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Reading assignment:

MANE 4240 & CIVL 4240


Introduction to Finite Elements Lecture notes

Summary:

Prof. Suvranu De • FEM Formulation of 2D elasticity (plane stress/strain)


•Displacement approximation
•Strain and stress approximation
•Derivation of element stiffness matrix and nodal load vector
FEM Discretization of •Assembling the global stiffness matrix
• Application of boundary conditions
2D Elasticity • Physical interpretation of the stiffness matrix

Recap: 2D Elasticity Example


y

Volume py 2 1
Xb dV Su: Portion of the
element dV 2
Xa dV px boundary on which
4
displacements are 3
x
v prescribed (zero or
Volume (V) For the square block shown above, determine u and v for the
u ST nonzero)
following displacements
y ST: Portion of the Case 2: Pure shear
x y
Case 1: Stretch y

Su boundary on which 1/2 2


tractions are prescribed
4
x (zero or nonzero)
2
1
Examples: concept of displacement field
x

1
Solution Recap: 2D Elasticity
Case 1: Stretch u=x Displacement field u = u ( x, y ) ⎧u (x, y)⎫
u=⎨ ⎬
y Strain - Displacement Relation ε = ∂u ⎩ v (x, y)⎭
v=− ⎡∂ ⎤
2 Stress - Strain Law σ = Dε = D∂u
⎢ 0⎥
Check that the new coordinates (in the deformed configuration)
⎧εx ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎥
∂⎥
x' = x + u = 2x ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂=⎢0
ε = ⎨ε y ⎬ σ = ⎨σ y ⎬ ⎢ ∂y ⎥
y ⎪γ ⎪ ⎪τ ⎪ ⎢∂ ∂⎥
y' = y + v = ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎢ ⎥
2 ⎣⎢ ∂y ∂x ⎦⎥
Case 2: Pure shear
u = y/4 For plane stress For plane strain
(3 nonzero stress components) (3 nonzero strain components)
v=0
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
Check that the new coordinates (in the deformed configuration) 1 ν 0 ⎥ ⎢1 − ν ν 0 ⎥
E ⎢ =
E
⎢ ν 1 − ν 0 ⎥
D= ⎢ν 1 0 ⎥ D
(1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢
x' = x + u = x + y / 4 1 −ν 2 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎥ 1 − 2ν ⎥
⎢ 0 0 ⎥
y' = y + v = y ⎢0 0 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦
⎣ 2 ⎦

Strong formulation
Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (2D)
∂ σ + X = 0 in V
T
Equilibrium equations
Definition: For a linear elastic body subjected to body forces
Boundary conditions X=[Xa,Xb]T and surface tractions TS=[px,py]T, causing
1. Displacement boundary conditions: Displacements are specified on displacements u=[u,v]T and strains ε and stresses σ, the potential
portion Su of the boundary energy Π is defined as the strain energy minus the potential energy
of the loads (X and TS)
u =u
specified
on S u
Π=U-W
2. Traction (force) boundary conditions: Tractions are specified on
portion ST of the boundary
Now, how do I express this mathematically?

But in finite element analysis we DO NOT work with the strong


formulation (why?), instead we use an equivalent Principle of
Minimum Potential Energy

2
Strain energy of the elastic body
Volume py
Xb dV Using the stress-strain law σ = D ε
element dV
Xa dV px
1 1
2 ∫V
U= σ T ε dV = ∫ ε T D ε dV
v 2 V
Volume (V)
u ST
In 2D plane stress/plane strain
y
x
1
2 ∫V
Su U= σ T ε dV

x T
⎧σ x ⎫ ⎧ ε x ⎫
1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
1 = ∫ ⎨σ y ⎬ ⎨ ε y ⎬ dV
2 ∫V
U= σ T ε dV 2 V⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎩τ xy ⎭ ⎩γ xy ⎭
W = ∫ u X dV + ∫ u T S dS
T T

= ∫ (σ xε x + σ yε y + τ xyγ xy ) dV
V ST 1
2 V

Finite element formulation for 2D:


Principle of minimum potential energy: Among all admissible
displacement fields the one that satisfies the equilibrium equations Step 1: Divide the body into finite elements connected to each
also render the potential energy Π a minimum. other through special points (“nodes”)
py
“admissible displacement field”: 3 v3
1. first derivative of the displacement components exist px
4 3
2. satisfies the boundary conditions on Su u3
v4 ⎧u 1 ⎫
v 2 Element ‘e’ v2 ⎪v ⎪
1 4 ⎪ 1⎪
u ST u4 ⎪u 2 ⎪
u2 ⎪ ⎪
v1 2 ⎪v 2 ⎪
y d=⎨ ⎬
x y
Su ⎪u 3 ⎪
1 u1 ⎪v 3 ⎪
v ⎪ ⎪
x x ⎪u 4 ⎪
u ⎪v ⎪
⎩ 4⎭

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Step 2: Describe the behavior of each element (i.e., derive the
Total potential energy
stiffness matrix of each element and the nodal load vector).
1
2 ∫V
Π= σ T ε dV − ∫ u T X dV − ∫ u T T S dS Inside the element ‘e’ v3 Displacement at any point x=(x,y)
V ST
(x3,y3) 3
u3 ⎧u (x, y)⎫
Potential energy of element ‘e’: v4 u=⎨ ⎬
1 (x4,y4) v2 ⎩ v (x, y)⎭
Π e = ∫ e σ ε dV − ∫ e u X dV − ∫ e u T S dS
T T T
4 Nodal displacement vector
2 V V ST
u4 u2 ⎧u 1 ⎫
v1 v 2 ⎪v ⎪ where
This term may or may not be present y
u (x2,y2) ⎪ 1 ⎪ u1=u(x1,y1)
⎪u 2 ⎪ v =v(x ,y )
depending on whether the element is u ⎪ ⎪ 1 1 1
1(x ,y ) 1 ⎪v 2 ⎪ etc
actually on ST 1 1
d=⎨ ⎬
x
Total potential energy = sum of potential energies of the elements ⎪u 3 ⎪
⎪v 3 ⎪
⎪ ⎪
Π = ∑Πe ⎪u 4 ⎪
e ⎪v ⎪
⎩ 4⎭

Recall
Strain - Displacement Relation ε = ∂u TASK 1: APPROXIMATE THE DISPLACEMENTS WITHIN
Stress - Strain Law σ = Dε = D∂u EACH ELEMENT
⎡∂ ⎤ Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions
⎧ε x ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎢ 0⎥ u=Nd
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂x ⎥
ε = ⎨ε y ⎬ σ = ⎨σ y ⎬ ∂⎥
∂=⎢0 TASK 2: APPROXIMATE THE STRAIN and STRESS WITHIN
⎪γ ⎪ ⎪τ ⎪ ⎢ ∂y ⎥
⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎢∂ EACH ELEMENT
∂⎥ ε=Bd
⎢ ⎥ Strain approximation
⎣⎢ ∂y ∂x ⎥⎦
Stress approximation σ = DB d
If we knew u then we could compute the strains and stresses within the
element. But I DO NOT KNOW u!! TASK 3: DERIVE THE STIFFNESS MATRIX OF EACH
ELEMENT USING THE PRINCIPLE OF MIN. POT ENERGY
Hence we need to approximate u first (using shape functions) and
then obtain the approximations for ε and σ (recall the case of a 1D bar) We’ll see these for a generic element in 2D today and then derive
expressions for specific finite elements in the next few classes
This is accomplished in the following 3 Tasks in the next slide

4
TASK 1: APPROXIMATE THE DISPLACEMENTS
WITHIN EACH ELEMENT u (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)u1 + N2(x,y)u2 + N3(x,y)u3 + N4(x,y)u4
Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions v (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)v1 + N2(x,y)v2 + N3(x,y) v3 + N4(x,y)v4
v3
3 ⎧u 1 ⎫
u3 ⎪v ⎪
v4 ⎪ 1⎪
v2 Displacement approximation within element ‘e’ ⎪u 2 ⎪
4 ⎪ ⎪
u4 ⎧u (x, y)⎫ ⎡ N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0 ⎤ ⎪v 2 ⎪
u=⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎨ ⎬
N 4 ⎥⎦ ⎪u 3 ⎪
u2
v1 2 ⎩ v (x, y)⎭ ⎣ 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0
y u (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)u1 + N2(x,y)u2 + N3(x,y)u3 + N4(x,y)u4 ⎪v 3 ⎪
⎪ ⎪
1
u1 v (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)v1 + N2(x,y)v2 + N3(x,y) v3 + N4(x,y)v4 ⎪u 4 ⎪
v ⎪v ⎪
x u=Nd ⎩ 4⎭
u
We’ll derive specific expressions of the shape functions for
different finite elements later

TASK 2: APPROXIMATE THE STRAIN and STRESS WITHIN


EACH ELEMENT
⎧εx ⎫
⎪ ⎪
ε = ⎨ε y ⎬
⎪γ xy ⎪
⎩ ⎭
Approximation of the strain in element ‘e’ ⎧u1 ⎫
⎪v ⎪
⎡ ∂N1(x, y) ∂N 2 (x, y) ∂N3(x, y) ∂N 4 (x, y) ⎤⎪ 1 ⎪
∂u (x, y) ∂N1(x, y) ∂N 2 (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎪u 2 ⎪
εx = ≈ u1 + u2 + 3 u3 + 4 u4 ⎢ ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ⎥⎪ ⎪
∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x =⎢ 0
∂N1(x, y)
0
∂N 2 (x, y)
0
∂N3(x, y)
0
∂N 4 (x, y)⎥⎪v 2 ⎪
⎢ ⎨ ⎬
∂v (x, y) ∂N1(x, y) ∂N 2 (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ⎥⎪u 3 ⎪
εy = ≈ v1 + v2 + 3 v3 + 4 v4 ⎢ ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y)⎥
⎢ 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
⎥⎪v3 ⎪
∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ⎢⎣ ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ⎥⎪ ⎪

⎦⎪u 4 ⎪
∂u (x, y) ∂v (x, y) ∂N1(x, y) ∂N (x, y) B ⎪v ⎪
γ xy = + ≈ u1 + 1 v1 + ...... ⎩ 4⎭
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x
ε=Bd

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Compact approach to derive the B matrix: Stress approximation within the element ‘e’

Stress - Strain Law σ = Dε


Displacement field u = N d
Strain - Displacement Relation ε = ∂u = (∂ N )d = Bd
⇒σ = D Bε
B=∂ N

TASK 3: DERIVE THE STIFFNESS MATRIX OF EACH Rearranging


ELEMENT USING THE PRINCIPLE OF MININUM
1 T
Π e (d) ≈ d ⎛⎜ ∫ e B D B dV ⎞⎟ d − d ⎛⎜ ∫ e N X dV ⎞⎟ − d ⎛⎜ ∫ e N T S dS ⎞⎟
T T T T T
POTENTIAL ENERGY
2 ⎝V ⎠ ⎝V ⎠ ⎝ ST ⎠
Potential energy of element ‘e’: 1 T⎛ ⎞ T⎛ ⎞
= d ⎜ ∫ e B D B dV ⎟ d − d ⎜ ∫ e N X dV + ∫ e N T S dS ⎟
T T T

1 2 ⎝V
⎠ ⎝V ST


2 ∫V e
Πe = σ T ε dV − ∫ e u T X dV − ∫ e u T T S dS k f
V ST
1 T
⇒ Π e (d ) = d k d − d f
T

Lets plug in the approximations 2


From the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy
∂Π e (d)
u=Nd ε=Bd σ = DB d =k d− f =0
∂d
1
(DB d )T (B d ) dV − ∫V e (N d )T X dV − ∫S e (N d )T T S dS
Discrete equilibrium equation for element ‘e’ kd= f
2 ∫V e
Π e (d ) ≈
T

6
Element stiffness matrix for element ‘e’ If the element is of thickness ‘t’

For a 2D element, the size of the k matrix is For a 2D element, the size of the k matrix is
k = ∫ e B D B dV k = ∫ e t B D B dA
T T
V 2 x number of nodes of the element A 2 x number of nodes of the element
dA
Question: If there are ‘n’ nodes per element, then what is the size of Element nodal load vector
dV=tdA
the stiffness matrix of that element? t

f = ∫ e t N X dA + ∫ e t N T S dl
T T
Element nodal load vector
A

 lT

f = ∫ e N X dV + ∫ e N T S dS
T T f f
STe
b S

V

 ST

f f
b S
e

Due to body force Due to surface traction

Due to body force Due to surface traction

Computation of the terms in the stiffness matrix of 2D elements


The properties of the element stiffness matrix
v4 v3

k = ∫ e B D B dV
T 4 3 The B-matrix (strain-displacement) corresponding to this element is
u4
u3
V
u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4
v
⎡ ∂N1 (x,y) ∂N 2 (x,y) ∂N 3 (x,y) ∂N4 (x,y) ⎤
1. The element stiffness matrix is singular and is therefore non- y
u v2

⎢ ∂x
0
∂x
0
∂x
0
∂x
0 ⎥

v1 (x,y)
invertible ⎢


0
∂N1 (x,y)
∂y
0
∂N2 (x,y)
∂y
0
∂N 3 (x,y)
∂y
0
∂N4 (x,y) ⎥
∂y ⎥

2. The stiffness matrix is symmetric 1 u1 2 u2 ⎢ ∂N1 (x,y)

⎢⎣ ∂y
∂N1 (x,y)
∂x
∂N 2 (x,y)
∂y
∂N2 (x,y)
∂x
∂N 3 (x,y)
∂y
∂N 3 (x,y)
∂x
∂N4 (x,y)
∂y
∂N4 (x,y) ⎥
∂x ⎥
⎥⎦
3. Sum of any row (or column) of the stiffness matrix is zero! x

(why?) We will denote the columns of the B-matrix as

⎡ ⎤
⎡ ∂ N 1 (x,y) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ 0
∂x ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂ N 1 (x,y) ⎥
B u1 =⎢ 0 ⎥ ; B v1 = ⎢ ; and so on...
∂y ⎥
⎢ ∂ N (x,y) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ∂ N 1 (x,y) ⎥
⎣⎢ ∂y ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
∂x

7
The stiffness matrix corresponding to this element is Step 3: Assemble the element stiffness matrices into the global
k = ∫ e B D B dV
T
which has the following form stiffness matrix of the entire structure
V

u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 For this create a node-element connectivity chart exactly as in 1D


v3
⎡ k11 k12 k13 k14 k15 k16 k17 k18 ⎤ u1
⎢k k 2 8 ⎥⎥
Element #1
3
⎢ 21 k 22 k 23 k 24 k 25 k 26 k 27 v1
u3 ELEMENT Node 1 Node 2 Node 3
⎢ k 31 k 32 k 33 k 34 k 35 k 36 k 37 k 38 ⎥ u2 v1
⎢ ⎥ v4 1 1 2 3
k
k = ⎢ 41
k 42 k 43 k 44 k 45 k 46 k 47 k 48 ⎥ v2
1
⎢ k 51 k 52 k 53 k 54 k 55 k 56 k 57 k 58 ⎥ u1 2 2 3 4
u3
⎢ ⎥ 4 u4
⎢ k 61 k 62 k 63 k 64 k 65 k 66 k 67 k 68 ⎥ v3 v2
⎢k k 78 ⎥
⎢ 71
k 72 k 73 k 74 k 75 k 76 k 77

u4
y
Element #2
⎢⎣ k 8 1 k 82 k 83 k 84 k 85 k 86 k 87 k 8 8 ⎦⎥ v4
u2
2
The individual entries of the stiffness matrix may be computed as follows v
x
k11 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bu1 dV; k12 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bv1 dV; k13 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bu2 dV,...
T T T u
V V V

k 21 = ∫ e Bv1 D Bu1 dV; k21 = ∫ e Bv1 D Bv1 dV;.....


T T
V V

(1)
Stiffness matrix of element 1 Stiffness matrix of element 2 k
Global stiffness matrix
u v u v u
u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 ⎡ 2 2 3 3 4 v4 ⎤ u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u v4
⎡ ⎤ u1 ⎢ ⎥ u2
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎡ 4
⎤ u1
⎢ ⎥ v1 ⎢ ⎥
v2 ⎢ ⎥ v1 k
( 2)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ u
(2)
(1 ) u2 k = ⎢ ⎥ u3
k = ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ v2 ⎢ ⎥ v3 ⎢ ⎥ 2
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ u3 ⎢ ⎥ u4 K = ⎢ ⎥ v2
⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ v3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ v4 ⎢ ⎥ u3
⎢ ⎥ v3
⎢ ⎥ u4
There are 6 degrees of freedom (dof) per element (2 per node)
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 8v×48
How do you incorporate boundary conditions?
Exactly as in 1D

8
Physical interpretation of the stiffness matrix
Finally, solve the system equations taking care of the
displacement boundary conditions. Consider a single triangular element. The six corresponding
equilibrium equations ( 2 equilibrium equations in the x- and y-
directions at each node times the number of nodes) can be written
symbolically as
kd= f
v1 ⎡k11 k12 k13 k14 k15 k16 ⎤⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧f1x ⎫
v3 ⎢k ⎪ ⎪
1 u1 ⎢ 21 k22 k23 k24 k25 k26⎥⎥⎪⎪v1 ⎪⎪ ⎪f1y ⎪
v2 u3 ⎢k31 k32 k33 k34 k35 k36⎥⎪⎪u2 ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪f2x ⎪⎪
⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬
y 3
⎢k41 k42 k43 k44 k45 k46⎥⎪v2 ⎪ ⎪f2y ⎪
u2 ⎢k51 k52 k53 k54 k55 k56⎥⎪u3 ⎪ ⎪f3x ⎪
2 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎣⎢k61 k62 k63 k64 k65 k66⎦⎥⎩⎪v3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪f3y ⎭⎪
x

Choose u1 = 1 and rest of the nodal displacements = 0

⎧k11⎫ ⎧f1x ⎫
k ij = keeping
“Force” at d.o.f ‘i’ due to unit displacement at d.o.f ‘j’
all the other d.o.fs fixed
⎪k ⎪ ⎪f ⎪ 1 u1=1
⎪ 21⎪ ⎪ 1y ⎪
⎪⎪k31⎪⎪ ⎪⎪f2x ⎪⎪
⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ y 3 Now consider the ith row of the matrix equation k d = f
⎪k41⎪ ⎪f2y ⎪
⎪k51⎪ ⎪f3x ⎪ 2 [ki1 ki2 ki3 ki4 ki5 ki6 ] d = fix
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎩⎪k61⎭⎪ ⎩⎪f3y ⎭⎪ x
This is the equation of equilibrium at the ith dof
Hence, the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the
nodal loads when u1=1 and all other dofs are fixed. This is the
physical interpretation of the first column of the stiffness matrix.
Similar interpretations exist for the other columns

9
Consistent and Lumped nodal loads p per unit area
Example y

Recall that the nodal loads due to body forces and surface tractions Traction distribution on the 1-
1
2-3 edge
b 2
f b = ∫ e N X dV ;
T
f =∫
T
N T S dS x px= p
V S ST e b py= 0
3
These are known as “consistent nodal loads”
1. They are derived in a consistent manner using the Principle of We’ll see later that
Minimum Potential Energy
y(b + y) b2 − y2 y(b − y)
2. The same shape functions used in the computation of the stiffness N1 = 2
; N2 = 2 ; N3 = −
matrix are employed to compute these vectors 2b b 2b2

N1 N2
N3

The consistent nodal loads are The lumped nodal loads are y
b b y(b + y) pb F1x =
pb
F1x = ∫ p N1dy = ∫ p dy = 1
−b −b 2b2 3 2 pb/2

F2x = pb b 2
b b b2 − y2 4pb pb x
F2x = ∫ p N2dy = ∫ p 2 dy = b
−b −b b 3 pb
F3x = 3
pb/2
b b y(b − y) pb 2
F3x = ∫ p N3dy = −∫ p dy =
−b −b 2b2 3

y Lumping produces poor results and will not be pursued further

1 pb/3
b 2 4pb/3 x
b
3
pb/3

10
Summary: For each element
Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions
u=Nd

Strain approximation in terms of strain-displacement matrix


ε=Bd
Stress approximation
σ = DB d
Element stiffness matrix

k = ∫ e B D B dV
T
V

Element nodal load vector


f = ∫ e N X dV + ∫ e N T S dS
T T

V

 ST

f f
b S

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