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URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

CHAPTER - 7
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN

7.1 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Environmental monitoring programme is a vital process of any management plan of the


development project. This helps in signaling the potential problems that resulting from
the proposed project and will allow for prompt implementation of effective corrective
measures. The environmental monitoring will be required for the construction and
operational phases. The main objectives of environmental monitoring area:
- to assess the changes in environmental conditions,
- to monitor the effective implementation of mitigation measures,
- Warn significant deteriorations in environmental quality for further prevention action.

In order to meet the above objectives the following parameters need to be monitored:
- Rehabilitation and Resettlement Programme,
- Afforestation,
- Water Quality and Public Health,
- Air and Noise quality,
- Soil Conservation, and
- Sanitation and Waste Disposal

7.1.1 Rehabilitation and Resettlement Programme


The rehabilitation and Resettlement Programme needs to be monitored during the
project construction phase. The entire programme is supposed to be completed before
operation phase. Sufficient care needs to be taken to ensure that money reaches the
project-affected people. The quality of life of rehabilitated people should not fall below
their present status.

7.1.2 Afforestation and Ecology


Afforestation should commence with the start of project cycle. The Forest Department of
Delhi Administration should implement the afforestation programmes. The MRTS should
transfer the cost of afforestation to Delhi Administration. The trees need to be planted on
the present routes so that the construction is over.

The river ecology specially from fisheries angles need to be monitored during
construction phase. The monitoring should include qualitative and quantitative
assessment of flora and fauna of river eco-system. The recommended parameters are:
Phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic life and fish composition. These can be monitored
every year for three years. A provision of Rs.3 lakhs will be appropriate.

7.1.3 Water Quality


Water quality and public health parameters shall be monitored for one year before and
for at least three years after the completion of the project. Monitoring should be carried
out at least four times a year to cover seasonal variations by any recognised private or
Government agency. Water quality shall be analysed by applying the standard
technique. The parameters for monitoring would be:

CHAPTER – 7 7.1 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME


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URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

♦ pH
♦ Biochemical Oxygen Demand,
♦ Total Coliform Count,
♦ Total Dissolved Solids,
♦ Total Hardness,
♦ Chlorides,
♦ Sulphates,
♦ Nitrates,
♦ Fluorides,
♦ Total Nitrogen
♦ Total Phosphates and
♦ Residual Chlorine

The monitoring points could be river, ground and surface waters. The ground water
sampling could be in Metro corridor. Surface and ground water need to be monitored
near soil disposal sites depot area. River water quality needs to be monitored
seasonally. The cost of water sampling is expected as Rs.2500/sample x4 times x 3
years x 6 locations, which is equal to Rs.1.80 lakhs.

A detailed epimidiological study related to water borne diseases should be carried out
and the data should be compiled for every year in the project area. This shall be
monitored for labour camps if any. The cost will be about Rs.1.0 lakhs per year with 10%
increase for four years. The total cost will be Rs.4.64 lakhs.

7.1.4 Air Quality and Noise

The air quality is regularly monitored by Central Pollution Control Board at 10 places in
Delhi. In addition to these, air quality should also be monitored near soil disposal sites,
depot site and at places namely Green Park, Central Secretariat, Yamuna Depot etc.
The parameters recommended for monitoring during construction are:
- Particulate Matter,
- Sulphur di-oxide,
- Nitrogen Oxides,
- Carbon monoxides, and
- Noise levels, dB(A),
Every year air quality need to be monitored for four stations twice a week, four weeks
and four times in a season (4x2x4x4 = 64 days). The cost of one 8 hourly air/noise
sampling is Rs.64x3000x3 = Rs.5.76 lakhs. Noise should be monitored during operation
phase.

7.1.5 Soil Conservation


Soil erosion rates, slope stability of land faces, water sediments load, effectiveness of
soil conservation measures, changes in soil texture and structure should be monitored at
frequent intervals. This study could be done by the Environmental Management cell,
twice a year. This should be studied for the entire length of alignment.

7.2 ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENT DIVISION

It is strongly recommended that MRTS Project Authority establishes an Environment


Division at the initial stage of the project itself. The division shall be staffed by an
Environmental Engineer/Officer, a Technical Assistant (environment background) and

CHAPTER – 7 7.2 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME


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two other assistants (miscellaneous works). The task of the division would be to
supervise and coordinate studies, monitoring and implementation of environmental
mitigation measures, and it shall report directly to the General Manager. Progress of the
division shall be reviewed by an Environmental Adviser every year. The Environmental
Adviser would be an experienced Environmentalist familiar with environmental
management in similar projects. Costs for the first ten years including 10% annual price
increase) have been given below:
Costs per year:
- Environmental engineer/officer Rs.2,40,000
- Technical assistant Rs. 60,000
- Indemnities, travel, etc. Rs. 50,000
Total Rs. 3,50,000
Cost for 4 years
- (10% annual price increase) . Rs. 15,23,000
Overheads for Establishments
- @ 65% of salary cost Rs. 9,14,000
Total Rs. 24,37,000

7.3 SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME

The environmental monitoring programs are presented in Table 7.1 and of this chapter.
This section briefly highlights the summary of these programs along with parameter and
frequency.
TABLE 7.1
SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME

S. ITEM PARAMETERS FREQUENCY LOCATION


NO.
DURING PROJECT CONSTRUCTION PHASE
1. Effluent from pH, BOD, COD, TSS, TDS Once every Before and after treatment
septic tank month from each septic tank.
2. Water related Identification of water related Three times a Labour camps and
diseases diseases, adequacy of local vector year colonies.
control and curative measure etc.
3 Noise Equivalent noise level Once in three At major construction sites
months
4 Air quality SPM, RPM, SO2, and NOx Once every At major construction sites
season (total 4 stations)
DURING PROJECT OPERATION PHASE
5 Water pH, temperature, EC, Turbidity, Thrice a year Ground/ surface source
Total Dissolved Solids, Calcium,
Magnesium, Total Hardness,
Chlorides, Sulphates, Nitrates, DO,
COD, BOD, Iron, Zinc, Manganese
6 Treated pH, BOD, COD, TSS, TDS Once every Before and after treatment
Effluent from week from STP/ETP
STP/ETP
7 Erosion and Soil erosion rates, stability of bank Twice a year
siltation embankment, etc.
8 Ecology Status of Afforestation programmes Once in 2 Depot Site/ Rail Corridor
of green belt development years
9 Aquatic Phytoplanktons, zooplanktons, Once a year 1 km upstream
ecology benthic life, fish composition 1 and 3 km downstream of
discharge. Point from depot

CHAPTER – 7 7.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME