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## MANE 4240 & CIVL 4240

Introduction to Finite Elements Lecture notes

Summary:

## Prof. Suvranu De • FEM Formulation of 2D elasticity (plane stress/strain)

•Displacement approximation
•Strain and stress approximation
•Derivation of element stiffness matrix and nodal load vector
FEM Discretization of •Assembling the global stiffness matrix
• Application of boundary conditions
2D Elasticity • Physical interpretation of the stiffness matrix

## Recap: 2D Elasticity Example

y

Volume py 2 1
Xb dV Su: Portion of the
element dV 2
Xa dV px boundary on which
4
displacements are 3
x
v prescribed (zero or
Volume (V) For the square block shown above, determine u and v for the
u ST nonzero)
following displacements
y ST: Portion of the Case 2: Pure shear
x y
Case 1: Stretch y

## Su boundary on which 1/2 2

tractions are prescribed
4
x (zero or nonzero)
2
1
Examples: concept of displacement field
x

1
Solution Recap: 2D Elasticity
Case 1: Stretch u=x Displacement field u = u ( x, y ) ⎧u (x, y)⎫
u=⎨ ⎬
y Strain - Displacement Relation ε = ∂u ⎩ v (x, y)⎭
v=− ⎡∂ ⎤
2 Stress - Strain Law σ = Dε = D∂u
⎢ 0⎥
Check that the new coordinates (in the deformed configuration)
⎧εx ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎥
∂⎥
x' = x + u = 2x ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂=⎢0
ε = ⎨ε y ⎬ σ = ⎨σ y ⎬ ⎢ ∂y ⎥
y ⎪γ ⎪ ⎪τ ⎪ ⎢∂ ∂⎥
y' = y + v = ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎢ ⎥
2 ⎣⎢ ∂y ∂x ⎦⎥
Case 2: Pure shear
u = y/4 For plane stress For plane strain
(3 nonzero stress components) (3 nonzero strain components)
v=0
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
Check that the new coordinates (in the deformed configuration) 1 ν 0 ⎥ ⎢1 − ν ν 0 ⎥
E ⎢ =
E
⎢ ν 1 − ν 0 ⎥
D= ⎢ν 1 0 ⎥ D
(1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢
x' = x + u = x + y / 4 1 −ν 2 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎥ 1 − 2ν ⎥
⎢ 0 0 ⎥
y' = y + v = y ⎢0 0 ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦
⎣ 2 ⎦

Strong formulation
Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (2D)
∂ σ + X = 0 in V
T
Equilibrium equations
Definition: For a linear elastic body subjected to body forces
Boundary conditions X=[Xa,Xb]T and surface tractions TS=[px,py]T, causing
1. Displacement boundary conditions: Displacements are specified on displacements u=[u,v]T and strains ε and stresses σ, the potential
portion Su of the boundary energy Π is defined as the strain energy minus the potential energy
of the loads (X and TS)
u =u
specified
on S u
Π=U-W
2. Traction (force) boundary conditions: Tractions are specified on
portion ST of the boundary
Now, how do I express this mathematically?

## But in finite element analysis we DO NOT work with the strong

formulation (why?), instead we use an equivalent Principle of
Minimum Potential Energy

2
Strain energy of the elastic body
Volume py
Xb dV Using the stress-strain law σ = D ε
element dV
Xa dV px
1 1
2 ∫V
U= σ T ε dV = ∫ ε T D ε dV
v 2 V
Volume (V)
u ST
In 2D plane stress/plane strain
y
x
1
2 ∫V
Su U= σ T ε dV

x T
⎧σ x ⎫ ⎧ ε x ⎫
1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
1 = ∫ ⎨σ y ⎬ ⎨ ε y ⎬ dV
2 ∫V
U= σ T ε dV 2 V⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎩τ xy ⎭ ⎩γ xy ⎭
W = ∫ u X dV + ∫ u T S dS
T T

= ∫ (σ xε x + σ yε y + τ xyγ xy ) dV
V ST 1
2 V

## Finite element formulation for 2D:

Principle of minimum potential energy: Among all admissible
displacement fields the one that satisfies the equilibrium equations Step 1: Divide the body into finite elements connected to each
also render the potential energy Π a minimum. other through special points (“nodes”)
py
1. first derivative of the displacement components exist px
4 3
2. satisfies the boundary conditions on Su u3
v4 ⎧u 1 ⎫
v 2 Element ‘e’ v2 ⎪v ⎪
1 4 ⎪ 1⎪
u ST u4 ⎪u 2 ⎪
u2 ⎪ ⎪
v1 2 ⎪v 2 ⎪
y d=⎨ ⎬
x y
Su ⎪u 3 ⎪
1 u1 ⎪v 3 ⎪
v ⎪ ⎪
x x ⎪u 4 ⎪
u ⎪v ⎪
⎩ 4⎭

3
Step 2: Describe the behavior of each element (i.e., derive the
Total potential energy
stiffness matrix of each element and the nodal load vector).
1
2 ∫V
Π= σ T ε dV − ∫ u T X dV − ∫ u T T S dS Inside the element ‘e’ v3 Displacement at any point x=(x,y)
V ST
(x3,y3) 3
u3 ⎧u (x, y)⎫
Potential energy of element ‘e’: v4 u=⎨ ⎬
1 (x4,y4) v2 ⎩ v (x, y)⎭
Π e = ∫ e σ ε dV − ∫ e u X dV − ∫ e u T S dS
T T T
4 Nodal displacement vector
2 V V ST
u4 u2 ⎧u 1 ⎫
v1 v 2 ⎪v ⎪ where
This term may or may not be present y
u (x2,y2) ⎪ 1 ⎪ u1=u(x1,y1)
⎪u 2 ⎪ v =v(x ,y )
depending on whether the element is u ⎪ ⎪ 1 1 1
1(x ,y ) 1 ⎪v 2 ⎪ etc
actually on ST 1 1
d=⎨ ⎬
x
Total potential energy = sum of potential energies of the elements ⎪u 3 ⎪
⎪v 3 ⎪
⎪ ⎪
Π = ∑Πe ⎪u 4 ⎪
e ⎪v ⎪
⎩ 4⎭

Recall
Strain - Displacement Relation ε = ∂u TASK 1: APPROXIMATE THE DISPLACEMENTS WITHIN
Stress - Strain Law σ = Dε = D∂u EACH ELEMENT
⎡∂ ⎤ Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions
⎧ε x ⎫ ⎧σ x ⎫ ⎢ 0⎥ u=Nd
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂x ⎥
ε = ⎨ε y ⎬ σ = ⎨σ y ⎬ ∂⎥
∂=⎢0 TASK 2: APPROXIMATE THE STRAIN and STRESS WITHIN
⎪γ ⎪ ⎪τ ⎪ ⎢ ∂y ⎥
⎩ xy ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭ ⎢∂ EACH ELEMENT
∂⎥ ε=Bd
⎢ ⎥ Strain approximation
⎣⎢ ∂y ∂x ⎥⎦
Stress approximation σ = DB d
If we knew u then we could compute the strains and stresses within the
element. But I DO NOT KNOW u!! TASK 3: DERIVE THE STIFFNESS MATRIX OF EACH
ELEMENT USING THE PRINCIPLE OF MIN. POT ENERGY
Hence we need to approximate u first (using shape functions) and
then obtain the approximations for ε and σ (recall the case of a 1D bar) We’ll see these for a generic element in 2D today and then derive
expressions for specific finite elements in the next few classes
This is accomplished in the following 3 Tasks in the next slide

4
WITHIN EACH ELEMENT u (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)u1 + N2(x,y)u2 + N3(x,y)u3 + N4(x,y)u4
Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions v (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)v1 + N2(x,y)v2 + N3(x,y) v3 + N4(x,y)v4
v3
3 ⎧u 1 ⎫
u3 ⎪v ⎪
v4 ⎪ 1⎪
v2 Displacement approximation within element ‘e’ ⎪u 2 ⎪
4 ⎪ ⎪
u4 ⎧u (x, y)⎫ ⎡ N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0 ⎤ ⎪v 2 ⎪
u=⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎨ ⎬
N 4 ⎥⎦ ⎪u 3 ⎪
u2
v1 2 ⎩ v (x, y)⎭ ⎣ 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0
y u (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)u1 + N2(x,y)u2 + N3(x,y)u3 + N4(x,y)u4 ⎪v 3 ⎪
⎪ ⎪
1
u1 v (x,y)≈ N1(x,y)v1 + N2(x,y)v2 + N3(x,y) v3 + N4(x,y)v4 ⎪u 4 ⎪
v ⎪v ⎪
x u=Nd ⎩ 4⎭
u
We’ll derive specific expressions of the shape functions for
different finite elements later

## TASK 2: APPROXIMATE THE STRAIN and STRESS WITHIN

EACH ELEMENT
⎧εx ⎫
⎪ ⎪
ε = ⎨ε y ⎬
⎪γ xy ⎪
⎩ ⎭
Approximation of the strain in element ‘e’ ⎧u1 ⎫
⎪v ⎪
⎡ ∂N1(x, y) ∂N 2 (x, y) ∂N3(x, y) ∂N 4 (x, y) ⎤⎪ 1 ⎪
∂u (x, y) ∂N1(x, y) ∂N 2 (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎥⎪u 2 ⎪
εx = ≈ u1 + u2 + 3 u3 + 4 u4 ⎢ ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ⎥⎪ ⎪
∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x =⎢ 0
∂N1(x, y)
0
∂N 2 (x, y)
0
∂N3(x, y)
0
∂N 4 (x, y)⎥⎪v 2 ⎪
⎢ ⎨ ⎬
∂v (x, y) ∂N1(x, y) ∂N 2 (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ⎥⎪u 3 ⎪
εy = ≈ v1 + v2 + 3 v3 + 4 v4 ⎢ ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y) ∂N (x, y)⎥
⎢ 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
⎥⎪v3 ⎪
∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ⎢⎣ ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ⎥⎪ ⎪

⎦⎪u 4 ⎪
∂u (x, y) ∂v (x, y) ∂N1(x, y) ∂N (x, y) B ⎪v ⎪
γ xy = + ≈ u1 + 1 v1 + ...... ⎩ 4⎭
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x
ε=Bd

5
Compact approach to derive the B matrix: Stress approximation within the element ‘e’

## Stress - Strain Law σ = Dε

Displacement field u = N d
Strain - Displacement Relation ε = ∂u = (∂ N )d = Bd
⇒σ = D Bε
B=∂ N

## TASK 3: DERIVE THE STIFFNESS MATRIX OF EACH Rearranging

ELEMENT USING THE PRINCIPLE OF MININUM
1 T
Π e (d) ≈ d ⎛⎜ ∫ e B D B dV ⎞⎟ d − d ⎛⎜ ∫ e N X dV ⎞⎟ − d ⎛⎜ ∫ e N T S dS ⎞⎟
T T T T T
POTENTIAL ENERGY
2 ⎝V ⎠ ⎝V ⎠ ⎝ ST ⎠
Potential energy of element ‘e’: 1 T⎛ ⎞ T⎛ ⎞
= d ⎜ ∫ e B D B dV ⎟ d − d ⎜ ∫ e N X dV + ∫ e N T S dS ⎟
T T T

1 2 ⎝V
⎠ ⎝V ST

2 ∫V e
Πe = σ T ε dV − ∫ e u T X dV − ∫ e u T T S dS k f
V ST
1 T
⇒ Π e (d ) = d k d − d f
T

## Lets plug in the approximations 2

From the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy
∂Π e (d)
u=Nd ε=Bd σ = DB d =k d− f =0
∂d
1
(DB d )T (B d ) dV − ∫V e (N d )T X dV − ∫S e (N d )T T S dS
Discrete equilibrium equation for element ‘e’ kd= f
2 ∫V e
Π e (d ) ≈
T

6
Element stiffness matrix for element ‘e’ If the element is of thickness ‘t’

For a 2D element, the size of the k matrix is For a 2D element, the size of the k matrix is
k = ∫ e B D B dV k = ∫ e t B D B dA
T T
V 2 x number of nodes of the element A 2 x number of nodes of the element
dA
Question: If there are ‘n’ nodes per element, then what is the size of Element nodal load vector
dV=tdA
the stiffness matrix of that element? t

f = ∫ e t N X dA + ∫ e t N T S dl
T T
A

 lT

f = ∫ e N X dV + ∫ e N T S dS
T T f f
STe
b S

V

 ST

f f
b S
e

## Computation of the terms in the stiffness matrix of 2D elements

The properties of the element stiffness matrix
v4 v3

k = ∫ e B D B dV
T 4 3 The B-matrix (strain-displacement) corresponding to this element is
u4
u3
V
u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4
v
⎡ ∂N1 (x,y) ∂N 2 (x,y) ∂N 3 (x,y) ∂N4 (x,y) ⎤
1. The element stiffness matrix is singular and is therefore non- y
u v2

⎢ ∂x
0
∂x
0
∂x
0
∂x
0 ⎥

v1 (x,y)
invertible ⎢

0
∂N1 (x,y)
∂y
0
∂N2 (x,y)
∂y
0
∂N 3 (x,y)
∂y
0
∂N4 (x,y) ⎥
∂y ⎥

2. The stiffness matrix is symmetric 1 u1 2 u2 ⎢ ∂N1 (x,y)

⎢⎣ ∂y
∂N1 (x,y)
∂x
∂N 2 (x,y)
∂y
∂N2 (x,y)
∂x
∂N 3 (x,y)
∂y
∂N 3 (x,y)
∂x
∂N4 (x,y)
∂y
∂N4 (x,y) ⎥
∂x ⎥
⎥⎦
3. Sum of any row (or column) of the stiffness matrix is zero! x

## (why?) We will denote the columns of the B-matrix as

⎡ ⎤
⎡ ∂ N 1 (x,y) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ 0
∂x ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂ N 1 (x,y) ⎥
B u1 =⎢ 0 ⎥ ; B v1 = ⎢ ; and so on...
∂y ⎥
⎢ ∂ N (x,y) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ∂ N 1 (x,y) ⎥
⎣⎢ ∂y ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
∂x

7
The stiffness matrix corresponding to this element is Step 3: Assemble the element stiffness matrices into the global
k = ∫ e B D B dV
T
which has the following form stiffness matrix of the entire structure
V

## u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 For this create a node-element connectivity chart exactly as in 1D

v3
⎡ k11 k12 k13 k14 k15 k16 k17 k18 ⎤ u1
⎢k k 2 8 ⎥⎥
Element #1
3
⎢ 21 k 22 k 23 k 24 k 25 k 26 k 27 v1
u3 ELEMENT Node 1 Node 2 Node 3
⎢ k 31 k 32 k 33 k 34 k 35 k 36 k 37 k 38 ⎥ u2 v1
⎢ ⎥ v4 1 1 2 3
k
k = ⎢ 41
k 42 k 43 k 44 k 45 k 46 k 47 k 48 ⎥ v2
1
⎢ k 51 k 52 k 53 k 54 k 55 k 56 k 57 k 58 ⎥ u1 2 2 3 4
u3
⎢ ⎥ 4 u4
⎢ k 61 k 62 k 63 k 64 k 65 k 66 k 67 k 68 ⎥ v3 v2
⎢k k 78 ⎥
⎢ 71
k 72 k 73 k 74 k 75 k 76 k 77

u4
y
Element #2
⎢⎣ k 8 1 k 82 k 83 k 84 k 85 k 86 k 87 k 8 8 ⎦⎥ v4
u2
2
The individual entries of the stiffness matrix may be computed as follows v
x
k11 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bu1 dV; k12 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bv1 dV; k13 = ∫ e Bu1 D Bu2 dV,...
T T T u
V V V

## k 21 = ∫ e Bv1 D Bu1 dV; k21 = ∫ e Bv1 D Bv1 dV;.....

T T
V V

(1)
Stiffness matrix of element 1 Stiffness matrix of element 2 k
Global stiffness matrix
u v u v u
u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 ⎡ 2 2 3 3 4 v4 ⎤ u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u v4
⎡ ⎤ u1 ⎢ ⎥ u2
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎡ 4
⎤ u1
⎢ ⎥ v1 ⎢ ⎥
v2 ⎢ ⎥ v1 k
( 2)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ u
(2)
(1 ) u2 k = ⎢ ⎥ u3
k = ⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ v2 ⎢ ⎥ v3 ⎢ ⎥ 2
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ u3 ⎢ ⎥ u4 K = ⎢ ⎥ v2
⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ v3 ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ v4 ⎢ ⎥ u3
⎢ ⎥ v3
⎢ ⎥ u4
There are 6 degrees of freedom (dof) per element (2 per node)
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ 8v×48
How do you incorporate boundary conditions?
Exactly as in 1D

8
Physical interpretation of the stiffness matrix
Finally, solve the system equations taking care of the
displacement boundary conditions. Consider a single triangular element. The six corresponding
equilibrium equations ( 2 equilibrium equations in the x- and y-
directions at each node times the number of nodes) can be written
symbolically as
kd= f
v1 ⎡k11 k12 k13 k14 k15 k16 ⎤⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧f1x ⎫
v3 ⎢k ⎪ ⎪
1 u1 ⎢ 21 k22 k23 k24 k25 k26⎥⎥⎪⎪v1 ⎪⎪ ⎪f1y ⎪
v2 u3 ⎢k31 k32 k33 k34 k35 k36⎥⎪⎪u2 ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪f2x ⎪⎪
⎢ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬
y 3
⎢k41 k42 k43 k44 k45 k46⎥⎪v2 ⎪ ⎪f2y ⎪
u2 ⎢k51 k52 k53 k54 k55 k56⎥⎪u3 ⎪ ⎪f3x ⎪
2 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎣⎢k61 k62 k63 k64 k65 k66⎦⎥⎩⎪v3 ⎭⎪ ⎩⎪f3y ⎭⎪
x

## Choose u1 = 1 and rest of the nodal displacements = 0

⎧k11⎫ ⎧f1x ⎫
k ij = keeping
“Force” at d.o.f ‘i’ due to unit displacement at d.o.f ‘j’
all the other d.o.fs fixed
⎪k ⎪ ⎪f ⎪ 1 u1=1
⎪ 21⎪ ⎪ 1y ⎪
⎪⎪k31⎪⎪ ⎪⎪f2x ⎪⎪
⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ y 3 Now consider the ith row of the matrix equation k d = f
⎪k41⎪ ⎪f2y ⎪
⎪k51⎪ ⎪f3x ⎪ 2 [ki1 ki2 ki3 ki4 ki5 ki6 ] d = fix
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎩⎪k61⎭⎪ ⎩⎪f3y ⎭⎪ x
This is the equation of equilibrium at the ith dof
Hence, the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the
nodal loads when u1=1 and all other dofs are fixed. This is the
physical interpretation of the first column of the stiffness matrix.
Similar interpretations exist for the other columns

9
Consistent and Lumped nodal loads p per unit area
Example y

Recall that the nodal loads due to body forces and surface tractions Traction distribution on the 1-
1
2-3 edge
b 2
f b = ∫ e N X dV ;
T
f =∫
T
N T S dS x px= p
V S ST e b py= 0
3
These are known as “consistent nodal loads”
1. They are derived in a consistent manner using the Principle of We’ll see later that
Minimum Potential Energy
y(b + y) b2 − y2 y(b − y)
2. The same shape functions used in the computation of the stiffness N1 = 2
; N2 = 2 ; N3 = −
matrix are employed to compute these vectors 2b b 2b2

N1 N2
N3

b b y(b + y) pb F1x =
pb
F1x = ∫ p N1dy = ∫ p dy = 1
−b −b 2b2 3 2 pb/2

F2x = pb b 2
b b b2 − y2 4pb pb x
F2x = ∫ p N2dy = ∫ p 2 dy = b
−b −b b 3 pb
F3x = 3
pb/2
b b y(b − y) pb 2
F3x = ∫ p N3dy = −∫ p dy =
−b −b 2b2 3

## y Lumping produces poor results and will not be pursued further

1 pb/3
b 2 4pb/3 x
b
3
pb/3

10
Summary: For each element
Displacement approximation in terms of shape functions
u=Nd

## Strain approximation in terms of strain-displacement matrix

ε=Bd
Stress approximation
σ = DB d
Element stiffness matrix

k = ∫ e B D B dV
T
V