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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


SHAH ALAM LABORATORY MANUAL

COURSE HIGHWAY & TRAFFIC ENGINEERING


COURSE CODE ECG564
LEVEL OF OPENNESS 2

CATEGORY PARTIALLY OPEN


DEGREE OF OPEN-ENDED
66
(%)
PERIOD OF ACTIVITY 1 WEEK
PENETRATION, SOFTENING POINT
EXPERIMENT
AND DUCTILITY TESTS OF BITUMEN

Introduction

Level 2 laboratory activities refer to the condition where only the problem is
guided and given. Students are required to find the ways & means and
provide the answers to the given assignment using the group creativity and
innovativeness. The activity will enable the students to appreciate
independent learning and prepare them for a much harder task of open
ended laboratory activities.
In this laboratory activity, students are encouraged to develop their
methodology and their critical analysis skills by analyzing and presenting
the experimental results appropriately.

Objectives

PREAMBLE
The objectives of the test are:
1. To determine the physical (stiffness and consistency), softening point
(temperature) and tensile properties of bituminous material specimen.
2. To deduce the penetration index (PI) value of the specimen.

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:
1. Describe the physical properties of the bitumen.
2. Identify the softness temperature of bitumen.
3. Determine the critical distance deformation of asphaltic material
without breaking.
4. Identify the penetration index (PI) of the specimen.

©FKA, UiTM, SHAH ALAM September 2013


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
SHAH ALAM LABORATORY MANUAL

Theoretical Background

The choice of a particular type of bitumen depends on its physical


properties, climatic condition and applications. For example, in hot areas,
"harder" bitumen is used for roads to avoid rutting. Bitumen grading
systems based on consistency tests were introduced to suit the different
climatic conditions and applications. Consistency describes the degree of
fluidity of asphalt cement at any particular temperature and comparisons of
different types of asphalt can be made by measuring their consistency at
the same temperature and shear loading conditions. Consistency tests
include penetration test, ring and ball test and ductility test.

Penetration test is the most widely used method to measure the


consistency of bituminous material at a given temperature. Lower
penetration values indicate stiffer consistency (MS 541:1995). The
consistency is a function of the chemical constituents of bitumen. The
standard penetration of semi-solid bituminous materials is defined as the
distance (in 1/10 mm) to which a standard needle penetrates the
bituminous material sample under known conditions of time, loading and
temperature.

The softening point is defined as the mean of the temperature at which the
bituminous material is softened and sagged downward at a distance of
25mm under the weight of steel ball. In general, with material of this type,
softening does not take place at the definite temperature. As the
temperature rises, the bituminous material gradually and imperceptibly
changes from brittle or exceedingly slow flowing material to softer and less
viscous. For this reason, the determination of the softening point must be
made by fixed, arbitrary and closely defined method if the results are to be
comparable (MS 687: 1995)

The ductility of standard briquette moulds of bituminous material is the


distance in centimeters that will stretch before breaking when tested on
standard ductility test equipment. The result of this test indicates the extent
to which the bituminous material samples can be pulled elastically under
known conditions of temperature and speed (ASTM D113 and MS 572:
1996)

Malaysia is situated in the equatorial region and has a hot and wet weather
all year round. The types of bitumen to be used in asphalt mix for road
PROBLEM construction must be suitable for the high temperature in Malaysia. There is
STATEMENT
a need to conduct the penetration, softening point and ductility tests to
determine suitability of the bitumen to be used in Malaysia.

©FKA, UiTM, SHAH ALAM September 2013


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
SHAH ALAM LABORATORY MANUAL

Each group will be given representative samples of the bitumen to be used


(grade 60/70PƐ N and/or grade 80/100PƐ N). The group is required to
conduct suitable and related laboratory tests to obtain the relevant
WAYS & MEANS
parameters and properties to address the three (3) related problem mention
above. Apparatus needed in this activity are penetrometer, ball and ring
apparatus and ductilometer.

The group will be required to prepare the technical report of the laboratory
results highlighting the procedures of testing adopted, data acquisition
process, analysis carried out and the relevancy of the parameters obtain to
address the problem given.
RESULTS
Each group will be given 15 minutes to present the findings in class during
the 4th week after the start of the project.
In the presentation each group must present solutions to the problems that
may arise during the experimental hours in the lab.

©FKA, UiTM, SHAH ALAM September 2013