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Modified Sine Wave Inverter Circuit

In this article we will build a modified sine wave inverter circuit utilizing IC 555 and IC 4017. Modified sine wave inverter
occasionally also referred to as modified square wave is an higher segment inverter design, over a simple square wave type.
We shall take a look at the proposed inverter circuit stage by stage.

We will find out:

· What is modified sine wave inverter?

· Difference between square wave and modified sine wave inverter.
· Circuit Diagram of Modified Sine Wave Inverter.
· In Depth Analysis of individual stages.
· Prototype images.

Exactly what is Modified Sine Wave Inverter?

Modified sine wave inverter is actually a category of power inverters whose wave form and power quality is more advanced
than standard square wave inverter. The modified sine wave inverter’s wave form continue to be at zero volt for a while prior
to any change in polarity.
Difference between Square wave and modified sine wave:
Below shown waveform is assessment between square wave and modified sine wave:

Square Wave

Modified Sine Wave

The waveform in green colour signifies square wave and the red color symbolizes the modified sine wave.
The square wave varies its polarity suddenly, however the modified sine wave continues to be at an intermediate point (zero
volts) prior to any kind of variation in polarity. Simply by having the waveform at zero point for a few milliseconds it is going
to minimize noise at the output, however modified sine wave should not be compared with pure sine wave.
Now you have understood the core difference between square wave and modified sine wave.

Circuit Diagram for Modified Sine Wave Inverter:

Modified Sine wave Inverter Circuit Diagram
Deconstruction of the modified inverter circuit:
The above inverter produces modified sine wave at the output. The proposed circuit can be divided into the following stages:

· Oscillator (IC 555)

· Wave shaping circuit (IC 4017)
· Switch circuit / MOSFET stage
· Transformer / step-up stage

Oscillator Stage:
The oscillator circuit generates the required clock signal for this inverter, and we may consider this stage as the core section
of the inverter.
The 555 timer is surely an classic IC and we are applying it as an oscillator. Our necessity is to generate 200Hz square wave
at 50% duty cycle which is to be divided by 4 by IC 4017 to obtain 50Hz AC modified sine wave output.
IC 555 is linked to an RC network of a couple of 36K ohm resistors and another 0.1 uF capacitor and a diode is attached
around pins 6 and 7 to obtain 50% duty cycle from IC 555.
We are able to determine the frequency of IC 555 using a diode across pin 6 and 7 through the following equation:

Frequency = 1.44 / (R1 +R2) * C

 Duty Cycle = R1 / (R1 + R2)

By executing the values in the circuit diagram in the above formula we reach the
following data,

Frequency = 1.44 / (36000 + 36000) x 0.1 x 10^-6

Frequency = 200 Hz
Duty Cycle = 36000 / (36000 + 36000) = 0.5

Duty Cycle = 0.5 x 100% = 50%

Let’s check this on the scope:

IC 555
As we are able to see on the oscilloscope that mathematics did comply, we are obtaining values in close proximity to our
specifications. The output values are somewhat off with a little margin because of tolerance of the components.

Important Notice: You should never neglect the 0.1 uF capacitor at pin #5 of IC 555 that is helping to keep stability from
external noises. Not including may alter the frequency and duty cycle from anything you might have calculated.
Waveform shaping stage:

I'm implementing the 50Hz, 50% duty cycle signal to IC 4017 that is a decade counter, which could generate the modified
sinewave, let us check it out in more detail.

IC 4017 pin diagram:

IC 4017 Pin Diagram
The IC 4017 has 10 output pins and one input pin (14). When we put on clock signal to input pin, each
one of the 10 output pin tend to get high in a serially incrementing manner. As an example when we
apply 5 clock pulses, the 5th output could get HIGH while remaining input pin will get LOW; when we
clock 3 input pulses the 3rd subsequent pin will receive HIGH and remaining pins will continue to be
Pin 15 could be utilized for resetting the count number back to zero when we do not wish to work with
all the 10 outputs. For instance: In this article we are working with just 4 output pins pin #3, #2, #4, #7
which are outputs Q0, Q1, Q2, Q3. The pin #15 is linked to output number Q4 or pin #10, hence the
output pin #3, #2, #4, and #7 will remain active, other 6 output pins continue to be inactive.
Now the 200Hz signal is given to clock pin of the IC 4017, we are applying just the two alternative
outputs Q0/pin #3 and Q2/pin #4 and the other a couple of pins are retained unconnected.
Now by hooking up the oscilloscope to pins 3 and 4 we are able to see this waveform:
Sine Wave

As we are able to observe, we are getting modified sine wave across these two
pins which are finally applied to MOSFETs for current boosting.

Values of the generated wave form:

of Modified Sine Wave
From the oscilloscope analysis we are able to observe that we achieved results close to the 50Hz and 50 % duty cycle
prerequisite, this really is adequate for a low power inverter.

So ar we have 50 Hz, 50% duty cycle signal in modified sine waveform, the output from the IC is actually weak to deal with
the transformer, and we have to reinforce the signal to ensure that we are able to drive the transformer.
To get this done we could get assistance from MOSFETs which could move huge current to transformer’s winding with low
power signal from the IC. We are making use of IRF540N which is sufficient for handing 200 watts of load.

MOSFET mounted on a heat sink:


Transformer Stage:
We have been using an common step-down transformer backwards to step-up the low voltage to standard 230V/110 VAC. If
we select the transformer’s specs erroneously we may not obtain the preferred output voltage.
In this article we have decided on 6-0-6V/20A transformer, you could ask the reason why?
Here is the reply: Through the scope we can see the RMS value of the output at the IC is 9VAC from a 12V battery, the
MOSFET will decrease few volt from 12V battery and we'll receive 6 to 8 V RMS at the low voltage side of the transformer.
If we start using a transformer 6V we are going to obtain the desired output voltage possibly at some reasonable load.

How much power output can we get from this inverter?

Supposing we are going to use 12V 7Ah battery for this inverter in that case, it could possibly provide 100 watt output for an
hour (roughly). About 100 watt may be the limit or else the battery could possibly get degraded in the near future.
For transformer:
· If we employ 6V/5A transformer 6V x 5A = 30 watts output maximum.
· If we make use of 6V/10A transformer 6V x 10A = 60 watts output optimum.
· If we work with 6V/15A transformer 6V x 15A = 90 watts output highest possible.
· If we apply 6V/20A transformer 6V x 20A = 120 watts output highest.
In case you upgrade the battery using a deep cycle one you may as well boost the transformer rating to obtain more power
from this inverter.

Prototype Image:
Sine wave Inverter

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