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© 2003 Harnischfeger Corporation

Presentation Agenda

’Introduction
’Machine Descriptions
’Selection Criteria
’Machine Selection Process
’Conclusion
Background

’ Selecting excavation equipment is a complex process


’ Mines must consider blasting techniques, on-site
maintenance capabilities, and capital recovery
’ Hydraulic and electric shovels each deserve fair
consideration
Background (cont)

’ Focus on high-production, low-


cost (HPLC) mining operations

’ HPLC mines are located around


the globe, and some examples
are:
Š Copper mines in South America
and Indonesia
Š Coal mines in Australia, China,
India, Canada, and the U.S.
Š Precious metal mines at various
locations Typical HPLC Digging Face
Conceptual Representation of HPLC Mine
1. Topsoil Removal
2. Subsoil Removal
3 3. Drilling & Blasting
2 4. Truck & Shovel
1
Excavation
4
4 5. Dragline Operation
3 6
6. Coal Loading
5 7 7. Reclamation

7
Hydraulic Mining Excavator (HMS)

’ Designed specifically to dig and


load material in surface mines
’ Available in a face shovel
configuration or as a backhoe
’ Uses diesel engines or electric
motors
’ Typical capacity is 28 yds3
(21 m3) to 46 yds3 (35m3) for
standard rock applications
Typical HMS Assemblies

Upper
Attachment

Lower
Typical HMS Deck Plan
Operator’s Cab

Engine Valves

Pump Drive

Pumps
Hydraulic Reservoir
Fuel Tank
Electric Mining Shovel (EMS)

’ Designed specifically to dig and


load material in surface mines
’ Uses electric motors, gear
reducers, drums and wire rope
to actuate motions
’ Typical capacity is 33 yds3
(25 m3) to 82yds3 (63m3) for
standard rock applications
Typical EMS Assemblies

Upper Attachment

Lower
Typical EMS Deck Plan

Hoist Gearcase

Swing Gearcase

Operator’s Cab

Electrical
Hoist Drum
Cabinets Transformers
The Work Cycle

’ The work cycle for both


HMS and EMS consists
of four distinct phases:
Š The digging phase
Š The swinging phase
Š The dumping phase
Š The returning phase
Š Positioning phase
sometimes required
Typical Dig to Dump Cycle
Digging
Accelerating
Smoothly

Coasting

Decelerating

Dumping
Selection Categories

’Technical
’Machine Operation
’Geology and Deposit Characterization
’Digging and Loading
’Productivity
’Maintenance
’Environmental Impact
’Commercial Considerations
Technical

Ambient Temperature Adaptability


Priority: High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ The viscosity of hydraulic ’ Motors can effectively work
fluids varies with temperature in ambient temperatures
changes from –50 degrees Celsius to
’ Low fluid temperature can +55 degrees Celsius
lead to machine shutdown ’ Fluid viscosity changes
’ High temperatures can have minimal impact on
accelerate component wear EMS performance

The electric mining shovel is more


adaptable to temperature extremes.
Technical

Digging Forces
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Generates digging forces through
stick cylinder (crowd force) and
bucket tilt cylinders (breakout force)
’ Additional force generated from
boom cylinder (boom force)

EMS Attributes
’ Generates digging forces through
hoist machinery (rope or bail pull)
and crowd machinery (crowd/hoist
force)
Technical

Digging Forces (cont)


Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Best filled when low in bank
’ Operator must choose a
specific trajectory for the bucket
and frequently reposition

EMS Attributes
’ Digging forces sustained
whether low or high in bank
’ Capable of maintaining dipper
penetration and material flow The electric mining shovel is
in all kinds of digging inherently more capable of
consistently generating higher
digging force.
Technical

Ground Bearing Pressure (Static)


Priority: High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Has relatively low static ’ Typically has a heavy frame
ground bearing pressure and construction, and
’ 46 yds3 (35.2 m3) capacity higher static ground bearing
exerts a force of 225.8kPa pressure
(32.8psi) ’ Optional machine offerings
with lower ground bearing
pressure
’ 46 yds3 (35.2 m3) capacity
exerts a force of 424.0kPa
(61.5psi)

The lower static ground bearing pressure inherent on the HMS


makes it generally better suited to soft mine floor conditions.
Technical

Machine Assembly Time


Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ Assembly typically takes 10-20
days, with an eight-person crew
working a 10-hour shift

EMS Attributes
’ Assembly typically takes 30-70
days
’ Larger and more skilled crew
required The hydraulic mining shovel has
an advantage when It comes to
erection time and crews.
Technical

Machine Weight
Priority: High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Designed to minimize ’ Has a robust design to
structural weight, providing provide maximum durability,
reduced ground bearing stability, and longevity
pressure and increased ’ Weighs more than a
mobility hydraulic machine of equal
’ Lighter weight construction capacity
contributes to shorter life

The electric mining shovel weighs


more, yet this typically translates
to longer equipment life.
Technical

Mobility
Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ Smaller and lighter
’ Relatively fast and mobile
’ Long propels may cause
overheating of components

EMS Attributes
’ Robust carbody, revolving
frame, boom and supporting
structures make it heavier
’ Relatively slow propel speeds The smaller size of the hydraulic
mining shovel yields a
maneuverability and mobility
advantage.
Technical

Power Selection Options


Priority: Low

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Offers the option of either ’ Only option available is an
diesel or electric power electronic drive system
matched with AC or DC
electric mining duty motors

The HMS offers both diesel and


electric power options, whereas an
EMS offers only electric drive.
Technical

Power Supply Requirements


Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Diesel machines typically
require no power cable
connections
’ Electric powered HMS have
similar requirements as electric
shovels
EMS Attributes
’ Requires power substations
’ Requires cable support
infrastructure The absence of trail cables on most
hydraulic shovels allows them
greater mobility and flexibility.
Technical

Technology Change Adaptability


Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Short life limits opportunity for
retrofit of new technology
’ Purchase of new machine
provides latest technology

EMS Attributes
’ Long life and modular design
allow for retrofits
’ New technology upgrades are
offered in modular packages The EMS has a much longer life
expectancy, with a flexible design
that is adaptable to upgrades and
new technology.
Technical

Trail Cable
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Most HMS are diesel powered
and do not have trail cables
’ The few electric powered HMS
do have trail cables

EMS Attributes
’ All EMS are equipped with trail
cables to provide electrical
power
’ Trail cables must be inspected All EMS are equipped with trail
and maintained cables, whereas most HMS are not.
Machine Operation

Cab Location
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Typically located on the left side
of the machine
’ Located on the engine level

9.55 m
8.06 m
EMS Attributes
’ Typically located on the right
side of the machine
’ Located high above the mine The high position of the electric
floor, providing better visibility mining shovel cab provides greater
of haul trucks visibility and an added sense of
security for the operator.
Machine Operation

Digging Phase Controls


7
Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes 6

’ Seven steps are typically 5


required to position and fill a 1 2 3
4
bucket
’ Operator skill determines
efficiency of digging 4

EMS Attributes 3
’ Four steps are typically 1 2
required to position and fill a
dipper
’ Operator joystick control The minimal control actions
actions are minimal required with the EMS minimize
operator fatigue, energy
consumption, and machine stress.
Machine Operation

Digging Phase Controls (cont)


HMS Control Functions
Extend Stick Boom Lower

Swing Swing Curl Curl


Left Right Out In

Retract Stick Boom Hoist

LEFT HAND RIGHT HAND


Machine Operation

Digging Phase Controls (cont)


EMS Control Functions
Crowd Extend Lower Dipper

Swing Swing
Left Right

Crowd Retract Hoist Dipper

LEFT HAND RIGHT HAND


Machine Operation

Ergonomics HMS
Operator’s
Priority: High Cab
HMS Attributes Machinery
’ Typically mounted on an Deck
extension of the machinery
deck Machinery
Deck
’ Cab is located near sources of EMS
noise and vibration Elevated
Operator’s
Cab

EMS Attributes
’ Isolated above and in front of
the machinery deck and house
’ Spacious cab with floor to
ceiling glass for increased The elevated and isolated
visibility operator’s cab on the EMS provides
a quieter environment and
contributes to higher productivity.
Machine Operation

Use of Propel to Maximize Fill Factors


Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Has limited boom reach
’ Typically uses propel to
maintain digging position
and provide optimal bucket
fill factors

EMS Attributes
’ Has greater boom reach
’ Numerous digging cycles can
be executed before
repositioning is required, The HMS uses propel more often
resulting in minimized work during the digging cycle for
cycle time repositioning, increasing wear on
crawler system components.
Machine Operation

Visibility
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Has floor-to-ceiling visibility
through the front window of the
operator’s cab

EMS Attributes
’ Operator is in a high location
with a clear view of the working
face in front and the mine floor
below Due to the higher location and
greater distance from the digging
face, the operator of the EMS has
a visibility advantage.
Geology and Deposit Characterization

Bench Height
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Has a specified height reach
that is comparable to an EMS
’ Must work closer to the face
due to a much shorter digging
range

EMS Attributes
’ Has a higher boom point
sheave height and cutting
height of dipper teeth
’ Greater horizontal reach The size, attachment design, and
digging radius of the EMS make it
better suited for high benches.
Geology and Deposit Characterization

Digging Material Layer by Layer


Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ Can remove material layer by
layer, working from top to
bottom

EMS Attributes
’ Begins its digging cycle at the
lowest toe point of the mining
face
The hydraulic mining shovel is
better suited for digging material
layer by layer, but this not typically
required in HPLC operations.
Geology and Deposit Characterization

Drilling and Blasting Requirements


Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Can dig in a variety of Typical Mining/Processing Cost Split
conditions, working from
top to bottom Load and
Haul 30%
’ Requires less drilling and Processing
blasting Drill and ljklj60%
Blast 6%

EMS Attributes Ancillary


Costs 4%
’ Takes advantage of blasted
material with dipper
placement at the best spot
’ Most effective in benches It is more cost effective to spend
appropriately drilled and time and money on drill and blast
blasted activities than to use the loading
tool to pick away at layers.
Geology and Deposit Characterization

Following Layers Up a Grade


Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ With three independent
movements on front-end
equipment, the operator can
follow thin layers up a grade
with the bucket

EMS Attributes
’ Two motions are involved for
the operator to control the
cutting motion of the dipper up
a grade Both the HMS and EMS can follow
layers up a grade, but this in not
typically required in HPLC
operations.
Geology and Deposit Characterization

Material Abrasiveness
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Lighter weight of the bucket
makes it more susceptible to
wear when working with
material classified as hard
and very hard digging

EMS Attributes
’ Features heavier dippers with
better wear protection for hard
and very hard digging
EMS dippers will perform better
in abrasive ground with less
downtime and lower maintenance
costs.
Geology and Deposit Characterization

Selective Mining Face Digging


Priority: Low

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Can dig in a variety of ’ Can dig into any mining
conditions, attacking the face face at the most suitable
at the most suitable point point, within reach of the
machine

Both the HMS and EMS, when


digging with good practices, can
load out the material.
Digging and Loading

Cycle Time
Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ Theoretical cycle times are from
25 to 45 seconds per cycle

EMS Attributes
’ EMS cycle times are similar to
the HMS
’ Longer reach allows EMS to
maintain an optimal swing arc The greater reach of the EMS
while minimizing propelling provides optimal swing arcs,
resulting in reduced overall
cycle times.
Digging and Loading

Debris Removal
Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ Picking up debris from the
loading area is an easy task

EMS Attributes
’ Can clean the mine floor, but
not optimal use for the machine
’ Ancillary equipment is often
used for clean-up while the Clean-up equipment is necessary
EMS remains productive for both the HMS and EMS in HPLC
operations.
Digging and Loading

Digging Below Ground Level


Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ Can dig below ground level
’ Preparing a ramp to a lower
bench is a normal type of
operation

EMS Attributes
’ Crowd motion provides
capability to dig below ground
level and cut a downward The HMS has a slight advantage
ramp when digging downward ramps,
but it is typically not cost-effective
to use the primary loading tool in
this way.
Digging and Loading

Fill Factors
Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes Heaped
’ Quote bucket capacity in
“heaped” standard per Struck
SAE 2:1 or 1:1
’ Buckets are well-suited for
material described as easy
and medium digging

EMS Attributes Struck


’ Quote dipper capacity in
“struck” standard
’ Dippers are well-suited to
provide maximum fill factors
in all materials
Digging and Loading

Fill Factors (cont)


Priority: Very High
Discussion
’ Diggability is the amount of
resistance a particular material Material Approximate
Diggability Dipper Fill Factor
presents to being extracted
from a working face EMS HMS

’ Fill factor is the ratio of actual Easy Digging 1.05 - 1.20 .95 - 1.05
1.00 - 1.15 .90 - 1.00
loose cubic yards or meters of a Medium Digging
Hard Digging .90 - 1.00 .85 - .95
material in the dipper or bucket Very Hard Digging .85 - .95 .80 - .90
compared to the dipper or
bucket’s rated volume Bucket or Dipper Fill Factor = Loose Volume Per Load
Bucket or Dipper Rated Volume

HMS and EMS manufacturers use different accepted


standards for rating bucket and dipper capacity.
What matters is tons moved.
Digging and Loading

Floor Cleanup
Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ Front end maneuverability
provides excellent fills on low
faces or piles

EMS Attributes
’ Has a significant floor level
digging reach to remove
spillage
Both HMS and EMS have the
capability to remove spillage, yet
this ability is questionable for
HPLC mining operations.
Digging and Loading

Floor Level Digging Reach


Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Can keep the bucket parallel to
and on the ground

EMS Attributes
’ Has a floor level digging reach
approximately the same as an
HMS of comparable capacity
Both HMS and EMS are capable
of floor level digging, but HMS
can control the tooth angle of the
bucket for a straighter cut.
Digging and Loading

Material Discharge
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Measured discharge of bottom
dump buckets provides a
controlled flow to haul trucks

EMS Attributes
’ Material being off-loaded from
the dipper slides down the
sloped dipper bottom into the
haul truck load box Both HMS and EMS discharge
material in a comparable fashion,
yet control is greater with a
hydraulic shovel.
Digging and Loading

Proximity to Face
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Low horizontal reach high in
the bank Bucket/Dipper Digging Radius
Capacity HMS EMS
’ More susceptible to hits from
falling bank sections and rocks 33.0 yd3 (25.2m3) 16.5m 21m
46.0 yd3 (35.2m3) 17.5m 24m
57.0 yd3 (43.6m3) 17.5m 24m

EMS Attributes
’ Works effectively at a greater
distance from the bank face
The safety and ease of operation
’ Working position provides a provided by an EMS digging farther
better view for the operator from the bank face is often cited by
operators as the reason they prefer
this machine.
Digging and Loading

Reach
Priority: Very High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Has reach limitations that ’ Achieves more reach by
require the machine to work extending only the dipper
closer to the digging face and handle rather than the
entire attachment
’ Long reach enables the
machine to sit farther back
from the digging face

The reach on the electric mining


shovel provides a distinct digging
advantage.
Digging and Loading

Removal of Large Rocks from Digging Face


Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ Can use curl or roll capabilities
to remove a large rock from a
hazardous position on the high
wall
’ Isolated boulders can be pried
from the face without difficulty
EMS Attributes
’ Can use the retract motion of
the dipper handle in
combination with the hoist
motion to dislodge a boulder The high location of the EMS
from its bank position operator’s cab provides a definite
safety advantage when removing
large rocks.
Digging and Loading

Removal of Obstructions from the Mine Floor


Priority: Low
HMS Attributes
’ Front-end geometry allows the
teeth to be in direct contact with
the ground right in front of the
tracks for a prying action if
required

EMS Attributes
’ Has the ability to rip upward
with the forward motion of the
hoist and the retract motion of
the crowd to remove floor Removal procedures for boulders
obstructions or toe sections are the same for
HMS and EMS (must be ripped or
pried upward).
Digging and Loading

Rock Handling Capability


Priority: Low

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Large rocks can easily and ’ Limited to the geometric
carefully be dumped into the size of the dipper as to the
haul truck size of the rock it can load

The HMS has an advantage when


offloading large debris, yet it is
questionable whether this ability
would be used in an HPLC
operation.
Digging and Loading

Truck Compatibility
Priority: Very High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Larger machines 46yd3 ’ Various capacity machines
(35m3) capacity match up well match up well with most
with smaller haulage units HPLC trucks, efficiently
and can 3-pass load 190-ton 3-pass loading 290 metric
and 205-ton trucks ton (320 US ton) trucks or
larger

The wide range of electric mining


shovels offered make it the best
match for most mining haul trucks.
Digging and Loading

Truck Compatibility (cont)


HMS Truck/Shovel Match-Up
Ljlk
Truck Rated Capacity Shovel Capacity
Metric Ton (US ton) 21m (28 yd ) 25m (33yd3) 35m3(46yd3) 44m3(57yd3) 56m3(73yd3)
3 3 3

154 (170) 5 pass 4 pass 3 pass


172 (190) 5 pass 4 pass 3 pass
186 (205) 5-6 pass 4-5 pass 3 pass
218 (240) 6-7 pass 5 pass 4 pass
231 (255) 6-7 pass 5-6 pass 4 pass
290 (320) 7 pass 5 pass
327 (360)
363 (400)
EMS Truck/Shovel Match-Up
Truck Rated Capacity Shovel Capacity
Metric Ton (US ton) 21m (28 yd ) 25m (33yd3) 35m3(46yd3) 44m3(57yd3) 56m3(73yd3)
3 3 3

154 (170) 5 pass 3-4 pass 3 pass 2 pass


172 (190) 5 pass 4 pass 3 pass 2-3 pass 2 pass
186 (205) 5-6 pass 4-5 pass 3 pass 3 pass 2 pass
218 (240) 6-7 pass 5 pass 3-4 pass 3 pass 3 pass
231 (255) 7 pass 5-6 pass 4 pass 3 pass 2-3 pass
290 (320) 7 pass 5 pass 3-4 pass 3 pass
327 (360) 8 pass 5-6 pass 4 pass 3-4 pass
ddd
363 (400) 8 pass 6 pass 5 pass 4 pass
Digging and Loading

Truck Loading
Priority: Very High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Propelling may be required to ’ Excellent operator visibility
properly discharge a load ’ Large dipper capacities
make it ideal for single
back-up, double back-up, or
drive by loading methods
’ High truck spotting
tolerance range

Greater operator visibility and truck


spotting tolerance make the EMS
the ideal loading tool in an HPLC
operation.
Digging and Loading

Truck Loading (cont)


COMPARATIVE DIGGING ENVELOPE
Digging and Loading

Truck Loading (cont)


COMPARATIVE SHOVEL REACH
Digging and Loading

Working Dimensions
Priority: High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Can work in relatively tight ’ Larger size places the
spaces operator higher up and
farther from the digging face
and haulage units
’ Longer reach provides
greater truck spotting
tolerance and visibility

The larger dimensions of the EMS


put the operator and supporting
equipment in positions that
maximize safety and productivity.
Digging and Loading

Working Dimensions (cont)


Priority: High

Operator Sight Angle

) )

Operator Position
Tail Swing
Truck Truck
Spotting Spotting
Tolerance Tolerance
Productivity

Availability
Priority: Very High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Has improved availability ’ Has a proven availability
numbers nearing that of record in the 90%+ range
electric shovels well into its life
’ Fueling time typically not
counted as “downtime”

While HMS availability values are


increasing, the EMS continues to
have higher availability in a variety
of digging conditions.
Productivity

Capacity
Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ Continues to grow in physical
size and loading capacity as
technology advances Shovel Capacity Comparison
HMS EMS
’ Large machines can 5-pass Small 28.0 yd3 (21.4m3) 33.0yd3 (25.2m3)
load 290 metric ton (320 US Medium 33.0 yd3 (25.2m3) 46.0yd3 (35.2m3)
ton) trucks Large 46.0 yd3 (35.2m3) 73.0yd3 (55.8m3)

EMS Attributes
’ Can 3-pass load 290 metric ton
(320 US ton) truck
’ Large machines, such as the The EMS has much greater
P&H 4100XPB, produce capacity, and the trend in HPLC
approximately twice the output mines is to use larger and more
of large HMS efficient loading and hauling tools.
Productivity

Reliability
Priority: Very High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Has achieved reliable ’ Has proven to be highly
performance of about 90% reliable when digging in all
availability in easy and types of materials
medium digging materials
’ Becomes significantly less
reliable as digging becomes
harder

The EMS is generally acknowledged


to have less unexpected downtime
and to be more reliable.
Maintenance

Ease of Maintenance
Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ Components are located in
replaceable modules
’ Hoses and tubes for hydraulic
fluids complicate servicing
’ Cool-down period required prior
to servicing
EMS Attributes
’ Larger machine size and
modular component design
provide ample access space
’ Components conveniently Hydraulic shovels have hoses,
located to allow for rapid tubes, heat, fuel, oil discharge and
replacement safety issues that adversely affect
machine serviceability.
Maintenance

Fueling
Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ May consume up to 10,000
liters of diesel fuel per day
’ Daily fueling requires 20 to 30
minutes of machine downtime

EMS Attributes
’ Requires no fueling downtime
since all power is supplied
through the trail cable
The 30 minutes or more of daily
downtime for fueling an HMS
equates to 2-4% downtime per year
(over 7 days) in an HPLC mine.
Maintenance

Planned Component Replacement


Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ Components (pumps, motors,
valves, cylinders, diesel
engines) move at high speeds
and must be replaced regularly
to reduce the possibility of
catastrophic failure

EMS Attributes
’ Static nature of power and
control systems minimizes
component replacement
The EMS has few components
’ Slower gear case speeds and requiring scheduled replacement,
reliable electric motors reduce resulting in significant long-term
the need for component savings in downtime and
replacement component costs.
Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance Schedules


Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ Components have a low
tolerance for mining
environment contaminants
’ Components require frequent
maintenance to ensure
cleanliness and peak operation
EMS Attributes
’ Components are less sensitive
to the mining environment and
require minimal maintenance
Due to the sensitivity of hydraulic
’ Dust ingress by electric motors systems to contamination from the
and systems is managed by normal dust and dirt in the mining
house filters and pressurized environment, the HMS requires
air systems more frequent maintenance.
Maintenance

Reliability Indicators
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Hydraulic pressure and fluids
can indicate reliability
’ The complexity and number of
components result in a certain
percentage that will fail without
warning
EMS Attributes
’ Major components can be
precisely monitored using
predictive diagnostics
’ Technology includes vibration The use of predictive diagnostics
analysis, ultrasonic detection, and fewer moving parts provide the
infrared thermography, and electric mining shovel with a clear
electrical measurements advantage in reliability indicators.
Environmental Impact

Cleanliness
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Large quantities of fluids
present an ongoing cleanliness
challenge
’ Maintenance and operations
personnel must continuously
watch for slippery surfaces
EMS Attributes
’ Low volume of fluids and
containment of gear oils help
maintain a high level of
cleanliness Electric mining shovels provide
’ Machinery house is pressurized a higher level of cleanliness and
with filtered air to ensure a reduced potential for
clean working environment contamination.
Environmental Impact

Fluid Disposal
Priority: High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Gear case oil in transmissions ’ Gear cases contain oil
must be replaced requiring periodic change
’ Uses engine oil, coolant and
hydraulic fluid, which must be
replaced frequently

An HMS typically requires the


disposal of more than 7,500 liters
of oil each year, adding significant
operating expense.
Environmental Impact

Greenhouse Gas Emissions


Priority: Very High
HMS Attributes
’ Diesel engines produce high
carbon dioxide emissions
Greenhouse Gas Emission Comparison
’ Some manufacturers offer
Equipment CO2 Released/Yr.
electric powered machines
HMS (diesel) 50 yd3 (38.2m3) 13,230 US tons
EMS 50 yd3 (38.2m3) 7,540 US tons

EMS Attributes
’ Consumes less energy, and
introduces considerably less
carbon dioxide into the
environment Electric mining shovels generate
significantly lower levels of
undesirable emissions.
Environmental Impact

Spillage
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Has thousands of liters of fuel
and hydraulic oil susceptible to
HMS Fluid Reservoir Capacity
spillage (typical)
’ High pressure tubes and hoses Hydraulic Fluid 6,500 - 13,000 liter
are susceptible to failure Diesel Fuel 9,500 - 16,000 liter
Coolant 500 - 900 liter
Engine Oil 520-760 liter
EMS Attributes
’ Uses sealed gear cases that
offer little danger of spillage
Large quantities of fluids, some
at high pressure, make hydraulic
shovels a high risk in
environmentally sensitive areas.
Commercial Considerations

Capital Cost
Priority: High
HMS Attributes 3rd HMS $7,000,000
’ Largest size machines may HMS

U.S. Dollars (in millions)


cost US$7,000,000 or more 2nd HMS $7,000,000

’ Machine life approximately Upgrades $2,000,000

7-9 years EMS $9,000,000


EMS
HMS $7,000,000

EMS Attributes
’ Largest size machines may Years

cost US$9,000,000 or more


’ Higher price attributed to the While the initial cost of an EMS is
much greater use of steel higher than an HMS, the long-term
and electronic technology capital investment for an HMS is
’ Machine life over 20 years higher, due to replacement
intervals.
Commercial Considerations

Cost Per Unit Loaded


Priority: Very High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Has a lower capital cost ’ Higher productivity and
’ Provides flexibility that may reliability
help reduce the cost per ton ’ Longer life

Considering digging and loading


attributes and long-term reliability,
the EMS is the lowest cost per unit
alternative for most HPLC mining
situations.
Commercial Considerations

Cost Per Unit Loaded (cont)

Courtesy of the SME publication Mining Economics Strategy by Ian C. Runge


Commercial Considerations

Fuel Cost
Priority: Very High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Future cost of diesel fuel is ’ With a variety of methods
uncertain for electricity generation,
’ A 35m3 capacity HMS running power prices should remain
in Australia has an average competitive
fuel cost 45% greater than a ’ Electric power is typically
larger 56m3 capacity EMS cheaper in unit cost than
diesel fuel

The fuel cost for an electric mining


shovel is typically lower and more
stable.
Commercial Considerations

Insurance Liability
Priority: High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Typically has several ’ Has few, if any, combustible
thousand liters of combustible liquids onboard, making the
liquids onboard risk of fire negligible
’ Under high heat or open ’ Fire insurance rates are
flame conditions, liquids can significantly lower
ignite and cause safety issues
or loss of the machine

There is a higher risk of fire on


the HMS, pushing insurance rates
to three times that of the EMS in
some areas.
Commercial Considerations

Machine Life
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Typically approaches the end of
its useful service life after
approximately seven years
(50,000 hours) of operation in
HPLC mines

EMS Attributes
’ Renowned for its extremely
long life and typically operates
productively for 20 years or
more logging 100,000 plus The EMS has an overwhelming
hours advantage when it comes to
machine life, continuing to set
records for longevity.
Commercial Considerations

Manufacturers
Priority: Low

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ There are a number of HMS ’ There are only two electric
manufacturers mining shovel manufacturers
’ Some have global distribution ’ Both have global support
and service networks organizations

There is no clear advantage for


the HMS or EMS in the number of
manufacturers providing
equipment.
Commercial Considerations

Project Life
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Considered appropriate for
projects with lives of up to 7 or
8 years
’ Easier to transport to a new
project due to its smaller
physical size and lighter weight
EMS Attributes
’ Considered appropriate for
projects with a life as short as
8 to 10 years The EMS is the first choice for
’ Retains its value, resulting in long-term projects greater than
many good used machines 7 or 8 years, and the used electric
that can be applied to projects shovel market is a viable
of less than 8 years alternative for shorter projects.
Commercial Considerations

Project Risk
Priority: High

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Small size used for aggregate ’ Offers a low level of project
loading and quarrying has risk due to its track record
proven to be a solid performer over the past 50 years and
’ Larger machines for HPLC proven technology
mining operations require a ’ Provides greater confidence
much higher level of of achieving planned
technology and complexity, production and cost targets
creating a significant risk
factor
Due to its simplicity and proven
technology, the EMS provides a
higher chance of success and
lower risk of failure for HPLC
mining projects.
Commercial Considerations

Relocation
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Smaller class can be
transported with minimal
disassembly
’ As the size increases, some
expanded component
breakdown is required
EMS Attributes
’ Typically requires disassembly
prior to relocation
’ Some electric shovels have
been relocated intact up to A hydraulic mining shovel is easier
100km using a heavy-duty and less costly to relocate.
wheel or crawler loader
Commercial Considerations

Resale Value
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Lower price makes it somewhat
attractive in the used equipment
market
’ Shorter life makes it impractical
for many projects

EMS Attributes
’ Robust design, high reliability,
high availability and
upgradability provide many
opportunities in the used A used electric mining shovel
equipment market provides the best value for an
HPLC mining operation.
’ Long life provides excellent
ROI on used EMS
Commercial Considerations

Support Infrastructure
Priority: Low

HMS Attributes EMS Attributes


’ Requires a fuel truck and ’ May require extra dozer
service truck time to assist in floor clean-
’ May require a lighting plant up
for night work ’ Requires service vehicles to
transport, pick up and
relocate trail cable

Both HMS and EMS require a


certain level of support
infrastructure that would typically
be available at HPLC mines.
Commercial Considerations

Technology Knowledge
Priority: High
HMS Attributes
’ Smaller machines have access
to labor pools with appropriate
skills (used for infrastructure
projects, such as buildings and
roads throughout the world)

EMS Attributes
’ Machines have been working
in remote regions supported by
individuals with limited
technical skills for many years There is no clear advantage with
’ Manufacturers provide either the HMS or EMS, as
customer technical training on specialized skills are required to
maintenance and repair operate and maintain both.
Key Selection Variables

’Anticipated Life of the Mine


’Capital Availability
’Mine Infrastructure
’Electrical Reticulation
’Blasting Requirements
’Mobility Requirements
’Truck Availability
’Equipment Relocation Requirements
HMS Key Advantages

’ Smaller size yields a mobility


advantage
’ Minimal assembly time
’ Has greater control of material
discharge
’ Can dig layer by layer and
remove large rocks from the
digging face
’ Less capital expenditure
required
EMS Key Advantages

’ Provides maximum fill factors in


all material, and has a longer
reach
’ Matches well with most haul
truck sizes and has excellent
truck spotting tolerance
’ Provides higher availability,
greater capacity, and less
downtime
’ Easier to maintain
’ Generates lower emission levels
’ Has a lower cost per unit loaded
Conclusion

’ Selecting excavation equipment is a complex process


’ Hydraulic and electric shovels each have inherent key
advantages for some excavating situations
’ All selection factors should be considered in the context of
an HPLC mining environment
© 2003 Joy Global Corporation