up in poetic texts. various components of
autobiographies, biographies and a close study of a digital novel. texts to illustrate the different They will study how language dramatic texts. They will
other texts to gain an understanding Students explore and create their own behaviours and characteristics techniques are used to show the examine one or more
of the different perspectives narratives and digital journals. Cross of humans. There will be a concept of growing up. forms of theatre such as
individuals have of the world. curriculum priorities will include focus on animated film as an Sustainability, ICT, creative Chinese theatre and
Students should begin to develop literacy, critical and creative thinking introduction to film thinking and personal and social melodrama. Asia and
their own views of their world and and information and communication techniques. capability will be central Australia's engagement
express this through writing in technology (ICT) and capability. components of this unit. with Asia and critical
different text types; for example in thinking will be the
an autobiographical recount. Students will compile a central components of
collection of their different this unit.
Students will respond to a variety types of poetry (anthology of
of texts and reflect on qualities of poems). Students will explore,
the wellknown/famous/respected create and perform
people. dramatic texts.
Outcomes Assessed: Outcomes Assessed: Outcomes Assessed: Outcomes Assessed: Outcomes Assessed:
1A, 3B, 4B, 5C, 6C, 7D, 8D, 9E 1A, 2A, 3B, 4B, 6C, 7D, 9E 2A, 4B, 5C, 8D, SE 1A, 3B, 5C, 7D, 9E 1A, 3B, 4B, 7D, 8D, 9E
Text Type Focus: Text Type Focus: Text Type Focus: Text Type Focus: Text Type Focus:
Non-Fiction Fiction Film Poetry Drama
Assessment: Assessment: Assessment: Assessment: Assessment:
Speaking Task – 25% (Personal Half Yearly Exam (Responding Task Viewing/Representing Task - Yearly Exam - 25% (Listening
Learning Log - 10% and public – 15% Composing Task – 10%) 25% (Journal/planning - 10% Task - 15% Composing Task -
speech – 15%) Due: Week 3, Term 2 Representation – 15%) 10%)
Due: Week 3, Term 4
Due: Week 10, Term 1 (Responding and composing skills
assessed. Content for task - stimulus (Responding and composing
and reading text - can be from any skills assessed. Content for task
Semester 1 unit) - stimulus and reading text - can
be from any Semester 2 unit)
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Concept map

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Assessment task and marking criteria
As the students are to complete the assessment task in creative creating in term 4 for this module, the assessment task and marking criteria was not
provided

Redesigned unit outline


Colour coding
Literacy
Numeracy
Critical and Creative Thinking
Personal and Social Capabilities
Understanding by Design
Removal of original point

Tell Me A Story | Stage 4 | English


Differentiating for EAL/D Learners – ESL Scales Links to the English K-10 Syllabus (K Lowe, 2015)

Summery Duration
Students examine different forms and structures of narrative and Sample term
complete a close study of a digital novel. Students explore and create 8 Weeks
their own narratives and digital journals. Details: 10 periods per cycle = 40 periods

Unit Overview Vocabulary and Language


Text type: Fiction Intended audience, composer and purpose.
Texts set for study: Language techniques: variety of sentences, paragraphs, cohesion and
- 'Inanimate Alice' - digital novel AND various short stories. conjunctions.
- “Allan Bailee – “Little brother” Descriptive language: adjectives, adverbs and imagery (simile, metaphor,
- Cross Curriculum Priorities: Literacy; Critical and Creative personification and alliteration).
Thinking; and Information and Communication Technology Meta-language: orientation, complication, climax, resolution, coda, digital
and Capability novel, episode, sound effects, chapter, animation, graphic, visual,
hypermedia, text, font and image.
Outcomes Assessment Overview

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- EN4-1A - responds to and composes texts for understanding, Informal assessment: Weekly Kahoot revision
interpretation, critical analysis, imaginative expression and
pleasure Formal assessment: Students will respond to a text and answer
- EN4-2A - effectively uses a widening range of processes, comprehension questions. Students will also create a narrative based on a
skills, strategies and knowledge for responding to and stimulus.
composing texts in different media and technologies
- EN4-3B - uses and describes language forms, features and Formative Assessment: Students will keep a digital journal on Penzu
structures of texts appropriate to a range of purposes, (www.penzu.com) and one entry will be emailed to the teacher for
audiences and contexts assessment.
- EN4-4B - makes effective language choices to creatively
shape meaning with accuracy, clarity and coherence CLASS WILL BE INTERRUPPTED BY NAPLAN AND HALF YEARLY
- EN4-6C - identifies and explains connections between and EXAM
among texts - Composing and responding task
- EN4-7D - demonstrates understanding of how texts can
express aspects of their broadening world and their Think-Pair-shared task
relationships within it
- EN4-9E - uses, reflects on and assesses their individual and Task reflection
collaborative skills for learning
Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources
Stage 4 - Outcome 1 Activities designed to enable students to complete a - Read chapter 2-4 from the novel “Little
creative task Brother” By Allan Ballie
Students: Week 1-4 - 'Fact and Fiction' worksheet (student and
- recognise, reflect on, interpret and - The Narrative Builder section of the unit teacher copy).
explain the connections between should - Refer to the show don't tell activity with a
their own experiences and the o Show don't tell lesson given quote where the students will need
world in texts o Show don't tell activity to describe a scene
- explore and appreciate the - . Introduction: differences between 'fact' and o Quote refer to “He climbed the
aesthetic qualities in their own 'fiction'. steps to the house…” (p.15)
and other texts and the power of o Features of genre
language to communicate o Utilising the multiple modes of - Comparative table on the difference
information, ideas, feelings and representation between fact and fiction
viewpoints  Lecture slides - Differentiated worksheet based the
 Scaffolding task difference between fiction and non-fiction
Understand and apply knowledge of  Comparative table to identify the difference between fiction
language forms and features and nonfiction as it is not easy to identify
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- recognise when information is - Think-pair-share - Predictive activity on the - Activity that will enable students to evoke
presented objectively and next chapter emotion in order for students to create
subjectively by examining the - In-class reading of the novel from chapter 2-4 genuine responses based on the short
language of opinion, including o Assist with any definition and provide story “The Bread” by Danny Katz
modality, bias, personal pronouns examples within the text that the - Kahoot revision
and other semantic cues students might not understand -

EN4-2A - effectively uses a widening Lesson was interrupted by Midterm assessment


range of processes, skills, strategies and - Model personal letter for assessment task
knowledge for responding to and - Go through the marking criteria
composing texts in different media and
technologies Kahoot – revision on chapter, key concept and
assessment task
EN4-3B – uses and describes language
forms, feathers and structures of texts During the 4th week of term, students were
appropriate to a range of purposes, interrupted by NAPLAN. No lesson was taught for
audiences and context the week.

EN4-4B – Makes effective language


choices to creatively shape meaning with
accuracy, clarity and coherence

EN4-9E - uses, reflects on and assesses


their individual and collaborative skills
for learning

Stage 4 - Outcome 3 Read 'What Makes a Good Story?' worksheet with the 'What Makes a Good Story?' worksheet.
class.
Students: Differentiating for EAL/D Learners - ESL
Engage personally with texts Week 5-8 Discussion of: plot; setting / atmosphere; Scales Links to the English Syllabus
- engage with the language and characterisation; multiple narrators; dialogue; Level 5 - Reading and Responding
structures of texts in meaningful, perspectives; language; and effective beginnings and 5.6 Demonstrates awareness of how information
contextualised and authentic ways endings is organised and presented in English texts.

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- identify, discuss and reflect on the Week 5 - 6 Week 5 – read chapter 5-8
ideas and information in a range Explore plot structure
of texts - Exposition Plot structure
- Rising action Lecture slides on plot structure
Stage 4 - Outcome 4 - Climax Alma:
Engage personally with texts - Falling action https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irbFBgI0jhM
- recognise and appreciate the ways - Resolution Plot structure activity
a wide range of texts
communicate by using effective Watch YouTube Alma Extension task for those who have completed
language choices - To identify the plot structure of alma Students are to select their own novel and write a
Develop and apply contextual knowledge paragraph on how setting influences the story
- explore and analyse the ways Chapter 8: Understanding modes of representation
purpose, audience and context - “sad memories at every step” (p.65) Kahoot
affect a composer's choices of - It represents Vithy’s journey
content, language forms and - Throughout his journey, Vithy is being
features and structures of texts to reminded of the past.
creatively shape meaning - Vithy rode out of Siem Reap
o “sad memories at every step” (p.65)
Stage 4 - Outcome 3  It represents Vithy’s journey
Students:  Throughout his journey, Vithy
Engage personally with texts is being reminded of the past.
- engage with the language and
structures of texts in meaningful, Explore the importance of setting
contextualised and authentic ways - Context
- identify, discuss and reflect on the - Understanding dates
ideas and information in a range Think-Pair-Share - Students to recreate the story
of texts from the question, “If the novel, Little Brother, was
- develop a sense of personal style written in the modern-day context, what would you
and taste in composition and change?”
response
Informative assessment:
Stage 4 - Outcome 4 Creative task where students will need to draw their
Engage personally with texts own selected settings. Advise students to include
- recognise and appreciate the ways quotes and page number.
a wide range of texts Students to be marked based on the following criteria

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communicate by using effective - Drawing
language choices - Complexity
Develop and apply contextual knowledge - Tone
- explore and analyse the ways - Effort
purpose, audience and context
affect a composer's choices of Kahoot revision of what was taught for the week
content, language forms and
features and structures of texts to Week 7-8
creatively shape meanings
Explore point of view
 1st, 2nd and 3rd person narrative
 Questions for the students
o Which narration style is used in the
novel, Little Brother?
o Why do you think the author uses this
style?
Chapter 10: The Cart
 Vithy learnt a lesson
o Developing and growing as a character
o “Now he accepted the theft as just one
of these things” (p.75)
o Journey
Prediction from chapter 10
 He saw some Khmer Rouge soldiers which he
was told that they were at the camp for food
and to recruit
o What does this mean?
o Since Vithy has been running away
from the Khmer Rouge, why all of the
sudden is he at a camp with the Khmer
Rouge?
o Theories/predictions as to what might
happen

Read chapter up to chapter 12


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Explore dialogue within narratives Changing the dialogue worksheet


 The importance and the effects of dialogue - Edit dialogue sheet
within a story - Dialogue analysis sheet
 9 rules when writing a dialogue
 Writing Dialogue worksheet

Final week

Kahoot revision for content being taught


Class evaluation
Kahoot and Google doc

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References
AITSL. (2017). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers: Graduate Teachers. Retrieved

from Australian Institute of Teaching and School Leadership:

https://www.aitsl.edu.au/teach/standards

Alvermann, D. E. (2002). Effective literacy instruction for adolescents. Journal of literacy

Research, 34(2), 189-208.

Arnett, J. (2014). Adolescence and emerging adulthood (Fifth edition, Pearson new international

ed.).

Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority. (2016). General capabilities.

Retrieved Septemper 2, 2018, from Australian Curriculum:

https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of

adolescents, 5(1), 307-337.

Conti, R., Amabile, T. M., & Pollak, S. (1995). The positive impact of creative activity: Effects of

creative task engagement and motivational focus on college students' learning. Personality

and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(10), 1107-1116.

Dickson, T. (2013). Teaching students with learning difficulties: Why some people learn.

Inclusive Learning.

Elia, I., Gagatsis, A., & Demetriou, A. (2007). The effects of different modes of representation on

the solution of one-step additive problems. Learning and Instruction, 17(6), 658-672.

Kaddoura, M. (2013). Think pair share: A teaching learning strategy to enhance students' critical

thinking. Educational Research Quarterly, 36(4), 3.

Kalyuga, S. (2015). Instructional guidance : A cognitive load perspective.

Mellanby, J., & Theobald, K. (2014). Education and Learning An Evidence-based Approach.

Hoboken: Wiley.

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MySchool. (2018). School profile [screen capture]. Retrieve September 3, 2018,

https://www.myschool.edu.au/school/41563

National Centre on Universal Design for Learning. (2014). Three principles of UDL. Retrieved

from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/whatisudl/3principles

Rooney, P. (2013) Literacy in Humanities and Social Sciences. In Robyn Gregson (Editor)

Literacy across the KLAs. CG publishing.

Ruiz‐Primo, M. A., & Furtak, E. M. (2007). Exploring teachers' informal formative assessment

practices and students' understanding in the context of scientific inquiry. Journal of research

in science teaching, 44(1), 57-84.

Wiggins, G. P., Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Ascd.

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Appendices of original documents


Appendix 1 – Original Scope and sequence

Appendix 2 – Original unit of work

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