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CS-3302-3 & IT-5302-3

Internet Architecture and Protocols


Punjab University College of Information Technology,
University of the Punjab, Pakistan.

Lecture 01, 02
Introduction and Basic Concepts
Lecture 01 - Objectives
• Introduction
• Course Objectives, Outline and Grading Policies
• What is the Internet?
– Nuts and Bolts View
– Service Oriented View
• Network Edge
• Network Core
– Circuit Switched Networks
– Packet Switched Networks
• Datagram
• Virtual Circuits
• Network Access and Physical Media

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Introduction
• PUCIT
– Leading the Nation in Knowledge
Management Technology
• Class Introduction
• Resource Person Introduction
• Knowledge Management (KM)
– The Art of Creating Value from Intangible Assets
• Knowledge Internees
• Knowledge Engineers
• Knowledge Mentors

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KM Principles
• Explore yourself
– Know your skills
– Know your values
– Know your achievements
– Know your environment
• Discover your
– strength
– Weaknesses
– Opportunities
– Threats
• “Sharing Knowledge is Wisdom, Hiding
Knowledge is a Curse”

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Course Objectives
•To understand the design philosophy of the Internet
and its basic architectural components.
• To provide in-depth knowledge of major Internet
technologies.
• To understand the components of Internet service
provider and its role in Internet architecture.
• To strengthen the concepts of TCP/IP Protocol
Suite.
• To provide comprehensive knowledge and
implementation of routing protocols.
• To realize the need of Quality of Service based
communication and to understand various QoS
techniques.
• To introduce the basic concepts of real time
communications.
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Course Details
• 3 Credit hours course
• Lecture Objectives are specified at the start
of each lecture as Lecture Roadmap
• Course Outline:
– Discussion of lecture-wise plan for 32 lectures
– Course Outlines are available at PUCIT student
photocopy shop, web site.
• Grading policy and Sessional evaluation
criteria
– Assignments
• The difference between a test and a quiz

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What is the Internet?
• A Nuts and Bolts Description
– End systems
– Communication Links, Bandwidth
– Routers, Packet
– ISPs
– Protocols, TCP/IP
– Internet Standards, RFCs
• A service Description
– Distributed Applications
– Connection Oriented Reliable Service
– Connectionless Unreliable Service
• What is a protocol?

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Describing the Internet
• Two ways to describe the Internet
– Nuts and Bolts View
• The basic hardware and software components
– Service Oriented View
• The networking infrastructure that provides
services to distributed applications

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Hosts or End Systems
– Computing Devices such as PCs, PDAs (Personal
Digital Assistants), TVs, servers, mobile
computers, automobiles, etc. connected to the
Internet are called hosts or end systems.

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Communication links
– End systems are connected together by communication
links.
– Communication links are made up of different types of
media, including twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber optics,
and radio spectrum.
• Bandwidth
– Different links can transmit data at different rates.
– The link transmission rate is often called the bandwidth
(i.e, the width of the band) of the link which is measured
in bits per second (bps).

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Routers
– End systems are not directly connected to each
other via a single communication link.
– They are indirectly connected to each through
intermediate switching devices known as
routers.
– A router receives chunk of information from one
of its incoming communication link and
forwards it to one of its outgoing communication
link.

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Packets
– The chunk of information is called packet.
• Route or Path
– The path that the packet takes from the sending end
system, through a series of communication links and
routers, to the receiving end system is known as a route
or path.
• Packet switching
– The Internet uses a technique known as packet switching
that allows multiple communicating end systems to share
a path, or parts of path at the same time.

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
– End systems access the Internet through the
Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
– The different ISPs provide a variety of different
types of network access to the end systems,
including 56Kbps dial up modem access, cable
modem or DSL, high speed LAN access, and
wireless access.

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Protocols
– End systems, routers, and other pieces of the
Internet, run protocols that control the sending
and receiving of information within the Internet.
– TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP
(Internet protocol) are two of the most important
protocols in the Internet.
– The Internet’s principal protocols are collectively
known as TCP/IP Protocol Suite.

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Intranets
– There are many private networks, such as many
corporate and government networks, whose
hosts cannot exchange messages with hosts
outside of the private network (unless the
messages pass through so-called firewalls,
which restrict the flow of messages to and from
the network).
– These private networks are often referred to as
intranets, as they use the same types of hosts,
routers, links, and protocols as the public
Internet.

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Nuts and Bolts View of the Internet
• Internet Standards
– At the technical and development level, the Internet is
made possible through creation, testing, and
implementation of Internet Standards.
– These standards are developed by Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF).
• RFCs
– The IETF standards documents are called RFCs (Request
for comments).
– RFCs started out as general request for comments (hence
the name) to resolve architecture problems of the Internet.
– They define protocols such as TCP, IP, HTTP, SMTP.

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Some Pieces of the Internet
router workstation
server
mobile
local ISP

regional ISP

company
network

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Service Oriented View of the Internet
• Distributed Applications
– The Internet allows distributed applications
running on its end systems to exchange data
with each other.
– These applications include remote login,
electronic mail, web surfing, instant messaging,
audio and video streaming, Internet telephony,
distributed games, peer-to-peer (P2P) file
sharing, and much more.
• Communication Services
– Connection oriented reliable service
– Connectionless unreliable service

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Service Oriented View of the Internet
• Internet Provides two services to its distributed
applications:
– Connection Oriented Reliable Service
• It guarantees that data transmitted from a
sender to a receiver will eventually be
delivered to the receiver in order and in its
entirety.
– Connectionless Unreliable Service
• It does not make any guarantees about
eventual delivery.
– Note: Distributed applications makes use of one or the
other (but not both) of these two services.
• Thus, Internet is an infrastructure in which new
applications are being constantly invented and
deployed.

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What is a Protocol?
• A Human Analogy
– “Assalam u Alaikum”
– “What’s the time?”
• In human protocols specific messages are
sent, and specific actions are taken in
response to messages received, or other
events.
• Network protocols
– All activity in the Internet that involves two or
more communicating remote entities is governed
by a protocol.

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What is a protocol?
A human protocol and a computer network protocol

Hi TCP connection
req
Hi
TCP connection
Got the response
time? Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross

2:00
<file>
time

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What is a Protocol?…
• A Protocol is a set of rules and regulations that
governs the exchange of information between two
or more entities.
• It takes two (or more) communicating entities
running the same protocol in order to accomplish a
task.
• All communication activity in Internet governed by
protocols.
• A protocol defines the format, order of messages
exchanged between two or more communicating
entities, as well as the actions taken on the
transmission and/or receipt of a message or other
event.

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Net Surfing
• Some Good Hyperlinks:
– http://www.ietf.org
– http://www.iab.org
– http://www.w3.org
– http://www.ieee.org
– http://www.acm.org
– http://www.acm.org/sigcomm
– http://www.computer.org
– http://www.comsoc.org

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A Closer Look at Network Structure
• Network Edge:
– applications and hosts
• Network Core:
– routers
– network of networks
• Access networks, physical media:
– Residential, company and mobile access
– Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber Optics, Radio
Channels
– communication links

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Network Edge
• end systems (hosts):
– run application programs
– e.g. Web, email
– at “edge of network”
• client/server model
– client host requests,
receives service from
always-on server
– e.g. Web browser/server;
email client/server
• peer-peer model:
– minimal (or no) use of
dedicated servers
– e.g. Gnutella, KaZaA

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Network Edge
• End Systems, Clients and Servers
– In Computer Networking, computers connected
to the Internet are referred to as End Systems,
as they sit at the edge of the Internet.
– End Systems = Hosts
– Hosts are subdivided into two categories: Client
and Servers
• Client/Server Applications
– A client program is a program running on one
end system that requests and receives a service
from a server program running on another end
system.
– Client/Server Internet applications are, by
definition, distributed applications.
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Network Edge
• Peer to Peer Applications
– In peer to peer application, the program running
in a peer (user’s machine) acts as a client when
it requests a file from another peer; and the
program acts as a server when it sends a file to
another peer.
– Examples are peer-to-peer file sharing
applications like Napster, KaZaA etc.

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Network Edge
• Connection Oriented Service
– Reliable Data Transfer
• Using acknowledgements & retransmissions
– Flow Control
• sender won’t overwhelm receiver
– Congestion Control
• senders “slow down sending rate” when
network congested
– TCP
• Applications using TCP are:
– HTTP (Web), FTP (file transfer), Telnet (remote
login), SMTP (email)

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Network Edge
• Connectionless Service
– Unreliable Data Transfer
• no flow control
• no congestion control
– Fast
• connectionless
– UDP
• Applications using UDP are:
– multimedia, videoconferencing, DNS, Internet
telephony

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TCP vs. UDP
• Reliable Protocol • Unreliable Protocol
• Connection Oriented • Connectionless
• Performs three ways • Much faster than TCP
handshake • No acknowledgement
• Provision for error waits
detection and • No proper sequencing
retransmission of data units
• Most applications use • Suitable for
TCP for reliable and applications where
guaranteed speed matters more
transmission than reliability

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The Network Core
• Mesh of interconnected
Routers
• The fundamental question:
how is data transferred
through network?

– circuit switching
• dedicated circuit per
call: telephone net
– packet-switching
• data sent through net
in discrete “chunks”

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Network Core
• Long distance transmission is typically
done over a network of switched nodes
• Nodes not concerned with content of data
• End devices are stations
– Computer, terminal, phone, etc.
• A collection of nodes and connections is a
communications network
• Data routed by being switched from node to
node
• Node to node links usually multiplexed

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Simple Switched Network

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Network Core: Circuit Switching
End-to-end resources
reserved for “call”
• link bandwidth, switch
capacity
• dedicated resources: no
sharing
• circuit-like (guaranteed)
performance
• call setup required

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Network Core – Circuit Switching
• Switched circuits allow data connections
that can be initiated when needed and
terminated when communication is
complete
• Circuit switched network - a network in
which a dedicated circuit is established
between sender and receiver and all data
passes over this circuit.
• The telephone system is a common
example.
• The connection is dedicated until one party
or another terminates the connection.
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Circuit Switching

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Network Core – Circuit Switching
• Dedicated communication path between
two stations
• Three phases (Establish, Transfer, Disconnect)
• Inefficient (for data traffic)
– Channel capacity dedicated for duration of
connection
– Much of the time a data connection is idle
– If no data, capacity wasted
• Set up (connection) takes time
– Once connected, transfer is transparent
– Circuit switching designed for voice
– Constant Data rate (Both ends must operate at the same rate)

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Network Core - Circuit Switching
• Multiplexing in Circuit Switched Networks
– Multiplexing is a technique, in which a single
transmission medium is being shared among
multiple users.
• Types of Multiplexing
– Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM
– Time Division Multiplexing TDM

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Circuit Switching: FDM and TDM
Example: 4 users
FDM

Frequency

time
TDM

Frequency

time

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Synchronous TDM

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Synchronous TDM with empty time slots

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Statistical TDM or Asynchronous TDM

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Network Core: Packet Switching
• Packet switched network
– A network in which data is transmitted in the
form of packets
– Multiple users share network resources
– No dedicated bandwidth is allocated
– No resources are reserved, resources used as
needed
– Each packet uses full link bandwidth
– Good for bursty traffic, simpler, no call setup
– Packets queued and transmitted as fast as
possible
– Packets are accepted even when network is
busy, which causes the delivery to slow down

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Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing
10 Mb/s
A Ethernet statistical multiplexing C

1.5 Mb/s
B
queue of packets
waiting for output
link

D E

Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed


pattern Î statistical multiplexing.

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Network Core: Packet Switching
• The goal of packet switching is to
move packets through routers from
source to destination
• Packets sent one at a time to the network
• Two approaches are used:
– Datagram Approach
– Virtual Circuits Approach

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Packets Forwarding
• Two broad classes of packet switched networks are:
– Datagram Networks
• Any network that forwards the packet
according to the destination address is called
a datagram network
• The routers in the Internet forwards packets
according to host destination addresses;
hence the Internet is a datagram network.
– Virtual Circuit Networks
• Any network that forwards the packet
according to the virtual circuit identifier is
called a virtual circuit network
• Examples are X.25, Frame Relay, ATM
technologies

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Packet Switching - Datagram
• Datagram Approach:
– Each packet is treated independently
– No reference to packets that have gone before
– Each node chooses next node on path using
destination address
– Packets with same destination address may not
follow same route
– Packets may arrive out of sequence, may be lost
– It is up to receiver to re-order packets and
recover from lost packets
– No Call setup
– For an exchange of a few packets, datagram
quicker
– Analogy: driving, asking directions
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Packet Switching - Datagram
• The Internet is a Datagram network
• Datagram network is not either connection-
oriented or connectionless.
• Internet provides both connection-oriented
(TCP) and connectionless services (UDP) to
applications.

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Datagram Networks
• A datagram network is not either a
connectionless or a connection oriented
network.
• It can provide connectionless service to
some of its applications and connection-
oriented service to other applications.
• Example
– The Internet, which is a datagram network,
provides both connectionless (UDP) and
connection oriented (TCP) services to its
applications
• Networks with Virtual Circuits are,
however, always connection-oriented.
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Packet Switching - Datagram

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Packet Switching – Virtual Circuits
• Virtual Circuit Approach:
– Virtual circuit packet switched network create
a logical path through the subnet
– Call request and call accept packets establish a
virtual connection
– Virtual route remains fixed through the call.
– All packets from one connection follow this
path.
– Each packet contains a virtual circuit identifier
instead of destination address to determines
the next hop
– Not a dedicated path
– No routing decisions required for each packet
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Switching Technique – Virtual Circuit
• Preplanned route established before packets sent
• All packets follow same route
• Similar to circuit in circuit-switching network
– Hence virtual circuit
• Each packet has virtual circuit identifier
– Nodes on route know where to direct packets
– No routing decisions
• Not dedicated path, as in circuit switching
– Packet still buffered at node and queued for output
– Routing decision made on before that virtual circuit
• Network may provide services related to virtual
circuit
– Sequencing and error control
• Packets should transit more rapidly
• If node fails, all virtual circuits through node lost
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Virtual Circuit Networks
• A virtual circuit (VC) consists of:
– A path between the source and destination hosts
– Virtual circuit numbers, one number for each
link along the path
– Entries in the virtual circuit VC-number
translation tables in each packet switch along
the path.
– Example
• Consider host A requests that the network
establish a VC between itself and host B.
• Suppose the network chooses the path and
assigns the VC numbers on three links as
follows:
Path: A --------- Switch1 --------- Switch2 --------- B
VC #: 12 22 32
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Virtual Circuit Networks
• A simple virtual circuit network

A B
Switch 1 Switch 2
1 2 2
1

3 3

Switch 3 Switch 4

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Virtual Circuit Networks
• VC-number Translation Table

Incoming Incoming Outgoing Outgoing


Interface VC# Interface VC#
1 12 2 22
2 63 1 18
3 7 2 17
1 97 3 87
… … … …

• Why a packet doesn’t just keep the same VC number on each


of the link along its route?

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Virtual Circuit Networks
• Why a packet doesn’t just keep the same VC
number on each of the link along its route?
– First, by replacing the number from link to link, the length
of the VC field is reduced.
– Second, by permitting a different VC number for each link
along the path of the VC, a network management function
is simplified.
• i.e. with multiple VC numbers, each link in the path
can choose a VC number independently of what the
other links in the path choose.
• If a common number were required for all the links
along the path, the switches would have to exchange
and process a substantial number of messages to agree
on the VC number to be used
• Switches in the VC maintain the state information
(create entries in translation tables) for the ongoing
connections.

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Virtual Circuits vs. Datagram
• Network can provide • No call setup phase
sequencing and error – Better if few packets
control • More flexible
• Packets are forwarded – Routing can be used to
more quickly avoid congested parts of
– No routing decisions to the network
make • More reliable
• Less reliable – If a node fails, packets
– Loss of a node looses all may find an alternate
circuits through that route that bypass that
node node

• Less Processing Delay • More Processing Delay


at a node at a node

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Circuit Switching vs. Virtual Circuits
• Path • Route
– A dedicated path is – No dedicated path is
established between two established. Only a
devices for the duration route is defined. Each
of session. switch creates an entry
• Reserved Resources in its routing table for
the duration of virtual
– The link (multiplexed / circuit
not multiplexed) that
makes the path are • Shared Links
dedicated, and cannot – The link that makes a
be used by other route can be shard by
connections other connections
• constant data rates.

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Features of Circuit and Packet Switching
Feature Circuit Packet Switching
Switching
Data sent as packets? No Yes
Packets follow same route? N/A Yes (VC), No (Datagram)
Resources reserved in network? Yes No
Data send can have variable latency No Yes
(response time)
Connection made? Yes VC: Yes, Datagram: No
State info stored at network nodes? N/A VC: Yes, Datagram: No
Addressing info needed? only when call VC: virtual circuit
is set up number
Datagram: destination
Address

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Network Taxonomy

Telecommunication
networks

Circuit-switched Packet-switched
networks networks

FDM Networks Datagram


TDM
with VCs Networks

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Network Access
• Network Access:
– The physical link that connects an end system to its
Edge Router, which is the first router on a path from
the end system to any other distant end system.
• Classification of Network Access:
– Residential Access
• Connecting a home end system to an edge router
• Dial-up modems, DSL, HFC system
– Company Access
• Switched Ethernet LANs
– Mobile Access
• Wireless LAN (802.11b)
• Wide Area Wireless Access Networks (GPRS, 3G,
WAP)
• Note: these categories are not hard and fast

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Physical Media
• Twisted Pair Cable
– UTP Cat 5
• Coaxial Cable
– Baseband and Broadband Cable
• Fiber Optics
– Multimode and single mode
• Terrestrial Radio Channels
– Local Area Radio Channels (Wireless LANs)
– Wide Area Radio Channels (WAP, I-mode, 3G)
• Satellite Radio Channels
– Geostationary Satellites (36000 km)
– Low Altitude Satellites

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Internet Addressing Schemes
• IP Addressing Scheme
– Dotted decimal Notation, Use hierarchal Address Space
– IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority)
– IPv4 and IPv6
• MAC addresses
– 48 bits Unique addresses, Use flat Address Space
– IEEE assigned vendor ID (first 24 bits)
– Vendor serial numbers (last 24 bits)
• Why two addressing mechanisms are used?
• Significance of using a MAC address \ Burnt In
Address
– Communication over a LAN
• Identifying Destination Network
– Extracting destination network address from destination
IP address.
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Food for thought!
• Internet vs. internet
• Difference between:
– internet, intranet and extranet
• Data sensitive traffic vs. Delay sensitive
traffic
• LAN vs. WAN
– Beyond theoretical definitions
• Why Circuit Switching is not appropriate for
data traffic?

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References
• Computer Networking; A Top Down Approach
Featuring the Internet
– 3rd Edition: Chapter 1, Jim Kurose and Keith Ross
• Data and Computer Communications
– 7th Edition, William Stallings
• Data Communications and Networking
– 3rd Edition, Behrouz A. Forouzan
• Data Communications and Computer Networks
– Curt M. White
• Computer Networks
– 4th Edition, by Andrew S. Tanenbaum

• Note: Slides are adapted from the companion web sites of


referenced books.

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