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Données récentes sur les premiers peuplements en Europe



Résumé : Le plus ancien peuplement de la vallée de l’Oder Ice Marginal Valley, alternately, as the Odra Ice Marginal
(S.-O. de la Pologne) Valley (Szczepankiewicz 1972; Badura et al. 2000, p. 6). Its
mots-clés: chronologie, paléoécologie et une approche upper reaches lie within the Basin of Racibórz.
nouvelle de la technologie Origins of the Odra Valley are only partly understood. The
valley is thought to have developed during the early
La vallée de l’Oder constitue l’axe de la Plaine Silésienne Pleistocene in an area formerly occupied by the Miocene-
traversant des terrains plats dans la direction du S.-E. vers le Pliocene reservoir (Szczepankiewicz 1972, p. 236). The river
N.-W.. Elle appartient au système des vallées de l’Europe valley system ultimately formed only after the withdrawal of
centrale considérées comme le canal de diffusion du sud du the ice sheet of the Odra glaciation (Saale II, Drenthe).
peuplement paléolithique. Les plus anciens vestiges de Presumably, during the succeeding Warta glaciation the Ice
l’exploitation de la vallée de l’Oder datent de MIS 8 – 7 et Marginal Valley of Wrocław was moulded by waters
taxinomiquement s’associent aux industries d’éclats du draining from the ice sheet stationary on the Trzebnica Hills.
Paléolithique inférieur (Wrocław, rue Skarbowców). On However, the origin of the Ice Marginal Valley of Wrocław
attribue des ensembles ou des découvertes isolées du and the Trzebnica Hills as well as the extent of the boulder
Paléolithique moyen au MIS 7 et MIS 6 (Pologne: clays of the Warta glaciation continues to be discussed
Bieńkowice A, Owsiszcze, Racibórz Studzienna 2, Racibórz- (Burdukiewicz 2001, 2003; Badura, Przybylski 2002 –
Ocice-niveau inférieur, Wrocław, rue Hallera, site 1-niveau quoting later literature). In the Upper Pleistocene, more
inférieur; République tchèque: Bohuslavice, Polanka sur exactly, during the Upper Pleniglacial of the last glaciation (2
l’Oder). Une phase plus récente du Paléolithique moyen est OIS), as a result of the damming of the northbound outflow
représentée entre autres par des ensembles de Wrocław: rue of water by the ice sheet of Leszno stage the floor of the Odra
Hallera, site 1-niveau supérieur, Oporów, site A2-niveaux Valley and is tributaries was substantially raised. This
inférieur et supérieur, et aussi par des gisements moins riches process resulted in a more gentle relief in the valley.
localisés dans la partie supérieure de la vallée de l’Oder Until recently the study of archaeological sites found inside
(Kornice 11, Racibórz-Ocice-niveau supérieur, etc…). La the Odra Valley and its edges attached much importance to
datation des découvertes est basée sur les résultats des local systems of terraces, using them as a key in determining
expertises chronométriques réalisées par les méthodes EPR, the age of the oldest traces of human occupation (Lindner
TL et OSL et aussi sur la corrélation stratigraphique entre 1939, 1941; Kozłowski 1964, 1965; Wiśniewski 1999 et al).
autres avec les dépôts de loess dominants de ce région qui According to more recent findings it is possible to distinguish
portent les traces de la pédogenèse et avec les argiles à in the valley – next to Holocene terraces - one or two terraces
blocaux des glaciations scandinaves. of the Weichselian glaciation and upper terraces of the
Les vestiges découverts représentent les diverses Middle Polish glaciation. However, the age of the oldest
manifestations de l’activité humaine: 1. ateliers sur des terraces, both in the region of Wrocław and Racibórz,
gisements du silex; 2. sites d’habitat du caractère temporaire continues to be disputed.
localisés sur des éléments du relief bien exposés; 3. sites
associés aux pratiques cynégétiques réalisés au fond des Middle Pleistocene sites
vallées (terrasses basses avec des bassins lacustres).
Paléoécologiquement les trouvailles se rapportent à Current research shows that the Silesian Lowland was first
l’exploitation par l’homme du paysage ouvert avec la faune occupied by humans as early as around 0.5–0.4 million years
steppique de toundra. A l’état actuel des connaissances, on BP (Burdukiewicz 1993, 1994, 2001) but the oldest artefacts
ignore l’existence des sites “véritables” situés dans le recorded in the Odra Valley region have a slightly later
contexte de la faune et de la flore “chaudes” (La Grande dating. The finds in question, recovered from a site in
Période Interglaciaire, Eemien). southern Wrocław, at Skarbowców street, were dated on
the grounds of stratigraphy to the onset of the complex of
Middle Polish glaciations1. This period is correlated with 9
Opening remarks OIS (Wiśniewski et al 1998), but ultimately it may not be
ruled out that the age of the artefacts is slightly earlier (Fig.
The present article is concerned with traces of settlement 3). The artefacts occurred in two neighbouring layers of
from the Lower and the Middle Palaeolithic in the region of fluvial origin: layer of fine sand and gravel, and layer
the Odra Valley dated to the Middle and the Upper composed of sandy silt and fine sand. The layers containing
Pleistocene. The upper and the middle sections of the valley artefacts as well as an overlying layer of sandy silt were
(Fig. 1) which register the earliest traces of human presence buried under a boulder clay deposit of the Drenthe glaciation
cut across the Silesian Lowland (a fragment of the Central (Fig. 2).
European Lowland), which is considered as a form of basin Artefacts recovered at Skarbowców evidently had become
type. From a more detailed physiographic standpoint the dislocated as a result of fluvial processes. The small
middle section of the valley has been defined as the Wrocław assortment of objects manufactured from erratic flint includes
Andrzej Wiśniewski

three flake cores, a chunk with industrial scars, 24 flakes and pavement, has been dated on the basis of its stratigraphy and
two tools – a side scraper and a notched tool (Fig. 4: 1-2). the EPR chronometry3 to the Warthe glacial (Fig. 2-3).
The area in the vicinity of the flints produced heavily The collection of flints from Hallera street site 1 includes 687
fragmented bone material from undetermined vertebrates and artefacts: 43 cores, 599 flakes and blades, 22 chunks and 23
fragments of fish teeth, among them pike, Esox lucius. tools. The latter are represented by side scrapers, notched
According to geologists the sediments from which the finds tools and denticulated tools, retouched flakes and blades and
may have been dislodged originated from the zone of the a small number of knives and choppers (Fig. 4: 5-6; 5). The
prodelta which fed in the east into a fairly shallow lake majority were produced from Baltic erratic flint. The site also
(Wiśniewski et al 1998, p. 19); as such the remains ought to furnished a number of pebbles, used as hammer stones, and a
be linked with the penetration of the river terrace and the stone slab. The assemblage is similar to Mousterian
shore zone of the lake. inventories. The lithic material was accompanied by heavily
Other traces of human presence in the Odra Valley have been fragmented bone remains of game animals. The following
dated to the younger stages of the complex of Middle Polish species were identified: Equus sp., Coelodonta antiquitatis,
glaciations. Finds recovered at one of the more important Bison priscus, and Cervidae indet. – fauna of an open steppe
sites, Racibórz-Studzienna 2, Śląsk Province, until the or tundra environment. A large concentration of bones
1980s were considered as the oldest trace of human presence outside the valley suggests that some of them may be related
on the area of Poland. It is worth noting that the site, first to hunting practices.
recorded in the 1930s, is situated in the marginal zone of the Two other sites, dated to the close of the middle Pleistocene,
terrace of the upper Odra Valley in a disused sand quarry. which furnished only a small number of finds are situated in
The artefacts occurred in the bottom of a sandy gravelly layer the upper segment of the Odra Valley (Bieńkowice A,
containing an admixture of sandy silt of fluvial origin (Fig. Racibórz Ocice - lower layer; Czeppe et al 1963;
2). The sandy silt riders were found to contain pine charcoal, Kozłowski 1965; cf. e.g. Jersak 1991, p. 36; Jersak et al
Pinus sp. (Kozłowski, Kozłowski 1977, p. 358). After 1992, p. 74, Fig. 2).
reinterpretation of stratigraphic determinations (Lindner
1939; Kozłowski 1964, 1965) the flint finds are now thought Upper Pleistocene sites
to date to the Intrasaale (in Poland, the Lublin) interglacial or
the onset of the Warthe glaciation (Fig. 3; Szczepankiewicz A unique fragment of an assemblage associated with the
1974, p. 78; Lewandowski 1988; Lewandowski, Wieland Weichselian glaciation was discovered in the SW part of the
1994). A similar age (220 kyr) was obtained dating the layer site at Hallera street in Wrocław. Artefacts rested on the
using the TL method (Kaczanowski, Kozłowski 1998, p. 64). surface of layer 11 (containing finds dated to the period of
All the evidence at hand suggests that the flints had been Middle Polish glaciations) and at the bottom of layer 16
subjected to substantial dislocation as part of the debris composed of sandy silt overlying a pavement (Fig. 2). The
carried by the river. Originally they may have formed a bones were dated on the basis of the EPR chronometry to 50
number of disconnected concentrations having a different kyr (cf. notes 3; Fig. 3). The set of artefacts recovered in
chronology and location on a terrace which subsequently 2000–2002 includes 581 specimens: 30 cores, 469 flakes and
underwent lateral planation. The lithic assemblage from blades, 67 chunks and 15 tools. Except for a handful of pieces
erratic flint recovered at Racibórz-Studzienna 2 includes six they were all fashioned from Baltic erratic flint. A small
fairly non-distinctive flake cores, 22 flakes (among them a number of hammer stones was also noted, fashioned from
number of isolated forms associated with exploitation of pebbles of coarse-grained crystalline rock. From the point of
Levallois cores) and six tools (including three side scrapers, a taxonomy the artefacts share a number of features with the
non-typical burin, retouched blade and a retouched flake; Fig. non Levallois Mousterian so-called Taubachien. Close by the
4: 3-4). The pieces have been identified with the Acheulian artefacts were discovered bones and teeth of game animals,
(Kozłowski, Kozłowski 1977, p. 54, 358). among them, Bison priscus, Mammuthus primigenius and
The largest number of finds was recovered at Hallera street Equus sp. A preliminary analysis of a pollen sample taken
site 1, Wrocław. Basing on geological data it may be said from the sandy silt (spoken communication from T. Kuszell)
that a small elevation had been occupied (a fragment of an revealed a species composition associated with plant
erosion “terrace”). The first stage of investigation at Hallera communities of open landscape, such as tundra or steppe.
street site 1, concluded in 1992, unfortunately covered only Further traces originate from the housing development
the edge of the elevation abutting on its north side to the Oporów in Wrocław (sites A1, A2 and B). The sites are
fossil valley. Lithic material (155 artefacts and over 1000 found at the edge of an upland and the fossil valley of the
chunks) and a small number of bones, resting on a secondary Ślęza river (left hand tributary of the Odra). Sites A1 and
deposit, were dispersed in several layers (Wiśniewski et al A2, having a well defined stratigraphy, lie a mere 170 m
1994). In later seasons (1995, 2000–2002) excavation was apart. Traces of human occupation in the two sites had been
extended to include the area of the plateau, situated to the undergone processes of fluvial and slope erosion. Material
south of the slope edge (Wiśniewski, Kufel 2002)2. A less representing the older horizon (site A1 and lower level of site
disturbed pattern of layers uncovered at this stage produced A2) was dated using the TL and EPR method to between 66
well defined remains of two episodes of Middle Palaeolithic and 41 thousand years; artefacts from the upper level of site
occupation. The artefacts rested in two neighbouring strata. A2 and site B – to ca. 35 thousand years (Fig. 2-3;
The older layer 11, representing the remains of a moraine Wiśniewski et al. 2003).

The oldest settlement in Odra valley (SW Poland)

Site A1 produced 51 stone artefacts: a single core, 43 flakes excavated area. The concentration produced the majority of
and their fragments and 7 tools (next to a side scraper (Fig. 4: refitted artefacts (fig. 5) which represent for the most part
7) and a tool fashioned on an exhausted core also several refittings of production sequences (as understood by: Cziesla
marginally retouched forms). The lower level of site A2 1990, p. 15). The presence in the concentration of a small
represents 101 flint finds: three cores, 90 flakes and isolated number of tools, most of which are marginally retouched
blades (including solitary forms associated with the forms, may be explained in two ways. They may represent
exploitation of Levallois cores) and eight tools representing the result of overlapping of two different practices (even in
forms with little diagnostic value (Fig. 4: 8). The upper level chronological terms), or, if they are considered as a
of site A2 contained 50 artefacts, among them, 43 flakes and homogenous element in relation to the debitage waste, they
isolated blades, a chunk and six tools (fairly uncharacteristic) may testify to the existence in the vicinity of other functional
– a situation similar to the finds recovered from the older zones associated with a more intensive utilisation of
level. Site B produced random finds in the form of a side retouched tools. Observations made so far show that a single
scraper. All the artefacts were produced from erratic flint. In lump of flint went into making a single core. It is possible to
the light of typological data it is difficult to classify the distinguish a level associated with “testing” reduction,
described set to any of the traditions of the closing phase of effected on small lumps of poor quality flint riddled with
the Middle Palaeolithic or of the so-called “transitional” fissures or intrusions. A more advanced level associated with
cultures. better quality and frequently larger lumps of flint. The cores
The artefacts were accompanied by remains of steppe-tundra in most cases were worked more intensively.
type fauna, including Mammuthus primigenius, Coelodonta A fine example of a structure associated with a variety of
antiquitatis, Equus sp., Rangifer tarandus, and fish, including activities is provided by material recovered from layer 16
Esox lucius. In addition the lower level of site A2 produced Hallera street site 1. Similarly as in the case of artefacts of the
juniper charcoal Juniperus L. It was established that during lower level the raw material used was erratic flint, both its
both phases of occupation some 200 m to the south of site A2 lumps and fragments of split blocks. On the basis of refittings
there were lake reservoirs lacking drainage, with vegetation – despite the limited number of artefacts – it is possible to
including species such as: Nuphar, Nymphaea, Sphagnum, define the main lines in tool production. In one the tools were
Sellaginella selaginoides and Pediastrum. The mineral- produced on flakes obtained using methods which apparently
organic sediments of the reservoirs produced the remains of involved no preparatory treatment using a hard hammer
game animal species (excepting the reindeer) already noted stone. The obtained debitage was small in size and showed no
as co-occurring with the artefacts, and fish remains. Pollen evidence of any effort at standardisation. The other direction
grains and macroscopic remains of plants identified within of flintworking was associated with production of tools from
the lake sediments indicate a slightly milder climate during chunks and nodules using the method of shaping with a
the older phase of occupation. Palaeobotanic data suggests hammer stone. These forms, visibly larger in size, included
the occurrence of zones typical for this type of ecumene, choppers, a side scraper or a fragment of a point, and a
namely, a humid littoral and sub littoral zone, a zone of dry unifacial knife.
terraces registering the presence of artefact concentrations, Evidence associated with hunting practices was recovered in
and a third of elevated areas separating the valleys. Like the the area of the housing development Oporów in Wrocław.
evidence from Zwoleń near Radom, Central Poland (Schild et The best preserved remains recorded at the so-called lower
al 1988, 2000), the finds from Oporów represent an example, level of site A2 indicate the functioning on the river valley
unique in Poland, of human penetration of lower valley levels floor, on the surface of sandy terraces, of make-shift flint
during the Middle Palaeolithic. knapping workshops. Most probably the greater part of the
Upper Pleistocene in the upper reaches of the Odra Valley is entire production cycle took place on the valley floor. The
represented by very modest traces of human occupation, state of preservation of the finds and, particularly, lack of the
discovered at the site Racibórz-Ocice 1. A number of possibility of applying traseology, makes it hard to determine
artefacts were recovered from the top of the lowermost loess whether the aim of production were blanks to be taken along,
stratum (Czeppe et al 1963, p. 10; Kozłowski 1964, p. 82). In or a series of debitage for use on the spot without special
the light of the most recent analysis the loess may be assigned subsequent working. Most of the artefacts have an occasional
to a period synchronized with 3 OIS (Jersak et al 1992, p. character, including the tools, all of them – barring two
150) or 4 OIS (Jary 1996, p. 57). specimens surviving in fragments – retain traces of
perfunctory retouch.

Functional differentiation and technology Conclusions

The category of workshop includes the remains recovered The object of the present article, in which a review is given of
from layer 11 in SW part of the site at Hallera street in contemporary investigation of sites situated in the Odra
Wrocław. Analysis of the overall structure of the assemblage Valley, is to demonstrate that like other valleys of larger
indicates that in the part of the site investigated so far the North Central European rivers the area was subject to
main concern of the knappers was producing flakes, only penetration by pre-modern man. Human occupation during
rarely blades. Important insight regarding the working the Lower and the Middle Palaeolithic, was in its nature
surface of the flint workshop is provided by the traces of a anything but “transitory”, as was previously maintained.
flint knapping concentration discovered in the central part the Diverse forms of adaptation are reflected in evidence,

Andrzej Wiśniewski

recorded in practically all areas of the valley system, over the centripetal methods. It cannot be excluded that we have here
distance of at least 150 km, downstream from the Moravian a case of conscious realisation of a simplified paradigm, such
Gate. At the same time, it remains a puzzle why the as e.g. in zones with a definite shortage of easily fissured
archaeological record consists almost exclusively of sites rock. This issue requires further research assisted by
associated with penetration of the valley by pre-modern man experimentation.
during periods of apparently colder climate when the
landscape was characterised by colder biomes. The Notes
perplexing absence of remains dating from climatic optima of
interglacial complexes cannot be explained away by any 1. The first dating of finegrained sediments containing
special circumstances, for instance, of ecological nature. One artefacts made with the help of TL method produced an age
explanation could be that traces of human presence within the of more than 200 kyr (information from A. Bluszcz, Institute
valleys were obliterated as a result of intensive processes of of Physics, Silesian Technical Institute, Gliwice, Poland).
erosion, registered repeatedly during the Middle Pleistocene 2. Investigation of the earliest traces of occupation in the
and the transition to the Upper Pleistocene. Odra Valley was made possible thanks to implementation in
Another problem, recently come to light, is posed by certain 2000–2003 of two research projects: 1. Settlement and
aspects of the technology of working erratic flint. Some of Manners of Exploitation of the Natural Environment in the
the data furnished by the analysis of the better preserved Silesian Lowland by Humans at the End of the Middle
finds registered in the region of Wrocław indicates that the Pleistocene (1 H01H 006 19), 2. The Oldest Settlement in the
outlook of the of Middle Palaeolithic flint working may have Wrocław Old-river Valley and Its Edge. An Attempt at
been determined in some cases by the quality of the raw Periodisation (2 H01H 023 23), financed by the Committee
material. This is true for instance, of the lower level of the of Scientific Research of the Polish Republic.
site at Hallera street in Wrocław, where next to scant but 3. The EPR dating was carried out by M. Wencka (Institute
unmistakable cases of using Levallois methods may be seen of Physics, University of name A.Mickiewicz in Poznań).
an observable tendency towards a more frequent selection of

Andrzej Wisniewski
Wroclaw University
Institute of Archaeology, Ul. Szewska 48, 50 139 Wroclaw, Pologne
Mail : andrzej.wisniewski@archeo.uni.wro.pl

The oldest settlement in Odra valley (SW Poland)

Figure 1. Map of Europe marking the location of the middle and upper section of the Odra Valley (square)

Andrzej Wiśniewski

Figure 2. Schematic correlation of sections of sites discussed in the text. Key: 1 – modern soils and embankments ; 2 – sands
and gravels; 3 – moraine pavements; 4 – sandy silt; 5 – silt; 6 – loess; 7 – boulder clays; 8 – clays; 9 – sands; 10 – position of
artefacts; H - Holocene; V – Weichselian glacial; E – Eem; Wrt – Warthe glacial ; L – Lublin interglacial; Odr – Odra
[Drenthe] glacial; Sn – San [Elsterian] glacial; P/M – Pliocene/Miocene

The oldest settlement in Odra valley (SW Poland)

Figure 3. Middle Palaeolithic sites in Odra valley (SW Poland) and chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Middle and Upper
Pleistocene and correlation with arctic Vostok ice core

Andrzej Wiśniewski

Figure 4. Selected flint artefacts from site 1 at Skarbowców Street in Wrocław (1, 2), site 2 in Racibórz Studzienna (3, 4), site
1 at Hallera Street in Wrocław, lower level (5, 6), site A1 and A2 (lower level) in Wrocław Oporów (7, 8): 1-core; 2,3, 6, 7 –
side scrapers; 5 – knife; 4 – retouched flake; 8 fragment of tool

The oldest settlement in Odra valley (SW Poland)

Figure 5. Wrocław, Hallera street, site 1. Examples of blocks from the lower level in various stages of refitting: 1 –
bidirectional core (atypical); 2 – radial core; 3 - Levallois core.

Données récentes sur les premiers peuplements en Europe

– (1965), Węzłowe problemy geochronologii paleolitu w

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