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QUESTIONS TO CONTROL MODULE № 4

“Biochemistry of human nutrition. Vitamins as components of food.”

1. Biochemistry of human nutrition: the components and nutrients, biological value of certain
nutrients.
2. Mechanisms of nutrients conversion (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) in the digestive tract. The
stomach and intestine enzymes.
3. Digestion disorders of certain nutrients in the stomach and intestines; hereditary
enzymopathies of digestive processes.
4. Microelements in human nutrition. Biological functions of individual microelements;
microelements deficiency manifestations.
5. Vitamins in human nutrition. Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins; exogenous and
endogenous causes of vitamin deficiency.
6. Vitamin B1 (thiamin): structure, biological properties, mechanism of action, the sources, daily
need.
7. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): structure, biological properties, mechanism of action, the sources,
daily need.
8. Vitamin PP (nicotinic acid, nicotinamide): structure, biological properties, mechanism of
action, manifestations of deficiency, sources, the daily need.
9. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): structure, biological properties, mechanism of action, the sources, the
daily need.
10. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): biological properties, mechanism of action, manifestations of
deficiency, sources, the daily need.
11. Vitamin Bc (Folic Acid): biological properties, mechanism of action, the sources, the daily
need.
12. Vitamin H (biotin): biological properties, mechanism of action, the sources, the daily need.
13. Vitamin B3 (pantothenic acid): biological properties, mechanism of action, the sources, the
daily need.
14. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): structure, biological properties, mechanism of action,
manifestations of deficiency, sources, the daily need.
15. Vitamin P (flavonoids): structure, biological properties, mechanism of action, manifestations
of deficiency, sources, the daily need.
16. Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid): biological properties, mechanism of action,
manifestations of deficiency, sources, the daily need.
17. Vitamin K (phylloquinone, farnohinon): biological properties, mechanism of action,
manifestations of deficiency, sources, the daily need.
18. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol): biological properties, mechanism of action, manifestations of
deficiency, sources, the daily need.
19. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): biological properties, mechanism of action, manifestations of
deficiency, sources, the daily need.

17. Biochemistry and pathobiochemistry of blood.

20. Biochemical and physiological functions of blood in the human body. Respiratory function of
erythrocytes.
21. Hemoglobin: mechanisms of its’ participation in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Options and pathological forms of human hemoglobin.
22. The collapse of hemoglobin. Differential diagnosis of jaundice.
23. Buffer systems of blood. Acid-base balance disturbance in the body (metabolic and
respiratory acidosis, alkalosis). Mechanisms of compensation.
24. Biochemical compound of human blood. Plasma proteins and their clinical and biochemical
characteristics.
25. Enzymes of plasma; its’ value in enzyme diagnostics of organs and tissues diseases.
26. Kallikrein-kinin system of blood and tissues. Medicines – antagonists of kinin formation.
27. Non-protein organic compounds of plasma. Inorganic plasma components.
28. Residual nitrogen of blood, its components (formulas). Types of azotemia.
29. Biochemical and functional characteristics of the hemostasis system.
30. Coagulation; individual factors characterization, mechanisms of the cascade of blood clotting
system functioning.
31. The role of vitamin K in the reactions of coagulation, therapeutic agents - agonists and
antagonists of vitamin K.
32. Anticoagulation blood system; anticoagulants characteristic. Hereditary disorders of blood
coagulation.
33. Fibrinolytic system of blood. Medicines that affect the processes of fibrinolysis.
34. Immunoglobulins; biochemical characteristics of individual classes of human
immunoglobulins.
35. Mediators and hormones of the immune system: interleukins, interferons, protein-peptide
factors regulating growth and cell proliferation.
36. Complement system; biochemical components of human complement, the classical and
alternative ways of activation.
37. Biochemical mechanisms of immunodeficiency states: primary (hereditary) and secondary
immunodeficiencies.

18. Functional and clinical biochemistry of organs and tissues.

38. Biochemical functions of liver: carbohydrate, protein synthetic, urine formation,


cholepoietic, regulation of lipid composition of blood.
39. Detoxicative liver function; types of biotransformation reactions of xenobiotics and
endogenous toxins.
40. Microsomal oxidation reactions. Cytochrome P-450; electron-transport chain in the
membranes of the hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum.
41. Conjugation reactions in hepatocytes: biochemical mechanisms, functional significance.
42. Role of liver in the exchange of bile pigments. Pathobiochemistry of jaundice; types of
jaundice, hereditary (enzyme) jaundice.
43. Water-salt metabolism in the body. Intracellular and extracellular water, sharing water,
sodium, potassium.
44. The role of the kidneys in volume, electrolyte composition and pH regulation of body fluids.
Biochemical mechanisms of urine formation as one of kidneys function.
45. Clearance. Diagnostic value of determination.
46. Renin-angiotensin system of the kidneys. Antihypertensive medications - angiotensin-
converting enzyme inhibitors.
47. Biochemical compound of human urine in normal conditions and due to pathological
processes. Clinical and diagnostic value of urine analysis.
48. The principle of glucose determination in urine (Felling test). Types of glycosuria.
49. The principle of protein determination in the urine. Types of proteinuria.
50. The principle of ketone bodies determination in urine (Lang test). Causes of ketonuria.
51. Indican. The mechanism of formation. Diagnostic value of indican determination in the
urine.
52. Hippuric acid. The mechanism of formation. Diagnostic value of its determination in the
urine.
53. Biochemical compound of muscles. Myofibril proteins: myosin, actin, tropomyosin,
troponin.
54. Molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction. Role of Ca2+ ions in the regulation of
contraction and muscle relaxation.
55. Bioenergetics of muscle tissue; source of ATP, creatine role in ensuring the energy of muscle
contraction. Creatine formation.
56. Biochemistry of the nervous system: features of the biochemical compound and metabolism
of the brain.
57. Energy metabolism in the human brain. The value of aerobic glucose oxidation, and changes
due to physiological sleep and anesthesia.
58. Biochemistry of neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter receptors and physiologically active
compounds.
59. Peptidergic system of the brain: opioid peptides, opioid peptide receptors.
60. γ-Aminobutyric acid formation, its biological role. γ- Aminobutyric acid shunt, its biological
significance.
61. Mechanisms of nervous system mediator formation (GABA, serotonin, acetylcholine).
62. Disorders of the mediators and modulators exchange in the brain due to mental disorders.
Neurochemical mechanisms of psychotropic drugs action.
63. Features of amino acid collagen compound. The role of vitamin C in the collagen maturation.
Scheme of mature collagen fibers formation.
64. Features of the elastin structure.
65. Glycosaminoglycans, their structures and main representatives. Enzymes involved in the
cleavage of bonds in glycosaminoglycans molecules.