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INTRODUCTION

Deforestation has always been a practice of many developing communities and has contributed
greatly to civilization, as we know it today. Unfortunately, much of the harmful effects of
deforestation are caused by greed, poor agricultural practices and the abandonment of
governments.
What Is Biodiversity Loss?
Biodiversity is defined as the totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a defined area.
Biodiversity loss, on the other hand, is the death of those ecosystems. Either the entire ecosystem is
destroyed because of human intervention — including deforestation, urban development and
farming — or enough key species in an ecosystem die that the ecosystem collapses on its own.
We are already experiencing biodiversity loss. It is estimated that in the last four decades, we have
lost more than 50 percent of the planet's biodiversity. If the fact that we might lose more than 50
percent of the planet's plants and animals in just 32 years.
This is probably the most serious consequence of deforestation. In short, it means the destruction
and extinction of many species of plants and animals, many of which remain unknown and whose
benefits will remain undiscovered.
Desertification
Desertification, also called desertization, the process by which natural or human causes reduce the
biological productivity of drylands (arid and semiarid lands). Declines in productivity may be the
result of climate change, deforestation, overgrazing, poverty, political instability, unsustainable
irrigation practices, or combinations of these factors. The concept does not refer to the physical
expansion of existing deserts but rather to the various processes that threaten all dryland
ecosystems, including deserts as well as grasslands and scrublands.
When forests are removed, the soil cover, which consists mainly of vegetation, is also removed. This
leaves the ground bare and exposed to extreme conditions produced by the heat of the sun and
rainwater, becoming desert. The forest soils are humid, but without protection from the trees that
block the sun they dry quickly. The trees also help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water
vapor to the atmosphere. Without trees that fulfill this mission, many forest lands can quickly
become sterile deserts.
Floods
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.[1] The European Union (EU)
Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water.[2] In
the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an
area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil
engineering and public health.
Deforestation can lead to watersheds that are no longer able to sustain and regulate the water flows
of rivers and streams. Trees are very effective at absorbing large amounts of water, keeping the
amount of water in the watersheds at a manageable level. The forest also serves as a hedge against
erosion. Once the forest disappears, water can lead to flooding, many of which have caused disasters
in many parts of the world.
Disappearance of tropical forest
Every year an area of rain forest the size of New Jersey is cut down and destroyed. The animals that
used to live in these forests either die or must find a new forest to call their home. Rainforests play
a part in our global environment. They house many different kinds of animals and plants, helping to
preserve biodiversity.

They play a role in the oxygen cycle, supplying badly needed oxygen to our atmosphere, while taking
in all the carbon dioxide we make. They hold moisture in the atmosphere, acting like giant, green
sponges.
A study estimates that if we continue this rate of deforestation, tropical forests could disappear
completely within a hundred years.
Climate change
Deforestation also drives climate change. The trees block the sun's rays during the day and keep the
heat at night. This alteration results in more extreme temperature changes that can be harmful to
plants and animals. Trees also play a fundamental role in the absorption of greenhouse gases that
increase global warming. Less forests means higher amounts of greenhouse gases that enter the
atmosphere and because of this, there is an increase in the average temperature of the earth.
Weather can change in just a few hours. Climate takes hundreds or even millions of years to change.
Land not suitable for agriculture and livestock
Most of the areas that have been subjected to deforestation become inadequate for long-term
agricultural and livestock use. Once deprived of their forest cover, the land degrades quickly in its
quality, losing its fertility.