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4/1/2018

Internationally Approved Food Technology Program by IFT and IUFoST


ITP431 Food Packaging and Storage Technology

Lecturer Team:
Dr. Nugraha E. Suyatma (NES), Prof. Dr. Rizal Syarief (RSY),
Dr. Ir. Muhammad Arpah (MAR), Dr. Eko Hari Purnomo (EHP),
Dr. Faleh Setia Budi (FSB), Dr. Azis Boing Sitanggang (ABS)

Food Science and Technology Department


Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, IPB

Course Description
 This course covers types of food packaging material including
metal, glass, paper, paperboard, and plastics, putting
emphasis on their chemical and physical properties, their
functional properties, interaction with foods and applications
in selected food commodities. Different industrial filling
systems and recent tech-niques in food packaging
development e.g., Active and Intelligent Packaging,
Nanotechnology in Food Packaging, and Eco-friendly
Packaging are also covered. This course also discusses the
function and the role of food storage and overview the
factors causing food losses and deterioration. The basic food
storage techniques, pest infestation control methods, and
principle of food shelf life determination technique are also
included.
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Contribution to the Achievement of IFT Learning Outcomes


Coverage
LO Code Learning Outcomes Some
Detail
extent
be able to explain the major chemical reactions that limit shelf life of
I.B.2 X
foods.
be able to explain the role and significance of microbial inactivation,
II.C.1 adaptation and environmental factors (i.e., aw, pH, temperature) on X
growth and response of microorga-nisms in various environments.
be able to explain the spoilage and deterioration mecha-nisms in
III.B.1 X
foods and methods to control deterioration and spoilage.
be able to explain the principles that make a food product safe for
III.B.2 X
consumption.
be able to explain the properties and uses of various packaging
III.E.1 X
materials.
commit to the highest standards of professional integrity and
VI.C.1 X
ethical values.
be able to work and/or interact with individuals from diverse
VI.C.2 X
cultures.
VI.E.1 be able to work effectively with others. X
VI.G.2 facilitate group projects X
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Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST

Course Learning Objectives


 Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able
to:
1. describe the roles and functions of food packaging in a food
processing system.
2. describe the properties of plastic materials and their
application as food packaging.
3. describe the properties of paper and paperboard materials and
their application as food packaging.
4. describe the properties and uses of glass and metal materials
and their application as food packaging.
5. describe the interaction of food and packaging materials and
the chemical migration from food packaging materials.
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Course Learning Objectives


 Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able
to:
6. describe active and intelligent packaging technique to increase
safety and quality value of packaged food products.
7. describe edible-biodegradable packaging and application
nanotechnology in food packaging.
8. use and evaluate specific packaging technique such as
modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum (sous vide)
and inert gas packaging
9. explain food spoilage factors and stability of food during
storage
10. use accelerated shelf life test with Arrhenius Model and
calculate the shelf life of food.
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Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST

Course Learning Objectives


 Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able
to:
11. use accelerated shelf life test with Labuza Equation to
determine the shelf life of foods based on their critical
moisture Content.
12. explain insect storage pests and their control.
13. explain rodent and mold storage pests and their control
(Rodent and Molds).
14. use and select the appropriate packaging and method to store
some selected food products (grains, fruits, vegetables, snack
foods, confectionary and bakery products, etc).

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COURSE SCHEDULE

Class Time Room Language Lecturer


K1 Tuesday, 08.00 - RK. V02.2 Bhs Indo NES/RSY
09.40
K2 Tuesday, 08.00 - RK. H101 Bhs Indo FSB/EHP
09.40
K3 Friday, 13.30 - RK H102(c) English ABS/MAR
15.10
NES = Dr. Nugraha Edhi Suyatma, STP, DEA
RSY = Prof. Dr. Rizal Syarief, DESS
MAR = Dr. Ir. Muhammad Arpah, MSi
EHP = Dr. Eko Hari Purnomo, STP, MSc
FSB = Dr. Faleh Setia Budi, ST, MSi
ABS = Dr. Azis Boing Sitanggang, STP, MSc
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Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST

Topics and Lecturers

Week Topics (Mid-Term Exam)


1 Introduction, The role and function of food packaging

2 Plastic Packaging
3 Paper and Paperboard Packaging
4 Glass and Metal Packaging (Quiz 1, Topic 1-4)
5 Food-package interactions and chemical migration

6 Active and Intelligent Packaging

7 Edible and Biodegradable Packaging and Nanotechnology in


Packaging (Quiz 2, Topic 5-7). Group Assignment 1.
MID-TERM EXAMS

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Topics and Lecturers


Week Topics (FINAL EXAM)
8 Modified Atmosphere, Vacuum (sous vide) and Inert Gas
Packaging
9 Food spoilage factors and Food Stability during storage
10 Food shelf life evaluation with Arrhenius Model (Individual
Homework 1)
11 Food shelf life evaluation with Labuza Model for Critical
Moisture Content Calculation (Individual homework 2). (Quiz
3, Topic 8-11)
12 Storage Pests and their control : insect
13 Storage Pests and their control : rodent and mold (Quiz 4,
Topic 12-13)
14 Group presentation (use and select the appropriate
packaging and method to store some selected food products
FINAL EXAM Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST
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ASSESSMENT TOOLS
A. Written Examinations

 Midterm and final written examinations will be held during examination period
scheduled by the Registrar’s office.
 The mid term and final examinations will cover course topics delivered in week
1-7 and 8-14, respectively.
 Each written examination will be composed of multiple-choice questions of
different types, and essays at different cognitive levels. Time allocation is 120
minutes and maximum score is 100.
 Dishonesty or cheating during examination, such as obtaining or receiving illegal
help or obtaining unauthorized information about an examination beforehand
will result in failure of the course. Disciplinary action will be imposed if a student
is found to have seriously violated any of the rules contained in the Code of
Conduct: warning, reduction of grades, suspension or expulsion.
 Scores will be posted on the announcement board soon after exam papers are
graded.
 Answer keys may be obtained from the lecturer
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ASSESSMENT TOOLS (cont.)


B. Quizzes
 Quizzes will be given to provide the students feedback on their course performance.
Quizzes will cover material from lecturers and will be held during the course of the term
for approximately 10 minutes. The quiz will cover a topic discussed in a previous lecture
and there will be 2-4 quizzes in total. A key will be given soon after the quiz completes.

C. Group Assisgnments
 The objective of a group assignment is to help students to make connections between a
real case and the knowledge of packaging and storage of foods.
 The class will be divided into groups consisting of 5 students per group. The member of
each group will be chosen by the lecturer in random manner. For each assignment, the
member of the group will not be the same.
 Each group is required to search a case regarding packaging or storage practices observed
obtained from any information source (newspaper, internet, magazine, direct observation
in markets, etc). In case of limited cases from those sources, the lecturer will be ready with
several cases to discuss.

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OUTLINE OF REPORT OF GROUP ASSIGNMENT


1.Title page:
Put a title of your report on the top of a new page, Name and ID of your
group members, and name of course and code.
2.Description of the case:
A short statement or paragraph stating the case that your group have
selected and the objectives sought. Describe particular issues in the
case that your group would like to discuss and elaborated.
3).Discussion and Literature Review:
Discuss the above issues and compare with the statements in the
literatures.
4).Conclusion and Recommendations:
State your recommendations or conclusions to the case.
5).Cited references:
List all cited references in alphabetical order

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GRADE OF REPORT
The report is graded based on the following criteria (maximum
score for each criteria: 100):
(1) writing technique including grammar and spelling (20%),
(2) clarity and accuracy of case study description (20%),
(3) quality of discussion and the use of information from
literature (30%);
(4) conclusion and recommendation (20%), and
(5) cited references (10%).

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Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST

Grading criteria:
No Criteria Score Range Percentage (%)

1. Mid-term exam (UTS) 0-100 35%


2. Final exam (UAS) 0-100 35%
3. Quizes (2-4 times) 0-100 10%
4. Group assignmets (1 times) 60-100 10%
5. Activity (Student Creativity 50-100 10%
competition, PKM)*)
*) Submit 1 PKM proposal = 90-100 points (depend on proposal quality)
Submit 2 PKM proposal = 100-110 points (10 points may be used to improved
Quiz)
No PKM proposal = 50-70 points (depend on class activity).
*) All PKM Proposal must be submitted to Coordinator (Dr. Nugraha Edhi Suyatma)
to get reward points.
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Grading criteria:
Course Grading
Grade Point Score Range
A 4.0 80-100
AB 3.5 75-79
B 3.0 70-74
BC 2.5 65-69
C 2.0 55-64
D 1.0 45-54
E 0.0 <45
Dalam hal penentuan Huruf Mutu berdasarkan Standar menurut POB IPB tidak dapat
dilakukan, Huruf Mutu ditentukan berdasarkan kisaran nilai yang dicapai seluruh mahasiswa
peserta mata kuliah kelas paralel ini (menggunakan nilai rata-rata dan standar deviasi).
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Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST

LECTURE RULES
All cellular phones must be switched off or silent
mode during class periods. No exceptions.
Students who arrive 10 minutes after starting the
class are not allowed to attend the lecture.
Make sure that you attend the class exceeding a
minimum requirement. According to university
rules, only students with a minimum of 80% class
attendance are eligible to take a final written
examination. No exceptions.

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ITP431 – Food Packaging and Storage Technology

Topic 1.
The Role and Function of Food Packaging
Dr. Nugraha Edhi Suyatma
Prof. Dr. Rizal Syarief
Department of Food Science and Technology
Bogor Agricultural University
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Learning Outcome

Upon successful completion of this topic,


students will be able to:

 describe the roles and functions of food


packaging.

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Sub Topik

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The role and Function


of Food packaging

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 Packaging has been defined in many ways:


 Packaging is the art, science and technology of
preparing products for market.
 Packaging is a product made from any material such
as paper, glass, plastic, aluminum/metal and wood
that is used for the containment, protection,
handling, delivery and presentation of goods from
raw to processed goods.
Gordon L. Robertson (Author)
“Packaging is the protection of foods by means of containers
designed to prevent damage to the foods by outside influence”

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Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST

 Packaging has been with humans for thousands of years in


one form or the other.
 Packaging is used when people started moving from place
to place.
 Originally, skins, leaves, and bark were used for
food transport packaging.

 Humans learn from nature in developing


Packaging Materials and Techniques

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Food packaging References

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With Gordon L. Robertson (Author)

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Food packaging plays an important role in the


preservation and marketability of a food product

 All products in the market are in packaged.


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PACKAGING INCREASES PRODUCT VALUES

Cost of Packaging

 Fresh Products Fruits


Vegetables 2–5%
Cerealia

 Processed food 20 – 25 %
 Soft drink 70 – 75 %
 Bottled Mineral Water, snack 90 %

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Success Learning from SME in Pandeglang:


Emping Melinjo

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Courtesy of Ariana, 2011 Internationally Recognized Undergraduate Program by IFT & IUFoST

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 The role of packaging is from farm to the table

Raw materials

Food
Production

CONSUMER
DISTRIBUTION

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Food packaging functions


Four primary functions of packaging have
been identified: containment, protection,
convenience and communication (Robertson,
2013).

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1-Product Containment
 The first function of packaging is its capability of
containment. Containment refers to holding goods in a
form suitable for transport/distribution/market

 Obviously, the package must keep its content secure


between the end of the packaging line and the time
when all the food has been eaten.

 This function of packaging is so obvious to be


overlooked by many, all products must be contained
before they can be moved from one placed to another.

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1. PRODUCT CONTAINMENT (cont.)


 Small items are typically grouped together in
one package for reasons of efficiency.
• Cartooning
• Shrink wrapping
• Palletizing
• Containers
• Bulk’

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2. PROTECTION
 The second function of food packaging is to protect
food product against spoilage or deterioration due to
chemical, biological and physical damage.

 Physical protection - The food enclosed in the package


may require protection from, among other things,
shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc.

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2. PROTECTION (cont.)
i) Physical damages
- Eggs broken (60 x 106) in China (2003)
- Fruits and vegetables
- Damaged cans
 Compression
 Vibration
 Impact
ii) Contamination
- Dirt, dust, insects and rodents, m.o.
iii) Physical changes: - H2O in/out
iv) Chemical changes
- Oxidation (H2O, light, O2, temperature)
Loss of volatile flavor, Off-flavour
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2. PROTECTION (cont.)
 Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen,
water vapour, dust, etc., is often required.
Barrier properties include permeability of
gases (such as O₂, CO₂ , N₂ , C₂H₄ ), water
vapor, aromas, and light. These are vital
factors for maintaining the quality of foods.
Permeation is a critical factor in design.
Keeping the contents clean, fresh, and safe for
the intended shelf life is also a primary
function.
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3. CONVENIENCE
 Eating styles, such as ready-to-eat meals,
snacks, and microwaveable ready meals,
have been changed over the years, which
need innovation in packaging.
 Packaging should meet the future demand
of meeting eating style of the society.
microwaveable package
Ovenable trays
Aerosol
Portion packs (milk, tea, coffee)
Boil in bag
Easy open/closure (can/bottle)
ziplock, tube
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4. COMMUNICATION/MARKETING
 The packaging and labels can be used by
marketers to encourage potential buyers to
purchase the product.
 Packaging is an important tool for
advertisement.
 The information on the packaging includes
quantity, price, additives, ingredients,
inventory levels, lot number, size and weight is
very important for merchandising and fulfilling
law (labeling regulation)

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4. COMMUNICATION/MARKETING (cont.)

Packaging is part of Marketing-


Mix
Packaging as "Silent
salesman"
“A package must
protect what it sells and
sell what it protects”

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PACKAGING AS A “SILENT SALESMAN”


• Helps to promote product
• Differentiates product from rivals
• Key part of the brand image
• Aids identification & recognition
• Shape, color & size relate to customer motivation
• Key factor in consumer decision making
• Medium for advertising & sales promotion message.

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Types of Packaging
RAW MATERIAL

PRIMARY
(bottle)

SECONDARY
(shrink wrap)

PENTERNARY
TERTIARY (containerise)
(carton)

QUATERNARY
(palletise)

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Types of Packaging materials


(a) Plastics
- Flexible films
- Semi rigid plastics

(b) Paper/paperboard

(c) Glass

(d) Metal
- Tinplate
- Aluminium

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Food Packaging Materials

Key properties of Plastics


 Wide range of barrier properties
 Permeable to gases and vapours to varying
degrees
 Low density materials with a wide range of
physical and optical properties
 Usually have low stiffness
 Tensile and tear strengths are variable
 Can be transparent
 Functional over a wide range of temperatures
depending on the type of plastics
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Key properties of paper/paperborad


 Low-density materials
 Poor barrier to liquids, gases and vapours
unless they are coated, laminated or
wrapped.
 Good stiffness.
 Can be grease resistant.
 Absorbent to liquid and moisture vapour.
 Can be creased, folded and glued.
 Tear easily.
 Not brittle, excellent substrates for
inexpensive printing.
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Food Packaging Materials

Key properties of Glass


 Inert with respect to foods
 Transparent to light and may be coloured
 Impermeable to gases and vapors
 Rigid
 Can be easily returned and reused
 Brittle and breakable
 Needs a separate closure
 Widely in use for both single and multi-trip packaging.

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Food Packaging Materials

Key properties of Metal


 Rigid materials with a high density for steel and a
low density for aluminium
 Good tensile strength
 An excellent barrier to light, liquids and foods
 Needs closures and seams to forms packs
 Used in many packaging applications: food and
beverages cans, aerosols, tubes, trays and drums
 Can react with product causing dissolution of the
metal

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Food Packaging Material Classes Comparison

Class of Density Strength Stiffness UTL* Light


Materials (g/cc) (1000Pa) (1000 Pa) (oC) Transmission
Plastics 0.88-1.7 0.07-1 0.7-42 80-150 Transparent-
opaque
Steel 7.8 1.4-3.5 1800 400 Opaque

Aluminum 2.7 0.7-2.1 700 260 Opaque

Paperboard 0.7-1.2 0.07-0.7 7-32 160 Translucent-


Opaque
Glass 2.5 0.14-1.4 700 400 Transparent-
opaque
*) UTL = Upper use temperature limit
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Reasons Why Packaging Material are selected and Rejected


Glass Steel Aluminum Plastics Paper/board
Product Strong, stiff Barrier to Fabricability Easily
visibility gases and machined and
moisture folded
SELECTION

Inert Malleable Quality Variety of Easy to bond


image forms
Image of high Retortable Dual Tough, light Composites
quality ovenable weight well
Dual-ovenable Permanence Dead-folds Wide range Printability
readily of properties
Shatters Corrodes Opaque Thermal Likes water
liimit
REJECTION

High weight to Limited Soften in Permeable Penetrable


strength ratio shaped retort
Limited shaped Appearance Microwave Absorbs Image
reflector flavors
Large Sizes Flavor Requires Distorsion Tears,
distorsion coating and creep
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Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging


Material and/or Container
1. Mechanical Damage
• The selection of a packaging material of
sufficient strength and rigidity can reduce
damage due to compression loads
- Metal, glass and rigid plastic as primary
packages.
- Fibreboard and timber materials are used for
secondary or outer packages
- Cushioning materials into the packaging can
protect against impacts, shock and vibration.
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Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging


Material and/or Container (cont.)
2. Permeability Characteristics
• In general, packaging material with a low permeability to
water vapour is required: e.g. bisuit, crackers, cake powder,
cheese, meat.
• In contrast, fresh fruit and vegetables need a packaging
material which is semipermeable to water vapour.

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Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging


Material and/or Container (cont.)
3. Greaseproofness
• Greaseproof and parchment papers may give adequate
protection to dry fatty foods, such as chocolate and milk
powder, while hydrophilic films or laminates are used with wet
foods, such as meat or fish.

4. Temperature
• A package must be able to withstand the changes in
temperature without any reduction in performance or
undesirable change in appearance.
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Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging


Material and/or Container (cont.)
5. Light
• The use of packaging materials which
are opaque to light is needed for many
food components which are sensitive to
light, particularly ultraviolet light, such as
vitamin, fat, food color, etc.
• If it is desirable that the contents be
visible, for example to check the clarity
of a liquid, coloured materials which filter
out UV light may be used, e.g. amber
glass bottle.
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Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging


Material and/or Container (cont.)
6. Chemical Compatibility of the Packaging
Material and the Contents of the Package
• To establish the safety of such packaging materials two
questions need to be answered:
-are there any toxic substances present in the packaging
material such as vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) in
polyvinylchloride (PVC)?
-will they leach into the product?

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Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging


Material and/or Container (cont.)

7. Protection Against Microbial Contamination


• the packaging materials must prevent or limit the
contamination of the contents by microorganisms from
sources outside the package.
• Metal, glass, plastic may be used.

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Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging


Material and/or Container (cont.)

8. Other Factors
• The package must have a size and shape which makes it
easy to handle, store and display on the supermarket shelf.
• The package must be aesthetically compatible with the
contents.
• The decoration on the package must be attractive.
• The labelling must clearly convey all the information
required to the consumer and comply with relevant
regulations.

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Homework
Make a Group consists of 5-6 person.
Make Short presentation (PPT) concerning "Labeling"
Regulation in Indonesia.
Submit your homework next week.

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‫شكرا‬ ‫شكرا‬ ‫شكرا‬

ขอขอบคุณ
谢谢

ありがとうございました

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