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Contents

Part I Listening 2
Unit 1 Listening Skills and Strategies 2
Language Skills 5
Useful Online Sources 8

Unit 2 Listening Task Types 9


Language Skills 10
Useful Online Sources 14

Part II Reading 15
Unit 3 Reading Skills and Strategies 15
Language Skills 19
Useful Online Sources 25

Unit 4 Reading Task Types 26


Language Skills 34
Useful Online Sources 36

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 1
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Part I
LISTENING

Unit 1 Listening Skills and Strategies Answer Key

Listening Skills and Strategies


Task 1

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Khan, Salman. “I hope my children learn that failure is not bad”, BBC radio 4 (01:10),
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p027q9kq
• Hattie, John. “Homework in primary school has an effect of zero”, BBC radio 4 (01:50),
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0252t4j

Task 2

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• TOEFL Listening Practise 1, EngMasterNet (1:52),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HdPlbav0ng
• TOEFL Listening Practise 3, EngMasterNet (1:39),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=53IJIj10ovk
• Toefl Listening Practice - Main Idea Part 1, ouliogroove (9:59),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyay4RU4SDk
• Toefl Listening Practice - Main Idea Part 2, ouliogroove (7:23),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4umLhdInnc&list=PL6342080255144325&index=14
• Toefl Listening Practice - Main Idea Part 3, ouliogroove (10:15),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bg5dNEytNZk&index=13&list=PL6342080255144325

Task 3

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Listening for detail, B1-B2, Cambridge English,
http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/learning-english/activities-for-learners/b1l003-listening-for-detail
• TOEFL Practice – Elite TOEFL Prep – Listening for Details – Intro, Elite TOEFL Prep (2:23),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tVhIeUcUX4&list=PLpHAKKzEd5HMRwmOz_jkrfQFUB4EbZLkm
(NOTE: test questions follow the recorded text)

Task 4

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• McWhorter, John. 4 Reasons to Learn a New Language, TED: Ideas Worth Spreading (10:01),
https://www.ted.com/talks/john_mcwhorter_4_reasons_to_learn_a_new_language#t-586805
• Robinson, Ken. Do Schools Kill Creativity? TED: Ideas Worth Spreading (19:21),
https://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity

Task 5 Suggested answer


Paraphrased text:
Physical Education is greatly beneficial for students’ emotional and psychological well-being as well as
academic achievement. People critical of obligatory PE classes argue that students could spend this time
improving such subjects as math or languages. They state that PE classes interfere with students’ attainment
in these areas. Contrary to this opinion, as research demonstrates, the more time students spend in sports the
better their concentration becomes, which leads to increased academic achievements in maths and languages.
As other research shows, students’ engagement in sports helps to diminish depression and anxiety for those
who feel stressed and overworked at school. Thus, there is little doubt that Physical Education is important
in sustaining students’ psychological well-being and enhancing academic performance. (120 words)

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 2 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Original text:
Physical Education has numerous benefits for mental health and academic performance. The opponents
of compulsory P.E. classes claim that sports take up time, which could be spent on other subjects, such as
math or languages, which subsequently reduce students’ achievement in these areas. However, this claim can
be proven as invalid. As shown by several studies, which found a link between an increased time spent in
athletics and the improvements in test scores in mathematics and languages, physical activity helps students
concentrate and stay focused. According to other studies, physical activity reduces depression and anxiety,
which, in fact, is very beneficial for those students who feel burnt out and stressed due to a school-related
workload. Therefore, there is little room for doubt when discussing the importance of Physical Education; it
is beneficial to students’ psychological well-being and enhances academic achievements. (139 words)

Task 6 Suggested answer


Summarised text:
Language is very important to all the people of the world as, with the help of language, spoken and written,
they communicate their emotions, needs and concerns. Language also helps to maintain longstanding
relationships, which makes human beings different from the animal world. However, the importance of
communication is often ignored, especially when travelling abroad. Expecting to be understood in one’s
native language and not being able to speak a word of a local tongue can cause serious misunderstandings
between people and can even be equalled to living with a serious impairment. In addition, knowing foreign
languages is becoming increasingly important in international business, in one’s competition for prestigious
jobs and for children’s future professional success. (116 words)

Original text:
Importance of Language – Why Learning a Second Language is Important
By Leonardo De Valoes
Language impacts the daily lives of members of any race, creed and region of the world. Language helps
express our feelings, desires and queries to the world around us. Words, gestures and tone are utilized in
union to portray a broad spectrum of emotion. The unique and diverse methods human beings can use
to communicate through written and spoken language is a large part of what allows to harness our innate
ability to form lasting bonds with one another; separating mankind from the rest of the animal kingdom.
The importance of communication is often overlooked. Despite our great prowess in communication,
misunderstandings and mistranslations are commonplace. It is arrogant to believe that one can travel the
world and expect all of mankind to understand his or her native tongue. In order to travel the world,
whether for business or pleasure, a desire and willingness to adapt to new cultures and methods is necessary.
Adaptability, of course, includes the ability to communicate with new people in various dialects. Being
unable to communicate in a country is akin to living with a serious impairment; it is very difficult and near
impossible to adapt and get along with new people if there is no way to communicate with one another.
Additionally, the ability to communicate in multiple languages is becoming more and more important
in the increasingly integrated global business community. Communicating directly with new clients and
companies in their native language is one of the first steps to founding a lasting, stable international business
relationship. Being able to do this automatically puts any multilingual person miles ahead of his or her peers
in the competition for jobs and high-prestige positions. Language is such a key aspect to setting up children
for success in their future professional endeavors that high schools across the nation and in almost every
Western country require at least two years of a foreign language. (316 words)

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 3 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 7

1 The answer comes from a behavioral science experiment that was run one hot summer in San Marcos,
California.  A report on behavioral science was carried out in the USA. 
Use of a synonym (answer  report); use of a synonym, change from active voice to passive voice (was
run  was carried out), use of a more general word (in San Marcos, California  in the USA), change of
sentence structure.
2 One quarter of the homes received a message that said, “Did you know that you could save 54 dollars
a month this summer? Turn off your air conditioning; turn on your fans”.  People were asked to use
fans instead of air conditioning. 
Use of a more general word (one quarter of homes  people); use of a synonym, change from active voice
to passive voice (received a message  were asked); change of sentence structure; two sentences  one
sentence.
3 And still a third group got a message about being good citizens.  The third group were asked to be
responsible citizens. 
Use of a synonym, change from active voice to passive voice (got a message  were asked); change to
another part of speech (being  to be); use of a synonym (good citizens  responsible citizens); two sen-
tences  one sentence.
4 fact, none of these messages worked. They had zero impact on energy consumption.  The messages
In
produced no impact on energy saving.
Use of synonyms (worked  produced; zero impact  no impact; energy consumption  energy saving);
two sentences  one sentence.
5 But, there was a fourth message, and this message simply said, “When surveyed, 77 percent of your
neighbors said that they turned off their air conditioning and turned on their fans. Please join them.”
And they did. The people who received this message showed a marked decrease in energy consumption
simply by being told what their neighbors were doing.  A large decrease in energy usage was achieved
by the message about their neighbors’ successful saving. 
Use of synonyms (energy consumption  energy usage; by being told  by the message); use of a more spe-
cific word (what their neighbors were doing  neighbors’ successful saving); four sentences  one sentence.
6 So what does this tell us? Well, if something is inconvenient, even if we believe in it, moral persuasion
and financial incentives don’t do much to move us – but social pressure, that’s powerful stuff. And har-
nessed correctly, it can be a powerful force for good.  Unpopular actions might be powered more suc-
cessfully by social pressure. 
Use of a synonymous expression (if something is inconvenient  unpopular actions); change to another
part of speech (powerful stuff, powerful force  might be powered, i.e. from adjective to verb); use of a
synonym (harnessed correctly  more successfully); active voice  passive voice; three sentences  one
sentence.
7 Twenty percent of the electricity in homes is wasted, and when I say wasted, I don’t mean that people
have inefficient light bulbs. Although they may.  Quite a large amount of electricity is wasted because
of inefficient bulbs. 
Use of a more general word (twenty percent  a large amount); two sentences  one sentence.
8 That’s 40 billion dollars a year wasted on electricity that does not contribute to our well-being but does
contribute to climate change.  If people spent less money, they could improve their well-being. 
Use of a more general expression (40 billion dollars a year wasted on electricity  If people spent less
money); use of a different conjunction (That’s 40 billion dollars a year wasted on electricity that does not
contribute to our well-being but does contribute to climate change  If people...).
9 The dashboard that shows drivers how much energy they’re saving in real time makes former speed de-
mons drive more like cautious grandmothers.  Information about energy saving makes drivers reduce
the speed.
Change to another part of speech (speed demons  reduce speed, i.e. adjective
 noun); use of a more general expression (The dashboard that shows drivers how much energy they’re
saving in real time  Information about energy saving; drive more like cautious grandmothers  reduce the
speed).

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 4 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Language Skills
Task 8

1 conferred, convocation/academic
2 gave, keep up
3 science
4 commencement, convocation/academic
5 made, procrastinating
6 her way through
7 single-sex
8 sixth-form college
9 post-secondary level/higher /university
 take, extension

Task 9

1 e)
2 c)
3 a)
4 b)
5 d)

Task 10 Answers will vary.

Task 11

1 (b) did
2 (b) revise
3 (b) review
4 (a) keep
5 (a) hand
6 (b) ask
7 (a) comply
8 (b) mark

Task 12

1 gymnasia
2 lyceums
3 curricula
4 foci/focuses
5 syllabi
6 alumni
7 phenomena
8 criteria
9 series
 analyses

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 5 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 13

1 protractor
2 test tube
3 handout
4 graduation gown
5 marker
6 funnel
7 hole punch
8 (photo)copier
9 graduation cap
 fibre tip pen
 flask
 sellotape
 academic dress

Task 14
1 recruited
2 highlighted
3 presenter
4 neuroimaging
5 wandering
6 design
7 punctuated
8 available.
9 launched
 Endowment

Task 15

1 a) recruited
2 b) highlighted
3 a) presenter
4 c) neuroimaging
5 b) wondering
6 c) design
7 b) punctuated
8 b) available
9 c) launched
 b) Endowment

Task 16
Students’ own answers

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 6 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 17

1 Iraqi
2 Slovak
3 Welsh
4 Finnish
5 Danish
6 Thai
7 Kazakh
8 Danish
9 Maltese
 Moldovan

Task 18
1 c)
2 a)
3 d)
4 b)

Task 19

1 usable
2 market; new skills
3 career; a portfolio career
4 diversify; narrowing
5 holding
6 models
7 develop
8 necessity; advance
9 go
 in-demand; demand

Task 20

1 new skills
2 the basic skills
3 usable skills
4 a portfolio career
5 skills
6 focus
7 careers
8 several careers at the same time
9 skills in multiple areas
 in demand

Task 21

Students’ own answers

Task 22

Students’ own answers

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 7 Į turinį
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Task 23
Students’ own answers

Task 24
1 This site is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
2 She worked for TV4 from August to March.
3 The New York Times is a well-known American newspaper.
4 They reside on Oak Street.
5 Vytautas Magnus University was re-established in cooperation with the Lithuanian Diaspora.
6 World War I lasted from 1914 to 1918.
7 The Mediterranean cuisine helps to live a healthier life.
8 For Whom the Bell Tolls is a masterpiece of literature in English.
9 He made an appointment with Captain Smith for Thursday.
 The administration of the Navy Department sent the lieutenant an important notice.

Useful Online Sources


English Listening,
https://www.englishlistening.com/index.php/listen-to-passages/
Inside the TOEFL Test: Listening Questions – Detail, TOEFLtv (2:47),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4xohaoB6KU
IELTS Listening Tips & Essential Information, IELTS Liz (31:01),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8qmJeBxk4Q
IELTS Listening: English Names, IELTS Liz (8:31),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ovx8wZKxTSM
IELTS Listening: Problems with numbers, IELTS Liz (5:59),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYp08TMG5uw
IELTS Listening Section 1: Time Test, IELTS Liz (4:39),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UKdZALEoa4o
English Writing – Paraphrasing, engVid (8:25),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgMJ16WUEPg
Understanding Summary Writing (12:04),
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3_tH506HxU
IELTS & TOEFL Listening Practice: Academic Vocabulary, engVid (11:08),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m54Vfvt_QD4
When to Capitalize Names in English, engVid (8:36),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VuFVhmk_A4

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 8 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Unit 2 Listening Task Types Answer Key

Listening Task Types


Task 1

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Listening CAE C1, Sample 2015, Part 1 (8:22),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7cwPUcWbGI
• CAE Listening Part 3, englishaula,
http://www.englishaula.com/en/cae-listening-part-3-exercise-exam-1-cambridge-advanced-certificate-english.html
• Listening CAE C1, Sample 2015, Part 1 (8:22),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7cwPUcWbGI
• TOEFL Listening Full Practice Test 1 with Answers (4:16),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVYomidUEyU
• High-achieving teenagers, Listening skills Practice B2, British Council (4:40),
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/high-achieving-teenagers

Task 2

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Parts 1 and 3, Listening paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014 and 2015 or Parts 1 and 2, Listening paper,
School Leaving Exam of 2016 and 2017 at Brandos egzaminai, Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 3

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Celebrations, Listening skills Practice B1, British Council (4:17),
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/celebrations
• Favourite things, Listening skills Practice B1, British Council (4:21),
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/favourite-things
• My hero, Listening skills Practice B2, British Council (6:40),
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/my-hero
• The best job in the world, Listening skills Practice B2, British Council (4:53),
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/best-job-world
• Cambridge English: CAE Listening 4, Exam English,
http://www.examenglish.com/CAE/cae_listening4.htm

Task 4

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 5, Listening paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014 and 2015 or Part 3, Listening paper, School
Leaving Exam of 2016 and 2017 at Brandos egzaminai, Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 5

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Test 1, Part 2, FCE Paper 4 Listening, English Tests,
http://englishtests.ucoz.com/FCE/test1/listening/fce_paper4_listening_test1_part2.htm
• Test 2, Part 2, FCE Paper 4 Listening, English Tests,
http://englishtests.ucoz.com/FCE/test2/listening/FCE_paper4_listening_test2_part2.htm
•  Test 1, Part 2, Paper 4: Listening, CAE Practice Tests, English Tests,
http://englishtests.ucoz.com/CAE/test1/listening/cae_paper4_listening_test1_part2.htm
•  Test 2 Part 2, Paper 4: Listening, CAE Practice Tests, English Tests,
http://englishtests.ucoz.com/CAE/test2/listening/cae_paper4_listening_test2_part2.htm
• New inventions, Listening skills practice B2, British Council (4:30),
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/new-inventions

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 9 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 6

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 4, Listening paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014, 2015 or 2016 at Brandos egzaminai,
Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 7

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• [IELTS LISTENING - SECTION 2] - Summary Completion (2:30),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICJhJAZeaoU
• IELTS LISTENING - SECTION 2 - Summary Completion (2:10),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgAkMIZYZZc

Task 8

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 4, Listening paper, School Leaving Exam of 2017 at Brandos egzaminai,
Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 9

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Listening Comprehension Tests - True-False, ETS,
http://englishteststore.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=14378&Itemid=343
• How to study, Listening skills practice B2, British Council,
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/how-study
• New inventions, Listening skills practice B2, British Council,
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/new-inventions
• Unusual British festivals, Listening skills practice B2, British Council,
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/unusual-british-festivals
• UNIT 5 LISTENING 1_ TRUE/FALSE, LC Universe (2:22)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CkzLm0wSLqE

Task 10

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 2, Listening paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014 and 2015 at Brandos egzaminai,
http://www.nec.lt/592/

Language Skills
Task 11

1 SkyTrain
2 trip
3 journey
4 itineraries
5 tandem
6 delayed
7 package; backpacker
8 side
9 HouseTrip
 self-catering

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 10 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 12

1 set out
2 plan
3 step by step, flight by flight, bus by bus1
4 make
5 see
6 abroad
7 self-catering
8 pack
9 queue
 go
 take
 visit
 go
 try
 by
 on
 go
 go
 purchase
 use

Task 13 Students’ own answers

Task 14

1 embark; disembark
2 fast-craft ferry crossings to Cherbourg; cruises to Caen and Le Havre
3 a daytime crossing and overnight sailing
4 three months in advance
5 because of a major refurbishment
6 last minute hotel deal
7 that he/she had a reservation under his/her name
8 free Wi-Fi and a full English breakfast
9 students’ own answers
 the first floor
 a short journey
 early check out time
 upper ground floor
 front door steps, wrought iron fencing, black front door with brass door knockers and a minimum front
yard

1
Adapted from: Interview: Cassie DePecol, the First Woman to Visit Every Country in the World. @gapyear.com,
https://www.gapyear.com/articles/273524/interview-cassie-depecol-world-record-countries. Accessed 5 May 2017.

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 11 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 15

1 D
2 C
3 I
4 A
5 H
6 E
7 B
8 F

Task 16 Students’ own answers

Task 17

1 F
2 F
3 F
4 F
5 F
6 T
7 T
8 T
9 F
 T
 T
 F
 T

Task 18

1 A
2 B
3 A
4 B
5 B

Task 19

1 A  A
2 A, B  A, B, C
3 B, C  B
4 A, B, C  B
5 A, B  A
6 A  B, C
7 C  A, C
8 C  A
9 B

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 12 Į turinį
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© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 20

1 d)
2 e)
3 k)
4 b)
5 c)
6 i)
7 f )
8 g)
9 h)
 a)

Task 21

1, 9, , 6, 7, 3, , 4, , 8, , , , , 5, , 2.

Task 22 Students’ own answers

Task 23

1 wishes
2 branches
3 stories
4 stays
5 queues 
6 whizzes
7 spies
8 passes
9 waltzes
 prizes

Task 24

1 dryish
2 gracious
3 statement
4 occurrence
5 hopeful
6 envious
7 harassment
8 reference
9 oldish
 shameful

Task 25

1 skilful (Br.E.) / skillful (Am.E.) 6 chimneys


2 dryish 7 replied
3 beautiful 8 disparagement
4 greyish 9 quizzes
5 wilful (Br.E.) / willful (Am.E.)  abysses

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Task 26

1 Properly citing the works of others is an important skill to master.


2 When she was a child, she had a Filipino caregiver.
3 During the visit, Lady Brown told Cecily how much she wanted to visit Death Valley in southeastern
California.
4 Fantasy also becomes a means to reach and touch an existential bond in the poem “Return” by Alė
Rūta.
5 Such decisions are wilful/willful.
6 There are plenty of great books featuring African-American characters.
7 Nobody could explain where the kidneys are.
8 The students are given several quizzes every week.
9 The room was spacious and cosy.
 We peered into several abysses while hiking in the Grand Canyon.

Useful Online Sources


Improve Your English Listening and Understand More! Advanced English Learning (5:52),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8HHBoLR70eo
Free Practice Tests for Learners of English, Exam English,
http://www.examenglish.com/CEFR/C1.htm
Eglish Tests,
http://englishtests.ucoz.com/
Listening Skills Practice, British Council,
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice
How to Score High on IELTS Listening: Multiple Choice – Webinar, E2 IELTS (12:49),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6vQQptK9v8
PTE Multiple choice Single Answer Practice Set 1 - PTE Listening, Sure Way English (18:42),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2N5eR1x7J5g
IELTS Listening Matching Task - Lesson, E2 IELTS (9:32),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpIFysWI7FM
Matching and Classifying in IELTS Listening,
http://ieltsforfree.com/matching-and-classifying-in-ielts-listening/
Sentence Completion Questions in the IELTS Listening Test, IELTSforFree,
http://ieltsforfree.com/sentence-completion-questions-ielts-listening-test-video-lesson/
Signpost Words in IELTS Listening, IELTSforFree,
http://ieltsforfree.com/signpost-words-in-ielts-listening/
Fulford, J. Chapter 13: When Do You Double the Consonant, The Complete Guide to English Spelling
Rules (6:15),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyoFY-M9a8c&list=PLWw1UmfUeChVFJ4-zzzJd66xL4YPOU
v6C&index=6

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 14 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Part II
READING

Unit 3 Reading Skills and Strategies Answer Key

Reading Skills and Strategies


Task 1

The overall meaning of the article: Trees provide information about climate change and condition.

Task 2
Names: National Weather Service, the United States
Dates: 1891
Statistics: 30 years, hundreds and sometimes even thousands of years, 100 to 150 years

Task 3

Task 4

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• For practising skimming, do the interactive exercise Pulp Friction: Timed Skimming Exercise at
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/570/pulp/hemp1.htm
• For practising scanning, do the interactive exercise Pulp Friction: Timed Scanning Exercise at
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/570/pulp/hemp2.htm

Task 5

1 Yes, the introductory paragraph provides background information.


2 Yes, the introductory paragraph provides the definition of the terms: Weather is a specific event–like a
rain storm or hot day–that happens over a short period of time.[…] Climate is the average weather conditions
in a place over a long period of time (30 years or more).
3 Though the introductory paragraph focuses on facts, the writer’s opinion is expressed implicitly (Quite a
lot, actually!)
4 Does the introductory paragraph give clues to the plan of development of the entire passage? No, the
introductory paragraph does not give clues to the plan of development of the entire passage. It only
indicates the main idea of the article: But trees can keep a much longer record of Earth’s climate.

Task 6
What Can Trees Tell Us About Climate Change?
Quite a lot, actually!
But, to understand what the trees tell us, we first have to understand the difference between weather and
climate. Weather is a specific event–like a rain storm or hot day–that happens over a short period of time.
Weather can be tracked within hours or days. Climate is the average weather conditions in a place over a
long period of time (30 years or more). Scientists at the National Weather Service have been keeping track
of weather in the United States since 1891, but trees can keep a much longer record of Earth’s climate. In fact,
trees can live for hundreds–and sometimes even thousands–of years!
One way that scientists use trees to learn about past climate is by studying a tree’s rings. If you’ve ever
seen a tree stump, you probably noticed that the top of the stump had a series of rings. It looks a bit like a
bullseye. These rings can tell us how old the tree is, and what the weather was like during each year of the
tree’s life. The light-coloured rings represent wood that grew in the spring and early summer, while the dark
rings represent wood that grew in the late summer and fall. One light ring plus one dark ring equals one
year of the tree’s life.

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Because trees are sensitive to local climate conditions, such as rain and temperature, they give scientists
some information about that area’s local climate in the past. For example, tree rings usually grow wider in
warm, wet years and they are thinner in years when it is cold and dry. If the tree has experienced stressful
conditions, such as a drought, the tree might hardly grow at all in those years.
Scientists can compare modern trees with local measurements of temperature and precipitation from the
nearest weather station. However, very old trees can offer clues about what the climate was like long before
measurements were recorded. In most places, daily weather records have only been kept for the past 100 to
150 years.
So, to learn about the climate hundreds to thousands of years ago, in addition to studying tree rings,
scientists need to use other sources, such as corals and ice cores (layers of ice drilled out of a glacier). (376
words)
(Source: Adapted from Stoller-Conrad, Jessica. “What can trees tell us about climate change?” NASA Climate Kids, NASA)

Task 7

1 No, the concluding paragraph does not provide synthesis or summary of the main points.
2 Yes, it does. The concluding paragraph restates the main argument: …to learn about the climate hundreds
to thousands of years ago, in addition to studying tree rings, …
3 Yes, it does. The concluding paragraph provides the concluding idea: … scientists need to use other sources,
such as corals and ice cores (layers of ice drilled out of a glacier).

Task 8 Answers will vary.

Task 9

Title: Why a Half-Degree Temperature Rise is a Big Deal


Sub-titles:
Corn plants with no corn
A multi-century commitment
Generations down the road

Who/What? Scientists, environmentalists / damage to the environment caused by temperature rise


Why? a half-degree temperature may cause great harm to the environment; a half-degree temperature rise may
cause, for example, the following damage: sea level rises causing floods, coral reefs die out, corn plants dry out and
grow with no corn.
How? Difficult to predict without reading the entire article

Why a Half-Degree Temperature Rise is a Big Deal

The Paris Agreement, which delegates from 196 countries hammered out in December 2015, calls for
holding the ongoing rise in global average temperature to “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels,” while
“pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C.” How much difference could that half-degree of
wiggle room (or 0.9 degree on the Fahrenheit scale) possibly make in the real world? Quite a bit, it appears.

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 16 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
The European Geosciences Union published a study in April 2016 that examined the impact of 1.5 degree
Celsius vs a 2.0°C temperature increase by the end of the century, given what we know so far about how
climate works. It found that the jump from 1.5 to 2 degrees—a third more of an increase—raises the impact
by about that same fraction, very roughly, on most of the phenomena the study covered. Heat waves would
last around a third longer, rain storms would be about a third more intense, the increase in sea level would
be approximately that much higher and the percentage of tropical coral reefs at risk of severe degradation
would be roughly that much greater.
But, in some cases, that extra increase in temperature makes things much more dire. At 1.5°C, the study
found that tropical coral reefs stand a chance of adapting and reversing a portion of their die-off in the last
half of the century. But, at 2°C, the chance of recovery vanishes. Tropical corals are virtually wiped out by
the year 2100.
With a 1.5°C rise in temperature, the Mediterranean area is forecast to have about 9 percent less fresh
water available. At 2°C, that water deficit nearly doubles. So does the decrease in wheat and maize harvest
in the tropics.
On a global scale, production of wheat and soy is forecast to increase with a 1.5°C temperature rise, partly
because warming is favorable for farming in higher latitudes and partly because the added carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere, which is largely responsible for the temperature increase, is thought to have a fertilization
effect. But, at 2°C, that advantage plummets by 700 percent for soy and disappears entirely for wheat.
Three climate scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who were not involved with this study, shed
some light on the study’s results, starting with the impact on agriculture.

Corn Plants with No Corn


Why does a half degree of temperature increase make such a difference to some of the crops that were
studied? For one thing, a half degree averaged out over the whole world can mean much more of an increase
in some locations and at certain times.
“Most of that temperature change may occur during a small fraction of the year, when it actually
represents conditions that could be 5 or 10 degrees warmer than pre-industrial temperatures instead of just
1.5 or 2 degrees warmer,” said Dave Schimel, who supervises JPL’s Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems group.
“There are places in the world where, for these important breadbasket crops, they are already close to
a thermal limit for that crop species,” Schimel said. Adding to the burden, he said, “this analysis (the EGU
study) does not take into account the fact that pests and pathogens may spread more rapidly at higher
temperatures.”
And Schimel pointed out that heat can imperil agriculture even when crops don’t die. “If you get really
high temperatures or very dry conditions during critical parts of the development of the crop, it produces
essentially no grain. For example, above certain temperature thresholds, corn doesn’t die but it doesn’t grow
seed. It doesn’t grow a corncob. And other crops are similar to that, where the development of the actual
food part of the crop is dramatically inhibited above critical temperatures.”
But, what about that fertilization effect from carbon dioxide? “It does help a bit, but it doesn’t make the
underlying problem go away,” he said. “And by the way, if the plant was growing really fast when it died, it
still died.”
Can we avoid the extra half-percent temperature increase? Schimel agrees that we should try hard to do
so, but cautions that we don’t know how to fine-tune global warming with that much precision. “If we aim
for 2 degrees, we might hit 3 degrees,” he said. “If we aim for 1.5 degrees, we might still hit 2 degrees.”

A Multi-Century Commitment
Felix Landerer, who studies sea level and ice at JPL, said timescale is critical to forecasting how high the
ocean will rise.
“This paper looks at this century,” he said. “So the effects appear to be fairly linear.” That is, a third more
increase in temperature produces about a third more increase in sea level.

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 17 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
“But,” he said, “I would frame the discussion in the context that in recent studies–in particular of ocean-
ice interactions–there is growing concern that the ice sheets are very sensitive to the surrounding ocean
warming.” These studies show that giant glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica melt not only from the top
down, but also from the bottom up as relatively warm ocean water makes its way to their undersides.
“At two degrees (of temperature increase),” he said, “you might have crossed a threshold for significantly
more sea-level rise than indicated here.” In other words, even if we are able to limit the rise in global air
temperature to 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century and stop the increase at that point, the ocean
holds so much heat that it can continue melting ice sheets and thus raising sea level far beyond that point
in time.
“The air temperatures level off, you (hypothetically) stabilize them, but you have committed to sea-level
rise over multiple centuries,” Landerer said. “So it’s good to stay away from two degrees. That’s an experiment
you don’t want to run. Because that experiment would potentially wipe Florida off the map.”

Generations Down the Road


The EGU study found that the difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees Celsius of warming “is likely to be
decisive for the future of tropical coral reefs.” JPL’s Michelle Gierach was not surprised.
“Reef-building corals are extremely vulnerable to warming,” she said. “Prolonged warming harms warm-
water corals not only through bleaching (a phenomenon in which corals under stress, such as from water
that is too warm, expel the algae they need to survive), but also through making them more susceptible to
disease.”
Gierach attended the international conference that produced the Paris Agreement and she was happy to
see the ocean and climate getting their due attention. But, she acknowledges the difficulty in turning that
attention into action over a long period of time. “It’s very against how our society is now,” she said. “We
want to see instant results. That’s not something that’s going to happen with climate change. You need to just
keep pursuing it and know that generations down the road will reap the benefits.”
The Paris Agreement goes into effect when 55 nations, accounting for at least 55 percent of total global
greenhouse-gas emissions, ratify it. The status so far: 19 nations, accounting for 0.18 percent of total
greenhouse-gas emissions, have ratified the agreement as of June 30, 2016. (1199 words)
(Adapted from Silberg, B. “Why a Half-Degree Temperature Rise Is a Big Deal”. Global Climate Change, NASA)

Task 10

1 The writer does not express his opinion directly; the writer’s negative opinion towards global warming
can only be inferred.
2 The writer presents the argument in the following way: How much difference could that half-degree of
wiggle room (or 0.9 degree on the Fahrenheit scale) possibly make in the real world? Quite a bit, it appears
(the claim).
3 The writer supports his argument by providing opinions of experts and results of scientific studies (e.g.
the study by The European Geosciences Union) and the opinion of three climate scientists at NASA’s Jet
Propulsion Laboratory.
4 The writer presents opinions of the experts he refers to by quoting them and introduces the quotes using
the words said, acknowledges, agrees and was not surprised.
5 There are no contradicting points of view in this article.

Task 11 Answers will vary.

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 18 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
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Language Skills
Task 12 1 g), 2 i), 3 h), 4 m), 5 e), 6 k), 7 a), 8 j), 9 d),  c),  l),  f),  b),  n),
 o)

1 Adjacent (adj) g) next to or near something


2 Atoll (n) i) an island made of coral and shaped like a ring with a lake of sea water in the
middle
3 Barrier reef (n) h) a line of rock and coral in the sea, often not far from land
4 Edge (n) m) the outside limit of an object, a surface or an area; the part furthest from the
centre
5 Emerge (v) e) to come out of a dark, confined or hidden place
6 Expand (v) k) to become greater in size, number or importance; to make something greater
in size, number or importance
7 Fringing reef (n) a) the type of reef that grows seaward directly from the shore
8 Habitat (n) j) the place where a particular type of animal or plant is normally found
9 Lagoon (n) d) a lake of salt water that is separated from the sea by a reef
 Larvae (n) c) an insect at the stage when it has just come out of an egg and looks like a short
fat worm
 Seaward (adv) l) towards the sea; in the direction of the sea
 Shoreline (n) f) the edge of a sea, an ocean or a lake
 Submerge (v) b) to go under the surface of water or liquid; to put something or make
something go under the surface of water or liquid or an area of rock or sand
 Subside (v) n) (of land or a building) to sink to a lower level; to sink lower into the ground
 Surface (n) o) the top layer of an area of water or land

Task 13

Coral reefs begin to form when free-swimming coral larvae attach to (1) submerged rocks or other hard
surfaces along the (2) edges of islands or continents. As the corals grow and (3) expand, reefs take on one of
three major characteristic structures–fringing, barrier or atoll.
Fringing reefs, which are the most common, project (4) seaward directly from the shore, forming borders
along the (5) shoreline and surrounding islands. Barrier reefs also border shorelines, but at a greater distance.
They are separated from their (6) adjacent land mass by a lagoon of open, often deep water. If a fringing reef
forms around a volcanic island that (7) subsides completely below sea level while the coral continues to grow
upward, an (8) atoll forms. Atolls are usually circular or oval, with a central lagoon. Parts of the reef platform
may (9) emerge as one or more islands, and gaps in the reef provide access to the central (10) lagoon.
In addition to being some of the most beautiful and biologically diverse (11) habitats in the ocean, barrier
reefs and atolls also are some of the oldest. With growth rates of 0.3 to 2 centimeters per year for massive
corals and up to 10 centimeters per year for branching corals, it can take up to 10,000 years for a coral reef
to form from a group of (12) larvae. Depending on their size, barrier reefs and atolls can take from 100,000
to 30,000,000 years to fully form.
(Source: adapted from “How Do Coral Reefs Form?” Ocean Service Education, NOAA)

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 19 Į turinį
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Task 14

About Surface Temperature


Temperatures measured on land and at sea for more than a century show that Earth’s globally averaged
(1) surface temperature is rising. For the last 45 years, global surface temperature rose at an average rate
of about 0.17°C (around 0.3° Fahrenheit) per (2) decade—more than twice as fast as the 0.07°C per decade
increase observed for the entire period of recorded observations (1880-2015).

The graph shows average annual global temperatures since 1880 compared to the long-term average (1901−2000). The zero
line represents the long-term average temperature for the whole planet; light grey and dark grey bars show the difference
above or below average for each year.

About Surface Temperature


The concept of an (3) average temperature for the entire globe may seem odd. After all, at this very moment,
the highest and lowest temperatures on Earth are likely more than 100°F (55°C) apart. Temperatures vary
from night to day and between seasonal (4) extremes in the Northern and Southern (5) Hemispheres.
This means that some parts of Earth are quite cold while other parts are downright hot. To speak of the
“average” temperature, then, may seem like nonsense. However, the concept of a global average temperature
is convenient for detecting and (6) tracking changes in Earth’s condition over time.
To calculate a global average temperature, scientists begin with temperature (7) measurements taken
at locations around the (8) globe. Because their goal is to track changes in temperature, measurements are
converted from direct temperature (9) readings to temperature
(10) anomalies−values that represent the difference between the observed temperature and the long-term
average temperature for each location and date.
Across inaccessible areas that have few measurements, scientists use surrounding temperatures and
other information to fill in the missing values. Each value is then used to calculate a global temperature
average. This process provides a (11) consistent, reliable method for monitoring changes in Earth’s surface
temperature over time.

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Change Over Time
Though warming has not been (12) uniform across the planet, the upward trend in the globally averaged
temperature shows that more areas are warming than cooling. Since 1976, every year including 2015 has had
an average global temperature warmer than the long-term average. Over this 38-year period, temperature
warmed at an average of 0.50°F (0.28°C) per decade over land and 0.22°F (0.12°C) per decade over the ocean.
By 2020, models project that global surface temperature will be more than 0.5°C (0.9°F) warmer than the
1986-2005 average, regardless of which carbon dioxide (13) emissions pathway the world follows. By 2030,
however, the projected temperature pathways begin (14) to diverge, with (15) unchecked carbon dioxide
emissions likely leading to several additional degrees of warming by the end of the century.
(Source: Dahlman, LuAnn. “Climate Change: Global Temperature”. January 1, 2015. NOAA, Climate.gov)

a) the greatest or highest degree of something extreme


b) the size, length or amount of something measurements
c) the amount or number shown on an instrument used for measuring something reading
d) the top layer of an area of water or land surface
e) not controlled or stopped from getting worse unchecked
f) calculated by adding several amounts together, finding a total and dividing the total by the number of
amounts average
g) happening in the same way and continuing for a period of time consistent
h) not varying; the same in all parts and at all times uniform
i) a period of ten years decade
j) to be or become different from what is expected, planned, etc. diverge
k) following the movements of something, especially by using special electronic equipment
tracking
l)   the world (used especially to emphasize its size) globe
m) one half of the earth, especially the half above or below the equator hemisphere
n) the production or sending out of light, heat, gas, etc. emission
o) a thing, situation, etc. that is different from what is normal or expected anomaly

Task 15

1 Burning fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas, has been forecasted to have
catastrophic effects on climate change.
2 Because coal-fired units yield high CO2 emissions, a programme was launched to reduce emissions by
installing pollution control systems for high-emitting plants.
3 soil conditioners enhance soil properties such as soil ph and water holding capacity.
4 Reducing the use of disposable products, such as supermarket bags, can be a way to a
more eco-friendly environment.
5 California’s current draught is reported to be in its fourth year.
6 Landfill is a structure built on top of the ground in which trash is isolated from the
environment.
7 Increasing consumption unavoidably contributes to intensification of pollution.
8 At the end of the dry season, the land became parched and the cattle emaciated.
9 Oil leakage from the tanker contaminated the sea.
 The plants did not put down roots because of over-fertilisation.

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© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 16

1 (a) ibis (b) owlet-nightjar (c) bamboo lemur (d) stork (e) starling
2 (a) reed (b) lichen (c) moss (d) nettle (e) condor
3 (a) chestnut (b) sycamore (c) honeysuckle (d) dandelion (e) maple
4 (a) heather (b) buckwheat (c) barley (d) wheat (e) rye
5 (a) flea (b) moth (c) leech (d) mite (e) louse

Task 17

1 Pure Impure
2 Visible Invisible
3 Close Disclose
4 Spell Misspell
5 Literate Illiterate
6 Typical Atypical
7 Acceptable Unacceptable
8 Nuclear Antinuclear
9 Obey Disobey
 Regular Irregular

Task 18

1 Nutrition (n)  Malnutrition


2 Part (n)  Counterpart
3 Contaminate (v)  Decontaminate
4 Grade (v)  Downgrade
5 Function (n)  Malfunction
6 Fall (n)  Downfall
7 Argument (n)  Counterargument
8 Practice (n)  Malpractice
9 Motivate (v)  Demotivate
 Side (n)  Downside

1 Malnutrition − a poor condition of health caused by a lack of food or a lack of the right type of food
2 Counterpart − a person or thing that has the same position or function as somebody/something else in
a different place or situation
3 Decontaminate − to remove harmful substances from a place or thing
4 Downgrade − to make something/somebody seem less important or valuable than it/they really are
5 Malfunction − failure of a machine, etc. to work correctly
6 Downfall − the loss of a person’s money, power, social position, etc.; the thing that causes this
8 Counterargument − an argument or set of reasons that you put forward to oppose an idea or theory
8 Malpractice − careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in a professional job
9 Demotivate − to make somebody feel that it is not worth making an effort
 Downside − the disadvantages or less positive aspects of something

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Task 19

1 Guided (adj)  Misguided


2 Assemble (v)  Reassemble
3 Continuous (adj)  Discontinuous
4 View (n)  Overview
5 Dated (adj)  Outdated
6 Supply (n)  Oversupply
7 Belief (n)  Disbelief
8 Spoken (adj)  Outspoken
9 Consider (v)  Reconsider
 Tone (n)  Overtone
 Count (v)  Recount
 Apply (v)  Misapply
 Weigh (v)  Outweigh
 Closure (n)  Disclosure
 Sensitive (adj)  Oversensitive

1 Misguided − wrong because you have understood or judged a situation badly


2 Reassemble − to fit the parts of something together again after it has been taken apart
3 Discontinuous − not continuous; stopping and starting again
4 Overview − a general description or an outline of something
5 Outdated − no longer useful because of being old-fashioned
6 Oversupply – a greater supply of something than is needed
7 Disbelief − the feeling of not being able to believe something
8 Outspoken − saying exactly what you think, even if this shocks or offends people
9 Reconsider − to think about something again, especially because you might want to change previous
decision or opinion
 Overtone − an attitude or an emotion that is suggested and is not expressed in a direct way
 Recount − 1) to tell somebody about something, especially something that you have experienced; 2) to
count something again, especially votes
 Misapply − to use something for the wrong purpose or in the wrong way
 Outweigh − to be greater or more important than something
 Disclosure − the act of making something known or public that was previously secret or private
 Oversensitive − too easily upset or offended

Task 20

1 Accomplish  accomplishment
2 Ignore  ignorance
3 Anticipate  anticipation 
4 Enlighten  enlightenment     
5 Fulfil  fulfilment
6 Imply  implication
7 Accumulate  accumulation
8 Endure  endurance
9 Enlarge  enlargement
 Dominate  dominance, domination

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 23 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 21

1 Promote  promotional
2 Conclude  conclusive
3 Detriment  detrimental
4 Pivot  pivotal
5 Flaw  flawless
6 Grace  graceful
7 Disrupt  disruptive
8 Event  eventful
9 Compulsion  compulsive
 Fundament  fundamental
 Fault  faultless
 Abuse  abusive
 Exception  exceptional
 Speech  speechless
 Resource  resourceful

Task 22

Noun Verb Adjective


disposal dispose disposable
erosion erode erosive
parchment parch parched
danger endanger endangered
contamination contaminate contaminated
contaminant
eco-consciousness − eco-conscious
emission emit emitted
pollution pollute polluted
pollutant polluting
polluter
sustainability sustain sustainable
consumption consume consumed
consumer
degradation degrade degradable
degrading

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© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 24 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Useful Online Sources
British Council - IELTS Reading - Skimming and Scanning (7:02),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvvQYimPUq0
IELTS Reading - Skimming and Scanning (5:28),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtcXr0_201A
IELTS Reading: TIPS for SKIMMING and SCANNING (14:09),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2no6V9hWDiI
nature.com,
https://www.nature.com/
National Geographic,
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/
Cole, D. IELTS Vocabulary, DC IELTS,
http://www.dcielts.com/ielts-vocabulary/
Ferguson, E. Vocabulary for IELTS: Word Lists, Exercises & Pronunciation, IELTS Liz,
http://ieltsliz.com/vocabulary/
English Grammar: Negative Prefixes - “un”, “dis”, “in”, “im”, “non”, engVid (14:55),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPtgQW3ryyk&t=5s
English Prefixes | English vocabulary lesson, Crown Academy of English (21:13),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z
English Suffixes | Learn English Vocabulary,  Crown Academy of English (29:23),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ucX5iHGwS_k

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© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Unit 4 Reading Task Types Answer Key

Reading Task Types


Task 1

Paragraph 0 − A Doctors inside your body


Paragraph 1 − B Sensors, sensors, everywhere
Paragraph 2 − E Self-healing structures
Paragraph 3 − D Making big data possible
Paragraph 4 − C Tackling climate change
Not needed − F Solving medical problems

Five Ways Nanotechnology is Securing Your Future


The past 70 years have seen the way we live and work transformed by two tiny inventions. The electronic
transistor and the microchip are what make all modern electronics possible, and since their development
in the 1940s, they’ve been getting smaller. Today, one chip can contain as many as 5 billion transistors. The
real challenge is using such techniques reliably to manufacture working nanoscale devices. If we can master
this technology, however, then we have the opportunity to improve not just electronics but all sorts of areas
of modern life.

0. A Doctors inside your body


Wearable fitness technology means we can monitor our health by strapping gadgets to ourselves. There
are even prototype electronic tattoos that can sense our vital signs. But, by scaling down this technology,
we could go further by implanting or injecting tiny sensors inside our bodies. This would capture much
more detailed information with less hassle to the patient, enabling doctors to personalise their treatment.
The possibilities are endless, ranging from monitoring inflammation and post-surgery recovery to more
exotic applications whereby electronic devices actually interfere with our body’s signals for controlling organ
function.

1. B Sensors, sensors, everywhere


These sensors rely on newly-invented nanomaterials and manufacturing techniques to make them smaller,
more complex and more energy efficient. For example, sensors with very fine features can now be printed
in large quantities on flexible rolls of plastic at low cost. This opens up the possibility of placing sensors at
lots of points over critical infrastructure to constantly check that everything is running correctly. Bridges,
aircraft and even nuclear power plants could benefit.

2. E Self-healing structures
If cracks do appear then nanotechnology could play a further role. Changing the structure of materials at the
nanoscale can give them some amazing properties – by giving them a texture that repels water, for example.
In the future, nanotechnology coatings or additives will even have the potential to allow materials to “heal”
when damaged or worn. For example, dispersing nanoparticles throughout a material means that they can
migrate to fill in any cracks that appear. This could produce self-healing materials for everything from
aircraft cockpits to microelectronics, preventing small fractures from turning into large, more problematic
cracks.

3. D Making big data possible


All these sensors will produce more information than we’ve ever had to deal with before – so we’ll need the
technology to process it and spot the patterns that will alert us to problems. The same will be true if we want

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 26 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
to use the “big data” from traffic sensors to help manage congestion and prevent accidents or prevent crime
by using statistics to more effectively allocate police resources. Here, nanotechnology is helping to create
ultra-dense memory that will allow us to store this wealth of data. But, it’s also providing the inspiration
for ultra-efficient algorithms for processing, encrypting and communicating data without compromising its
reliability.

4. C Tackling climate change


The fight against climate change means we need new ways to generate and use electricity, and nanotechnology
is already playing a role. It has helped create batteries that can store more energy for electric cars and has
enabled solar panels to convert more sunlight into electricity. In the future, nanotechnology could also
enable objects to harvest energy from their environment. New nanomaterials and concepts are currently
being developed that show potential for producing energy from movement, light, variations in temperature,
glucose and other sources with high conversion efficiency.
(Source: Prodromakis, T. “Five Ways Nanotechnology Is Securing Your Future.” Phys.org)

Task 2 F − Solving medical problems – too broad

Task 3

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Reading Lesson 1: Matching Paragraph Headings, IELTS buddy,
http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/paragraph-headings.html

Task 4

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 1, Reading paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014- 2017 at Brandos egzaminai,
Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 5

Though technology has changed many aspects of modern life, including education, usually there are no signs
of a time (0) warp if one walks into a (1) traditional classroom. In addition to an interactive whiteboard, their
laptops or tablets, students still use (2) plenty of textbooks, notebooks, pens and pencils. Some education
researchers claim that the (3) curriculum and theory haven’t changed much since the 19th century.
One of the greatest changes in teaching and learning methods is the (4) creation of the so-called “flipped”
classroom. Shifting instruction to a learner-centred model, (5) delivering teaching content online by using
video lessons, carrying out research at home and using school time to do homework are just several features
of the “flipped” classroom, an instructional strategy, which has gained popularity in many parts of the world.
In a “flipped” classroom, instead of being the focus of students’ attention and the source of information, the
teacher becomes a (6) guide who helps students in their research (7) projects and group and pair work.
According to the (8) advocates of “flipped” classrooms, this type of learning enhances students’ higher-
order thinking skills. However, there are people critical of “flipped” classrooms. They state that this teaching
and learning method is not suitable for all (9) subjects and makes students spend too much time glued to
the computer screen.
(Source: Flipped Classroom, Edutopia)

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 27 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 6

Technology and student are words related to the topic but actually not fitting the gap.

Task 7

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 2, Reading paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014-2017 at Brandos egzaminai,
Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 8
Suggested answers:
Paragraph i: The rapid change of the way we use the Internet
Paragraph ii: Search engines as substitutes for remembering facts and information
Paragraph iii: The Internet as one of the sources of a transactive memory
Paragraph iv: Using the Internet for information as a habit
Paragraph v: Experiments to test people’s reliance on computers
Paragraph vi: Debate over the effects of using the Internet on logical thinking
Paragraph vii: Different purposes for using memory

Task 9

1 C Now computers and technology as well are becoming virtual extensions of our memory.
2 D GPS devices in cars remove the need to memorize directions.
3 H In the first experiment, participants demonstrated that they were more likely to think of computer
terms like “Yahoo” or “Google” after being asked a set of difficult trivia questions.
4 F Next, they were asked to recall the statements.

5 E Students who have trouble remembering distinct facts, for example, may struggle to employ those facts
in critical thinking.
6 B “We’re just remembering a different range of things.”
Not needed G “We’re just trying to recall the trivia of our everyday life”.

How the Web Affects Memory


GOOGLE and other search engines have changed the way we use the Internet, putting vast sources of
information just a few clicks away. But, Lindsey professor of psychology Daniel Wegner’s recent research
proves that websites−and the Internet−are changing much more than technology itself. (0) A They are
changing the way our memories function.
Wegner’s latest study, “Google Effects on Memory: Cognitive Consequences of Having Information at
Our Fingertips,” shows that when people have access to search engines, they remember fewer facts and less
information because they know they can rely on “search” as a readily available shortcut. 
Wegner, the senior author of the study, believes the new findings show that the Internet has become
part of a transactive memory source, a method by which our brains compartmentalize information. First
hypothesized by Wegner in 1985, transactive memory exists in many forms, such as when a husband relies
on his wife to remember a relative’s birthday. “[It is] this whole network of memory where you don’t have to
remember everything in the world yourself,” he says. “You just have to remember who knows it.” (1) C
Now computers and technology as well are becoming virtual extensions of our memory.
The idea validates habits already forming in our daily lives. Cell phones have become the primary location
for phone numbers. (2) D GPS devices in cars remove the need to memorize directions. Wegner points
out that we never have to stretch our memories too far to remember the name of an obscure movie actor or
the capital of Kyrgyzstan−we just type our questions into Google. “We become part of the Internet in a way,”
he says. “We become part of the system and we end up trusting it.”

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 28 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Working with researchers Betsy Sparrow of Columbia and Jenny Liu of the University of Wisconsin-
Madison, Wegner conducted four experiments to demonstrate the phenomenon, using various forms of
memory recall to test reliance on computers. (3) H In the first experiment, participants demonstrated
that they were more likely to think of computer terms like “Yahoo” or “Google” after being asked a set of
difficult trivia questions. In two other experiments, participants were asked to type a collection of readily
memorable statements, such as “An ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain.” Half the subjects were told that
their work would be saved to a computer; the other half were informed that the statements would be erased.
In subsequent memory testing, participants who were told their work would not be saved were best at
recalling the statements. In a fourth experiment, participants typed into computer statements they were
told would be saved in specific folders. (4) F Next, they were asked to recall the statements. Finally,
they were given cues to the wording and asked to name the folders where the statements were stored. The
participants proved better able to recall the folder locations than the statements themselves.
Wegner concedes that questions remain about whether dependence on computers will affect memories
negatively: “Nobody knows now what the effects are of these tools on logical thinking.” (5) E Students
who have trouble remembering distinct facts, for example, may struggle to employ those facts in critical
thinking. But, he believes that the situation overall is beneficial, likening dependence on computers to
dependence on a mechanical hand or other prosthetic device or to the use of calculators in the classroom.
Initially, math students were banned from using the latter, he points out, but “Now it’s gotten to the point
where most of the time we are being tested with our calculators, to see where we can get with that wonderful
tool in our hands.”
And even though we may not be taxing our memories to recall distinct facts, we are still using them to
consider where the facts are located and how to access them. “We still have to remember things,” Wegner
explains. (6) B “We’re just remembering a different range of things.” He believes his study will lead
to further research into understanding computer dependence, and looks forward to tracing the extent of
human interdependence with the computer world−pinpointing the “movable dividing line between us and
our computers in cyber networks.”(693 words)
(Source: “How the Web Affects Memory”, Harvard Magazine, November-December 2011)

Task 10

G – “We’re just trying to recall the trivia of our everyday life.”


The sentence contains a word from the text (trivia) but is unrelated to the main idea of the paragraph.

Task 11

1 As it is the last sentence of a paragraph, it summarises the main points mentioned in the paragraph and
serves as a link to the following paragraph (technology  cell phones, GPS devices).
2 As it is in the middle of the paragraph, it is linked to the preceding sentence and serves as the other
example (the first example being cell phones).
3 It supports the idea expressed in the preceding sentence (...Wegner conducted four experiments. ... In the
first experiment, ...).
4 The linking word Next indicates another step in the fourth experiment.
5 It serves to support the idea expressed in the preceding sentence (for example,...).
6 It continues the idea expressed in the preceding sentence (“We still have to remember things,” Wegner
explains. “We’re just remembering a different range of things.”).

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 29 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 12

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Cambridge First (FCE) Reading & Use of English Part 6, Free Practice Tests for learners of English, Exam English,
http://www.examenglish.com/FCE/fce_reading_and_use_of_english_part6.htm
• FCE Practice Tests, Flo-Joe,
http://www.flo-joe.com/fce/students/tests/

Task 13

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 3, Reading paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014-2017 at Brandos egzaminai,
Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 14

1. Consume 2. Emerging 3. Underlying 4. Multiple 5. Portable 6. Hypothesized 7. Objective 8. Viable

1. What types of social communication can the new technology test?


The application can currently examine a variety of social interactions, including the way viewers
consume television broadcasts.

2. How does the leading researcher of the team at Drexel University describe the possibility to examine the
interaction of multiple brains?
The new study is a (n) emerging avenue in understanding how biological systems implement
social processes and behaviour.

3. What method of testing the brain mechanisms has been used prior to the fNIRS system?
Prior to the use of the fNIRS system in brain testing, a traditional brain imaging method, i.e. fMRI, has been
used to examine the neural processes underlying language acquisition.

4. Is it possible to measure how brains align by using conventional methods?


In order to test human interaction, conventional brain scanning devices make it impossible to measure
synchronously neural activity of multiple brains.

5. What did the biomedical engineers aim at?


They aimed at discovering whether the portable device could effectively measure the
correlation between brains in real-life situations.

6. What did the Drexel scientists assume before carrying out their investigation?
The researchers hypothesised that the listeners’ brain activity would demonstrate alignment
with the speaker’s only under one certain condition.

7. What was a further question of the research, in which the fNIRS method was used?
Another objective of the researchers was to consider similarities between the data from the
two studies.

8. What final remark is made about the fNIRS system?


The fNIRS system is considered to be a viable method for further brain research on how
people engage in different social settings.

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 30 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 15

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 4 b), Reading paper, School Leaving Exams of 2014-2015 or Part 4, Reading paper,
School Leaving Exam of 2016-2017 at Brandos egzaminai, Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 16

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• IELTS Reading Practice – Multiple Choice, Summary Completion, IELTS High Score,
https://ieltshighscore.com/2015/05/ielts-reading-practice-frozen-solid/
• IELTS Summary Completion Reading Practice, IELTS Liz,
http://ieltsliz.com/food-ielts-summary-reading-practice/
• Sample reading text, Lessons from the Titanic, IELTS-Exam.net,
https://www.ielts-exam.net/preparing/Sample_reading_text/222/ 
• Lesson 11: Reading Gap Fill, Online IELTS Preparation, IELTS buddy,
  http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/reading-gap-fill.html 
• IELTS Reading Exercise 19, The Living Rock, ESL Lounge Student, 
http://www.esl-lounge.com/student/ielts/ielts019-academic-reading-19.php

Task 17

Task 18

1C 2B 3A 4B 5B

Task 19

0 The article referred to in the passage is regarding how to improve


A. performance of students (too narrow)
B. academic achievements of school students (correct)
C. academic standards (partially correct information)

1 The author believes that the Durham University report is worth studying, because
A. the topic covered by the research is relevant to his country too. (unrelated information)
B. the research deals with problems that are fundamental to education. (too broad)
C. the research deals with ways to improve school students’ exam performance (correct)

2 The report implies that


A. small class sizes have no advantage over large class sizes. (partially correct information)
B. if a large class of say 40 students is reduced to say 30, it will not result in much benefit. (correct)
C. ideally all classes should be small in size, preferably below 15. (use of key words with wrong information)

3 With regard to homework, the report says


A. if homework time is increased beyond two hours per day for secondary school students, it will not
lead to a proportionate benefit. (correct)
B. all the teachers in a school should coordinate so that more than two hours’ homework is not allotted
to students per day. (no information about this in the text)
C. homework can be useful at the primary level if it is planned well and given sparingly. (use of key
words with wrong information)

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 31 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
4 Feedback is important,
A. and it should be given frequently to encourage students to work harder. (use of key words with wrong
information)
B. but negative feedback should be avoided. (correct)
C. and teachers should focus on the strengths and weaknesses of individual students and give feedback
accordingly. (partially correct information)

5 Regarding the teacher’s role, the study emphasizes that


A. she/he should provide a comprehensive roadmap to the students in line with curriculum objectives.
(no information about this in the text)
B. students should be encouraged to become more autonomous about what they wish to focus on. (co
rrect)
C. students interacting with each other during the class is a waste of time. (use of key words with wrong
information)

Give Children Feedback to Improve Standards in School, Says New Guide


Reducing class sizes or setting homework contribute little to raise standards, research finds
Forget (0) school uniforms and streaming by ability: schools will raise standards if they focus on giving
children effective feedback.
(1) New guidance developed by academics at Durham University shows what works and what doesn’t
to improve exam performance. Reducing class sizes and setting homework for primary school children are
among the least effective ways to raise standards, the research finds.
So are school uniforms - there is “no robust evidence” that blazers make any difference. Instead, students
should be encouraged to develop independent “learning strategies” and to learn from each other.
The guide, published on Thursday by the education charity the Sutton Trust, outlines methods to increase
pupils’ performance for little cost and is intended to help schools in deciding how to spend the pupil premium.
(2) The benefits of reducing class sizes “are not particularly large or clear, until class size is reduced to
under 20 or even below 15”, the guidance says.
Hiring more teaching assistants is associated with “very small or no effects on attainment”.
And children may have cause to celebrate the fact that the guidance finds the benefits of homework are
modest.
“It is certainly the case that schools whose pupils do homework tend to be successful schools. However it
is less clear that the homework is the reason why they are successful,” the academics say.
(3) The optimum time spent doing homework for secondary school children is one to two hours per
school day, but the benefits tail off as the amount of time spent increases, and there is little benefit in primary
school pupils doing homework.
One of the most effective uses of a teacher’s time is in giving good feedback - which should be sparing,
specific and encouraging.
(4) It is “more important to give feedback about what is right than what is wrong,” the researchers say.
It is also best to praise a particular task that has been accomplished well rather than praise a pupil as an
individual with phrases like “good girl”.
(5) The guidance also advocates teaching approaches that encourage pupils to plan, monitor and evaluate
their own learning.
On the introduction of uniforms, the guidance says that schools in challenging circumstances “often
choose a school uniform policy as part of a broader range of improvement measures.”
While there is no causal link between wearing blazers and ties and a school getting better, adopting a
uniform may provide a “symbolic and public commitment to school improvement”.

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 32 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
The academics say that teaching assistants have little effect or none on improving children’s attainment,
though their presence in the classroom can boost a teacher’s morale.
The guidance is at odds with the current views of most teachers, according to polling conducted by the
charity.
Nearly three-quarters (73%) of teachers identified reducing class sizes as one of their top three priorities
when surveyed on how they intend to spend the pupil premium. And nearly half said that hiring more
teaching assistants was one of their priorities.
Sir Peter Lampl, chairman of the Sutton Trust, said: “The key to improving the attainment of disadvantaged
pupils is not necessarily how much money is spent in schools, but how much is spent on what is proven to
work in the classroom.” (531 words)
(Source: “Give Children Feedback to Improve Standards in School, Says New Guide”, The Guardian, 26 May 2012)

Task 20

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• Cambridge First (FCE) Reading Part 1, Exam English,
http://www.examenglish.com/FCE/fce_reading.htm
• FCE Reading Part 2, Test 1,
http://www.english- online.org.uk/fcefolder/fceread2.php?name=FCE%20Reading%20part%202%20test%201
• Pulp Friction: Timed Reading, Study Zone, English Language Centre, University of Victoria,
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/570/pulp/hemp3.htm
• Part 5 Multiple Choice, FCE Practice Tests, Flo-Joe,
http://www.flo-joe.com/fce/students/tests/

Task 21

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• See, for example, Part 4 a), Reading paper, School Leaving Exams of 2013-2015 at Brandos egzaminai,
Nacionalinis egzaminų centras, http://www.nec.lt/592/

Task 22

1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. F

Task 23

✔ USEFUL ONLINE SOURCES


• PET Reading Test 2, Part 3 - True/False questions 2, Exam English,
http://www.examenglish.com/PET/pet_test2_reading3.htm
• True or False – Intermediate, ETS,
http://englishteststore.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=612&Itemid=894
• Reading Comprehension: True or False, EC,
http://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/reading-comprehension-true-or-false

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 33 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Language Skills
Task 24

1 e), 2 o), 3 f), 4 n), 5 b), 6 d), 7 g), 8 c), 9 a),  m),  h),  i),  k),  j),  l)

1 Artificial intelligence (n) e) an area of study concerned with making computers copy intelligent
human behaviour
2 Biotechnology (n) o) the use of living cells and bacteria in industrial and scientific processes
3 Bleeding-edge technology f) technology that is so advanced that there may be problems when you
(n) use it
4 Microsurgery (n) n) the use of extremely small instruments and microscopes in order to
perform very detailed and complicated medical operations
5 Nanorobotics (n) b) the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale
of a nanometre
d) the branch of technology that deals with structures that are less than
6 Nanotechnology (n)
100 nanometres long
7 Conductivity (n) g) the quality of being able to conduct electricity, heat, etc.
8 Reactivity (n) c) the degree to which something reacts, or is likely to react
a) the complete path of wires and equipment along which an electric
9 Circuit (n)
current flows
m) the thickness of a solid, liquid or gas measured by its mass per unit of
 Density (n)
volume
 Treatment (n) h) something that is done to cure an illness or injury, or to make
somebody look and feel good
 Disperse (v) i) to move apart and go away in different directions
 Implant (v) k) to put something (usually something artificial) into a part of the body
for medical purposes, usually by means of an operation
 Secure (v) j) to protect something so that it is safe and difficult to attack or damage
 Wearable (adj) l) suitable to be worn

Task 25

1 To collect to harvest
2 Putting substance into a human body injecting
3 A condition in which a part of the body becomes red, sore and swollen because of infection or injury
inflammation
4 The first design of something from which other forms are copied or developed prototype
5 A device that can react to light, heat, pressure, etc. in order to make a machine do something or show
something sensor
6 The practical use of something application
7 Putting information into a special code encrypting
8 Doing something well and thoroughly with no waste of time, money or energy efficient
9 Of a size that can be measured in nanometres (one thousand millionth of a metre)
nanoscale
 The basic systems and services that are necessary for a country or an organisation to run smoothly; for
example, buildings, transport and water and power supplies infrastructure

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 34 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
 A break in hard material – fracture
 The process of changing – conversion
 To give something officially to somebody/something for a particular purpose – allocate
 The quality of being likely to be correct or true – reliability
 To drive, push or keep something away – repel

Task 26

Students' own answers

Task 27

1 A state of balance, especially between opposing forces or influences is (c) equilibrium.


2 A very large city or group of cities where a great number of people live is (d) megalopolis.
3 Thinking very carefully about something before doing it, because there may be risks involved is (a)
circumspect.
4 Eating all types of food, especially both plants and meat is (b) omnivorous.
5 A set of events, actions, numbers, etc., which have a particular order and which lead to a particular result
is (d) sequence.
6 Any animal that belongs to the group of mammals that includes humans, apes and monkeys is a (a)
primate.
7 Disease that spreads by people touching each other is (c) contagious.
8 The quality of being loyal to somebody/something is (c) fidelity.
9 The way in which something is done that most people in a society expect and consider to be polite or the
right way to do it is (b) convention.
 The quality of thinking or behaving in a correct and honest way is (d) rectitude.

Task 28

1 Demography = demo (people) + graph (writing, printing)


2 Verisimilitude = ver, veri (true) + simil (like, resembling)
3 Multitasking = multi (many) + task
4 Biodegradable = bio (life) + grad (step)
5 Interlocutor = inter (prefix meaning ‘among more than two items’) + loc (place)
6 Contradiction = contra (prefix meaning ‘against, opposite’) + dic (speak, say)
7 Technophile = techne (art, skill, craft) + philos (friend, dear, beloved)
8 Technophobe = techne (art, skill, craft) + phobos (fear)
9 Herbicide = herb (plant) + cide (cut down, kill)
 Infrastructure = stru, struc (build)

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 35 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017
Task 29

Noun Verb Adjective


Access
access (in)accessible
(inaccessibility)
externalisation externalise external
distractor distracted
distract
distraction distracting
injection inject injectable
enhancement enhance enhanced
transmission transmittable
transmit
transmitter transmitted
advancement
advance advanced
advance
equipment equip equipped
appliance
apply applicable
application
innovation
innovate innovative
innovator
retrieval retrieve retrievable

Useful Online Sources


IELTS Reading - Academic - Key Strategy and Practice Part 1, AcademicEnglishHelp (11:48),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VSWSKMSfJFo&list=PL0357307A99B4B6CE&index=2
Lesson 4: IELTS Paragraph Headings, IELTS buddy,
http://www.ieltsbuddy.com/ielts-paragraph-headings.html
IELTS Reading Questions 07 - Summary Completion,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvMnlamnkZM part 1 (9:03)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=22xe1uDjvh4 part 2 (10:16)
IELTS Reading Matching Features – Lesson, E2 IELTS (5:56),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzaWtfIqXSI
IELTS & TOEFL Vocabulary – Technology, engVid (11:52),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PL_-z497Q-o
Byrnes, D. English Vocabulary: Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes (9:09),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0diRbQ-mgfo
Greek & Latin Roots: Micro, Mill, Mort, Multi (10:25),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7uAH9jSoU0U
Greek & Latin Roots PED, PENT, PERI, PHILE, PHOBIA (6:03),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_PdsbxD83uo
Greek & Latin Roots NOV, OCT, ONYM, PAN, PATHY (7:20),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfG9pjKVNsw
Greek & Latin Root SUB SUPER SYM SYN TELE THERM (6:47),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eBJuDKsADvg
Greek & Latin Roots TRA TRI UNI VICE (5:26),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DE_651HypGk

© Audronė Raškauskienė, 2017


© Irena Ragaišienė, 2017 36 Į turinį
© Ramutė Žemaitienė, 2017
© Leidykla „Šviesa“, 2017