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4 Structural Analysis and Design Check

4.1 Introduction
This section of the report covers structural analysis and design check carried out after water tank failure
identify the theoretical cause of failure. To get an insight on the cause of the failure of water tank,
detailed analysis has been carried out with different load conditions.

4.2 Reference Documents


Structural calculations will be based on the following codes of standard:

 BS 5950-1:2000 – Structural Use of Steelwork in Building


 BS 6399-2:1997 – Loadings for Buildings-Wind Loads

4.3 Units
SI Units are used throughout the calculations and the report.

4.4 Analysis and Design Calculations


Structural analysis and Design Calculations will be based following parameters as per the details
obtained for the collapsed water tank.

Design Parameters:
Material Property
Value Ref Unit Comments
Tank Shell Material = Aluminium - Grade 5083-H22
Yield Strength = 215 fy MPa Grade 5083-H22
Modulus of elasticity = Es MPa
Thickness of Sheet = 2.5 ds mm As per site, bottom 2 layers
Thickness of Sheet = 2.0 ds mm As per site, top layers
Size of Weld = 6 s mm
Strength of Weld = 220 pw Mpa

4.4.1 Weld Strength Calculation

From the drawings, it was understood that the collapsed firewater storage tank is circular 5.35m
diameter, 8.17m high free-standing structure supported on concrete foundation through 14 small
brackets and anchor bolts as shown below. It is clear from the picture below that, the steel bracket is
transferring all the loads from the water tank to the anchor bolt through the 6mm welds on either side
of the plate.

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All force to be
transferred to the
anchor through
these welds

Fig. 18 Typical Bracket Support

As per the detailed site investigation carried out further to failure of the circular firefighting water storage
tank it was understood that in most of the brackets the weld has been corroded almost to full length.

Existing Welds
Corroded to full
length in the
brackets

Fig. 19 Corroded Weld in Bracket

Considering 20mm long, 6mm welds with 220N/mm2 strength on both sides,
Longitudinal shear capacity of weld Ps = pw x a x L
Longitudinal shear capacity of weld Ps = 220 x 0.7 x 6 x 2 x 20 = 36.960 kN

At the Site, further to inspection from failure it was observed most of the welds were corroded and
deteriorated. From the Fig.23 above, the weld is corroded fully and considering a loss of 50 % strength
in welds due to corrosion.

Longitudinal shear capacity of weld Ps = 0.5 x 36.90 = 18.48 kN

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4.4.2 Analysis Without Wind Load

To have a better insight to the original design of the structure, the structure has been modelled using
plate elements on STAAD Po. V8i and analyzed for the loads due to self-weight of structure and
pressure from water.

Fig 20. Analysis Model for the water tank

4.4.2.1 Water tank Supports

As per the drawing provided by the client and verification at the site, the water tank is supported by 14
anchor bolts at the locations shown in the drawing below.

Fig 21. Support locations for the water tank

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4.4.2.2 Loads Considered in Analysis

 Self-Weight of the structure


 Pressure of Water inside tank
i. Height of Tank = 8.175 m
ii. Density of Water = 9.81 kN/m3
iii. Pressure from water at base of water tank = 8.175 x 9.81 = 80.20 kN/m2

Fig 22. Analysis Model for the water tank with self-weight and water pressure

4.4.2.3 Service Load Deflections

The deflected shape of the water tank due to loads from self weight and water pressure is as given
below. The deflection is found to be more in a regular manner with tendency to bulge at the bottom.
To prevent this bulging, an additional steel angle has been provided in the original structure.

Fig 23. Deflection of water tank under service loads

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4.4.2.4 Stress Check

To check the capacity of the section to resist the pressure from water, the stresses in the aluminum
sheet is checked and is found to be within the limits.

Fig 24. Stress in water tank under ultimate loads

4.4.2.5 Ultimate Supports Reactions

The details of the support provided in the model and the supported reactions from the model is given
below.

Fig 25. Support locations in analysis Model for the water tank

Table 1: Support Reactions from analysis Model for the water tank without wind load

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Node L/C Force-X kN Force-Y kN Force-Z kN
2 3 -0.856 2.237 0
3 3 0.856 2.237 0
5 3 0.8 2.356 -0.342
7 3 0.505 2.082 -0.693
9 3 0.222 2.358 -0.841
11 3 -0.222 2.358 -0.841
13 3 -0.505 2.082 -0.693
15 3 -0.8 2.356 -0.342
18 3 -0.8 2.356 0.342
20 3 -0.505 2.082 0.693
22 3 -0.222 2.358 0.841
24 3 0.222 2.358 0.841
26 3 0.505 2.082 0.693
28 3 0.8 2.356 0.342
4.4.2.6 Check for Welds

Maximum Ultimate Vertical reaction, Vu = 2.358 kN

Capacity of corroded weld Ps = 18.48 kN

Utility Ratio = 2.358 / 18.48 = 0.13, Hence OK.


4.4.3 Analysis with Wind Load

Based on the analysis of the water tank structure for self-weight and water pressure only, it was
understood that the structure is safe and stable. Now, to know the behavior of structure during wind, a
minor wind pressure of 25 Kg/m2 which could be caused by regular wind is applied on the structure
additional to loads from self-weight and water pressure.

Fig 26. Analysis Model for the water tank with wind load
4.4.3.1 Service Load Deflections

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The deflected shape of the water tank due to loads from self weight, water pressure and wind loads is
as given below. The deflection is found to be more in a irregular manner with tendency to go out of
shape and overturn about bottom.

Fig 27. Deflection of water tank under service loads

4.4.3.2 Stress Check

To check the capacity of the section to resist the pressure from water, the stresses in the aluminum
sheet is checked and is found to be within the limits even though there was a slight increase in the
stresses.

Fig 28. Stress in water tank under ultimate loads

4.4.3.3 Ultimate Supports Reactions

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Fig 29. Support locations in analysis Model for the water tank

Table 2: Support Reactions from analysis Model for the water tank without wind load
Node L/C Force-X kN Force-Y kN Force-Z kN
2 3 -0.827 0.079 0
3 3 0.883 4.394 0
5 3 0.725 -0.983 -0.381
7 3 1.106 8.172 -0.467
9 3 4.061 24.111 -0.513
11 3 3.617 -19.397 -1.167
13 3 0.098 -4.007 -0.917
15 3 -0.873 5.696 -0.302
18 3 -0.873 5.696 0.302
20 3 0.098 -4.007 0.917
22 3 3.617 -19.397 1.167
24 3 4.061 24.111 0.513
26 3 1.106 8.172 0.467
28 3 0.725 -0.983 0.381
4.4.3.4 Check for Welds

Maximum Ultimate Vertical reaction, Vu = 24.11 kN – Supports 9 & 24

Capacity of corroded weld Ps = 18.48 kN

Utility Ratio = 24.11 / 18.48 = 1.31, Hence Failed.

Supports at Node 9 and Node 24 will face failure due to the loss of strength in weld.

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4.4.4 Analysis with Two Supports Failed

Now to check the behavior of the structure after failure of these two supports, structure has been
modelled without these two supports. Loads considered in the analysis are self-weight, water pressure
and wind load.

Fig 30. Analysis Model for the water tank with wind load without two failed supports
4.4.4.1 Stress Check

To check the capacity of the section to resist the pressure from water, the stresses in the aluminum
sheet is checked and is found to be within the limits. But the stress has increased significantly,

Fig 31. Stress in water tank under ultimate loads

4.4.4.2 Service Load Deflections

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The deflected shape of the water tank without two failed supports due to loads from self weight, water
pressure and wind loads is as given below. The deflection is found to be in a very irregular manner with
greater tendency to buckle or go out of shape and overturn about bottom.

Fig 32. Deflection of water tank under service loads

4.4.4.3 Ultimate Supports Reactions

Fig 33. Support locations in analysis Model for the water tank
Table 3: Support Reactions from analysis Model for the water tank without two supports

Node L/C Force-X kN Force-Y kN Force-Z kN

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2 3 -0.838 -1.028 0
3 3 0.973 12.012 0
5 3 0.646 -12.383 -0.237
7 3 1.383 27.564 -0.919
11 3 6.739 1.348 -1.168
13 3 0.863 -15.904 -1.207
15 3 -0.937 9.712 -0.236
18 3 -0.937 9.712 0.236
20 3 0.863 -15.904 1.207
22 3 6.739 1.348 1.168
26 3 1.383 27.564 0.919
28 3 0.646 -12.383 0.237
4.4.4.4 Check for Welds

Maximum Ultimate Vertical reaction, Vu = 27.56 kN – Supports 7 & 26

Capacity of corroded weld Ps = 18.48 kN

Utility Ratio = 27.56 / 18.48 = 1.49, Hence Failed.

The forces in the nodes 7 and 26 are higher than the available strength in the welds and this will
lead to failure of Support at nodes 7 and 26.

As it can be seen, the support reactions are increasing on any two supports after failure of two
supports and the failure ration is increasing. This will cause a chain action and eventually all
the supports will fail due to the increased support reactions and ultimately lead to failure of
structure theoretically.

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