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THEORIES OF CAREER

DEVELOPMENT

ANNE ROE’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY


DEVELOPMENT AND OCCUPATIONAL
CHOICE
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE

Focus is on possible relationships between career


development and personality.
Views the whole range of occupations in terms of
their relationship to individual, differences in
backgrounds, physical and psychological variable and
experiences.
Personality differences that exist among individuals
in diverse occupations are partly the result of
influences of child rearing practices.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE

Modes of Child Rearing


Origins of Needs and Interest
Need Structure and Motivation
Different Occupational Groups
Levels of Occupational Groups
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Modes of Child Rearing
The manner in which parents interact with the child
is one of the major influences on the motivational
intensity of the child.
Parenting Styles (Roe):
Emotional concentration on the child: Over-
protective parents and Over-demanding parents
Avoidance of the child: Emotional deprivation or
neglect
Acceptance of the child: causally or lovingly
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Modes of Child Rearing
Parenting Styles (Roe):
Emotional concentration on the child:
Over-protective parents-- full and quick satisfaction of
the child's lower needs but may hesitate in gratifying
the higher order needs of love and esteem, at the same
time will reward behavior that is socially desirable.
Over-demanding parents-- gratifies the physical needs
promptly and adequately. They lay down conditions of
conformity to their values, and social achievement in
return for the love offered to the child.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Modes of Child Rearing
Parenting Styles (Roe):
Avoidance of the child: Emotional deprivation or
neglect-- parents who neglect merely the physical well-
being of the child were not causing as harmful an
effect as those parents who neglected the emotional
needs of the child. This emotional rejection of the
child leads to slower emotional development, though it
may not cause misproportioned development.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Modes of Child Rearing
Parenting Styles (Roe):
Acceptance of the child: causally or lovingly-- too
accepting types will satisfy their children's needs at
most levels in slightly different ways and in varying
degrees. The personality that develops in children of
accepting parents is capable of seeking gratification of
needs at all levels.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Origins of Needs and Interests
Genetic inheritance sets limits on the potential
development of all characteristics.
Whether these inherited characteristics will achieve,
surpass or underachieve their potential is determined not
only by the experiences unique to the individual, but also
such factor as race, sex, social and economic position of
the family and general cultural background.
The direction of development of interests, attitudes and
other personality variables which have relatively little
genetic control is determined entirely by individual
experiences.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Need Structure and Motivation
Roe used Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as her framework.
It is greatly influenced by early childhood experience,
whether the needs are frustrated or satisfied.
Selection of occupation depended on individual’s need
structure.
Level of attainment depended on individual’s level of
ability and socioeconomic background
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Need Structure and Motivation
Needs that are satisfied routinely as they appear do not
become unconscious motivators.
Needs for which even minimum satisfaction is rarely
achieved will, if of a higher order, become eliminated, if
of a lower order, prevent the appearance of higher order
needs and will become dominating and restricting
motivator.
Need, for which satisfaction is delayed, but eventually
accomplished, will become unconscious motivators,
according to the degree of satisfaction felt.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Need Structure and Motivation
The eventual pattern of psychic energies, in terms of
attention directedness, is the major determinant of
interests.
The intensity of these needs and their satisfaction, and
their organization, are the major determinants of the
degree of expressed motivation.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Classification of Occupations
Person-Oriented
Service
Business Contact
Arts and Entertainment
Managerial
General Culture

Non-Person Oriented
Technology
Outdoors
Science
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Different Occupational Groups
OCCUPATIONA DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES
L GROUP
SERVICE Concerned with serving and Therapist, Counselor,
attending to the needs and welfare Social Workers,
of other persons. Detectives, Policemen,
Politician, Firemen, Health
Care Professionals, Taxi
Drivers, Houseworkers

BUSINESS Concerned with face-to-face of Sales People, Public


CONTACT commodities, investments, real Relations Officer, Brokers,
estate and services. The focus is on Insurance Agents,
persuasion to a course of action.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Different Occupational Groups
OCCUPATIONAL DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES
GROUP
ORGANIZATION Managerial and white collar jobs in Industrialists,
business, industry and government. It Bankers, Financial
is concerned primarily with the Executives
organization and efficient
functioning of commercial
enterprises and of government
activities.
TECHNOLOGY Concerned with the production, Engineers,
maintenance and transportation of Craftsmen, Machine
commodities and utilities. Focus is Trades,
on dealing with things. Transportation and
Communication
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Different Occupational Groups
OCCUPATIONAL DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES
GROUP
OUTDOOR Concerned with cultivation, Architects, Scientists,
preservation and gathering of crops, Forest Rangers,
marine or inland water resources, Farmers, Fishermen,
forest products and other natural Loggers, Divers
resources with animal husbandry.
Interpersonal relations are largely
irrelevant.
SCIENCE Concerned with scientific theory and Research Scientists,
its application under specified Medical Specialists,
circumstances other than technology. Medical Technicians
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Different Occupational Groups
OCCUPATIONAL DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES
GROUP
GENERAL Concerned with the preservation and Occupations in
CULTURE transmission of the general cultural education,
heritage. Interest is in human activities journalism,
rather than in individual persons. linguistics; lawyers,
scholars, curators
ARTS AND Concerned with the use of special skills Creative artists,
ENTERTAINMENT in the creative arts and in entertainment. Performers of skill,
Focus is on the relationship between athletes, designers,
one person or an organized group and a conductor of music,
more general public. Interpersonal interior decorators
relation is important but neither so
direct nor of the same nature as that in
group.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Levels of Occupational Groups
Levels are based on degree of responsibility,
capacity and skill.
Responsibility includes not only the number
and difficulty of the decisions to be made but
also how many different kinds of problems
must be coped with.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Level of Occupational Groups
LEVELS OF DESCRIPTION CRITERIA (a. Resposibility;
OCCUPATIONAL b. Capacity; c. Skill)
GROUP
PROFESSIONAL AND Includes the innovators and a. Important, independent,
MANAGERIAL creators and top managerial and varied
(INDEPENDENT administrative people, as well b. Policy-making
RESPONSIBILITY) as, professionals who have c. High level of education
independent responsibility in
important respects. There’s no
higher authority than the social
group.
PROFESSIONAL AND Genuine autonomy may be a. Medium level for self and
MANAGERIAL present but with less significant others, with regard to both
responsibilities. importance and variety
b. Policy interpretation
c. Bachelor’s/Masteral Degree
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Level of Occupational Groups
LEVELS OF DESCRIPTION CRITERIA (a. Resposibility; b.
OCCUPATIONAL Capacity; c. Skill)
GROUP
SEMI- Concerned with self- a. Low level
PROFESSIONAL employment and vocational b. Application of policy or
AND SMALL occupations determination for self only
BUSINESS c. High School/Technical
School

SKILLED Requires apprenticeships or


other special training or
experience.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Level of Occupational Groups
LEVELS OF DESCRIPTION CRITERIA (a. Resposibility; b.
OCCUPATIONAL Capacity; c. Skill)
GROUP
SEMI-SKILLED Requires some training and
experience, but less than that of
level 4. Much less autonomy and
initiative are permitted in these
occupations.
UNSKILLED Requires no special training or
education and not more ability is
needed to follow simple
directions and engage in simple
repetitive actions. Group
differentiation depends primarily
on the occupational setting.
THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE
Needs-Theory Approach to Career Choice
Combinations of early parent-child relations,
environmental experiences, and genetic features
determine the development of need structure.