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EWF/IIW Diploma

Design and Construction (Foundation)


DAC1

Training and Examination Services


Granta Park, Great Abington
Cambridge CB21 6AL
United Kingdom
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EWF/IIW Diploma -
Design and Construction (Foundation)

Contents
Section Subject

Pre training briefing

1 Designing
1.1 Aims
1.2 Course objectives
2 Welded Joint Design
2.1 Welds
2.2 Types of joint
2.3 Fillet welds
2.4 Butt welds
2.5 Dilution
2.6 Welding symbols
2.7 Welding positions
2.8 Weld joint preparations
2.9 Designing welded joints
2.10 Welding standards
2.11 Summary
Revision questions
3 Forces and Strength of Materials
3.1 Forces
3.2 Materials under load
3.3 Stress-strain curves
3.4 Tensile tests
3.5 Hardness tests
3.6 Summary
Revision questions
4 Fatigue
4.1 Characterisation of fatigue loading
4.2 S-N curve
4.3 Fatigue of welded joints
4.4 Residual stress
4.5 Fatigue improvement techniques
4.6 Summary
Revision questions

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5 Design of Pressure Equipment
5.1 Types of pressure vessels
5.2 Construction of pressure vessels
5.3 Internal pressure stresses
5.4 Calculation of stresses
5.5 Welding pressure vessels
5.6 Welded attachments
5.7 High and low temperature service
5.8 Standards and specifications
5.9 Summary
Revision questions
6 Stresses in Welds and Types of Forces
6.1 Making things simple
6.2 Different types of stresses in welds
6.3 Butt welds
6.4 Fillet welds
6.5 Different types of forces
6.6 Worked example
6.7 References
6.8 Summary
Revision questions
7 Different Types of Loading
7.1 Static strength
7.2 Effect of temperature on strength
7.3 Stress concentrations
7.4 Modes of failure
7.5 Reading fracture faces
7.6 Summary
Revision questions
8 Design Considerations for Aluminium
8.1 Advantages of aluminium compared to steel
8.2 Welding and joining aluminium
8.3 Disadvantages of aluminium
8.4 Aluminium alloys
8.5 HAZ softening
8.6 References and further reading
8.7 Summary
Revision questions
9 Static Loading
9.1 Structural details
9.2 Strength of beams
9.3 Types of loading
9.4 Node joints
9.5 Designing structures
9.6 Stress reinforced concrete
9.7 Summary
Revision questions

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10 Development of Residual Stress and Distortion
10.1 Factors affecting residual stresses and distortion
10.2 Typical material properties
10.3 Characteristics of materials which determine the amount of distortion and
residual stresses (relative values)
10.4 Correcting distortion
10.5 Questions on residual stress and distortion
10.6 Questions on stress-relieving weldments
11 Revision Session
11.1 Multiple choice questions
11.2 Short answer questions
11.3 Long question

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Contents Copyright © TWI Ltd
Section 1
Designing
1 Designing
An engineering structure is designed and built to withstand loads for a specified
period of time. These loads may arise from a wide range of sources and include
self-weight (such as buildings including the pyramids), external components (eg
cars traversing a bridge), internal pressure (eg pipelines and boilers),
environmental loads (due to wind, waves, ice, snow etc), reaction to an
acceleration (eg rotating components) and many other sources.

Engineering structures are built using materials such as steel, aluminium and
fibre reinforced composites specifically selected to meet the lifetime demands of
the structure. These materials are used to make components which are then
assembled and joined together usually by welding to form the structure itself.

1.1 Aim
The overall aim of the course is to provide guidance on how to design
engineering structures so that they operate safely to satisfy specified
performance targets.

The training is provided at three levels: European Welding Specialist, European


Welding Technologist and European Welding Engineer.

This is the first of these levels and is intended to cover the scope appropriate
for a European Welding Specialist. Two subsequent courses address the scope
of the higher level qualifications.

1.2 Course objectives


The European Welding Specialist course will enable attendees to:

 Recognise the sources of loads to be withstood by engineering structures.


 Recognise that these loads give rise to stresses in components of the
structure.
 Understand the fundamentals of strength of materials.
 Understand the principles of weld design.
 Recognise the different types of loading experienced by engineering
structures.
 Understand the principles of design for static loading.
 Understand the principles of design for fatigue loading.
 Recognise the special requirements of pressure vessels.
 Appreciate the principles of designing aluminium structures.

The course consists of sessions specifically intended to address these objectives


with a final revision session.

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Course Aim

 Provide guidance on how to design engineering


structures so that they operate safely to satisfy
specified performance requirements.

Design and Construction  Lecturers


Introduction: Designing  Geoff Booth.
 Philippa Moore.
(EWF/IIW Diploma)

 Schedule

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Definition Design

Why do we need to design structures?


Engineering structure:
Carries loads or contains pressure.

Activity:
List four examples of engineering
structures.

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Design Stonehenge (about 4500 years old)

Why do we need to design structures?

To ensure that they fulfil specific requirements:


 Withstand loads arising from function.
 Withstand loads arising from position.
 For a specified lifetime.

What are the design requirements for the


structures you identified?

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1-1
Giza Pyramids (about 4500 years old) Wind Tower

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Oil/Gas Pipeline Fixed Offshore Platform


Courtesy of BP © BP p.l.c.

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Floating Offshore Structure Ironbridge (1781)

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1-2
Boiler Explosion 1850 Sultana, Arkansas, 1865

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Sultana April 1865 Grover Shoe Factory 1905


Memphis Tennessee Brockton Mass

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Grover Shoe Factory 1905


Brockton Mass

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1-3
Tay Bridge Disaster 1879 Tay Bridge Disaster 1879

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Liberty Ship Failure Liberty Ship Failure

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Kurdistan Failure 1979 M V Kurdistan 1979

 Tanker carrying cargo


of heated oil (60°C).
 Heavy seas near an ice
field off Nova Scotia,
Canada.
 Hull fractured below
water line - oil
leakage.
 Eventually ship broke
in two.
 Stern section towed to
dry dock for
examination.
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1-4
M V Kurdistan 1979 M V Kurdistan Failure Investigation

 Fracture initiated in the port


side bilge keel.
 Butt weld not full-penetration
and lack of weld on
underside.
 Intrinsic defect.

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Origin of Failure in Kurdistan Tanker San Bruno Explosion

'Devastation in San Bruno' by Brocken Inaglory - Own work.


Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.

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Gas Pipeline Failure – California 2010 Engineering Structures

 Required to withstand loads or contain


pressure.

 Made from particular materials – this


course considers mainly steel structures but
comparisons are made with aluminium.

 Constructed in particular ways – this


course is concerned with welding.

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1-5
Course Objectives Course Objectives

 Recognise sources and effects of loads.  Recognise the special requirements of pressure
 Understand fundamentals of strength of vessels.
materials.  Appreciate the principles of designing
 Understand principles of weld design. aluminium structures.
 Recognise different types of loading.
 Understand principles of design for static
loading.
 Understand principles of design for fatigue
loading.

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1-6
Section 2
Welded Joint Design
2 Welded Joint Design
This course is principally concerned with structures fabricated by welding steel
plates together, examples include bridges, ships, offshore platforms, pressure
vessels and pipelines, although in some cases this may involve welding curved
plates together.

This session introduces typical joint geometries involved in joining plates


together and describes the types of weld used in these joint configurations with
typical features of butt and fillet welds described. For the structure to function
loads must be transferred from one plate to another and the features of welds
that enable them to transmit loads are described. Finally, some examples of
good and bad design practice are given.

2.1 Welds
A weld is a permanent union between materials caused by the application of
heat, pressure or both and if made between two faces approximately parallel is
known as a butt weld.

Figure 2.1 Butt weld.

A weld made between two faces that are approximately at right angles to each
other is known as a fillet weld.

Figure 2.2 Fillet weld.

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For simplicity these diagrams show an arc welding process that deposits filler
weld metal in a single weld pass. Typical features of a butt weld are shown in
Figure 2.3 and those of a fillet weld in Figure 2.4. The weld or weld metal refers
to all the material that has melted and re-solidified. The heat-affected zone
(HAZ) is material that has not melted but whose microstructure has been
changed as a result of the welding. The fusion line is the interface between the
weld metal and the HAZ. The root is the bottom of the weld or narrowest part
and the face is the top or widest part. At the corners of the weld cross section
where the weld metal joins the parent metal are the weld toes. These are at
each corner of both the weld face and weld root in a butt weld but only on the
weld face in a fillet weld.

a
Fusion line Weld metal Weld toe HAZ

Parent
metal

Figure 2.3 Typical features of a:

a Butt weld.
b Double-sided butt weld.

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Figure 2.4 Typical features of a fillet weld.

The application of heat naturally causes some changes to the microstructure


parent material, the HAZ shown in Figure 2.5 for a butt weld in steel with
similar HAZs developed in the parent material of fillet welds. Close to the fusion
line the temperature in the HAZ has been sufficient to cause microstructural
phase changes, which will result in recrystallisation and grain growth. Further
away from the fusion line the parent material has been heated to a lower
maximum temperature and the parent microstructure is tempered.

Solid-liquid boundary
Maximum Solid
temperature weld
metal Grain growth

Recrystallised
Partially transformed
Tempered zone

Unaffected base material

Figure 2.5 HAZs in a butt weld.

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The distance between weld toes is the weld width. When the distance is
between the toes at the weld cap it is the weld cap width, the distance between
the toes at the root is the weld root width. The height of the additional weld
metal in the weld cap is the excess weld metal which used to be called
reinforcement which wrongly suggests that increasing this dimension will
strengthen the weld. If the excess weld metal is too great it increases the stress
concentration at the weld toe and this extra weld metal is called the excess root
penetration.

Weld width
Excess
weld metal

Excess root
penetration

Figure 2.6 Definitions on a butt weld.

2.2 Types of joint


A joint can simply be described as a configuration of members and can be
described independently of how it is welded. Figures 2.7 and 2.8 show the most
common joint types - butt and T joint. Other typical joint types are shown in
Figures 2.9-2.11; lap, cruciform and corner joint. When designing a lap joint the
overlap between the two plates needs to be at least four times the plate
thickness (D = 4t), but not less than 25mm.

Figure 2.7 Butt joint.

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Figure 2.8 T joint.

Figure 2.9 Lap joints.

Figure 2.10 Cruciform Joint Figure 2.11 Corner joint.

An alternative to a conventional lap joint is to weld the joint using plug or slot
welding, shown in Figure 2.12 showing the typical lap joint can be drastically
altered. The hole for a slot weld should have a width at least three times the
plate thickness and not less than 25mm. In plate less than 10mm thickness, a
hole of equal width to the plate thickness can be welded as a plug weld.

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a b

Figure 2.12:

a Slot welded lap joint.

b Plug welded lap joint.

Corner joints can be fitted and welded in a number of ways. The unwelded
pieces can be assembled either with an open corner or closed together. The
weld can be on the external or internal corner or both in a double-sided weld.

Open Closed

External corner Internal corner Double-sided corner


Figure 2.13 Different types of corner joints, unwelded and welded.

2.3 Fillet welds


The throat and leg length of a fillet weld are shown in Figure 2.14. Throat size a
is generally used as the design parameter since this part of the weld bears the
stresses and can be related to leg length z by the following relationship: a ≈
0.7z and z ≈ 1.4a.

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Throat a

Leg

Leg z
Figure 2.14 Leg length z and throat size a in a fillet weld.

This is only valid for mitre fillet welds having similar leg lengths (Figure 2.15),
so is not valid for concave, convex or asymmetric welds. In concave fillet welds
the throat thickness will be much less than 0.7 times the length. The leg length
of a fillet weld is often approximately equal to the material thickness. The actual
throat size is the width between the fused weld root and the segment linking
the two weld toes, shown as the red line in Figure 2.16. Due to root penetration
the actual throat size of a fillet weld is often larger than its design size but
because of the unpredictability of the root penetration area, the design throat
size must always be taken as the stress parameters in design calculations.

Figure 2.15 Mitre fillet weld. Figure 2.16 Design throat of a fillet weld.

Convex fillet weld

Concave fillet weld

Mitre fillet weld

Figure 2.17 Fillet weld cross-sections.

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Actual
throat

Design throat

Design throat
= actual throat

Figure 2.18 Definition of design and actual throat in concave and convex fillet
welds.

The choice between mitre weld, concave and convex fillet weld needs to
account for the weld toe blend. A concave fillet weld gives a smooth blend
profile and a low stress concentration at the fillet weld toe. Convex fillet welds
can have a higher stress concentration at the weld toe. If the fluidity of the
weld pool is not controlled it is possible to obtain an asymmetrical fillet weld
where the weld pool has sagged into the joint preparation and there is also a
risk of undercut on the bottom weld toe (see Figure 2.19). Having a smooth toe
blend is important to give better fatigue performance for fillet welds.

Figure 2.19 Fillet weld toe blends.

2.4 Butt welds


The design throat t1 of a butt weld is the penetration depth below the parent
plate surface and no account is made of the excess weld metal. The design
throat is therefore less than the actual throat t2.

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Figure 2.20 Design throat t1 and the actual throat t2 for butt welds.

The weld toe blend is important for butt welds as well as fillet welds. Most codes
state that weld toes shall blend smoothly, leaving it open to individual
interpretation. The higher the toe blend angle the greater the amount of stress
concentration. The toe blend angle ideally should be between 20-30 degrees
(Figure 2.21).

6mm

Poor weld toe blend angle

3mm

Improved weld toe blend angle

Figure 2.21 Toe blend in butt welds.

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2.5 Dilution
When filler and parent material do not have the same composition the resulting
composition of the weld depends largely on the weld preparation before
welding. The degree of dilution results from the edge preparation and process
used; the percentage of dilution (D) is particularly important when welding
dissimilar materials and is expressed as the ratio between the weight of parent
material melted and the total weight of fused material (multiplied by 100 to be
expressed as a percentage), as shown:

Weight of parent material melted


D  100
Total weight of fused material

Low dilutions are obtained with fillet welds and with butt welds with multiple
runs. For a single pass better dilution is obtained with grooved welds, see
Figure 2.22.

Fillet welds Single V groove Square groove

Figure 2.22 Effect of weld preparation on dilution and weld metal composition
(for a single pass only).

2.6 Welding symbols


On engineering drawings a welded joint can be represented by different means.
A detailed representation shows every detail and dimension of the joint
preparation with carefully written, extensive notes. It provides all the details
required to produce a particular weld in a very clear manner but requires a
separate detailed sketch (time consuming and can overburden the drawing).
For a special weld preparation not covered in the relevant standards (eg narrow
groove welding); it is the only way to indicate the way components are to be
prepared for welding or brazing.

8-12

Figure 2.23 Detailed representation of U bevel angle.

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Symbolic representation using weld symbols can specify joining and inspection
information and the UK has traditionally used BS 499 Part 2 which has been
superseded by BS EN 22553. In many welding and fabrication organisations use
old drawings that reference out of date standards such as BS 499 Pt 2. BS EN
22553 is almost identical to the original ISO 2553 standard on which it was
based. In America AWS A2.4 is followed, while symbols for brazing are given in
EN 14324.

The advantages of symbolic representation are:


 Simple and quick to visualise on the drawing.
 Does not overburden the drawing.
 No need for additional views as all welding symbols can be placed on the
main assembly drawing.
 Gives all necessary indications regarding the specific joint to be obtained.

Symbolic representation can only be used for common joints and requires
training to understand the symbols. Symbolic representation of a welded joint
contains an arrow line, a reference line and an elementary symbol. The
elementary symbol can be complemented by a supplementary symbol. The
arrow line can be at any angle (except 180 degrees) and can point up or down.
The arrow head must touch the surfaces of the components to be joined and
the location of the weld. Any intended edge preparation or weldment is not
shown as an actual cross-sectional representation but as a line. The arrow also
points to the component to be prepared with single prepared components.

Figure 2.24 Symbolic representation of U bevel angle.

ISO 2553 and AWS A2.4 list all the main elementary symbols, some examples
are shown in Table 2.1. The symbols for arc welding are often shown as cross-
sectional representations of a joint design or completed weld. Simple, single
edge preparations are shown in Figure 2.25.

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Table 2.1 Elementary weld symbols.

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Figure 2.25 Welding symbols for the most common joint types shown on a
reference line.

These simple symbols can be interpreted as either the joint details alone or the
completed weld. For a finished weld it is normal for an appropriate weld shape
to be specified. There are a number of options and methods to specify an
appropriate weld shape or finish. Butt welded configurations would normally be
shown as a convex profile (Figure 2.26 a, d and f) or as a dressed-off weld as
shown in b and c. Fillet weld symbols are always shown as a mitre fillet weld
and a convex or concave profile can be superimposed over the original symbol's
mitre shape.

Key:
a = single V butt weld with convex profile.
b = double V butt weld flushed off both sides on weld
face.
c = single bevel butt weld flushed off both sides on weld
face.
d = double bevel butt convex (as welded).
e = concave fillet weld.
f = double-sided convex fillet weld.

Figure 2.26 Welding symbols showing the weld profile for the most common
joint types.

So the correct size of weld can be applied it is common to find numbers to the
left or right of the symbol. For fillet welds numbers to the left indicate the
design throat thickness, leg length or both (Figure 2.27).

a7 z 10

a7 z 10

Figure 2.27 Throat and leg length dimensions given on the weld symbol for a
fillet weld.

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For butt joints and welds an S with a number to the left of a symbol refers to
the depth of penetration. When there are no specific dimensional requirements
specified for butt welds on a drawing using weld symbols, it would normally be
assumed that the requirement is for a full penetration butt weld. Numbers to
the right of a symbol or symbols relate to the longitudinal dimension of welds,
eg for fillets the number of welds, weld length and weld spacing for non-
continuous welds.

Figure 2.28 Weld symbols showing the weld length dimensions to the right of
the weld joint symbols for an intermittent fillet weld.

Supplementary symbols can be used for special cases where additional


information is required (Figure 2.29). The weld all round symbols may be used
for a rectangular hollow section (RHS) welded to a plate, for example. The flag
symbol for weld in the field or on site can be added to any standard symbol. A
box attached to the tail of the arrow can contain or point to other information
such as whether NDT is required. This information is sometimes the welding
process type given as a three number reference from ISO 4063, for example
135 refers to MAG welding.

Figure 2.29 Examples of supplementary symbols.

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2.7 Welding positions
In weld procedure documents and engineering drawings the type and
orientation of welds are often given a two letter abbreviation which defines
them which can vary depending on the standard the welds are conforming to.
The abbreviations here are consistent with ISO 6947 and are summarised in
Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 Welding positions.

Welding position Figure/symbol Abbreviation

Flat PA

Horizontal PB

Horizontal vertical PC

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Welding position Figure/symbol Abbreviation

Vertical up,
PG/PF
vertical down

Overhead PE

Horizontal
PD
overhead

2.8 Weld joint preparations


The simplest weld joint preparation is a square edged butt joint, either closed or
open. A closed butt joint is used in thick plate for keyhole welding processes
such as laser or electron beam welding (EBW). A square edged open butt joint
is used for thinner plate up to 3mm thickness for arc welding in a single pass or
in thick plate for welding processes such as electroslag welding.

Square edge Square edge


closed butt open butt

Figure 2.30 Square edge butt joints.

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It is normal to use a bevel on the edges of the parent metal to be welded to
allow access to the root for the first welding pass which is filled using fill passes.
Single-sided preparations are normally made on thinner materials or when
access from both sides is restricted. Double-sided preparations are normally
made on thicker materials or when access from both sides is unrestricted.

Edge preparation design includes the bevel angle (or included angle if both
sides are bevelled) and also the square edges root face and root gap. In a joint
where both sides are bevelled the preparation is termed a V or vee preparation
(Figure 2.31). V preparations are usually used for plate of 3-20mm thickness.
An alternative is a U preparation (or J preparation if only one side has the edge
preparation) where the edge is machined into the shape of a U. This is used in
thicker plate, over 20mm thickness, where it uses less filler metal than a V
preparation joint. J or U edge preparations also require a bevel angle and root
face, the gap to be defined, a root radius and land to be specified (Figure 2.32).
Single-sided edge preparations are often used for thinner materials or when
there is no access to the root of the weld (pipelines). If there is access to both
sides of the material then a double-sided edge preparation is used, especially
for thicker materials. Single and double edge preparations are shown in Figure
2.33.

Included angle

Bevel angle

Root face

Gap

Figure 2.31 Single V bevel.

Included angle

Root radius
Bevel
angle

Root
face
Gap

Land
Figure 2.32 U bevel.

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Figure 2.33 Range of single and double-sided bevel, V, J and U preparations.

2.9 Designing welded joints


Weld joint design selection will also be influenced by practical issues such as the
welding process used and the access required to obtain root fusion. The bevel
angle must allow good access to the root and sufficient manipulation of the
electrode to ensure good sidewall fusion (Figure 2.34). If the included angle is
too large then heavy distortions can result and more filler metal is required. If
the included angle is too small there is a risk of lack of penetration or lack of
sidewall fusion. Typical bevel angles are 30-35 degrees in a V preparation (60-
70 degrees included angle). In a single bevel joint the bevel angle might be
increased to 45 degrees.

Figure 2.34 Bevel angle to allow electrode manipulation for sidewall fusion.

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The root gap and face are selected to ensure good root fusion (Figure 2.35).
This will depend on the welding process and heat input. If the root gap is too
wide or root face too narrow there is a risk of burn through. If the root gap is
too narrow or root face is too deep there is a risk of lack of root penetration. A
balance must be found and designed for; this difference in weld root size is
shown in Figure 2.36. High heat input processes require a larger root face but
less weld metal which reduces distortions and increases productivity. Typical
values for the root face are 1.5-2.5mm and the root gap 2-4mm.

Figure 2.35 The importance of selecting the correct root face and gap.

a b
Figure 2.36 Root size for welding processes with different heat inputs:

a Low heat input.

b High heat input.

If the components are to be joined by an arc welding process the selected


bevels need to be adequately machined to allow the welding tool to access the
root of the weld. This consideration would not apply for a procedure such as
EBW as shown in Figure 2.37. If using gas-shielded processes then the size of
the gas nozzle may limit the ability to use a J preparation for thick section
material as it would be difficult to ensure good root fusion if the welding head
could not access the bottom of the weld groove and a single bevel may be
needed instead (Figure 2.38).

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A b

Figure 2.37 Preparation differences between:

a Arc.

b Electron beam welding.

a b

Figure 2.38 Using gas-shielded arc welding:

a Difficulties of root access in a J preparation.

b Improved design using a bevel preparation.

Choosing between a J or U preparation and a bevel or V preparation is also


determined by the costs or producing the edge preparation. Machining a J or U
preparation can be slow and expensive. Using this joint design also results in
tighter tolerance which can be easier to set-up. A bevel or V preparation can be
flame or plasma cut fast and cheaply resulting in larger tolerances, meaning
that set-up can be more difficult.

Backing bar or strip is used to ensure consistent root fusion and avoid burn
through. Permanent backing bar (rather than one removed after welding), gives
a built-in crevice which can make the joints susceptible to corrosion (Figure
2.39). When using backing for aluminium welds any chemical cleaning reagents
must be removed before assembling the joint. A backing bar also gives a lower
fatigue life.

Figure 2.39 Using a backing bar for a butt weld.

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Separate from the design of the joint and weld access to weld locations and the
order in which welds are made are important. Figure 2.40 shows examples of
the limitations of access in designing welded joints and gives improved designs.
It is important to ensure that it is indeed possible to make welds as required by
the drawing.

Figure 2.40 Examples of improved weld designs where there is limited access.

2.10 Welding standards


AWS A2.4: ‘Standard symbols for welding, brazing and non-destructive
examination’. This provides the standardised welding symbols on drawings.

BS EN ISO 9692: Parts 1-4: ‘Welding and allied processes. Recommendations for
joint preparation’.

BS EN 14324: ‘Brazing. Guidance on the application of brazed joints’.


BS EN ISO 13920: ‘Welding. General tolerances for welded constructions.
Dimensions for lengths and angles, shape and position’. This gives accepted
tolerances for welds.

BS EN ISO 6947: ’Welds. Working positions. Definitions of angles of slope and


rotation’. This provides the definitions of weld positions and provides the
abbreviations used in the notes.

ISO 2553: ‘Welded, brazed and soldered joints - Symbolic representation on


drawings’.

2.11 Summary
You should now:
 Be able to label the parts of a butt and fillet weld and of a V and U edge
preparations.
 Recognise welding symbols and know what they mean.

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Welded Joint Design 2-21 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Revision questions
1 Draw and label the different features of a butt weld.

2 Draw and label the significant features of a single-sided V preparation butt joint.

3 Sketch the weld that would be fabricated from the weld symbols shown in this design
drawing:

DAC1-50615
Welded Joint Design 2-22 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Outline

 Weld features.
 Types of welded joints.
 Welding symbols.
 Weld positions.
Design and Construction  Weld bevels.
Welded Joint Design  Designing welded joints.

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Types of Welds Weld Features – Butt Weld on Plate

Weld
Toe Face
Permanent union between materials caused by Parent
heat and or pressure (BS499). metal Toe

Butt weld Fillet weld

Weld
HAZ
Root

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Weld Features – Butt Weld on Plate Weld Features – Fillet Weld on Plate

Fusion line Weld metal Weld toe HAZ


Face

Parent Parent Toe


metal metal

Weld

Root HAZ

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2-1
Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Weld Zone Terminology

Excess
Maximum Solid-liquid Boundary weld metal
Solid
temperature weld
metal Grain growth zone

Recrystallised zone
Partially transformed zone
Tempered zone
Unaffected base
material

Excess root
penetration

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Weld Zone Terminology Types of Joint

Weld width  Different types of joints


 T, cruciform, lap, slot, plug …

 Weld preparations
 Bevels: U, V, J, double V …

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Types of Joint Types of Joint

Joint: A configuration of members.

Butt joint Cruciform joint

T joint

Lap joint

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2-2
Lap Joint Corner Joints

Overlap limits for lap joints

t
Open Closed
D

D = 4 x t but not less than 25mm

External corner Internal corner Double side corner


joint joint joint

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Slot Weld Plug Weld

Holes can be circular or oval. Holes can be circular or oval.


Weld all round.

d d If t < 10mm, d = t.
t If t > 10mm, slot technique
should be used, in
t d > 3t
circular holes
but d = minimum 25mm! (d = 3t but minimum
25mm see BS 1011-2).

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Fillet Welds Fillet Weld Features

Fillet welds Shape of fillet welds

Throat a

Convex fillet

leg

Concave fillet

Leg z Leg size


Throat size
Mitre fillet

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2-3
Fillet Weld Geometry Fillet Weld Toe Blend

Actual
throat

Design
throat

Design throat =
actual throat
Leg length = 1.4 x throat size
Does not apply for concave fillets.

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Butt Weld Features Weld Geometry

Weld considerations for design of butt welds Butt welds


t2
 Geometry. t1
 Partial or full penetration.
 Blend toe.
 Excess metal. t1 = design throat thickness. t2
t2 = actual throat thickness. t1

t1

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Toe Blend Weld Dilution


6mm
Weld metal composition

80 Weight of parent material melted


Degrees D 100
Total weight of used material

Poor weld toe blend angle


3mm

20 Fillet welds Single V groove weld Square groove weld


Degrees

Improved weld toe blend angle

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2-4
Weld Symbols Constructing Welding Symbols

 BS EN ISO 22553 Welded, brazed and Parts 1- 4


soldered joints - Symbolic representation on  Arrow line.
drawings.  Dual reference line.
 Elementary symbol.
 AWS A2.4 Standard symbols for welding,  Combined symbols for symmetrical welds.
brazing and non-destructive examination.

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The Reference and


The Arrow Line
Identification Lines
Convention: Convention:
 Shall touch the joint intersection.  Shall touch the arrow line.
 Shall not be parallel to the drawing.  Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing.
 Shall point towards a single plate preparation  There shall be a further broken (identification)
(when only one plate has preparation). line above or beneath the reference line. Not
necessary where the weld is symmetrical!
Other side Arrow side

or

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Elementary Weld Symbols Weld Symbols

Designation Illustration of joint preparation Symbol Single V butt weld with broad
root face (only in BS EN ISO
Square butt weld standard!)

Single bevel butt weld with


broad root face (only in BS EN
Single V butt weld ISO standard!)

Single U butt weld


Single bevel butt weld

Single J butt weld

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2-5
Weld Symbols Put it Together

Weld symbol
Fillet weld
Reference line
Identification line
Arrow line

Surfacing (cladding)

Backing run

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Arrow Side and Other Side Symmetrical Both Sides

Arrow side The dashed identification line can be omitted


when symmetrical welds are made from both
sides of the joint.

Double V Double bevel Fillet weld

Other side

Double U Double J

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Supplementary Weld Symbols Fillet Weld Dimensions

 Leg length dimension prefixed by z.


Convex Concave Ground flush
 Design throat thickness dimension prefixed by a.

Z10

a7

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2-6
Intermittent Fillet Welds Complementary Indications

Number of welds weld length length of gap Weld all round (peripheral weld)

z 10 3 x 25 (50)

50
25
10

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Complementary Indications Weld Preparation

Site (field) weld  Root face.


 Root gap.
 Bevel angle.
 Impact of welding on preparation.
 Practical aspects.

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Butt Joint Preparations Single Sided Butt Preparations

Single sided preparations are normally made on thinner materials


or when access from both sides is restricted

Single bevel Single V

Square edge Square edge


closed butt open butt

Single J Single U

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2-7
Double Sided Butt Preparations Joint Preparation Terminology

Double sided preparations are normally made on thicker Included angle Included angle
materials or when access from both sides is unrestricted
Angle of
bevel

Root
radius
Double bevel Double V

Root gap Root face Root gap Root face

Single V butt Single U butt


Double J Double U

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Joint Preparation Terminology Weld Preparation

Angle of bevel Angle of bevel Terminology and typical dimensions: V joints


Bevel
angle Included angle

Root
radius

Root gap Root face


Root gap Root face Root gap Root face

Land Typical dimensions


Bevel angle 30-35 degrees.
Single bevel butt Single J butt Root face ~1.5 to ~2.5mm.
Root gap ~2 to ~4mm.

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Joint Design and Weld Preparation Root Gap and Root Face

Bevel angle must allow Root face and root


 Good access to the root. gap set to:
 Allow controlled root
 Manipulation of electrode to ensure sidewall fusion.
fusion.  Reduce the risk of
Bevel angle burn-through.

Too shallow or too wide Too deep or too narrow


= burn-through = lack of root penetration

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2-8
Weld Preparation Weld Preparation

Welding process impacts on weld preparation Welding process impacts on weld preparation

Arc welding EBW

MMA MAG
High heat input process allows a larger root face, less weld metal
required, less distortion higher productivity.

If the gap is too big risk of possible burn-through.

If gap is too small risk of lack of penetration.


X
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Preparing Weld Preparations Backing

Backing bar or strip ensures consistent root


fusion and avoids burn-through

Requires machining slow and Can be flame/plasma cut fast Warning! Backing strips give a built-in crevice
expensive. and cheap. • Susceptible to corrosion.
Tight tolerance easier Large tolerance set-up can be
• Give a lower fatigue life.
set-up. difficult.

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Access and Weld Preparations Weld Preparations

Access impacts on weld preparation

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2-9
Welding Standards Standards

 BS EN ISO 9692: Parts 1-4. Welding and allied  BS EN ISO 13920: Welding. General
processes. Recommendations for joint tolerances for welded constructions.
preparation. Dimensions for lengths and angles, shape and
position.
 BS EN 14324: Brazing. Guidance on the
application of brazed joints.  BS EN 1011-2: Welding. Recommendations for
welding of metallic materials. Arc welding of
ferritic steels.
 BS EN ISO 6947: Welds. Working positions.
Definitions of angles of slope and rotation.
 BS EN 25817: Arc-welded joints in steel.
Guidance on quality levels for imperfections.
 ISO 2553: Welded, brazed and soldered joints
- symbolic representation on drawings.
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2-10
Section 3

Forces and Strength of Materials


3 Forces and Strength of Materials
This section will describe common structures, consider the loads acting on
structures, review the resulting forces and stresses and describe the materials
properties that enable materials to withstand these forces.

A structure is an object or part of an object which has to carry and resist loads
due to the deadweight of the structure itself or an external component. Loads
or forces can arise through the reaction to acceleration or environmental loads
(such as winds or waves). Internal pressure or vacuum imposes loads as do
thermal expansion when a structure is heated and cooled.

Industrial structural elements for carrying loads include cables, bars, beams,
plates, slabs and shells with some of these shown on the bridge structures in
Figure 3.1.

a b c

Figure 3.1 Bridge and crane structures showing cables, bars and beams as
examples of load carrying components.

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-1 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Individual load carrying members are joined together to fabricate the entire
structure, such as the complete bridge, crane, offshore structure or building. A
simple arrangement of structural components can form a frame, which is an
assembly of bars arranged to support the loads. These are relatively easy to
design and an example of a truss frame is shown in the bridge verticals in
Figure 3.1a or the crane arm in Figure 3.1c. Joining the components together is
where the importance of welding comes in; although many structures are
riveted or bolted as well as or instead of welded (Figure 3.2).

Rivets

Welding

Bolts

Figure 3.2 Structural joining methods.

3.1 Forces
A force has a size (magnitude) and a direction. Two or more forces may be
added together to give a single equivalent force, as shown in Figure 3.3.
Instead of simply adding the magnitudes of the forces together, their directions
must be taken into account. The forces are represented as arrows with a length
equal to their magnitude and pointing in the direction of the force. The two (or
more) force arrows are added point to tail and the single equivalent force is the
arrow which points from the origin to the final arrow point. The combination of
five different forces is shown in Figure 3.4.

X
Figure 3.3 Combination of two forces (FX and FY) into a single force, F.

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-2 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Y
F1

X
Figure 3.4 Combination of five forces (F1 to F5) into a single force, FR.

It is also possible for a single force to be represented by two forces acting at


right angles, as shown in Figure 3.5. This is useful when an engineer needs to
consider the forces acting parallel and perpendicular to a weld (or other cross-
section) independently in a calculation.

Figure 3.5 Resolution of a single force, F, into two forces at right angles (FX
and FY).

Engineering structures have to resist loads from a range of sources including


self-weight, wind, wave, etc. These loads give rise to forces in the structure and
Figure 3.6 illustrates some of the forces that may exist in a typical lattice frame
that could represent a railway bridge. As the structure may be subject to
dissimilar loads, there may be gravitational forces acting in various directions in
any one member.

Figure 3.6 Typical forces in a lattice frame.

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-3 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Given that the structure does not move there is no resultant force and all the
loads acting on it must be in equilibrium, ie the sum of all the forces added
together must equal zero. Any applied force is reacted by an internal reaction
force inside the components. This is shown in Figure 3.7 by a free body diagram
of the truss members of a bridge. All the loading on the bridge is carried as
forces inside the truss members. The overall force on the bridge is reacted by
the bearings at either end of the bridge too.

Figure 3.7 Forces in equilibrium in a truss member bridge.

When calculating the load-bearing capability of a structure, generally speaking


only one force is assessed at any one time. The process for determining
whether a lattice bridge design as shown in Figure 3.8 is appropriate:

Step 1 - Find out if the frame can be statically calculated. If the design will be
dominated by fatigue then an alternative design approach will be needed.

Step 2 - Find reactive forces in bearings, based on the loads the structure is
designed to carry.

Step 3 - Calculate the loads in the individual members.

Step 4 - Calculate weld sizes for the connections, based on the forces they are
required to carry (plus a safety factor).

Figure 3.8 The method to determine whether this bridge design is appropriate
and the required welds.

3.2 Materials under load


A simple tensile test is carried out to obtain information about the behaviour of
a material under load. A sample of the material is steadily increased and using
a tensile test machine the applied load is taken. The response of the material is
determined by measuring the steadily increasing deflection as the load
increases giving rise to a load-displacement curve, Figure 3.9.

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-4 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Load, kN

Extension, mm

Figure 3.9 Load-displacement curve.

The specific information from a load-displacement curve is very dependent on


specimen size, as a thicker specimen would bear heavier loads (Figure 3.10). To
produce information that is not geometry dependent so represents materials
property data, two new parameters are used; stress and strain.
Load

Displaceme
Figure 3.10 Load-displacement curves for thick and thin specimens of the same
material.

Stress (Figure 3.11) is defined as load (or force) divided by the cross- sectional
area (CSA). If the force, F, is in newtons (N) and the CSA area in millimetres
squared (mm2), then the tensile stress, given the symbol , is in newtons per
millimetre squared (N/mm2), which is the same as megapascals (MPa).

Figure 3.11 Definition of stress.

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Forces and Strength of Materials 3-5 Copyright © TWI Ltd

The stress equation is often written as:ൌ

Stress can act either as a tensile stress (pulling apart) or a compressive stress
(squashing together) but is calculated the same way for each, ie load over CSA.
Tensile stress is often considered worse because it requires a tensile stress to
propagate a crack.

Figure 3.11 Tension and compression.

Strain is defined as the change in length due to the application of a force


divided by the original length, Figure 3.12. If the original length is L, then the
change in length is given as L. The symbol for strain is the Greek symbol
epsilon, . Strain is dimensionless (has no units) and by convention is positive
for tensile loads and negative for compressive loads when the length decreases.

Figure 3.12 Definition of strain.

3.3 Stress-strain curves


Converting the load and displacement data generated from a tensile test into
stress and strain data allows a stress-strain curve to be plotted shows
characteristics of the material and does not depend on the specimen size. The
tensile stress-strain curve contains typical features which are specific to each
material.

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Forces and Strength of Materials 3-6 Copyright © TWI Ltd
A typical stress-strain curve is shown in Figure 3.13, which illustrates the
important characteristics of tensile behaviour.

Elastic
region Plastic region
Ultimate
tensile
strength

Fracture
Stress,
MPa

Yield Yield
strength point

Strain, %

Figure 3.13 Characteristics of a typical stress strain curve.

As the stress is increased from zero, initially there is a linear relationship


between stress and strain. Under these loads, if the stress is relaxed to zero
then the strain also reduces to zero. This region is known as the elastic region
and the linear relationship between stress and strain is known as Hooke’s Law.
The ratio of stress to strain is constant in this region and is known as Young’s
modulus, E, which is given in units of N/mm2 or GPa. Young’s modulus gives a
measure of the stiffness of the material.

Stress
 Young’s modulus E
Strain

As the stress is increased further, a deviation from linear behaviour occurs at


the yield point. Yield strength is the point at which plastic deformation occurs
without any increase in the force ie at the yield plateau. At this point if the
material is unloaded down to zero stress, a small permanent strain offset
remains. This permanent deflection is known as plastic deformation and the
region of the stress-strain above the yield point as the plastic region. The yield
strength is the stress corresponding to the yield point.

Where there is no obvious yield point such as a yield plateau and the stress-
strain curve rises smoothly into the plastic region, it is necessary to define an
arbitrary yield point. In such cases the 0.2% proof strength (Rp0.2) is used as a
design parameter. Rp0.2 describes the stress obtained for an elongation of 0.2%
and is determined by plotting a line parallel to the elastic part of the stress-
strain curve at an offset of 0.2% along the strain axis. Where this line intersects
the stress-strain curve is the 0.2% proof strength (Figure 3.14).

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Forces and Strength of Materials 3-7 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Figure 3.14 Definition of the 0.2% proof strength for stress-strain curves
without an obvious yield point.

With increasing applied stress the stress-strain curve reaches a maximum at


the ultimate tensile strength, the maximum load that can be tolerated by the
specimen defined as the stress corresponding to the maximum force. After
reaching the UTS the stress-strain curve declines and necking occurs where the
sample becomes thinner and develops a neck and as a result, the load drops
due to the lack of resistance from the material (Figure 3.15).

UTS

Necking
point

Strai

Figure 3.15 Definition of the UTS, followed by necking.

The design assumption of load bearing assumes that the CSA remains the same
and this is how the engineering stress-strain curve is produced, as shown in the
stress-strain curves above. Necking of the material reduces the REAL CSA. In
reality stress does not decrease with increasing applied loading but flattens out
around the maximum stress while the CSA decreases. Allowing for this
reduction in CSA gives the real or true stress-strain curve.

After the UTS and necking, fracture occurs at the fracture stress. The strain at
fracture is usually defined as a percentage elongation. In some materials
fracture occurs before the stress-strain curve reaches a maximum and the
ability of a material to deform plastically before fracture is known as ductility.

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Forces and Strength of Materials 3-8 Copyright © TWI Ltd
High C
steel
Medium C
steel
Pure aluminium
Low C Duralumin

steel

Bronze

Figure 3.16 Examples of stress strain curves.

3.4 Tensile tests


A sample is clamped between two jaws and pulled apart with the load and
extension measured within a narrower section parallel sided gauge length
within the specimen.

Figure 3.17 Tensile test specimen.

As the test progresses and necking and final failure occur, measurements of the
original and final gauge length are taken and of the original and final diameters
at the neck location. The reduction of area and the elongation are reported as
percentages. The yield strength (or 0.2% proof strength) is reported along with
the value of UTS. Often the data points from logging the whole stress-strain
curve are recorded so the curve can be plotted.

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-9 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Figure 3.18 Tensile test experimental procedure.

3.5 Hardness tests


Hardness is the resistance of a material against penetration. There is a direct
correlation between UTS and hardness so hardness measurements are
sometimes used to approximate the tensile properties. It is measured by
indentation under a constant load, often using a pyramid indenter in the Vickers
hardness test or a ball indenter in the Brinell method.

Figure 3.19 Hardness testing.

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-10 Copyright © TWI Ltd
3.6 Summary
You should now:

 Understand how structures carry loads and forces and that reaction forces
are set up to give equilibrium conditions.
 Understand how to draw and interpret a stress-strain curve for a given
material.

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-11 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Revision questions
1 Describe how to add two forces together.

2 When a structure is in equilibrium, what is the resultant force on the structure?

3 What is the formula to calculate axial stress?

4 What is the formula to calculate axial strain?

5 Draw and label a typical stress-strain curve.

6 How can you define the yield point where there is no yield plateau?

DAC1-50615
Forces and Strength of Materials 3-12 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Objectives

 Describe common structures.


 Consider the loads acting on structures.
 Review resulting forces.
 Describe properties that enable materials to
Design and Construction withstand these forces.
Forces and Strength of Materials

TWI Training & Examinations Services


(EWF/IIW Diploma)

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Engineering Structures Basic Connections

 Required to withstand loads or contain Separate members of a structural framework


pressure. joined together by bolting, riveting or welding.

 Made from particular materials – this


course considers mainly steel structures, but Rivets
comparisons are made with aluminium.

Welding
 Constructed in particular ways – this
course is concerned with welding.
Bolts

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3-1
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3-2
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Structures Structures

 Carries loads or contains pressure.  Carries loads or contains pressure.

 Loads can arise from?  Loads can arise from?


 Weight of the structure itself.
 An external component.
 Environmental loads.
 Pressure.
 Thermal expansion.
 Reaction to an acceleration.
 and many more.

 Need a way of categorising loads.

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3-3
Sources of Loading - Eurocodes Examples
Structure Permanent Loads Variable Loads Accidental Loads

 Permanent loads. Road bridge Self-weight Vehicle crossings Vehicle impact

 Don’t vary with time. Wind

 Self weight, hydrostatic pressure…… Ice/snow

Building Self-weight Floor loading Earthquake

 Variable loads. Wind Fire?

Ice/snow
 Do vary with time.
Gantry crane Self-weight Payload
 Function of the structure or its position……
Wind

Ice/snow
 Accidental loads. Ship Self-weight Payload Impact
 Low probability events. Wind,Wave

 Earthquake, impact, explosion…… Hull pressure

Ice/snow

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Examples Types of Load


Structure Permanent Loads Variable Loads Accidental Loads

Offshore structure Self-weight Waves Ship impact  Static.


Deck load Current  No significant change over lifetime of structure,
Wind slowly applied.
Ice/snow  Correspond to permanent loads.
Land pipeline Internal pressure Vibration Earthquake

Pressure Landslip
 Cyclic.
fluctuations
 Large variation with time.
Boiler/Pressure Internal pressure Vibrations Impact  Correspond to variable loads, possible
vessel Start up
contribution from accidental loads.
Shutdown
 Impact.
Temperature

change
 Short time period, rapidly applied.
 Correspond to accidental loads.

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Types of Forces Bending Loading

Axial loading
 Compression. Compression
L

 Tension. Tension

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3-4
Types of Forces Axial and Bending Loading

Axial loading
 Compression. Compression
L

 Tension. Tension

Bending loading Bending

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General Case Resolution of Forces

P
F

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Resolution of Forces General Case

Fy L P
F

Fx x

Single force F ≡ two forces Fx and Fy

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3-5
Forces Typical Structure
y Fx
 Have a size and a Flag pole Axial loading
Fy
direction. F  Weight of flagpole.

 Can be combined Bending loading


into a single force. x
 Wind action.
y
 Can be decomposed Fy
into several forces. F

x
Fx

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Types of Forces Static Equilibrium

Axial loading Definition:


 Compression. Compression
 Structure or system is at
rest.
 Tension. Tension
 No acceleration.
Shear loading Shear

Bending loading Bending

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Conditions for Equilibrium Types of Forces

Axial loading
 Sum of all external  Compression. Compression
forces is zero.

 Sum of all external  Tension. Tension


bending moments is
zero.

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3-6
Material Response Load Displacement Curve

Question: Record of the load and displacement applied


 What happens to a material when it is loaded? during testing.

Load, kN
Answer:
 Carry out simple tests to find out.

Extension, mm

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Load Displacement Curves Stress

 Stress definition
 Force divided by cross-section area.
Load

Applied
force
F

Stress in the
cross section
area

Displacement

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Stress Calculations Strain

 Stress definition F
 Force divided by cross-section area.
L L

∆L = Change in Length
L = Original Length
L
F


Strain,  
A

L
F = load or axial force (N).
A = cross section area (mm2). Strain is dimensionless
 = tensile stress (N/mm2 or MPa).  Positive (tensile stress).
1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2.  Negative (compressive stress).

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3-7
Tension and Compression Stress-Strain Curve

Tensile stress Compressive stress The tensile stress-strain curve contains typical
features which are specific to each material.
Elastic
Plastic Region
Region
Ultimate
Tensile
Strength
Fracture

Stress,
MPa
Yield Yield Point
Strength
Positive stress Negative stress
Positive strain Negative strain
Strain, %

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Young’s Modulus Yield and Proof Strength

Extension in the elastic region is proportional to  Yield stress:


load.  Stress at which permanent deformation starts to
occur.
This relationship is given by Hooke’s Law which
is valid for the elastic region only. Stress, MPa

Young’s modulus:

Stress  Yield Point


E 
Strain 
Units are the same as stress (N/mm2 ) Strain, %

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Yield and Proof Strength Tensile Test Results

 Yield point may not


always be obvious. Rp0.2

 In such cases, the


0.2% proof strength
(Rp0.2) is used as a
design parameter.

 Rp0.2 describes the


stress obtained for a
permanent elongation
of 0.2%.

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3-8
Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) Fracture

 The final failure of the component is the point


Ultimate
of rupture.
Tensile  Elongation of the material = Strain at fracture.
Strength
Stress, MPa
Stress, MPa

Necking
Fracture

Strain, %
Strain, %

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Work Hardening Factors Affects Stress-Strain Curve

The type of materials


Stress, MPa

Yield after unloading

Original yield

1) low carbon steel;


2) medium carbon steel;
Strain, %
3) high carbon steel;
4) bronze.
Reproduced by permission Westmoreland Mechanical Testing & Research Inc.

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Mechanical Properties Types of Forces

Yield strength, UTS etc are very strongly Axial loading


dependent on:  Compression. Compression
 Parent material.
 Alloy composition.
 Heat treatment.  Tension. Tension

 Previous history.

Young’s modulus is very strongly dependent on:


 Parent material.

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3-9
Tensile Test Elastic and Plastic Deformation

In a tensile test, a sample is clamped between


two jaws and pulled apart. The load and
extension are measured.
Parallel length

Gauge length

Radius Diameter of the


reduced section
Gripped end

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Tensile Test: Experimental Properties of Weldments

Weld Metal HAZ

Parent
Metal

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Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) Measuring Tensile Properties

 Parent metal.
Maximum solid solid-liquid Boundary
 Tensile specimens.
Temperature weld
grain growth zone
metal
recrystallised zone
 Weld metal.
partially transformed zone  All weld metal tensile specimens.
tempered zone  Sometimes difficult – microstructure not
unaffected base constant.
material

 Heat Affected Zone.


 Impractical to use tensile specimens.

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3-10
Hardness Hardness Test: Vickers

 Hardness is the resistance of a material


against penetration.

 It is measured by indentation under a


constant load.

 There is a direct correlation between UTS and


hardness.

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Hardness Test: Vickers Hardness Test: Brinell

d1  d2
d
2

d1  d2
d
2

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Tensile Test Results Elastic Design Method

 Elastic Design Method.


 Ensure that stresses in structure do not exceed
yield stress (ie elastic deformation).

 However we cannot design up to yield stress


safely due to:
 Material defects.
 Joint/weld mismatches.
 Unforeseen loads.
 Degradation.

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3-11
Elastic Design Method Factor of Safety

 Use design stress which is a fraction of the  Ratio of yield stress (or UTS) to design stress
yield strength of the parent material. is known as factor of safety (FoS)

 For critical structures such as pressure vessels Yield Stress


FoS  1
this was once set at 1/4 UTS but later changed Design Stress
to 2/3 yield stress.
 FoS depends on:
 Relevant codes dictate design stresses.  Material.
 Utilisation.

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Material Load Carrying Capacity Summary

 Weld metal overmatches parent metal.  Permanent, variable and accidental loads.
 Parent strength defines load carrying capacity.  Static loading.
 Mechanical properties.
 High strength low alloy steels.  Stress/strain curves.
 Weld metal sometimes undermatches parent  Material and microstructure dependent.
metal.
 Tensile and hardness testing.
 Elastic design method.
 Welded joints in aluminium.
 The static strength may be reduced by the heat
of welding.

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3-12
Section 4

Fatigue
4 Fatigue
Fatigue loading is the repeated application of a load and a simplified fatigue
loading cycle is shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 Simple fatigue loading.

Think of four types of structure that have to withstand fatigue loading and
identify the sources of fatigue loading on them. Which of your structures are of
welded construction? Typical structures that have to withstand fatigue loading
include ships, bridges, offshore platforms and rigs, earth moving and off-
highway vehicles, towers, axles, etc. The sources of fatigue loading include
fluctuating loads from a variety of sources. Acceleration forces in moving
structures, pressure changes, temperature fluctuations, environmental loads
(wind, current, wave, etc), rotation and mechanical vibrations from machinery
or shaft, etc can all cause fatigue.

Figure 4.2 Earth moving equipment can suffer from fatigue.

Fatigue failures have occurred for many years; a train returning to Paris from
Versailles crashed in May 1842 at Meudon after the leading locomotive broke an
axle (Figure 4.2). The carriages behind piled into the wrecked engines and
caught fire, killing at least 55 passengers. The accident was widely reported in
Britain and discussed extensively by engineers, who sought an explanation. An
investigation suggested a crack growth mechanism through repeated stressing,
but this was mainly ignored, so fatigue failures kept occurring on the railways.
It is only since the Second World War that the causes of fatigue failures have
been studied and understood scientifically.

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Figure 4.3 Axle failure from 1843.

Fatigue failure occurs by the initiation and propagation of a crack which


progresses slowly and steadily across the load bearing area until final fracture
occurs. This can occur even when the stress remains entirely in the elastic
regime, ie well below the yield stress. In engineering applications the fatigue
crack grows at right angles to the applied stress direction. The fracture surface
is relatively flat and macroscopically featureless but some fatigue fracture
surfaces exhibit bench marks, Figure 4.4, which usually correspond to the
position of the crack front when say a change of loading or environment
occurred.

Figure 4.4 Typical fatigue fracture surface, showing bench marks.

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4.1 Characterisation of fatigue loading
The typical characteristics of simple fatigue cyclic loading are shown in Figure
4.5.

Stress

Time Minimum stress

Figure 4.5 Typical characteristics of fatigue loading.

If the minimum stress is zero then the fatigue cycle is known as a pulsating
cycle. If the maximum stress is equal and opposite to the minimum stress then
the fatigue spectrum is known as alternating cycles. If the minimum stress is
half the maximum stress then the cycling is known as half tensile cycles.

a b

Figure 4.6 Definitions of different fatigue cycles:


a) Pulsating cycle;
b) Alternating cycle;
c) Half tensile cycle.

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The most important parameters are the stress range Sr (the difference between
the maximum and minimum stress) and the stress cycle, ie the interval
between equivalent points in the stress history. Other fatigue parameters
include the stress ratio R (the minimum stress divided by the maximum stress)
and the stress amplitude which is half the stress range.

4.2 S-N curve


Extensive fatigue tests on simple specimens showed that for high stress ranges
the fatigue life was short; as the stress range was decreased the fatigue life of
the specimen increased. A graph of stress range against number of cycles to
failure is a very convenient method of presenting fatigue behaviour and when a
line is drawn through individual test data points, this is known as an S-N curve.

Figure 4.7 Graph of stress range against number of cycles to failure - the S-N
curve.

Increasing the stress range or number of cycles increases the fatigue damage
(Figure 4.8).

Figure 4.8 Effect of increasing the stress range or number of cycles on the
fatigue damage.

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It is more common to see S-N curves plotted on a logarithmic scale which
produces a straight line in the high cycle regime at greater than 104 cycles to
failure. Low cycle fatigue occurs at very high stress ranges which result in fewer
than 104 cycles to failure. At sufficiently low stress ranges fatigue cracks may
not propagate at all, the fatigue endurance limit.

Log S

Log N

Figure 4.9 S-N curve plotted on logarithmic scale.

When discussing fatigue in structures it is common to use a range of terms the


definitions so need to be understood. Fatigue stress history is the variation of
stress at a point with time. Constant amplitude stress history is a stress history
in which successive stress fluctuations are equal. The fatigue life is the number
of stress cycles sustained before failure, while fatigue strength means the stress
range which causes failure at a certain specified life.

4.3 Fatigue of welded joints


Fatigue is a particular concern in welded joints because nearly all welds contain
inherent stress concentrations. The effect of a stress concentration can be
imagined using stress contour lines and when stress is applied to a component
the stress distribution inside the component is similar to the contour lines. In
plain material under stress the contour lines would run through the material
parallel with the principal direction of the stress. The introduction of a notch
creates a concentration of the lines, as the stress cannot be carried across the
notch; it has to go around the notch. The concentration of the lines indicates a
concentration of the stress.

Figure 4.10 Stress concentration effect of a notch.

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Log

Figure 4.11 Effect of a notch on the fatigue S-N curve.

The effect of a notch or stress concentration on the fatigue resistance of a


structure is to lower the S-N curve so that for the same stress range it takes
fewer cycles until failure or for an equivalent fatigue life, the stress range will
be less (Figure 4.11). This is because fatigue cracks are most likely to initiate
and propagate from high stress concentration areas. Stress concentrations can
also occur at changes of section such as at welds (Figure 4.12).

Figure 4.12 Stress concentration areas in structures.

Welding almost inevitably introduces stress concentrations at locations such as


the weld toe or root. These provide sites for relatively easy fatigue crack
initiation, Figure 4.13. A key feature of weld toes is the inevitable presence of
sharp discontinuities. Undercut or cold laps are examples, but more important,
on a much smaller scale are small non-metallic intrusions (typically about 0.1-
0.4mm in depth). The fatigue crack in the photograph (Figure 4.14) has
propagated from such a flaw which extended as far as A. These non-metallic
intrusions are produced at the weld toes by arc welding processes and are
typically 0.1-0.4mm in depth and given that fatigue life is governed by the
growth from this pre-existing flaw, there is usually little or no initiation stage
for fatigue in welded structures.

Factors which affect crack initiation (the formation of a microscopically sharp


starter crack) can be quite different to those that affect crack growth (stress
range, environmental conditions). Another consequence for welds is that design
features like the weld toe can be far more severe as sources of stress
concentration than welding flaws. This emphasises the need for rational criteria
for assessing the significance of flaws.

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W W

W Toes
Figure 4.13 Stress raisers at weld toes provide easy fatigue crack initiation
sites.

Figure 4.14 High magnification image of a weld toe intrusion, which extends as
far as A, initiating the rest of the fatigue cracking from that location.

The effect of these fatigue initiation sites on the S-N curve is shown in Figure
4.15 which shows fatigue data for one specific steel in three conditions -
unwelded, unwelded but with a stress raiser (a hole) and welded with two
plates attached to the surface. It is clear that the fatigue performance of the
welded material is very much inferior to that of the unwelded material.

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Stress
range,
N/mm2

Cycles

Figure 4.15 Fatigue data for one type of steel in the unwelded, unwelded but
with a stress raiser and welded conditions.

One of the most serious consequences of the fact that the fatigue lives of
welded joints are dominated by crack growth concerns the influence of material
strength. Although the fatigue strength of un-notched material usually increases
with tensile strength, the level of increase decreases if the material contains a
notch until there is no increase at all for welded material. This is because rate of
fatigue crack growth is not dependent on material strength and hence welded
low and high strength materials give the same fatigue life. The benefit of
material strength comes in the crack initiation stage which is effectively absent
in the welded material. Fatigue data from unwelded and welded steels of
different tensile strengths are shown in Figure 4.16.
of 106 cycles, N/mm2
Stress range for life

UTS of steel, N/mm2

Figure 4.16 The effect of material strength on fatigue strength.

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A large number of fatigue tests have been carried out on many different joint
geometries, Fatigue tests can be carried out on full scale structures (Figure
4.17a), or on smaller scale specimens. A common specimen is a flat strip with
fillet welded attachments on either side (Figure 4.17b). A series of these
specimens have been tested at a variety of stress ranges and the fatigue lives
plotted on an S-N curve, shown in Figure 4.18. As is often the case with fatigue
data, these results exhibit some scatter and for design purposes, the lower limit
S-N curve is used.

a b

Figure 4.17 Fatigue testing:


a) Full-scale beam;
b) Fatigue test specimen after test.

Stress
range

Endurance, cycles

Figure 4.18 Fatigue test results from one specimen geometry.

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When the appropriate design curves obtained from fatigue tests on different
geometries are compared, it is clear that fatigue performance is strongly
dependent on joint geometry, Figure 4.19. Fillet welds have a shorter fatigue
life than butt welds under equivalent stress cycles. Welded joints that exhibit
similar fatigue strengths can then be grouped into classes and this approach is
used in fatigue design rules. Welds in the same fatigue class have similar stress
concentration effects. The fatigue joint classifications range from A (plain
material with the best fatigue resistance and longest fatigue life) down the
alphabet as the fatigue resistance decreases to F, F2, G and then W, these
latter few being used only for special types of weld joints.
Stress range, N/mm2

Endurance, cycles
Figure 4.19 Design S-N curves for different joint geometries.

4.4 Residual stress


A further important factor in the fatigue performance of welds is the effect of
the tensile residual stresses present in the region where the crack initiates as a
result of contraction on cooling after welding. These high tensile residual
stresses mean that even when subject to compressive remote stresses, the
stresses near the weld remain tensile. Hence, the stress range experienced by
the weld region always is at a high tensile mean stress, sometimes expressed
as hanging down from yield, even for partly compressive stress cycles,
Figure 4.20.

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Residual stress (tensile yield)

Stress 
R=0
Stress
Effective stress range
R = -1

 Time
0



R = 0 (compression)

Figure 4.20 Effective stress range in the presence of high tensile residual
stresses.

It is the stress range that determines the fatigue strength of an as-welded joint
even if the applied cycle is partly compressive and fatigue cracks can propagate
under these conditions in welded structures, even though compressive cyclic
loading will not propagate fatigue in parent metal.

4.5 Fatigue improvement techniques


It is possible to reduce the effect of the stress concentration at the weld toe of
fillet and butt welds and improve the fatigue life of welded structures using
techniques such as grinding the weld toe to remove the intrusion and to blend
the toe profile and reduce the stress concentration. A low heat input
autogenous TIG pass along the weld toes can remelt and remove the toe
intrusions (known as TIG dressing or washing). Peening techniques such as
hammer or needle peening can put the weld surface at the weld toe into
compression and slow the fatigue crack propagation. Flush grinding butt welds
will also improve the fatigue performance.

Figure 4.21 Fatigue improvement technique showing grinding of the weld toes.

4.6 Summary
You should now:
 Understand a S-N diagram and describe the influence of notches and weld
defects of fatigue performance.
 Recognise which welded joints are most susceptible to fatigue.
 Be able to describe modifications for fatigue improvement.

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Revision questions
1 What types of structures and applications are most at risk of fatigue cracking?

2 Sketch an alternating fatigue cycle and label the fatigue parameter on the diagram.

3 Why are welds more susceptible to fatigue than parent materials?

4 What effect does increasing the strength of the steel have on its fatigue
performance?

5 List four fatigue improvement techniques.

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Objectives

 Introduce concept of fatigue loading.


 Describe mechanism of failure.
 Recognise why welded joints have relatively
poor fatigue lives.
Design and Construction
Fatigue - Introduction

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Sources of Loading - Eurocodes Types of Load

 Permanent loads.  Static.


 Don’t vary with time.  No significant change over lifetime of structure,
slowly applied.
 Self weight, hydrostatic pressure……
 Correspond to permanent loads.

 Variable loads.
 Cyclic.
 Do vary with time.
 Large variation with time.
 Function of the structure or its position……  Correspond to variable loads, possible contribution
from accidental loads.
 Accidental loads.
 Low probability events.  Impact.
 Earthquake, impact, explosion……  Short time period, rapidly applied.
 Correspond to accidental loads.

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Simplified Fatigue Loading Cycle Activity

Stress  List four types of structure that have to


withstand fatigue loading.

 Identify the sources of fatigue loading on


those structures.

 Which of your structures are of welded


construction?

Time

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4-1
Typical Structures
Sources of Fatigue Loading
Subjected to Fatigue
 Bridges.  Fluctuating loads.
 Offshore platforms and rigs.  Acceleration forces in moving structures.
 Earthmoving/off highway vehicles.  Pressure changes.
 Ships.  Temperature fluctuations.
 Towers.  Mechanical vibrations: machinery, shafts.
 Axles.  Environmental loading (wind, currents and
 Etc. waves).

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Axle Fatigue Failure 1843 Yield and Proof Strength

 Yield stress:
 Stress at which permanent deformation starts to
occur.

Stress, MPa

Yield Point

Strain, %

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General Features of Stress Cycle

 Fatigue – failure under cyclic loading. Maximum


 Stress range causing failure is usually well below yield stress.
stress
 Failure occurs by the initiation and then steady progression of Stress
the crack. Cycle Stress
 Fatigue cracks usually grow only a very small amount in each range
cycle.
 The surface of a fatigue crack is generally smooth, often with
beach marks showing the position of the crack front at stages
as the crack grew.

Mean
stress

Minimum Time
stress

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4-2
Types of Stress Cycle Types of Stress Cycle

Stress Stress
Smax

Time

Time Smin
Smin= 0 Pulsating cycle Smin= -Smax Alternating cycle

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Types of Stress Cycle Fatigue Parameters

Stress Smax  Stress ratio (or R-ratio):

Smin
R
Smax
 Stress range:

Smin Sr  Smax  Smin


 Stress amplitude.
Time
 Half the stress range.
Smin= Smax/2 Half tensile cycle

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Features of Stress Cycle Traditional Fatigue Testing

Maximum
stress
Stress
Cycle Stress
range

Mean
stress

Minimum Time
stress

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4-3
S-N Curves (Unwelded Material) S-N Curves (Unwelded Material)

Stress Stress
range, x range, x
Dσ Dσ
x x

Endurance
x x limit
x x

x x
x x

Number of cycles to failure (N) Number of cycles to failure (N)

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S-N Curves (Unwelded Material) S-N Curves (Unwelded Material)

Stress Stress
range, x range, x
Dσ Dσ
x x

x Fatigue x
Strength
x x
at 10
cycles
x x
x x

10 N cycles 10 N cycles

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Types of Stress Cycle For Unwelded Material Only

Stress Smax Stress


Smax

Time
Smin
Smin
Time
Effective stress range = tension portion +
some of compressive portion

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4-4
S-N Curve Fatigue - Terminology

Use logarithmic scales for convenience  Stress history - variation of stress at a point
with time.
Log ∆S  Constant amplitude stress history - a stress
history in which successive stress fluctuations
are equal.
 Fatigue life, or endurance - number of stress
cycles sustained before failure.
Low High  Fatigue strength - stress range which causes
cycle cycle
failure at a certain specified life.

~105
Log N

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Stress Distribution Influence of Notches

 If stress is applied to a component the stress  The introduction of a notch creates a


distribution inside the component would be concentration of the lines.
similar to contour lines.  Stress cannot be carried across the notch; it
 The contour lines would run through the has to go around the notch.
material parallel with the principal direction of
the stress.

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Effect of a Notch Influence of Welding

Welds introduce stress concentrations

Log Without notch Weld toe Weld toe


∆σ

With notch

Weld root toes


Log N
Weld toes and weld roots are the most critical

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4-5
Stress Concentrations in
Effect of Welding (Schematic)
Welded Joints
Fatigue cracks are most expected in high stress
concentration areas.

Log Unwelded material


∆σ

Welded material

Log N

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Effect of Steel Strength on


Fatigue of Welded Joints
Fatigue Strength
Fatigue strength of welded joints << Parent material
Fatigue
Stress range for life of 106

400 500 strength


Stress 300 of welded
cycles, N/mm2

range, 200 400 joints


N/mm2 unaffected
300
100 by parent
material
200
50 strength.
Steel
350 N/mm2 yield 100

10 400 500 600 700 800 900


105 106 107 108 Cycles Ultimate tensile strength of steel, N/mm2

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Fatigue Cracking in
Influence of Welding
Transverse Butt Welds
Welds introduce stress concentrations from
which fatigue can propagate.

Weld toe Weld toe

Weld root toes


Weld toes and weld roots are the most critical
areas in respect to stress concentration.

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4-6
Fatigue Failure in
Transverse Butt Welds
Made on permanent backing strips Made on permanent backing strips

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Fatigue Failure in Fatigue Cracking in


Transverse Butt Welds Transverse Butt Welds
Made on permanent backing strips

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Fatigue of Fillet Welds Fatigue of Fillet Welds

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4-7
Fatigue Failure in Fatigue Cracking From Root of
Friction Welded Joint Fillet Welded Attachment

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Stress Concentrations Fatigue Cracking From a Weld Toe

Stress concentrations occur at a change in section  Production arc welding


of a stressed member. processes lead to the Pre-existing
formation of non-metallic sharp flaw
intrusions at the weld toe.
 Typically 0.1-0.4mm in A
depth.
 Fatigue life governed by
the growth of this pre-
existing flaw. Fatigue
 Little or no initiation crack
stage.
~ 50m
 Factors which affect crack
initiation can be quite
different to those that
In welds, fatigue cracks start from toes or defects. affect crack growth.

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Fatigue Tests Fatigue Testing

Fatigue cracking can occur from:


 Weld toe.
 Weld root.
 Weld ends.

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4-8
Design S-N Curves Design S-N Curves

Determining design curves from experimental data: Determining design curves from experimental data:

Log Log
∆S ∆S Mean line

Log N Log N

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Design S-N Curves Design S-N Curves

Determining design curves from experimental data: Determining design curves from experimental data:

Log Log
∆S Mean line = 50% failure probability ∆S Mean line = 50% failure probability

Design line - low


failure probability

Log N Log N

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Typical Fatigue Results Fatigue Design S-N Curves

 Constant amplitude Stress range,


S-N curves. N/mm 2

Stress  SmN = A (m and A 300


range R = 0.1 are constants). 200

 Different curves for


different design 100
Results
 Unbroken
details.
Mean and  BS 7608. 50
95% confidence
intervals
10 5 10 6 10 7
Endurance, cycles
Endurance, cycles

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4-9
Joint Classes Residual Stresses Due to Welding
Cold Hot Cold
 UK, US, European design rules: Welds are  Caused by differential
grouped into classes giving similar fatigue Immediately
after welding
thermal
strength (similar stress concentration effect). expansion/contraction of
weld and parent material.
 Small differences between codes but principles Cold Cold Cold
After cooling  High tensile residual
are the same. if
contraction stresses up to yield
allowed
magnitude are introduced
Class of joint
Cold Cold Cold both along and transverse
After cooling to the weld.
A B C D E F F2 G W with
contraction  Has important implications
resisted
for fatigue.
Tension
Residual stress
Expected life increase
Compression

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Residual Stress Level at Stresses at the Weld Toe


Fatigue Origin During a Fatigue Cycle

Stress at
weld toe 1
Yield

Strain

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle

Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe 1
Yield Yield

Strain Strain

Applied Applied 2
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 Time

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4-10
Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe
During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle
2 2
Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe 1
Yield Yield

Strain Strain

Applied 2 Applied 2
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 3 Time

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle
2 2
Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe 1
Yield Yield
3 3

Strain Strain

Applied 2 Applied 2
Stress Stress

1 3 Time 1 3 Time

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle
2
Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe
Yield Yield
3

Strain Strain

Applied 2 Applied
Stress Stress

1 3 Time Time

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4-11
Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe
During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle

Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe 1
Yield

Strain Strain

Applied Applied
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 Time

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle
2
Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe 1

Strain Strain

Applied Applied 2
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 Time

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle
2 2
Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe 1

Strain Strain

Applied 2 Applied 2
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 Time

3 3

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4-12
Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe
During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle
2 2
Stress at Stress at
weld toe 1 weld toe 1

3 3

Strain Strain

Applied 2 Applied 2
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 Time

3 3

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


During a Fatigue Cycle During a Fatigue Cycle

Stress at Stress at
weld toe weld toe
At the weld toe full stress range
is entirely tensile

Strain Strain

Applied Applied
Stress Stress

Time Time

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Effect of Tensile Residual Stresses


Fatigue Design Codes
on Fatigue Loading
 Superposition of For as welded joints:
applied and residual S-N curves are based on the full applied stress
stresses, eliminates
range, even if a portion is in compression.
effect of mean stress.
 Even when loading is
compressive, local
stress range cycles
down from high
maximum stress.
R = smin/smax
 Fatigue life dependent
on full stress range
regardless of whether
tensile or compressive.

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4-13
Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe
(PWHT Joints) (PWHT Joints)

Stress at Stress at
weld toe Yield weld toe Yield

1
50% yield

Strain Strain

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


(PWHT Joints) (PWHT Joints)

Stress at Stress at
weld toe weld toe 2
Yield Yield

1 1
50% yield 50% yield

Strain Strain

Applied Applied
2
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 Time

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


(PWHT Joints) (PWHT Joints)

Stress at Stress at
weld toe 2 weld toe
Yield Yield

1
50% yield 50% yield

Strain Strain

Applied Applied
2
Stress Stress

1 Time Time

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4-14
Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe
(PWHT Joints) (PWHT Joints)

Stress at Stress at
weld toe Yield weld toe Yield

1 1
50% yield 50% yield

Strain Strain

Applied 2
Stress

1 Time

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


(PWHT Joints) (PWHT Joints)

Stress at Stress at
weld toe 2 weld toe 2
Yield Yield

1 1
50% yield 50% yield
3
Strain Strain

Applied 2 Applied 2
Stress Stress

1 Time 1 Time

3 3

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Stresses at the Weld Toe Stresses at the Weld Toe


(PWHT Joints) (PWHT Joints)

Stress at Stress at
weld toe 2 weld toe
Yield Yield

1
50% yield 50% yield
3
Strain Strain

Applied 2 Applied
Stress Stress

1 Time Time

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4-15
Stresses at the Weld Toe
Fatigue Design Codes
(PWHT Joints)
 Generally allow no improvement in
Stress at
weld toe performance after PWHT.
Yield

50% yield  Fatigue life is based on full stress range,


including any compressive portion.
Strain

At weld toe full stress range is still entirely tensile  PWHT may be carried out for other reasons –
Applied it doesn’t degrade fatigue strength.
Stress

Time

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Fatigue Improvement by Design Fatigue Improvement Techniques

Design to use smooth shapes and transitions

Bad design Improved designs


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Fatigue Improvement by Design Fatigue of Fillet Welds

High stress Improved design


concentrations

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4-16
Fatigue Life Improvement Techniques Fatigue Life Improvement Techniques

Reduce stress concentration and eliminate Reduce stress concentration and eliminate
sharp discontinuities at weld toe: sharp discontinuities at weld toe:
 Weld toe grinding.  Weld toe grinding.
 TIG or plasma re-melting.  TIG or plasma re-melting.

Reduce residual stresses:


Introduce compressive residual stress:
 Stress relief no credit for fatigue.
 Hammer, needle or shot peening.
 Ultrasonic impact treatment. Introduce compressive residual stress:
 Proof loading.  Hammer, needle or shot peening.
 Ultrasonic impact treatment.
 Proof loading.

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Improving Fatigue Strength Fatigue Improvement Techniques

 Grinding.  Grind flush excess


 Burr. weld metal.
 Disc.  Remove weld toes
and edges.
 Peening.  Removes intrusions.
 Hammer.  Reduce stress
 Needle. concentration.
 Shot.  Impose surface
Weld toe grinding
(machining) compressive stress.
 Dressing.
 TIG.
 Plasma.

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Summary

 Fatigue loading is the repeated application


stress.
 Failure occurs by the initiation of a crack at a
stress raiser and subsequent relatively slow
growth.
 Design approach by SN curves.
 Fatigue performance of welded joints is poor.
 Fatigue performance of welded joints is the
same for steels with different strength levels.

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4-17
Section 5

Design of Pressure Vessels


5 Design of Pressure Vessels
5.1 Types of pressure vessels
A pressure vessel is a storage container for liquids or gases under pressure and
they can be internally pressurised, the most common type of vessel or
externally pressurised (ie containing a vacuum). Pressure vessels are widely
used in industries such as oil and gas, chemical refineries, etc. Fired pressure
vessels are heated using gas or oil burners, for example boilers. Unfired
pressure vessels are all the other types of pressure vessel.

Figure 5.1 Pressure vessels in a chemical refinery.

5.2 Construction of pressure vessels


The main standards for construction of pressure vessels are BS PD 5500 in the
UK, AD MerkBlatt in Germany and BS EN 13445 in Europe. In other parts of the
world, the American ASME Code is most widely used.

A range of materials is available for construction of pressure vessels depending


on the service pressure and temperature and the fluid being contained. The
base requirements for a material to be used in a pressure vessel are good
mechanical properties and adequate corrosion resistance. Most vessels are
made from steel the rest from stainless steel, aluminium or even made from
composite materials such as wound carbon fibre held in place with a polymer.
Pressure vessels can be lined with a variety of materials such as polymers,
ceramics and other metals to improve corrosion resistance and carry a portion
of the applied load. The relevant standard will contain a list of all the approved
materials.

A simple pressure vessel comprises:

Shell
Main body of the vessel, most often cylindrical but some are conical or spherical
shells.

Head
At each end to complete the basic shape and produce a closed container, are
most often dished but can be flat.

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Nozzles
A number of openings for filling, inspection or drainage.

Saddle supports
Hold the pressure vessel in place.

Nameplate
Indicates the main working parameters of the pressure vessel including work
pressure and temperature. Details may include the manufacturer, year of
manufacture, the code to which the pressure vessel has been designed and
manufactured and the inspection body stamp.

5.2.1 Pressure vessel shell


Cylindrical shells are usually made of a number of curved plates welded
together, Figure 5.2.

Offset

Figure 5.2 Cylindrical shell.

The shell of a pressure vessel can range in thickness from a few millimetres for
a BBQ propane gas bottle to several hundred millimetres for industrial pressure
vessels. The minimum design thickness is dependent on the shape and
diameter of the vessel, internal pressure and material strength. A spherical
shell requires a much thinner wall thickness than a cylindrical shell for the same
diameter, internal pressure and construction material.

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5.2.2 Dished heads
Dished heads are produced from a blank (usually circular) by pressing or
forming it in a die using a former. Sometimes the blank is small enough to be
cut from a single plate but often the blank is so large that it cannot be obtained
from a single plate and must be fabricated by welding together a central round
piece called the crown with a number of petals as shown in Figure 5.3.

Knuckl

Petal

Crown

a b c

Figure 5.3 Fabricated dished head:


a) Hemispherical.
b) Ellipsoidal.
c) Torispherical shape.

These welds are full penetration welds to produce a continuous envelope,


without voids which might affect the strength of the dished head and it is
common practice to subject all these welds to an UT examination. A dished
head is fabricated out of an odd number of petals to avoid the propagation of a
longitudinal defect from one weld across the entire dished head and can be
fabricated to different shapes designs as described below.

Hemispherical dished head is half of a sphere. Considering the stress that


occurs in a sphere and the maximum stress that occurs in a cylinder (ie the
hoop stress), a hemispherical dished head requires the smallest thickness
among all types of dished heads but is the most difficult to fabricate.

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Ellipsoidal dished head the longitudinal section of this type of dished head (ie
a section along its longitudinal axis) is half an ellipse. Since the stress
developed in the dished head in this case is equal to the hoop stress, the
required thickness for an ellipsoidal dished head is equal to that of the
cylindrical shell. Advantages are that there is no need to supply different plate
thickness to manufacture a pressure vessel with ellipsoidal dished heads nor for
a transition between two different thicknesses, making manufacture easier.

An ellipse is difficult to generate and compressive stresses occur in the


ellipsoidal dished head. Under internal pressure the shell tends to expand whilst
the ellipsoidal dished head tries to contract diametrically at the head-shell
junction and there is also a tendency towards local buckling.

Torispherical dished head a torisphere consists of a spherical central portion


or crown with radius R and a toroidal knuckle of radius r, where R/r is
approximately twelve and R is about 95% of the cylinder diameter as shown in
Figure 5.4.

Knuckle
radius, r
Crown
radius, R

Figure 5.4 Torispherical dished head.

The junction of the torus with a cylinder gives rise to bending stresses as the
greater the deviation from a sphere, the higher these stresses would be.
Torispherical dished heads are often preferred to ellipsoidal since the depth of
drawing is less so they are cheaper to manufacture. The small axial dimension
is an advantage when the longitudinal size of the pressure vessel is a critical
factor but their higher stress concentration and lower allowable pressure for a
given material size may outweigh this as a result, the thickness required for a
torispherical dished head is larger than for a cylindrical shell.

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5.3 Internal pressure stresses
5.3.1 Internal pressure
Consider a cylindrical closed end pressure vessel, with radius r and thickness t
subjected to internal pressure p as shown in Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.5 Closed end cylinder subjected to internal pressure.

The force which acts on each closed end of the cylinder due to the internal
pressure is dependent on the CSA on which this pressure is acting. Cylinders
with larger ends but the same internal pressure have a smaller force pushing
against them.

5.3.2 Axial stress


The internal pressure acting on the ends of the pressure vessel generates axial
forces in the shell wall. In Figure 5.6, the axial stress, σx, is developed in the
shell, as a result of internal pressure, p.

X

Figure 5.6 Axial stress in the shell due to internal pressure.

5.3.3 Hoop stress


If the cylinder is cut across the diameter as in Figure 5.7, the internal pressure
acting radially creates an outward circumferential stress known as the hoop
stress. In Figure 5.7, p is the internal pressure acting on the shell, L is the
length of the section and y is the hoop stress.

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L

y

y
Figure 5.7 Hoop stress in the shell due to internal pressure.

5.4 Calculation of stresses


Assuming that the wall thickness is small compared with the radius of the shell
(thin wall assumption), the stresses in the shell are calculated by:

For a cylindrical pressure vessel the axial stress x is given by:

pr
x 
2t
The hoop stress y is twice the axial stress and is calculated by:

pr
y 
t
Since the hoop stress is twice that of the axial stress, failure of a cylindrical
pressure vessel will preferentially occur along the longitudinal welds, also true
for other similar pressure components such as pipelines. Consequently
longitudinal welds are subjected to more stringent acceptance standards than
the circular girth welds (welds around the circumference of the vessel or pipe).

For a spherical pressure vessel the stress in the vessel wall is symmetric about
all planes so only one membrane stress is calculated:

pr

2t

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5.5 Welding pressure vessels
5.5.1 Longitudinal welds
Since the hoop stress is twice the axial stress, problems are more likely to occur
along the longitudinal welds which experience the hoop stress. To avoid the
propagation of such a defect from one course to the next, it is common to offset
longitudinal welds as shown in Figure 5.8.

Offset

Figure 5.8 Offset longitudinal welds.

In the ASME Boiler and Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, vessels made of
two or more courses shall have the centres of the welded longitudinal joints of
adjacent courses staggered or separated by a distance of at least five times the
thickness of the thicker plate.

In PD 5500, the longitudinal seams of adjacent courses shall be staggered by


four times the thickness of the plate or 100mm whichever is the greater,
measured from the toe of the welds.

5.5.2 Circumferential welds


Circumferential welds are used to join the heads to the shell. Where the shell
and head thicknesses differ, taper transitions are used as shown in Figure 5.9.
The gradient is often specified as 1 in 4 as a minimum to avoid making the joint
a stress concentrator.

Minimum 1:4

Figure 5.9 Taper transition.

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Various weld joint designs exist to join the heads to the shell and the choice of
joint will depend on the welding process to be used, access conditions and the
material to be welded. Some examples are shown below.

a b

c d

Figure 5.10 Head-shell weld profiles.

The weld preparations shown in Figures 5.10a and b are the simplest joint
designs and assume that access for welding can be made from the inside of the
vessel so would not be used for small pressure vessels. Figure 5.10c shows a
self-jigging joint design with an integrated backing strip which can be welded
entirely from the outside, appropriate for thick section material whereas Figure
5.10d shows a self-jigging joint that could be formed in thinner material.

Figure 5.11 Welds between shell and dished head.

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5.6 Welded attachments
5.6.1 Nozzles
Nozzles connect the pressure vessel to other components such as pipework.
Depending on the vessel and application a vessel can have a large number of
nozzles of varying size and design. The type of nozzle used can depend on:
 Diameter/thickness ratio of the shell.
 Diameter/thickness ratio of the nozzle.
 Access (one or both sides).
 Type of joint required (partial/full penetration).
 Groove preparation methods available.

a b

Figure 5.12:
a) Set-on nozzle.
b) Set-through nozzle.

5.6.2 Flange connections


To connect other plant to the pressure vessel via the nozzles and to join long
runs of pipe together, separable joints are used to allow easy installation and
repair of the vessel and its components. The simplest joint is a screwed
connection but can only be used at relatively low pressures. The most common
method is to weld a flange to the nozzle and end of the pipe to be connected
and the flanges are then connected together using bolts as shown in Figure
5.13.

Gasket

Bolt

Figure 5.13 A flange connection.

A gasket of a relatively soft material is normally present between the two


flanges to produce a tight seal. The higher the fluid pressure and temperature,
the more robust the gasket and bolts need to be.

Flanges are available in designs to suit every application. As with the nozzle to
shell weld, the flange to nozzle weld has various different profiles to suit the
type of flange and pipe used.

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5.6.3 Reinforcement
A hole or opening in the shell of a pressure vessel for nozzles can have a
detrimental effect on the structural integrity of the shell. The hole can act like a
local stress concentration. The shell thickness is a function of the operating
stresses within the shell, if the shell experiences greater stress in a region due
to stress concentration the shell thickness needs to be greater in this region to
withstand the stresses. Welded plates of additional thickness around openings
in the pressure vessel are called reinforcement or compensation plates.

Reinforcement can be used on the shell, nozzle or both. Figure 5.14 shows two
types of reinforcement. Holes are made in the compensating plates to allow the
weld to be tested.

Reinforcing ring/
compensating plate Long neck
nozzle

Figure 5.14 Methods of reinforcement.

5.7 High and low temperature service


Pressure vessels for high or low temperature service have special requirements
and often they are insulated to maintain the internal temperature. Some are
designed with a double wall, such that the outer envelope containing a
pressurised inner container. Examples of double walled pressure vessels
include:

 Autoclaves
Sterilise medical equipment by heating to a high temperature inside a
sealed container. An autoclave is a pressurised device designed to heat
aqueous solutions above their boiling point without evaporation. Heating is
by feeding hot steam into the outer envelope. During sterilisation, medical
equipment must be protected from contamination by being in a hermetic
container, ie the inner container.

 Dewar vessels
For storing low temperature fluids like liquefied gases. To avoid heat
transfer from the outside to the contents in the inner vessel, the jacket
space between the two walls is evacuated.

 Vertical storage tanks


Used mainly for storing petroleum or chemical products. Although the inner
tank may not be highly pressurised, if at all, the outer wall is vital to keep
the tank contents cold and the inter-space is sometimes filled with thermal
insulation material.

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5.8 Standards and specifications
1 ASME 2007: ‘Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code’, Section VIII.

2 BS PD 5500 2009: ‘Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure


vessels’, London: British Standards Institution.

3 BS EN 13445 2009: ‘Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure


vessels’, London: British Standards Institution.

5.9 Summary
You should now:
 Understand the weld design details for pressure vessel construction of the
vessel shell, head and attachments.
 Be able to outline how to calculate hoop and axial stress in a pressure
vessel shell.

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Revision questions
1 Sketch a pressure vessel and label the shell, head and a nozzle connection. Show the
weld joints on your sketch.

2 When welding a thicker plate dished head onto a thinner plate shell wall, what
gradient of taper should be used?

3 What is the formula for hoop stress in a cylindrical pressure vessel?

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Design of Pressure Vessels 5-12 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Pressure Vessel

 Closed container which holds


gases or liquids under
pressure.
 Internally pressurised.
Design and Construction  Externally pressurised.
Design of Pressure Equipment  Fired (eg gas and oil fired
boilers).
 Unfired (eg gas storage
vessels).
TWI Training & Examinations Services
(EWF/IIW Diploma)

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Examples Shapes

 Diving cylinders. Cylindrical


 Hot water storage tanks.
 Distillation towers.
 Petrochemical reactors.
 Nuclear reactors.
 Gas storage vessels. Spherical
 Submarines.
 Space ships.
 ……

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Materials Pressure Vessel Standards

 Steel.  BS EN 13445/Pressure Equipment Directive.


 Aluminium alloys.
 Fibre reinforced composites.  BS PD 5500 – Specification for unfired fusion
welded pressure vessels.

 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,


Section VIII.

 Welds subject to their own standards and


specifications.

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5-1
Design Aspects Design Aspects

 Steel.  Failure modes.


 Group according to strength and composition eg  Gross plastic deformation.
 Group 1.1 yield strength <275 N/mm2.  Fatigue.
 Group 1.2 yield strength 275-360 N/mm2.  Creep.
 Bursting.
 Corrosion allowance.  Fracture.

 Load cases.  Joints.


 Normal (operating, start up etc) exceptional  Full penetration for all shell welds.
(low probability).

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Failures Failures

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Failures Construction of Pressure Vessels

 Shell.
 Main body, usually cylindrical.

 Head.
 Used to close the cylindrical shell, usually dished.

 Nozzle.
 Opening for filling, drainage or inspection.

 Saddle supports.
 Used to hold vessel in place.

 Nameplate.
 Contains important information about the vessel.

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5-2
Pressure Vessel Shells

 Closed container which holds  Cylindrical shell constructed of a number of


gases or liquids under curved plates.
pressure.  Longitudinal welds offset.
 Internally pressurised.
 Externally pressurised.
 Fired (eg gas and oil fired
boilers).
 Unfired (eg gas storage
vessels).

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Dished Heads Hemispherical Dished Heads

Can be manufactured from: Advantages


 One piece. Knuckle • Requires smallest thickness.
 Segments. • Sphere is the perfect shape for a pressure
vessel.
Petals
• Also good for external pressure.

Disadvantages
• Difficult to manufacture.

Crown
Always an odd number of petals

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Ellipsoidal Dished Heads Torispherical Dished Heads

Advantages Advantages
 Thickness equal to that of the shell.  Smallest axial dimension.
 Easy to generate.

Disadvantages Disadvantages
• Ellipse difficult to generate. • Thickness greater than that of the shell.
• Big axial dimension.

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5-3
Pressurisation Welding Pressure Vessels

Axial stress Hoop stress  Longitudinal welds subject to higher hoop


stress.
 Offset long welds between different courses of
the vessel.
 Circumferential welds are used to weld the
head to the shell.
 With different thicknesses, taper transitions
are used.
minimum 1:4
Pr Pr
x  y 
2t t

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Shell-Head Weld Profiles Shell-Head Welding

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Nozzles Nozzles

 To connect a pressure vessel with other


components we need nozzles.

Type of nozzle depends on:


 Diameter/thickness ratio of the shell.
 Diameter/thickness ratio of the nozzle.
 Access (one side only or both sides).
 Type of joint required (partial/full penetration).
 Groove preparation methods available.

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5-4
Nozzles Flange Joints

Types of nozzles  Separable joints used to connect plant to


vessel nozzles.
 Flange joint most commonly used.

Set-on Set-through

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Reinforcement High and Low Temperature Service

• A hole in the shell weakens the vessel.  Vessels often insulated or double walled.
• To compensate for loss in strength, add
reinforcement to the shell or nozzle.  Autoclave.
 High temperature internal chamber.
Reinforcing ring/  Used to sterilise medical apparatus.
Long neck
Compensating plate nozzle
 Dewar vessel.
 Low temperature storage.
 Gap between internal and external chamber is
evacuated.

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5-5
Section 6

Stresses in Welds
6 Stresses in Welds
6.1 Making things simple
In most situations it is very difficult, if not impossible to consider all the factors
that might influence the load carrying capacity of a welded joint. This is why
designers use assumptions to simplify the approach and reach a practical result
without over-complicated calculations.

6.1.1 Welds and HAZs


It is assumed that the weld and HAZ have a higher strength than the parent
material based on using an overmatching filler material (ie material with a
higher strength). Since the parent material is the weakest link, the weld joint
should always fail in the parent material instead of the weld; this assumption is
checked during the qualification of the welding procedure when the cross-weld
tensile test specimens ‘shall have a strength not less than the corresponding
specified minimum value for the parent material’ (see BS EN ISO 15614-1,
paragraph 7.4.2). There are a few situations when this assumption is not true;
aluminium alloys suffer strength loss in the HAZ. For thermo-mechanical control
process (TMCP) or high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, cold work processing
and/or microalloying is used to increase the strength of the parent metal. The
heat from welding causes the HAZ to recrystallise and become softer than the
parent material; hence this part of the joint would have the lowest strength. For
undermatched welds the implication would be that the overall strength of the
joint is dictated by the strength of the HAZ (which can be assumed to be equal
to the parent metal in the annealed condition).

6.1.2 Excess weld metal


Excess weld metal does not bear any stress and is neglected when accounting
for joint strength in weld design. Since deposition of the weld metal cannot be
controlled accurately, the size of the excess weld metal is not constant over the
entire length of the weld. Although ignoring it is a conservative assumption, for
design calculation, the design throat is used instead of the actual throat.

a b

Figure 6.1 Excess weld metal in:


a) Butt weld.
b) Fillet weld.

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a b

Figure 6.2 The design throat in a:


a) Butt weld;
b) Fillet weld.

6.1.3 Weld quality


It is assumed that the welds are defect-free at the design stage. Joint factors
are sometimes used to reduce the design stress to reflect a reduced level of
non-destructive testing (NDT) and the risk of weld flaws being present. The
presence of defects reduces the CSA through which load is carried.

6.1.4 Stress concentrations


Stress concentrations due to bead shape are neglected. Ripples on the surface
of the weld and weld toes are points of abrupt change in weld profile so
concentrate the stress. Although the effect of these features is quite significant,
especially in fatigue resistance, this effect cannot be exactly quantified so is
neglected when designing for static joint strength.

6.1.5 Partial penetration welds


In partial penetration welds, the throat is reduced by the amount of lost
penetration. This assumption is essential since load is transmitted only through
the welded section (since the non-penetrated section lacks material continuity it
cannot transmit any load).

6.1.6 Residual stresses


Residual stresses due to welding are ignored at the design stage. Although they
can reach the yield of the material, their exact magnitude and distribution are
hard to determine as they are influenced by the heat input which varies a lot
especially during manual and semi-automatic welding. As a result of this
uncertainty residual stresses are not taken into consideration for design
calculations.

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6.2 Different types of stresses in welds
6.2.1 Stress units
Welded structures are designed to carry loads so the welds contribute to the
support of these loads and materials supporting a load will be subject to stress.
Common units of stress measurement are Pascals, Pa, or Newtons per metre
squared, N/m2. The Pascal is a very small unit so MegaPascals (MPa) or
Newtons per millimetre squared (N/mm2) are normally used.

1MPa = 1N/mm2

6.2.2 Nominal stress


The concept of stress introduced in Section 3 was defined as the force or load
divided by cross-sectional area. This is called the nominal stress, Figure 6.3
and is the average stress over the area:


Stress MPa or N/mm2

Cross-section area

Load Load

Figure 6.3 Nominal stress.

6.2.3 Design or maximum allowable stress


Different application standards offer values for the maximum allowable stress
depending on the specific requirements and service condition, eg BS 5400-2
Steel, concrete and composite bridges – Part 2: Specification for loads or the
ASME Pressure Vessel codes. If not using a code the maximum allowable stress
can be approximated as two thirds of the parent metal yield strength. In the
USA (and historically in the UK), design stress was based on UTS reduced by a
factor of safety (typically 4). The designer must calculate to ensure that the
stress in the welds does not exceed the maximum allowable stress, also known
as the design stress.

Joint factors are sometimes used to reduce this initial design stress to reflect a
reduced level of NDT and the risk of weld flaws being present, eg if only 10% of
welds will be inspected, the value of 2/3 yield strength is multiplied by a joint
factor of 0.8 thus reducing the value of the design stress.

6.2.4 Hot spot and notch stress


In reality the stress distribution over the material cross-section is not always
uniformly distributed. Near geometrical features and stress concentrators the
distribution will contain a non-linear component this is the case for fillet welds.

Traditionally design calculations and experimental test data are generated using
the nominal stress approach. Alternative design methods estimate the strength
of connections using structural stresses which are a summation of the
membrane and bending stresses that occur across welds, based on a linear
stress distribution and ignore local non-linear stress profiles.

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The concept of hot spot stress was developed in the 1970s for determining the
strength of tubular joints in offshore platforms. The approach is now used to
assess the resistance of fillet welds and its concept extrapolates the structural
stress profile measured close to the weld toe. The hot spot stress can be
experimentally determined using strain gauges positioned at very specific
locations or using finite element calculations.

A particular advantage of using the hot spot stress approach is that it is far
easier to extract the hot spot stresses from finite element analysis (FEA)
instead of trying to determine the equivalent nominal stress. When much of the
current design of welded joints is done using finite element modelling, this
makes it easier to extract the stresses to compare with the design stress limit.

Stress

Notch stress

Hot spot stress

Structural stress

Nominal stress

Figure 6.4 Stress terminology close to the weld toe of a fillet weld.

The notch stress design approach uses the peak stress by capturing the
increase in stress intensity due to the presence of the weld and takes into
account the radius of the weld toe and geometry of the joint. This calculation
requires more parameters than the hot spot stress approach so is more
complex.

6.3 Butt welds


6.3.1 Stress in a full penetration butt weld
In carbon and carbon-manganese steels the weld metal is at least as strong as
the parent material so for most purposes the butt weld can be neglected when
assessing static strength. In this case a full penetration weld is between two
identical parent materials using matching filler and to avoid any start/stops
along the weld which might impair its quality, run off tabs were used.

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T

Figure 6.5 Full penetration butt weld under uniaxial tension load.

Using the simplifying assumptions from Section 6.1 the design throat would be
equal to the thickness of the parent plate t. Because the load P is acting
perpendicularly to the weld, the joint is subjected to tension. The stressed area
of the weld CSA is directly calculated by:

CSA = length, L × thickness, t

The CSA is in millimetre squared (mm2) if the thickness and length are both
expressed in millimetres (mm).

For a flat plate in uniaxial tension with a butt weld (Figure 6.5), the stress is
calculated in the same way as in a flat plate under uniaxial tension with no weld
(Figure 6.3). In a full penetration butt weld the stress is given by the following
equation:

Load, P Load, P
Stress,  = =
Cross-section area (CSA) Length, L x thickness, t

For the stress to be calculated in MPa (equivalent to N/mm2), the load must be
converted into Newtons (N) and the length and thickness of the weld are both
in millimetres. Often loads are given in kiloNewtons and will need to be
multiplied by 1000 to get the equivalent number of Newtons.

6.3.2 Stress in a partial penetration butt weld


The only difference between partial and full penetration welds is that the weld
does not penetrate through the entire thickness of the parent material so the
CSA of the weld is reduced and there is an unfused land down the centre of the
joint (Figure 6.6). To avoid an asymmetrical stress distribution the depth of
penetration on both sides must be equal (ie t1 = t2), which avoids the welds
causing additional bending stresses around the joint.

The CSA is now

CSA = length, L × (throat of weld 1, t1 + throat of weld 2, t2)

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The tensile stress which occurs in the weld is therefore calculated by:

Load, P Load, P
Stress,  = =
CSA Length, L x total thickness, t1 + t2

If the stress is to be in MPa, the load must be converted into Newtons (N) and
the length and thicknesses of the welds are all in millimetres.

Figure 6.6 Partial penetration, double sided butt weld under uniaxial load.

Another feature to consider in this type of weld is the crack-like gap left
between the two welds. Since defects are more likely close to the weld root,
adding a sharp corner in this area is not good practice. Therefore, it is strongly
advised to avoid partial penetration butt welds and to opt for fully penetrated
butt welds with a prepared edge to obtain a reliable joint.

6.3.3 Stressed area in pipes


For butt welds in pipe (often referred to as girth welds), it is necessary to know
the CSA of the pipe. A common approach is to imagine unrolling the pipe and
using the same method as for plates. The length of the plate is assumed to be
the average circumference of the pipe (along the middle of the weld). The
length of average circumference is conservatively determined by multiplying the
average diameter (ie the ODHD divided by two) by  (roughly 3.14).

Outer diameter
(OD)

Average diameter

Figure 6.7 CSA of pipes and tubular sections.

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The CSA of the weld under loading (ie the shaded area) is therefore equal to:
CSA = length, L x thickness, t =  x ½ (ID+OD) x t.

To get the most accurate calculation use the mean diameter (½ (OD + ID))
instead of the ID.

The second method to determine the CSA of a pipe is to imagine a larger and
smaller circle and take the area of the small circle away from that of the large
one. The formula for the area of a circle is CSA = r2, where r is the radius of
the circle. The radius of the larger circle is OD/2 and the radius of the smaller
circle is ID/2.

6.3.4 Shear stress in full penetration butt welds


Shear stresses in welds can be calculated using a similar approach as for
tension stresses. Shear stress has the symbol , compared with axial stress,
which is given the symbol . In a butt weld subjected to shear force P acting
parallel to the weld, the shear stress is given by the following equation:

Shear force, P (N)


Shear stress,  (MPa) =
Length, L mm x thickness,t (mm)

Shear force, P

Figure 6.8 Full penetration butt weld under shear loading.

6.4 Fillet welds


6.4.1 Advantages
Fillet welds are widely used in welded fabrication due to these advantages:

 Simplest design: One piece is stood against the other and the welding
electrode/gun is run where the parent metals touch.

 Cheap: Fillet welds require virtually no preparation (items can be welded


straight after flame cutting if the process is set correctly).

 Can be made in flat (PA) or horizontal (PB) position by semi-skilled


operators: A welder qualification for fillet welds requires only macro
examination or a fracture test which are less demanding than butt weld
tests.

 Can be made with any number of passes: The welder can either
increase productivity and reduce distortion by reducing the number of
passes or avoid a wide HAZ in a sensitive material (eg fine grained
structural steel) by reducing the heat input and increasing the number of
passes.

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6.4.2 Disadvantages
 If not performed correctly lack of penetration can occur so even if the leg
size is achieved, the weld throat which carries the load is reduced. This
defect can only be revealed by macro examination but since this is a
destructive test it cannot be applied to a welded assembly.

 The volume or weight of weld metal is proportional to the square of the leg
length. Once you calculate the required throat/leg size, stick to it. Over-
welding fillet welds is easy but costly in terms of consumables used and can
lead to heavy distortion and lamellar tearing.

6.4.3 Shape of fillet welds


For design purposes a fillet weld is assumed to be triangular in shape, the size
being defined by the weld throat or leg length as shown in Figure 6.9.

Figure 6.9 Terms used to describe the features of a fillet weld.

Throat thickness is regarded as the most important dimension for design


purposes but mechanical failure of fillet welds is often along the fusion line or
through the parent material. One reason for this in carbon or low alloy steels is
that the weld metal is mostly substantially stronger than the parent metal.
The throat is the shortest distance from the root to the face of the weld. Fillet
weld sizes should be specified by referring to the throat thickness, a, although
leg length, z, is often used and can be easier to measure during weld
inspection. Conventionally, leg lengths are regarded as being of equal
dimension, the weld forming an isosceles triangle in cross-section. Convex,
concave and deep penetration welds are illustrated in Figure 6.9.

a b c

Figure 6.10 Fillet welds:


a) Convex;
b) Concave;
c) Deep penetration.

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Actual
throat

Design throat

Design throat =
actual throat

Figure 6.11 Design versus actual throat thickness for fillet welds.

The convex fillet is generally undesirable for two main reasons. The junction of
the weld metal with the parent metal at the weld toe can form a significant
stress raiser and will adversely affect both fatigue life and brittle fracture
resistance. Excess weld metal in the cap costs time and money to deposit
without contributing to joint strength.

The concave fillet weld can be beneficial with respect to fatigue strength but the
minimum specified throat thickness MUST be achieved.

Deep penetration fillet welding can give a stronger joint but it is not possible to
allow for this during design as the actual penetration depth cannot be verified
by inspection techniques during production.

6.4.4 Stress in fillet welds


In a fillet weld the stress is supported by the throat, a, so it is assumed that
fillet welds always fail across the throat because during the application of load,
the throat is the smallest section which supports this load and thus the stress is
at its maximum level in this area. The result of design calculations for a fillet
weld would give the throat size.

Figure 6.12 Single sided fillet weld under tension.

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In a simplified way, the stress in the weld throat can be calculated by the
following equation:

Load, P
Stress =
Length, L x throat, a

This equation also holds for fillet welds under shear such as in Figure 6.13.

Figure 6.13 Single-sided fillet weld under shear.

Often when fillet weld sizes are calculated they are mainly subjected to shear.
The allowable or design shear stresses on the weld throat area are applied.
Some codes specify these values depending on the welding electrode but in the
absence of such information ½ yield stress of the parent material is assumed as
the design shear stress (compared with ⅔ yield for the design axial tensile
stress). This value of design shear stress takes into consideration the higher
sensitivity towards cold cracking shown by fillet welds due to the increased
combined thickness (see MAB module) as well as the effect of the natural lack
of penetration present at the root of the joint.

In some standards such as AWS D1.1: ‘Structural welding code’, American


Welding Society, 2008, the leg length z may be used as a design parameter. In
a mitre fillet weld, the relationship between the throat and the leg is:

Figure 6.12 Weld throat and leg length in a mitre fillet weld.

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For a fillet weld with equal leg lengths, the cross section triangle is a right-angle
triangle with angles of 45 degrees in each corner. The relationship between
weld throat, a and leg length z is given by:

a ≈ 0.7z and z ≈ 1.4 a

(For the maths-minded, 0.7 is 1/√2 and 1.4 is √2).

6.5 Different types of forces


Four different types of force are considered; compression, tension, shear and
bending as shown in Figure 6.13.

Figure 6.13 Types of loading.

Tension and compression act perpendicular to the CSA and give rise to direct
axial stress as discussed in Section 3.3. When the load is applied parallel but
offset to the CSA a shear stress results.

a b

Figure 6.14
a) Axial stress.
b) Shear stress.

Shear stresses are particularly significant for calculating stresses in fillet and lap
welds, is represented by the Greek symbol tau,  and is calculated as the shear
force, Q, over the CSA but it is the force that acts parallel to the CSA, A.

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Shear strain, , is also the change in dimensions from the original but it is the
shear strain, , (acting parallel to the applied, Q) over the offset between the
two opposite shear forces, h, shown in Figure 3.22.

Figure 6.15 Dimensions for the definition of shear stress and strain.

Bending a beam, such as shown in Figure 3.23, imposes tension (tensile stress)
in the outer surface and compression (compressive stress) on the inner surface.
There is a line at which there is no net stress called the neutral axis, shown as a
dashed line.

Figure 6.16 Stresses in a beam under bending.

The bending moment, M, is when bending is imposed on a beam and is the


applied force multiplied by the perpendicular distance that force is applied at. It
is easiest to imagine a cantilever (a horizontal beam fixed to a wall at one end),
with a load on the free end (Figure 3.24). Applied force, F, results in a bending
moment, M, equal to F x d where d is the length of the beam. The bending
moment causes an axial reaction force inside the beam, Fx. Applied force, F, is
also reacted by a shear force, Fy, acting at the fixed end.

Figure 6.17 Stresses in a cantilever beam under bending moment, M.

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The amount of axial stress in the beam caused by the applied moment depends
on how stiff the design of the beam is, characterised by the beam’s second
moment of area (moment of inertia) and given the symbol, I. A stiff beam with
a large second moment of area tends to be tall and thin, with most of the
beam’s mass at a vertical distance from the neutral axis (such as a tube section
or an I-beam). Beams with low stiffness (low second moment of area) are wide
flat beams. Bend a ruler while it’s flat then turn it on its edge and trying to bend
it that way - it’s much harder! A range of beam cross-sections are shown in
Figure 3.25 in order of stiffness for the same CSA.

High stiffness Low stiffness

High Second moment of area Low

Figure 6.18 Beam cross-sections ranked in order of stiffness by their second


moment of area, for an equivalent CSA.

The engineer’s bending formula is used to calculate the maximum bending


stress, , in a beam and is equal to the applied bending moment, M, multiplied
by the vertical distance from the neutral axis, y, divided by the second moment
of area, I.

 = My / I

This means that for the same applied bending moment (ie the same length of
cantilever beam with the same load on the end); a beam with a larger second
moment of area will result in a much lower maximum stress at the tension
surface. This is why structures are designed with square or round hollow section
beams and I-beams, because they allow greater loads to be carried without
redundant extra weight being required.

6.6 Worked examples


Calculate the stress in this butt weld

Answer: 64MPa

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What size fillet weld is needed in this joint? Steel has a yield strength of
350MPa.

8mm

Answer: 5.8mm

Let’s use the example of the cantilever beam to calculate the bending stress as
a result of an applied load on the free end of the beam. No calculations of this
kind will be on the specialist exam but by using an example with actual
numbers it can help to show what the effect of the bending moment and second
moment of area mean for a beam under load.

Start by assuming the beam is square section (10 x 10mm) and then we’ll
calculate the bending stress if we use a rectangular section beam of the same
CSA, but 5 x 20mm.

Assume the beam is 300mm long with a load of 200N on its free end. First,
calculate the bending moment, M.

Bending moment is force x distance: M = 200N x 300mm = 60,000Nmm.

Let’s calculate the second moment of area of the beam. For square and
rectangular beams the formula for a beam with a breadth, b and depth, d is
I = bd3/12.

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This means that the second moment of area for the square section beam is
833mm4, whereas the rectangular beam has a second moment of area of
3333mm4.

The rectangular beam is four times stiffer than the square beam. The distance
from the neutral axis, y, is basically half the depth of each beam, ie 5mm for
the square beam and 10mm for the rectangular beam.

The engineer’s bending formula,  = MY/I can now be used to work out the
bending stress in each beam. The square section beam has a stress equal to
60,000 x 5/833 which equals 360MPa.

The rectangular section beam has stress equal to 60,000 x 10/3333 which
equals 180MPa. Therefore by changing the square section beam to a
rectangular beam the stress in the beam is halved!

6.7 References
IIW Guidelines; Niemi E, Fricke W and Maddox S J: ‘Fatigue analysis of welded
components’. Designer's guide to the structural hot-spot stress approach’.
Woodhead Publishing, 2009.

6.8 Summary
You should now:
 Understand the CSAs of different welds and how forces act on them.
 Know the difference between design nominal, hot spot and notch stresses.
 Know how to calculate a bending moment and to recognise the engineer’s
bending formula.

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Revision questions

Remember to draw a sketch and check your units!

1 What is the cross sectional area that carries the load in a full penetration butt weld in
a 4m wide plate of 12mm thick steel?

2 A plate has a yield strength of 320MPa. What will you assume the design strength is?

3 Therefore, what is the maximum load that this weld can carry?

4 A single fillet weld attaches a plate of length 200mm onto a base plate. The single
fillet weld has a throat thickness of 6mm. If the designer wishes to change the design
to have two fillet welds, one on either side of the attachment plate, what size leg
length will they specify?

5 A 50kN load is carried by a 300mm long fillet weld in shear. If the steel has a yield
strength of 240MPa, what size does the fillet weld need to be?

6 What is the engineer’s bending formula?

Maths answers:
1: 48000mm2. 2: 213MPa. 3: 10,240KN. 4: 4.5mm. 5: 1.4mm
throat.

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Making Things Simpler

• For structural steels the weld metal usually


overmatches the parent metal so use parent
metal strength for calculations.
• Excess weld metal is neglected
 Does not carry load.
Design and Construction  Use the weld throat thickness.
Stresses in Welds

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Making Things Simpler Nominal Stress

 Assume defect-free welds. Nominal stress calculation:


 Stress concentrations are neglected due to the
bead shape, ripples, abrupt changes, defects. Load, N
 Residual stresses are ignored: Stress, Nmm2 or MPa =
CSA, mm2
 Their magnitude and distribution are not known
with certainty.
 Vary with welding parameters. CSA

Load Load

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Design Stress Non-Uniform Stress

 Design stress for a structure is often ⅔ yield  Stress distribution over the cross-section is
stress. not always uniformly distributed.

 Ensure that the stress in the weld does not  Near geometric features and stress
exceed the maximum allowable design stress. concentrators distribution increase the
maximum stress.
 Joint factors are often used to reflect the level
of NDT and risk that flaws could be present.  For fillet welds, use hot spot stress.

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6-1
Hot Spot Stress Notch Stress

Originally developed for tubular joints in  Approach uses peak stress by looking at stress
offshore platforms intensity due to presence of weld.

Stress
Determined by:  Takes into account the radius of the weld toe
Notch stress
 Strain gauges. and joint geometry.
 Finite element analysis. Hot spot stress

Structural stress
 Complex approach since requires knowledge of
Nominal stress microstructural parameters.

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Stress in a Butt Weld Stress in a Partial Penetration Weld

 Weld metal overmatches parent metal. Partial penetration, double sided butt weld
 Butt welds can usually be neglected.
 Full penetration butt weld under uniaxial tension.

P Load, P
Load, P σ t2 t1
Load, P
Lt
Thickness, t Load, P Length , L
Crack-like unfused land
Length, L

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Cross Section Area of Pipes Shear Stress

Thickness Outer
Method 1: Unroll the
(t) diameter tube into a flat plate: Shear force, P
(OD) Shear force, P
 Length is the average
circumference.
t
 Circumference is p x ID.
Average  Multiply this by the wall
diamete thickness. Length, L
r
Inner
diameter Method 2: Subtract area
(ID)
of large circle from small
one:
 Area of circle = pr2. Shear force, P
Shear stress, t =
 Large radius, r1 is OD/2. Length, L x thickness, t
 Small radius, r2 is ID/2.

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6-2
Fillet Welds Fillet Welds

Advantages:  Terms.
 Cheap.  Toe.
Root.
 Simple. 

 Leg length.
 Can be made flat (PA) or horizontal (PB).
 Weld throat.
 Can be made with any number of passes.
 Cheap weld design.
Disadvantages:  Easy to weld.
 Lack of penetration may occur which cannot  All positions and
be revealed by NDT.  multi-passes.
 Volume and weight of weld increases with the  Lack of penetration risk.
square of the leg length.
 Easy to overweld.
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Shape of Fillet Welds Fillet Weld Throat

Convex fillet Actual


 Stress concentration at the throat

weld toe.
 Excess weld metal.
Design throat
Concave
 Smoother transition at the
weld toe.
 Ensure weld throat is big
enough.
Design throat =
actual throat

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Stresses in Fillet Welds Section Properties

Stresses supported by weld throat  In fillet welds the stress is supported by the
throat.
P
 Mitre fillet is assumed.
Load, P
Stress =
Length, L x throat, a 1
L √2

a a ≈ 0.7z

z ≈ 1.4a

z √2
a

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6-3
Types of Forces Types of Stress

σ Q τ
Compression
τ Q

Q
Tension Shear Stress, τ 
A

Shear F

F
Bending
Direct stress, σ 
A

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Strain Bending Stresses

Consider a beam subjected to pure bending with


δ no shear
Shear Strain, γ 
h
Before bending
δ
Q Tension (+)

M M
h

Q Compression (-)
After bending
A
Neutral axis - longitudinal stresses are zero

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Bending Moment Second Moment of Area

A cantilever beam:
Force, F
Fy

M
Fx

d High stiffness Low stiffness


High Second moment of area Low
Bending moment: M = F x d

Reaction forces: Fx Fy M

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6-4
Bending Stress Worked Example

Calculation of the stress Force, 200N


Using the engineers’ beam theory.

Bending stress s = My/l. M


Bending stress, s

M = Bending moment, Nmm.


Y = Vertical distance from neutral axis, mm. D, 300mm
l = Second moment of area, mm4.
Bending moment:

M=Fxd
= 200 x 300 = 60,000Nmm.

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Second Moment of Area Bending Stress

10mm 20mm
Depth, d 10mm 20mm s=My/l
y

Breadth, b 10mm 10mm The taller


beam has
half the
stress! 5mm
5mm
For a rectangle I = 833mm4 I = 3333mm4
I = bd3/12 I = 833mm4 I = 3333mm4 y = 5mm y = 10

 = 60,000 x 5/833  = 60,000 x 10/3333


y = d/2 y = 5mm y = 10  = 360MPa  = 180MPa

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Summary Revision Question 1

 Simplifying assumptions.
800kN
 Design stresses and nominal stresses:
 Butt welds.
 Fillet welds.
 CSAs of welds. Thickness = 800kN
 Stress calculations. 25mm
Length =
500mm

What is the stress in this butt weld?

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6-5
Revision Question 1 - Solution Revision Question 2

What size fillet weld is needed in this joint?


800kN
Steel with a yield strength of 350MPa
200kN

Thickness = 800kN
25mm 200mm
Length =
500mm

CSA = length x thickness = 12500mm2 8mm


Load = 800kN = 800,000N
Stress = load/CSA = 800,000/12500 = 64MPa ?

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Revision Question 2 - Solution Revision Question 2 - Solution

What size fillet weld is needed in this joint? What size fillet weld is needed in this joint?

Steel with a yield strength of 350MPa Steel with a yield strength of 350MPa
Load
200kN 200kN Length x throat =
Design stress is ⅔ of 350 Stress
= 233MPa
200mm 200mm Throat
Throat =
= 200,000
load
200,000
Load 200 xx stress
233
Stress = length
200
CSA

Load Throat = 4.3mm


CSA =
Stress
8mm 8mm
Load Specify a 5mm throat
Length x throat = fillet weld
? Stress ?

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6-6
Section 7

Different Types of Loading


7 Different Types of Loading
Structures experience loading in a wide range of conditions. Firstly designers
assess a structure under static loading at ambient temperature. When the
structure is in service it may experience extremes of temperature from low to
high and the loading may fluctuate and affect the structural integrity of any
welds in the structure. It is important to consider all types of loading when
designing welded structures.

7.1 Static strength


Which of two tensile specimens of the same material but different size (Figure
7.1) is stronger?

Specimen 1

Specimen 2

Figure 7.1 Tensile specimens of different sizes.

The load-extension curves from the two specimens are shown in Figure 7.2 and
it can be seen that specimen 2 can withstand the greater load. Tensile strength
is a material specific property and these specimens are of the same material so
should have the same strength regardless of size so the size of the specimen is
taken into account, when determining the stress (as opposed to the load) and
the units of stress are N/mm2.

Figure 7.2 Load-extension curves for tensile specimens 1 and 2.

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Stress takes into account the CSA of a specimen so is the true indicator of
strength not the maximum load applied. The CSA of the specimen in Figure 7.3
is the area being tested perpendicular to the tensile direction of loading and is
often a circle in a round tensile specimen but square or rectangular section
specimens are also possible. The tensile specimen is thicker at the ends where
it is gripped but the material being tested is in the central parallel section,
called the gauge of the specimen. It is the CSA within the gauge length that is
used to calculate stress.

Figure 7.3 Cross-sectional area of tensile specimens.

Instead of load versus displacement curves, the tensile test is represented by a


stress versus strain graph. Strain is the proportional extension of the specimen,
the amount it has extended divided by its original length. The stress-strain
curves for Specimens 1 and 2 from Figure 7.1 become the same as shown in
Figure 7.4.
Stress, 

Strain,

Figure 7.4 Different sized specimens of the same material give the same stress-
strain curve.

Using stress-strain curves effectively normalises different specimen sizes. It


allows testing of small scale samples then applying the results to larger
structural components impractical to test in a laboratory. Load-extension would
not allow this.

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The stress–strain curves for different materials can be used to help design
structures. To ensure there is no plastic deformation in structures, engineers
usually design each structural member to operate at a static stress equivalent
to two thirds of the yield stress, leaving a third as a safety factor so the
structure can tolerate further loading without plastic deformation. Some design
codes limit the applied stress to half yield strength. Other loads that can act on
the structure are mostly due to adverse weather conditions such as added
weight due to snow fall or additional forces due to high winds. Figure 7.5 shows
this safety margin between the design stress, σdesign and yield stress, σy.

desig
Stress,

Strain,
Figure 7.5 Indicated design stress at two thirds yield stress.

7.2 Effect of temperature on strength


The material specific description of strength is not a set value. Factors can
affect the strength of a material like they can all material properties with one of
the biggest factors being the temperature of operation as shown in Figure 7.6 for
different metallic materials. Generally steels exhibit a reduction in tensile
strength at elevated temperatures, however, certain steels exhibit trends
showing a decrease then an increase in strength between certain temperatures
but this characteristic is also dependent on the strain rate.

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Bronze
Copper
Strength, % of ultimate strength
Structural steel
Steel castings
Cast iron
Wrought iron

Temperature, °F

Figure 7.6 Influence of temperature on different metallic materials.

Despite higher temperatures causing a drop in tensile strength, operating at


these temperatures also increases the ductility of the material and avoids the
risk of brittle fracture. Ferritic steels experience a ductile to brittle transition at
a given (usually low) temperature, as shown in Figure 7.7 for the Charpy
impact curve at different test temperatures for ferritic steel. Therefore
operating steels at lower temperatures, while giving higher strength, risks
suffering a significant drop in fracture toughness.
Energy,

Test

Figure 7.7 Typical Charpy impact curve for ferritic steel.

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Choosing materials which best suit certain applications and the method to
assess a material’s suitability are termed material selection. An example
where this has been optimised to the maximum is the turbine engine, shown in
Figure 7.8.

Ni-superalloy

Figure 7.8 Turbine aero-engine.

Colour coding shows what sort of material is used at different locations within
the engine. At the back, where combustion takes place, the temperature is very
high and normal materials would not be able to withstand the heat generated
and would lose their integrity. Ni-superalloys have been engineered by
materials scientists to perform the duties required of turbine blades without
degrading.

As with all aerospace components, weight saving is a big issue. The fan blades
at the front need to be light but strong and resistant to creep so selecting the
correct material is challenging. A titanium alloy is used due to its excellent
mechanical properties and most of all its strength to weight ratio.

The engine’s driveshaft running through the centre of the engine is made of
steel which is three times heavier than titanium. There is no real replacement
for this component due to the intense levels of torque that it must tolerate.
Titanium is as strong as steel but cannot withstand twisting forces to the same
extent.

Areas of the engine not requiring demanding mechanical properties or high


temperature resistance are made of very light composite materials such as
carbon fibre to save weight.

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7.3 Stress concentrations
Sudden changes in geometry in a material section (such as holes, notches,
grooves, corners, fillet welds or defects) can act as stress raisers which
concentrate the stress so that the local stress increases. The lines of
transmission of the stress are similar to flow lines if fluid were to enter the
material from one end to the other as in Figure 7.9. Densely packed flow lines
represent the concentration of stress at those points.

Figure 7.9 Stress concentration around a notch.

Figure 7.10 shows the stress concentration effect of a circular hole in a large
flat plate under tension. Even this simple detail increases the stress at the edge
of the hole by a factor of 3 so close to the edges of holes (such as bolt holes),
the maximum stress in the plate is about three times the nominal applied
stress. Sharper notches concentrate the stress by much more and very sharp
notches such as cracks have a very high concentration of stress at their tips.

Maximu
m

Figure 7.10 Stress concentration due to a circular hole.

7.4 Modes of failure


There are a number of ways that a metal structure can fail. In the MAB module
you learnt a number of ways that welds can suffer cracking but ultimately these
flaws lead to catastrophic failure in one of three main ways: ductile failure,
fatigue and brittle fracture.

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7.4.1 Ductile failure
Ductile failure or plastic collapse occurs when yielding and deformation precede
failure and is the result of overloading. Purely ductile failures are rare since
most structures are designed well within their load bearing capacity but can
occur when the strength has been degraded, for example in high temperatures
during a fire. Ductile failures are most likely to occur in service as a secondary
failure mode after the section thickness has been reduced due to fatigue crack
growth, corrosion or erosion.

When examining the fracture surface, a ductile failure shows evidence of gross
yielding or plastic deformation, the fracture surface is rough and torn and may
be highly fibrous as a result of deformation. The failure surface may show 45
degree shear lips or have surfaces inclined at 45 degrees to the load direction.
Two ductile failures are shown in Figures 7.11 and 7.12.

Figure 7.11 Ductile rupture of a component.

Figure 7.12 Ductile fracture surface.

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7.4.2 Fatigue failure
Fatigue is discussed in detail in Section 4 of this course. The failure surface
from a fatigue failure is smooth, flat and bounded by a curve (Figure 7.13).
There are sometimes bands, known as beachmarks on the fracture surface
which show the progress of the crack front. The beachmarks can help identify
the point of origin at the middle of the beachmark curves. A fatigue failure
surface is always at 90 degrees to the load, but final fracture will usually take
the form of gross yielding, or sometimes will result in a brittle fracture.

Figure 7.13 Fatigue fracture surface.

7.4.3 Brittle fracture


Brittle fracture involves little or no plastic deformation and occurs in a fast,
unstable manner. The crack propagates at about the speed of sound so is a
very fast rupture process and the results can be catastrophic.

A characteristic of brittle fracture (Figure 7.14) is there is little or no plastic


deformation before failure. The fracture surface may show chevron marks or
river lines pointing back to the fracture initiation point. With a brittle impact
fracture the surface is rough but not torn and will sometimes have a crystalline
appearance (particularly under high strain rate loading, for example in a Charpy
specimen).

Figure 7.14 Brittle fracture surfaces where a fatigue crack propagated


following brittle fracture.

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The likelihood of brittle fracture is caused by three main factors: Sufficiently low
toughness; the presence of a flaw; and the application of a stress. These can be
remembered visually using a triangle.

Low toughness

Bang

Figure 7.15 The three factors for brittle fracture.

The ductile to brittle transition in steels at low temperature influences whether


a failure will be ductile or brittle. At low temperatures the material has lower
fracture toughness and is more prone to brittle fracture. Low toughness is more
likely in materials with a crystalline structure which is body centred cubic (bcc)
ferritic steels because they show the toughness transition, compared with those
with face centred cubic (fcc) crystal structures, such as austenitic stainless steel
or aluminium which do not show a marked transition between ductile and brittle
behaviour. Low toughness can result from the steels’s microstructure as a fine
grain size has high toughness whereas martensite or coarse grain HAZ have low
toughness. Material thickness also has an effect on the fracture toughness with
thick material having lower effective toughness than thinner plate made from
the same material.

Brittle fracture is more likely in the presence of high residual stresses or if the
structure is highly loaded, particularly under high strain rate (impact loading).
Stress-concentrations (from weld toes, change of section, notches) and weld
defects (such as cracks or lack-of-fusion) can have a major effect on the
likelihood of brittle fracture.

Brittle fracture is a particular concern in welded structures due to the presence


of weld defects (poor quality), Poor fracture toughness in parent material
(wrong design choice) or in HAZ (too high or low heat input), combined with a
high level of residual stress (no post weld heat treatment (PWHT), wrong
design) can combine to make brittle fracture a very real danger. The welding
engineer needs to be very careful when designing a welded structure to make
sure that brittle fracture will be avoided.

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7.5 Reading fracture faces
It is rare that a fracture surface will exhibit just one kind of failure mode so
when reading a fracture face it is important to look for clues to all the modes
which might play a part in the overall failure. In particular, beachmarks will be
characteristic of fatigue failure and river lines will indicate that brittle fracture
has occurred. Failure planes at 45o to the main loading is evidence of ductile
failure but the absence of any of these clues does not mean that those failure
modes could not have occurred.

In Figure 7.16 the smooth flat region with beachmarks identifies that fatigue
has occurred. The final fracture is rough and torn and is at 45 degrees to the
fatigue crack, pointing to ductile overload as the final failure.

Ductile final failure – rough,


45 degrees shear, deformed

Figure 7.16 Clues to understand a fracture face.

7.6 Summary
You should now:

 Be able to identify the types of fracture.


 Understand the requirements for designing under different loading or
temperature service and how to choose materials that meet these
requirements.

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Revision questions
1 What effect does high temperature have on strength?

2 Give four examples of stress concentrations.

3 What are the three main factors for brittle fracture to occur?

4 Beachmarks occur on a fracture surface from which failure mechanism?

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Static Strength

Load, N

Specimen 2

Design and Construction


Specimen 1
Different Types of Loading

Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Extension, mm

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Cross-Section Area Stress-Strain Curve

Stress is the load divided by the CSA. Stress-strain curve normalises different
In a tensile specimen, use the gauge CSA. specimen sizes

Gauge length

CSA
Specimens 1 and 2
Stress, σ

Width/diameter
Strain, ε

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Design Strength Effect of Temperature on Strength

 Design components to operate at stresses less Metals (including steel) lose tensile strength at
than material yield strength. higher temperature
 Limit static stress to ⅔ of yield.
 Factor of safety.

σy

σdesign
Stress, σ

σdesign = ⅔σy

Strain, ε

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7-1
Materials Selection: Select the Most
Effect of Temperature on Toughness
Suitable Material for a Given Application

Higher temperatures cause ferritic steel to Key:


increase ductility Lightweight
Ni superalloy
Transition
range Upper Ti alloy
shelf
Steel
Energy, J

Brittle Ductile Composite


High torque
Lower
shelf
High temperatures

Test temperature, °C Lightweight but creep resistant

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Stress Concentration Stress Concentration at a Hole

 Sudden changes in geometry cause localised  The stress concentration at the edge of a hole is 3.
areas of high stress.  The maximum stress is three times the applied
stress.
 Imagine flow lines which get close together at
 Sharper notches concentrate the stress much more.
stress concentrations.

Maximum
stress
Applied
stress

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Modes of Failure Ductile Fracture

 Ductile failure.  The result of overloading possibly poor design


 Fatigue failure. or elevated temperature such as a fire
 Brittle fracture. reducing strength.

 Evidence of gross yielding or plastic


deformation.

 The fracture surface is rough and torn.

 The surface may show 45 degrees shear lips


or have surfaces inclined at 45 degrees to the
load direction.
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7-2
Ductile Fracture Fatigue Failure

 Ductile fracture or plastic collapse occurs when  Fatigue failure surface is smooth, flat and bounded by a
yielding and deformation precedes failure. curve.
 Bands or beachmarks may sometimes be seen showing
 Fracture surface appears torn and fibrous. the progress of the crack front from the point of origin.
 The surface is 90 degrees to the load.
 Final fracture usually takes the form of gross yielding.

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Brittle Fracture Features of a Brittle Fracture

 Fast and unstable type of  Little or no plastic deformation before failure.


fracture.
 The results can be  The crack surface may show chevron marks or
catastrophic. river lines pointing back to the fracture
initiation point.

 With impact fracture, the surface is rough but


not torn and usually has a crystalline
appearance.

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Brittle Fracture Factors Causing Brittle Fracture

Low toughness

Bang

Stress Flaw

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7-3
Brittle Fracture – Low Toughness Brittle Fracture – Stress and Flaws

Low temperature  Residual stress from welding.


 Ductile to brittle transition in steels at low temperature.  Applied stress from loading.
Crystalline structure  Strain rate.
 Ferritic materials (carbon steel) show a toughness  Higher strain rate more likely to cause brittle
transition while austenitic materials (stainless steel, fracture.
aluminium) do not.
 Stress concentrations:
Microstructure  Weld toes, change of section, notches.
 Fine grain size has high toughness.
 Weld defects:
 Martensite or coarse grain HAZ has low toughness.
 Cracks, lack of fusion.
Material thickness
 Thick material has lower effective toughness than
thinner.

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Reading Fracture Faces

Ductile final failure – rough,  Not usually just one


45o shear, deformed. mode of failure.
 Look for clues to
identify each mode
that plays a part.
 Beachmarks.
- Fatigue.
 River lines.
- Brittle fracture.
 45 degree failure
planes.
Fatigue – flat, smooth,
- Ductile.
beachmarks, curve.

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7-4
Section 8

Design Consideration for Aluminium


8 Design Considerations for Aluminium
Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal and has properties which
make it very attractive to designers. Compared with steel it has a higher
strength-to-weight ratio making it very attractive to the aerospace, marine and
automotive industries where weight savings have a dramatic impact on
performance and fuel economy. 70% of commercial civil aircraft airframes are
made from aluminium alloys and without aluminium civil aviation would not be
economically viable. Ships, boats, cars, trains, all use the lower weight of
aluminium alloys.

Unlike steel, aluminium’s non-magnetic properties make it well suited for


applications where electromagnetic interference is undesirable, for example the
electronics industry. Its high electrical conductivity makes aluminium a popular
material for welding cables and overhead transmission lines and its corrosion
resistance makes it useful for food and medicine packaging.

The recyclability of aluminium makes it even more attractive as it shows no sign


of degradation when recycled, which means it can be recycled indefinitely
without loss of quality and recycling only requires 5% of the energy required to
make new aluminium.

8.1 Advantages of aluminium compared to steel


Weight
Low density (2702g/cm3), roughly one third that of steel so the deadweight of
aluminium structures is dramatically reduced which promotes its use where
weight is an important factor such as the automotive, shipping or aerospace
industries (Figure 8.1).

a b

Figure 8.1 Applications of aluminium alloys:


a) Train carriage bodies;
b) Helicopter components.

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Corrosion resistance
Aluminium alloys have excellent corrosion resistant properties due to a thin
self-healing oxide layer and can normally be used unpainted. It’s corrosion
resistance makes it widely used for food packaging such as aluminium foil, drink
and food cans. Other uses include gas cylinders, ladders and ski poles. Higher
strength alloys will corrode in some hostile environments and may need
protection.

Magnetic properties
Aluminium is non-magnetic so can be used where no electromagnetic
interference is allowed such as avionics devices. This means that magnetic
particle examination cannot be used as an NDT method to detect surface/near
surface defects in an aluminium weld.

Ductility for extrusion


Extruding is the standard process for producing aluminium sections and is
vastly more versatile than the rolling procedures used for steel. Complex cross-
sections can be extruded in a single operation rather than requiring extensive
welding (Figure 8.2) and exploiting this ability is a major feature in aluminium
design.

Figure 8.2 Extruded complex aluminium sections frictions stir welded together.

Machinability
Milling can be an economic fabrication technique for aluminium because of the
high metal removal rates possible so U or J weld preparations are easier to
produce. These machined preparations can lead to better joint fit-up, reducing
the amount of weld metal required to fill the preparation and avoiding possible
weld defects caused by mismatch.

Low temperature performance


With a FCC crystalline structure, aluminium possesses excellent strength and
toughness characteristics at low temperatures so is suited for cryogenic
applications (Figure 8.3). Unlike steel it does not exhibit a ductile to brittle
transition at low temperature.

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Figure 8.3 Storage spheres for holding cryogenic liquids.

Electrical conductivity
Aluminium possesses a high coefficient of electrical conductivity which
combined with a lower price per kg compared with copper make it the standard
material for overhead transmission lines (with a central steel strand to carry the
weight of the cable). Aluminium alloys have an electrical conductivity
approximately 65% that of copper but because of their density can carry more
than twice the electricity as an equivalent weight of copper.

Thermal conductivity
Aluminium has a high coefficient of thermal conductivity (237W/m°C - about
four times greater than steel) so pure aluminium can be used in heat
exchangers as an alternative to copper tubes. For welding high thermal
conductivity is a disadvantage since the heat tends to dissipate quickly from the
heated point.

8.2 Welding and joining aluminium


Weldability
Most aluminium alloys can be arc welded using gas-shielded processes. The low
melting point of aluminium (660ºC) means welding speeds can be faster
compared with steel. Arc welds in aluminium can suffer from porosity, lack of
fusion due to the presence of particles of high melting point oxide in the weld
pool and solidification cracking for susceptible weld pool compositions. Most
aluminium welds suffer from an unavoidable loss of strength in the HAZ due to
grain growth (see Section 8.5).

Molten aluminium has high fluidity (compared with molten steel) so the weld
pool can spill out or run ahead of the joint preparation, leading to possible
fusion or burn-through problems. To avoid this, a smaller (or no) root gap is
used.

Electron beam and laser welding is now used extensively for joining aluminium
components with the advantages of high processing speeds, ease of automation
and low heat input (low distortion). Friction welding processes (such as friction
stir welding) avoid the disadvantages of fusion welds and can produce
extremely strong defect-free welds in aluminium alloys.

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Adhesive bonds
Adhesive bonding is well established for making structural joints in aluminium
and does not produce residual stresses or other defects which can occur during
welding (hot cracking, porosity, etc). Unfortunately adhesive bonded joints have
limited life as most adhesive systems degrade rapidly when the joint is both
highly stressed and exposed to a hot, humid environment.

8.3 Disadvantages of aluminium


Cost
Aluminium (sections, sheet and plate) typically costs about 1.5 times that of
structural steel, volume for volume and for aircraft grade material the
differential is much more. Fabrication costs are lower because of easier
handling, use of complex extrusions, easier cutting or machining, no painting
and simpler erection so in terms of total cost the effect of switching to
aluminium is usually much less than one could expect. Under certain
circumstances an aluminium design can even be cheaper than a steel one.
Aluminium has a relatively high scrap value; a significant factor in material
selection for components designed to have a limited life but high scrap value
encourages theft.

Thermal expansion
Aluminium expands and contracts with temperature approximately twice as
much as steel – its coefficient of thermal expansion being 24×10-6 ºC-1
compared with only 11×10-6 ºC-1 for steel. Greater thermal expansion leads to
greater distortion; expect twice as much distortion in an aluminium structure
compared with steel. Because of the lower Young’s modulus, thermal stresses in
a restrained member are only two-thirds those in steel.

Figure 8.4 Weld distortion of aluminium.

Thermal conductivity
Having a high coefficient of thermal conductivity, aluminium is capable of
cooling the weld pool much faster than steel. Since heat is dissipated much
more quickly, a larger included angle is required to prevent lack of sidewall
fusion. If the included angle for a V preparation in structural steel weldment is
approximately 60 degrees, this value may need to be increased to 90 degrees
for aluminium. High thermal conductivity means that a larger area will be
heated up by welding, thus increasing distortions and giving a wide HAZ.

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Young’s modulus
Aluminium exhibits a low Young’s modulus value, 0.7×105N/mm2 a third that of
steel so aluminium beams are more prone to buckling than equivalent steel
ones and have lower stiffness and rigidity. Elastic deflection is a key factor to
consider when designing aluminium structures, which may not be a concern
when using steel.

Fatigue resistance
Aluminium alloys are more prone to fatigue than steel because of their lower
Young’s modulus. When designing steel structures potential fatigue sites should
be identified. The number of fatigue cycles to failure for a given stress range is
normally obtained from an endurance curve, according to the weld geometry.
For a mass-produced component the fatigue life can be found by testing.
Fatigue is covered in more detail in Section 4.

Tensile strength
Pure aluminium has modest UTS (70-150N/mm2 depending on delivery
condition, annealed or cold worked). For use in structural applications it is
alloyed with different elements to increase its tensile strength up to 650N/mm2.
This compares with standard grades of steel which have yield strengths of 150-
450MPa and tensile strengths of 300-650MPa. Aluminium does not present a
clear yield point so to define a useable limit for the stress, proof stress is used
(ie the stress at which the material undergoes a certain permanent strain,
commonly 0.2%). It should be noted that when designing steel structures, the
limit state is usually the rigidity of the structure rather than its strength.

High temperature service


Aluminium loses strength more quickly than steel with increasing temperature
and some alloys begin to lose strength when operating above 100°C. As a
result aluminium structures have a limited upper service temperature and are
not intended for creep resisting applications.

Corrosion
Serious electrolytic corrosion of aluminium may occur at joints with other
metals unless correct precautions are taken. This can apply even when using
alloys that are otherwise highly durable. Aluminium is also susceptible to stress
corrosion cracking (SCC) which can occur in aqueous chloride solutions and
tropical marine conditions.

Affinity to oxygen
Aluminium forms a tenacious oxide film with a melting point more than three
times that of aluminium. Failure to remove this oxide both before and during
welding results in entrapment of oxides and/or incomplete fusion giving a joint
with impaired mechanical properties. To produce a sound weld the oxide layer
needs to be removed by mechanical or chemical methods. Chemical cleaning
must be considered from the design stages as since the reagents used are
highly corrosive, permanent backing strips and lap joints should be assembled
after chemical cleaning due to possible entrapment. Due to its high affinity to
oxygen, aluminium is mainly welded using gas-shielded arc welding processes
and since the shielding gas column can be affected by draughts, on-site welding
of aluminium is difficult unless special measures are used to protect the weld
area. This high affinity to oxygen requires larger diameter gas nozzles for TIG
and MIG welding which leads to an increase in included angle and/or an
increase of land in U preparations.

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8.4 Aluminium alloys
Alloy series Main alloying element Heat treatable?
1XXX None (pure Al) No
2XXX Copper Yes
3XXX Manganese No
4XXX Silicon No
5XXX Magnesium No
6XXX Magnesium and silicon Yes
7XXX Zinc and magnesium Yes

Non-heat treatable alloys gain strength from cold working. Heat treatable alloys
gain strength from both work and precipitation hardening.

8.5 HAZ softening


Aluminium alloys are normally used in cold worked or precipitation hardened
conditions to take advantage of their high strength-to-weight ratio. The
strengthening benefits of both cold work and precipitation hardening are lost
when aluminium is exposed to the high temperatures from welding. The
temperature in the HAZ is sufficient to cause grain growth and hence softening.

The lower strength of the HAZ must be considered in the design by allowing for
the amount of softening (loss of strength) when calculating the load carrying
capacity of a weld. This may be done by locally thickening the material in the
region of the weld or by designing the locations of the welds away from the
most highly stressed regions (ie on neutral axes).

Wel

Distance from centre of

Figure 8.5 The loss of strength (and hardness) in the HAZ of welds in
aluminium.

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8.6 References and further reading
AWS D1.2: ‘Structural Welding Code – Aluminium’. American Welding Society.

BS 8118-1: ‘Structural use of aluminium. Code of practice for design’, London:


British Standards Institution.

BS EN 1999: ‘Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures. General structural


rules’, London: British Standards Institution.

Bull J W 1994: ‘The practical design of structural elements in aluminium’.


Avebury Technical, UK.
Conserva M, Donzelli G, Trippodo R 1992: ‘Aluminium and its applications’,
Edimet, Brescia, Italy.

8.7 Summary
You should now:
 Be able to name typical applications of aluminium alloys and the advantages
of aluminium over steel.
 Recognise common aluminium imperfections and how to avoid them.
 Recognise typical weld preparations for aluminium alloys.

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Revision questions
1 What is the density of aluminium compared with steel?

2 What is the Young’s modulus of aluminium compared with steel?

3 What are aluminium alloys used for and why?

4 What effect does the difference in Young’s modulus have on the fatigue resistance of
aluminium welds?

5 Why is distortion a problem for aluminium welds?

6 Why do aluminium welds suffer from HAZ softening?

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Use of Aluminium Alloys

 Lightweight.
 High strength-to-weight ratio.

Use for its lightweight in:


Design and Construction
 Trains.
Design Considerations for Aluminium
 Aircraft.
 Cars.
 Ships and boats.

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Aluminium Compared with Steel Advantages of Aluminium

 Low density - ⅓ of steel.  High thermal conductivity.


 Good resistance to corrosion.  High electrical conductivity.
 Non-magnetic.  Excellent strength and notch toughness at low
 Good ductility - use extrusion processes. temperatures.
 Good machinability.  Cryogenic applications.

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Applications of Aluminium Welding and Joining Aluminium

 Good corrosion resistance ideal for food and Generally good weldability but
drink industry - foil, packaging, drinks cans.  Fusion welds can suffer porosity, lack of
 High electrical conductivity - transmission fusion, solidification cracking.
lines, welding cables.  Loss of strength in HAZ region.
 Building industry - roofing, windows, doors,  Very fluid weld pool.
cladding, fittings.  Consider laser welding or FSW.
 Wide range of other uses - ski poles, ladders,  Adhesive bonding is widely used has no
gas cylinders. residual stress so is not for hot/humid
environments.

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8-1
Disadvantages of Aluminium Other Properties of Aluminium

 High cost – 1.5x steel.  Loses strength at high temperatures.


 Coefficient of thermal  Low strength of pure aluminium.
expansion: 2x steel.  High affinity to oxygen.
 Causes distortion after  Corrodes in some circumstances.
welding.
 Low Young’s modulus - ⅓
of steel:
 Higher risk of fatigue.
 Lower stiffness.
 High thermal conductivity.
 Risk of lack of fusion
defects.

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Aluminium Alloys HAZ Softening

Series Main alloying element Type  High temperatures


during welding causes
1XXX None (pure Al) Non heat treatable1
grain growth in the
2XXX Copper Heat treatable2
metal in the HAZ.
3XXX Manganese Non heat treatable1  Results in lower
4XXX Silicon Non heat treatable1 strength.
 Partially restored for
5XXX Magnesium Non heat treatable1
heat treatable alloys
6XXX Magnesium and silicon Heat treatable2 but strength loss is
unavoidable in non-
7XXX Zinc and magnesium Heat treatable2
heat treatable alloys.
1 - Cold worked.
2 - Precipitation hardened.

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Standards and Specifications

 BS 8118: Structural use of aluminium. Code of


practice for design.
 BS EN 1999: Eurocode 9 - Design of
aluminium structures. General structural rules.
 AWS D1.2: Structural Welding Code -
Aluminium.

Copyright © TWI Ltd

8-2
Objective

 Introduce principles of design for static


loading.
 Introduce reinforcing bars for use in concrete.

Design and Construction


Static Loading

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Sources of Loading - Eurocodes Types of Load

 Permanent loads.  Static.


 Don’t vary with time.  No significant change over lifetime of structure,
 Self weight, hydrostatic pressure…… slowly applied.
 Correspond to permanent loads.
 Variable loads.
 Cyclic.
 Do vary with time.
 Large variation with time.
 Function of the structure or its position……
 Correspond to variable loads, possible
contribution from accidental loads.
 Accidental loads.
 Low probability events.  Impact.
 Earthquake, impact, explosion……  Short time period, rapidly applied.
 Correspond to accidental loads.

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Types of Forces Yield and Proof Strength

Axial loading  Yield stress:


 Compression.  Stress at which permanent deformation starts to
Compression
occur.

Stress, MPa
 Tension. Tension

Yield Point

Strain, %

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9-1
Elastic Design Method Elastic Design Method

 Elastic Design Method.  Use design stress which is a fraction of the


 Ensure that stresses in structure do not exceed yield strength of the parent material.
yield stress (ie elastic deformation).
 For critical structures such as pressure vessels
 However we cannot design up to yield stress this was once set at 1/4 UTS but later changed
safely due to: to 2/3 yield stress.
 Material defects.
 Joint/weld mismatches.  Relevant codes dictate design stresses.
 Unforeseen loads.
 Degradation.

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Properties of Weldments Material Load Carrying Capacity

Weld Metal HAZ  Weld metal overmatches parent metal.


 Parent strength defines load carrying capacity.

Parent
Metal
 High strength low alloy steels.
 Weld metal sometimes undermatches parent
metal.

 Welded joints in aluminium.


 The static strength may be reduced by the heat
of welding.

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Bending Loading Turning Moment - Levers

L x y

R P
P

For equilibrium: Rx = Py

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9-2
Bending Moment Bending Stresses

Consider a beam subjected to pure bending (no


L shear).

Before bending
M

Tension (+)

P M M

After bending
At fixed end, bending moment M: M = PL Compression (-)

Neutral Axis - Longitudinal stresses are zero

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Bending Stresses Bending Stress

Tension (+) M M

M M
y
Neutral
Compression (-) axis
Stress

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Bending Stress Bending Stress

M M M M

y y
Neutral Neutral
axis axis
Stress stress

Stress at point y:

My
σ=
I
I is moment of inertia
Depends only on beam geometry

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9-3
Yield and Proof Strength Bending Loading

 Yield stress:
 Stress at which permanent deformation starts to
occur. L

Stress, MPa

Yield Point P

Strain, %

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Space Frames

Flag pole Electricity pylon

Space frames
or
Designing to avoid bending

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Use of Triangles

 Very rigid.
 Loads transmitted along lengths.

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9-4
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Frames/Trusses

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Latticed Beams and Frames Structural Details

A frame is an assembly of bars arranged so they Trusses


can support a load. • Number of structural
members joined together
to form triangular units.
• Transmits loads through
axial forces rather than
bending.
Basic assumption: Members carry axial load only. • Pylon is an example of a
Load is acting in centre of gravity of the bar’s space frame truss.
transverse section.

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9-5
Structural Details Fixed Offshore Platform

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Nodal Joints Nodal Joint Welds Nomenclature


Crown point
Fixed steel jacket structure
 Tubular legs and cross members welded
together at nodal joints.

Saddle point

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Parts of a Nodal Joint Types of Nodal Joints

Circular sections Combination of nodal joints


Brace

Chord

Heel  Toe

Side

 = local dihedral angle (usually 30-150°) T-K nodal joint T-Y nodal joint Cross nodal joint

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9-6
Types of Nodal Joints K Nodal Joints

Greater
than 10°
Max.10°
Gap

Max.10°

T nodal joint Y nodal joint

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Deviations From Concentric Joints Eccentricity


Gap

Offset

e=0 e>0
Eccentricity
Through
Overlap member

e<0

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Parts of a Nodal Joint Parts of a Nodal Joint

Box sections Circular sections


Heel
Heel Brace

Corner Corner Corner


Chord

Side Side Side


Heel  Toe
Brace

Corner Corner Corner


Side

Chord
 = local dihedral angle (usually 30-150°)
Toe Toe

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9-7
Hot Spot Stress

 Originally developed for tubular joints in


offshore platforms. Stress

 Determined by: Notch stress


 Strain gauges. Hot spot stress
 Finite element analysis.
Structural stress

Nominal stress

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Nodal Joints vs. Nozzles

Nodal joints: Nozzles:


 Have no hole in the  There is a hole in the
chord at the brace. shell at the nozzle -
 There are large axial need compensation for
and bending loads in loss in the strength.
braces.  Are subjected only to
 No scope for proof pressure.
loading.  Can be proof
 Complex geometry - (pressure) tested.
difficult to inspect.  Simple geometry -
 Work at ambient easier to inspect.
temperature.  High/low
 Complex load history. temperatures.

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Steel Frame Structures Reinforced Concrete

 Majority of new  Composite.


buildings based on  Concrete and steel (rebar).
steel frame.
 Frame supports  Principle
weight of the  Ensure concrete is in tension.
building and
contents.
 Pre – tensioning.
 Fast and efficient
construction
method.  Post – tensioning.

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9-8
Principle Rebar

 Reinforcing bar is prestressed in tension.

 Concrete shrinks around the bar when it sets


to grip the reinforcement.

 Concrete becomes prestressed in compression,


hence even the concrete remains in
compression even for applied tensile loads.

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Bar Profile Corrosion

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Rebar Joints

 The term reinforcing-steel is used to describe  Reinforcing bar is available in sizes ranging
the use of steel to reinforce materials, most from 6mm up to 50mm diameter.
often concrete.
 A whole assembly of reinforcing bars will
 Concrete is a brittle material which is strong in usually be used.
compression but weak in tension.
 To join bars together there are several
 This limits the use of concrete in construction methods:
and makes it unsuitable for use in many  Welded joint (for weldable compositions).
structural members.  Wire joint - wire wrapped around bars and
tightened.
 Rebar coupler – mechanical fixing.

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9-9
Types of Joint Types of Joint

Butt joint Lap joint


 Load bearing joints only.  Load bearing and non load bearing.
 Needs preparation.  Double sided weld possible.
 Backing strip may be used.  Minimum throat thickness, a ≥ 0.3d.

≥4d ≥2d ≥4d

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Summary

 Recognise different structural designs for


static loading.
 Trusses, nodes etc.

 Different types of static loading.


 Calculate stress and bending moment.

 Nodal joints.
 Joint designs and differences to nozzles.

 Weld joints for steel reinforcement bars.

Copyright © TWI Ltd

9-10
Section 9

Static Loading
9 Static Loading
For some structures the main loading does not change over time, it is
essentially static. A typical example is a building based on a steel frame where
the frame supports the weight of the building (and the frame itself) and the
weight of the contents. The majority of new buildings are based on steel frames
because this is also a fast and efficient construction method. Figure 9.1 is a
classic image of construction workers on a 1920s skyscraper in New York, which
shows the steel frame skeleton of the structure.

Figure 9.1 Construction workers take a break on a New York skyscraper in the
1920s.

9.1 Structural details


There are two major kinds of structural details for static loading that this
module will examine. Trusses are structures with a number of structural
members joined together to form triangular units and the structure transmits
loads through axial forces rather than bending, a pylon is a space frame truss.
Nodal joints occur in fixed offshore steel jacket structures where tubular legs
and cross members are welded together at the nodal joints. Various methods
exist for linking structural members and strengthening structures, such as
stiffeners, braces and steel reinforcement.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-1 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Figure 9.2 Pylon truss joints.

Figure 9.3 Nodal joints in an offshore structure.

a b c d

Figure 9.4 Methods of joining and strengthening steel structure joints:


a) Steel reinforcement;
b) Stiffeners;
c) Nodal joints;
d) Braces.

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Static Loading 9-2 Copyright © TWI Ltd
9.2 Strength of beams
For a structure under stable conditions, ie static, all the forces on the structure
must balance in equilibrium. An example is a truss bridge where the forces in all
the members are shown in a free-body diagram in Figure 9.5.

Figure 9.5 Free body diagram of a truss bridge (not every force is shown here).

The stress, , that each force, F, imposes is calculated by dividing the force by
the CSA, A, of the member. The units of force or load is Newtons, N, the units
of area is mm2 and the units of tensile stress is N/mm2 or megapascals, MPa.

Figure 9.6 Definition of stress.

In Section 3 (Focus and Strength of Materials), the concept of a stress-strain


curve, Figure 9.7, was introduced to characterise material tensile behaviour.

The elastic design method bases the design stresses on the elastic limit of the
structure but ensures that the stresses in the structure do not exceed the yield
stress (ie elastic deformation is designed for, but no plastic deformation
occurs). It is not normally possible to design up to the yield stress safely due to
the presence of material defects, joint/weld mismatch, unforeseen loads such
as wind or snow and degradation over time.

For static design, the allowable stress is limited to a proportion of the specified
minimum yield strength of the material. Relevant design codes provide
guidance on what proportion this should be but it is quite common to use an
allowable design stress that is 2/3 of the material yield strength, although
historically for safety critical structures such as pressure vessels the stress was
limited to a quarter of the UTS. Generally the welding consumable is chosen
such that the weld metal strength is greater than the parent material. In these
cases the parent material strength defines the load bearing capacity of the
structure but when defining the throat dimension of load carrying welds it is the
weld metal strength that is used.

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Static Loading 9-3 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Necking occurs
at this point

Figure 9.7 Material tensile properties.

The ratio of the yield stress (or UTS) to the design stress is known as the factor
of safety (FoS) which depends on the material and utilisation of the structural
member.

Yield stress
FoS = ≥1
Design stress

A material’s load capacity depends on design method, whether it’s based on the
minimum yield strength or the UTS. A welded joint is very complex since it is
heterogeneous; it has parent, HAZ and weld metal microstructures, each with
different individual strengths. To simplify the approach to calculating the load
capacity of welded joints, it is assumed that the weld metal overmatches parent
metal and therefore that the parent strength defines load carrying capacity but
there are significant exceptions to this rule HSLA steels sometimes have weld
metal that undermatches the very high strength parent metal. Welded joints in
aluminium very often have strength undermatching in the weld metal and HAZ,
as the static strength can be reduced by the heat of welding.

9.3 Types of loading


Static axial tensile stress is just one kind of loading that can be imposed on a
structure. Cyclic and dynamic loading are discussed in the section on fatigue
but even static loading can take several forms (Figure 9.8). Axial stress can be
in tension or compression. Where the application of load is offset by a
perpendicular distance then shear stresses are imposed. For members loaded in
bending, one surface is stresses in tension and the other in compression, Figure
9.9. A similar approach to design is adopted; the maximum stress allowed at
the extreme fibre is limited to the same fraction of material strength as for
tensile loading.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-4 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Figure 9.8 Different kinds of static loading.

Figure 9.9 A beam loaded in bending.

Bending moments can be introduced into beams such as cranes or cantilever


beams (Figure 9.10), where a load is suspended from the end of an arm. There
are reaction forces at the other end of the beam to counterbalance the shear
force, compressive force and the bending moment. The definition of bending
moment is force multiplied by perpendicular distance, M = F x d.

Figure 9.10 The forces on a cantilever beam.

9.4 Nodal joints


Fixed steel jacket structures such as used for offshore platforms (Figure 9.3),
are fabricated by welding together tubular legs and cross members at node (or
nodal) joints.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-5 Copyright © TWI Ltd
In these joints it is usually fatigue considerations that limit the design, the
materials and joint design have to satisfy static design criteria. The parts of a
simple node joint are shown in Figure 9.11. Figures 9.12-9.14 illustrate typical
node joint geometries. T nodal joints have the brace attached at roughly right
angles to the chord. Where the offset from perpendicular is greater than 10
degrees then the joint becomes a Y nodal joint. Two such braces positioned in
opposite directions is called a K nodal joint and adding a perpendicular brace to
two angled braces forms a T-K nodal joint.

It is important to recognise that the geometry of a node joint introduces a


stress concentrating effect. The magnitude of the stress concentration depends
on the joint geometry, material thickness and position around the intersection.
This stress concentration factor must be taken into account when designing
node joints for both static and fatigue applications.

degrees)

Figure 9.11 The parts of a node joint.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-6 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Figure 9.12 X joint. Figure 9.13 K joint. Figure 9.14 T-K joint.

Greater than 10
Maximum 10

Maximum 10

Figure 9.15 Tolerances and definitions for:


a) T nodal joint.
b) Y nodal joint.

When designing a nodal joint consideration must be given to the gap between
the various braces so that there is sufficient access for welding all round both
seams. If the braces need to be close then a seam weld which incorporates the
welding of both can be designed by allowing the two to overlap, resulting in a
complex weld seam and challenges for welding and inspection access.
Sometimes a brace may be offset from the centre of the chord although this will
impose additional bending on the joint.

Usually in a K joint the two braces are angled so that their axes meet at the
middle of the chord diameter to give the joint its strength. It is also possible to
angle the braces more sharply or shallowly and the difference is known as the
eccentricity of the joint.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-7 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Ga

Figure 9.16 Definitions of nodal joint details.

Figure 9.17 Eccentricity, e, in the attachment of braces in a K node joint.

It is possible to construct nodal joints from square box sections as well as


tubular members. The way the joints are labelled is very similar to tubular node
joints (Figure 9.18).

Figure 9.18 Parts of a node joint in square box section.

The stresses in nodal joints must take into account the stress concentration that
occurs at the intersection of the chord and brace. The hot spot stress approach
was developed to account for the stress concentration at nodal joints in offshore
platforms (Figure 9.19) and has been readily adopted since it is easy to extract
from a numerical model of a joint and can be measured from strain gauges at
the toes of the node joint welds.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-8 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Figure 9.19 Hot spot stress definition.

There are some similarities between the attachment of braces to chords in a


nodal joint and the attachment of nozzles on to pressure vessels. In nodal joints
there is no hole in the chord at the brace attachment whereas in pressure
vessels there is a hole in the shell at the nozzle and therefore a need to
compensate for the loss in the strength of the shell. In nodal joints there are
large axial and bending loads in braces as they are structural members,
whereas nozzles are subjected only to pressure and are not designed to be
load-bearing. Nozzles tend to be proof tested up to pressure beyond the
maximum allowable but for nodes there is not usually a proof loading prior to
service. The complex geometry of nodal joints can make them harder to weld
and inspect than the mainly circular or saddle-shaped weld seams in nozzles.
Nodal joints are generally designed for ambient temperature operation, but can
be subject to significant cyclic loading. Nozzles can operate at high or low
temperatures but tend not to be designed for fatigue loading.

9.5 Designing structures


One of the first considerations for designing structures is what kind of loading
the structure will be under. Take the example of a flagpole. Its design is mainly
to sustain its own deadweight since the flag adds little to the structural loads.
The additional loading is from wind loads on the pole and imposes a
requirement for thicker material at the base than the top. When structures are
more complex, containing many members, for example a pylon (Figure 9.20b)
and the approach is similar but necessarily more complex.

a b

Figure 9.20 Designing structures:


a) Simple components.
b) More complex structures.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-9 Copyright © TWI Ltd
The various ways that a beam can be carried by a crane illustrate the different
types of loading that can be imposed. Carried vertically it imposes only tensile
stress, but carrying it horizontally from a single point hook will impose bending
as well. If the horizontal beam is carried using a chain attached to each end
then compression as well as bending occurs. If the beam is carried from a chain
attached at a single point in the middle, the loading becomes mainly bending, a
rather unstable way to carry a long beam.

a b c

Figure 9.21 Crane loading:


a) Pure tension.
b) Compression and bending.
c) Bending.

Another example of consideration of the loading modes when designing welded


joints is the position and location of a lifting lug on an I-beam. The correct
design would have the lifting lug oriented in the same plane as the web of the I-
beam so that the lug does not impose additional bending which would occur if
the lug was oriented across the web of the flange. This poor design can be
improved by adding stiffeners between the webs of the flange beam to reduce
the deflection in the beam.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-10 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Correct design Poor design Improved design

Figure 9.22 Design of welded joints:


a) Correct design;
b) Poor design;
c) Improved design.

9.6 Stress reinforced concrete


Many structures that are mainly statically loaded are fabricated from concrete,
reinforced by steel.

Concrete has good strength properties in compression but very low strength in
tension which limits its use in construction and makes it unsuitable for use in
many structural members when used on its own. By introducing a high initial
compressive stress such that the concrete still experiences compression
stresses when loaded in tension, concrete can be used in tension members and
these loaded in bending. Compression is introduced by pre-stressing steel
reinforcing bars in tension then pouring the concrete around them which shrinks
when it sets and grips the steel bar. The pre-stressing in the steel bar is then
released and the contraction of the steel bar introduces compressive stresses in
the concrete. One common application is in the tension flange of concrete
members loaded in bending, Figure 9.23. The term reinforcing-steel describes
the use of steel to reinforce any materials but is most often used in concrete.

Figure 9.23 Reinforcing steel bars (rebars) in the tension flange of a concrete
beam loaded in bending.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-11 Copyright © TWI Ltd
A range of materials is used for the rebars and different welding techniques are
used to join them. The rebars have a textured profile (Figure 9.24) so they key
into the concrete and provide the pre-stressing and come in 6-50mm diameter.
A whole assembly of rebars will usually be used and the frame fabricated before
the concrete is poured into a surrounding mould. The bars are joined using one
of several methods: welded, joined using a wire joint where wire is wrapped
around bars and tightened, or using a rebar coupler which is a mechanical
fixing. Rebars are available for a wide range of chemical compositions and
mechanical properties. Not all rebars are weldable with weldability determined
by the carbon equivalent value and the limitations on the content of certain
elements.

Rebars are usually welded using MMA or MAG welding processes. Welding
rebars using butt joints (Figure 9.25) is usually used for load bearing joints only
because they need joint preparation and possibly backing strip may be used as
well. Lap welds (Figure 9.26) are used for non-load and load bearing joints and
it is possible to weld double sided lap joints. The requirement is for a minimum
throat thickness, a, greater than 30% of the rebar diameter, ie a ≥ 0.3d.

Figure 9.24 surface profile of a steel rebar.

a b

Figure 9.25 Weld butt joint preparations:


a) Weld butt joint preparations in steel rebars;
b) The stages of filling up the joint when backing is used.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-12 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Figure 9.26 Lap welding steel rebars.

9.7 Summary
Finally, you should be able to describe welded joints for joining steel
reinforcement bars for concrete structures.

You should now:


 Recognise structural designs for static loading (trusses, nodes, etc).
 Understand the different kinds of static loading.
 Know how to determine the tensile stress and bending moment on a beam.
 Be able to explain different designs of nodal joint and how they differ from
nozzles in pressure vessels.
 Be capable of describing welded joint for joining steel rebars for concrete
structures.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-13 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Revision questions
1 Sketch a structure which incorporates a truss frame. How is the load transmitted?

2 How do you calculate the factor of safety on the design stress?

3 How is a bending moment calculated? Sketch a see-saw to illustrate your answer.

4 Sketch a Y nodal joint and label the brace, chord, heel and toe of the structure.

Why are steel reinforcement bars used in structures? List three ways to join them.

DAC1-50615
Static Loading 9-14 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Objective

 Introduce principles of design for static


loading.
 Introduce reinforcing bars for use in concrete.

Design and Construction


Static Loading

Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

Sources of Loading - Eurocodes Types of Load

 Permanent loads.  Static.


 Don’t vary with time.  No significant change over lifetime of structure,
 Self weight, hydrostatic pressure…… slowly applied.
 Correspond to permanent loads.
 Variable loads.
 Cyclic.
 Do vary with time.
 Large variation with time.
 Function of the structure or its position……
 Correspond to variable loads, possible
contribution from accidental loads.
 Accidental loads.
 Low probability events.  Impact.
 Earthquake, impact, explosion……  Short time period, rapidly applied.
 Correspond to accidental loads.

Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

Types of Forces Yield and Proof Strength

Axial loading  Yield stress:


 Compression.  Stress at which permanent deformation starts to
Compression
occur.

Stress, MPa
 Tension. Tension

Yield Point

Strain, %

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9-1
Elastic Design Method Elastic Design Method

 Elastic Design Method.  Use design stress which is a fraction of the


 Ensure that stresses in structure do not exceed yield strength of the parent material.
yield stress (ie elastic deformation).
 For critical structures such as pressure vessels
 However we cannot design up to yield stress this was once set at 1/4 UTS but later changed
safely due to: to 2/3 yield stress.
 Material defects.
 Joint/weld mismatches.  Relevant codes dictate design stresses.
 Unforeseen loads.
 Degradation.

Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

Properties of Weldments Material Load Carrying Capacity

Weld Metal HAZ  Weld metal overmatches parent metal.


 Parent strength defines load carrying capacity.

Parent
Metal
 High strength low alloy steels.
 Weld metal sometimes undermatches parent
metal.

 Welded joints in aluminium.


 The static strength may be reduced by the heat
of welding.

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Bending Loading Turning Moment - Levers

L x y

R P
P

For equilibrium: Rx = Py

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9-2
Bending Moment Bending Stresses

Consider a beam subjected to pure bending (no


L shear).

Before bending
M

Tension (+)

P M M

After bending
At fixed end, bending moment M: M = PL Compression (-)

Neutral Axis - Longitudinal stresses are zero

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Bending Stresses Bending Stress

Tension (+) M M

M M
y
Neutral
Compression (-) axis
Stress

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Bending Stress Bending Stress

M M M M

y y
Neutral Neutral
axis axis
Stress stress

Stress at point y:

My
σ=
I
I is moment of inertia
Depends only on beam geometry

Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

9-3
Yield and Proof Strength Bending Loading

 Yield stress:
 Stress at which permanent deformation starts to
occur. L

Stress, MPa

Yield Point P

Strain, %

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Space Frames

Flag pole Electricity pylon

Space frames
or
Designing to avoid bending

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Use of Triangles

 Very rigid.
 Loads transmitted along lengths.

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9-4
Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

Frames/Trusses

Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

Latticed Beams and Frames Structural Details

A frame is an assembly of bars arranged so they Trusses


can support a load. • Number of structural
members joined together
to form triangular units.
• Transmits loads through
axial forces rather than
bending.
Basic assumption: Members carry axial load only. • Pylon is an example of a
Load is acting in centre of gravity of the bar’s space frame truss.
transverse section.

Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

9-5
Structural Details Fixed Offshore Platform

Copyright © TWI Ltd Copyright © TWI Ltd

Nodal Joints Nodal Joint Welds Nomenclature


Crown point
Fixed steel jacket structure
 Tubular legs and cross members welded
together at nodal joints.

Saddle point

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Parts of a Nodal Joint Types of Nodal Joints

Circular sections Combination of nodal joints


Brace

Chord

Heel  Toe

Side

 = local dihedral angle (usually 30-150°) T-K nodal joint T-Y nodal joint Cross nodal joint

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9-6
Types of Nodal Joints K Nodal Joints

Greater
than 10°
Max.10°
Gap

Max.10°

T nodal joint Y nodal joint

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Deviations From Concentric Joints Eccentricity


Gap

Offset

e=0 e>0
Eccentricity
Through
Overlap member

e<0

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Parts of a Nodal Joint Parts of a Nodal Joint

Box sections Circular sections


Heel
Heel Brace

Corner Corner Corner


Chord

Side Side Side


Heel  Toe
Brace

Corner Corner Corner


Side

Chord
 = local dihedral angle (usually 30-150°)
Toe Toe

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9-7
Hot Spot Stress

 Originally developed for tubular joints in


offshore platforms. Stress

 Determined by: Notch stress


 Strain gauges. Hot spot stress
 Finite element analysis.
Structural stress

Nominal stress

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Nodal Joints vs. Nozzles

Nodal joints: Nozzles:


 Have no hole in the  There is a hole in the
chord at the brace. shell at the nozzle -
 There are large axial need compensation for
and bending loads in loss in the strength.
braces.  Are subjected only to
 No scope for proof pressure.
loading.  Can be proof
 Complex geometry - (pressure) tested.
difficult to inspect.  Simple geometry -
 Work at ambient easier to inspect.
temperature.  High/low
 Complex load history. temperatures.

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Steel Frame Structures Reinforced Concrete

 Majority of new  Composite.


buildings based on  Concrete and steel (rebar).
steel frame.
 Frame supports  Principle
weight of the  Ensure concrete is in tension.
building and
contents.
 Pre – tensioning.
 Fast and efficient
construction
method.  Post – tensioning.

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9-8
Principle Rebar

 Reinforcing bar is prestressed in tension.

 Concrete shrinks around the bar when it sets


to grip the reinforcement.

 Concrete becomes prestressed in compression,


hence even the concrete remains in
compression even for applied tensile loads.

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Bar Profile Corrosion

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Rebar Joints

 The term reinforcing-steel is used to describe  Reinforcing bar is available in sizes ranging
the use of steel to reinforce materials, most from 6mm up to 50mm diameter.
often concrete.
 A whole assembly of reinforcing bars will
 Concrete is a brittle material which is strong in usually be used.
compression but weak in tension.
 To join bars together there are several
 This limits the use of concrete in construction methods:
and makes it unsuitable for use in many  Welded joint (for weldable compositions).
structural members.  Wire joint - wire wrapped around bars and
tightened.
 Rebar coupler – mechanical fixing.

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9-9
Types of Joint Types of Joint

Butt joint Lap joint


 Load bearing joints only.  Load bearing and non load bearing.
 Needs preparation.  Double sided weld possible.
 Backing strip may be used.  Minimum throat thickness, a ≥ 0.3d.

≥4d ≥2d ≥4d

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Summary

 Recognise different structural designs for


static loading.
 Trusses, nodes etc.

 Different types of static loading.


 Calculate stress and bending moment.

 Nodal joints.
 Joint designs and differences to nozzles.

 Weld joints for steel reinforcement bars.

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9-10
Section 10

Development of Residual Stress


and Distortion
10 Development of Residual Stress and Distortion
Heating or cooling of engineering materials produces expansion or contraction
of the material, depending upon the temperature difference and the co-efficient
of thermal expansion of the material.

If the heating/cooling is uniform and the material is not constrained, no


distortion or residual stress is produced.

If there is any constraint or non-uniform heating then distortion and residual


stresses will occur.

Sometimes this effect can be used to an advantage, eg in flame straightening


operations. The effect of heating and cooling in unrestrained conditions is
illustrated on the next page.

If we consider a simple butt weld, the molten metal is deposited in the joint and
the plate edges on either side of the joint are heated to high temperature.
Further away from the joint the plate remains cool. The result is that the heated
zone tries to expand along the joint but is restrained by the remainder of the
plate.

Therefore, the area around the joint expands but also plastically deforms due to
its reduced yield strength at higher temperature. The expansion tends to bend
the plate during welding. On cooling the area that has plastically deformed
would contract to a reduced length if it was unrestrained; however, this cannot
happen as the welded zone remains in tension and pulls on the surrounding
material, causing high residual stresses or, if the welded component is not
sufficiently stiff, pulling it out of shape or distorting it.

The distributions of the residual stresses are illustrated on the next page. Note
that the longitudinal tensile stress extends beyond the weld and HAZ into the
parent plate. The higher the heat input, the wider the tensile zone. The longer
the weld, the higher the tensile stress required to reach the yield stress.

It should be noted that these residual stresses are situated around the weld,
but additional stresses due to general shrinkage and restraint will be present in
many structures. The magnitude of this additional stress may be controlled by
attention to the method of jigging, tacking and welding sequence, etc.

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-1 Copyright © TWI Ltd
DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-2 Copyright © TWI Ltd
10.1 Factors affecting residual stresses and distortion
10.1.1 Material properties
Coefficient of expansion
The greater the value, the greater the local expansion due to welding and the
resultant residual stress.

Yield strength
Where yielding has occurred, the residual stresses are determined by the yield
stress of the material.

Modulus of elasticity
The greater the value of E, the higher the level of stresses; but also, as the
stiffness increases the tendency to buckle is reduced.

Transformation temperature
If the material undergoes phase changes, internal expansion and contraction of
the material structures takes place. The lower the transformation temperature,
the lower the residual stresses.

Thermal conductivity
The higher the thermal conductivity, the more heat is conducted away from the
weld zone and the lower the residual stresses.

10.1.2 Design
These factors are covered in the Design and Construction module(s).

10.1.3 Procedural
Thickness
As restraint usually increases with thickness, so do the stresses.

Number of passes
Every weld pass adds to the total contraction. However, as each additional pass
partially stress-relieves the previous passes, the effect is not entirely
cumulative.

Preheat
Whilst this may be necessary to combat H2 cracking, in many cases it may also
increase the level of stresses.

Travel speed during welding


The faster the welding speed, the lower the heat input as well as the stress.

Misalignment
Misalignment may reduce the stresses in some cases.

Root gap
An increase in root gap increases shrinkage.

Heat input
The higher the total heat input the greater the shrinkage.

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-3 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Balance weld
About neutral axis of weld.

Weld sequence
On seam.

Stitch welding
On structure.

Back step and skip back welding

Peening

Stress relief

10.1.4 Mechanical
Assembly method
Tack welding, strongbacks, jigging.

Pre-setting
Components set out of line to compensate for movement resulting from
welding.

Back-to-back assembly

10.2 Typical material properties


Note: Values change with alloy content
Modulus of Yield Coefficient of Thermal
Material elasticity, strength, thermal expansion, conductivity,
N/mm2 N/mm2 m/m/oCx106 cal/cm2/cm/oC/sec
Carbon steel 20.8 270 12.6 0.12
Stainless 20 310 18 0.04
steel
Aluminium 7.1 138 23 0.50
alloys
Copper 10.5 68 17 0.90
alloys

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-4 Copyright © TWI Ltd
DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-5 Copyright © TWI Ltd
10.3 Characteristics of materials which determine the amount of distortion
and residual stresses (relative values)

Co-efficient of thermal expansion


High value - greater local expansion and yielding – higher level of stress on
cooling.

Carbon steel - 1
Stainless steel - 1.4
Aluminium - 1.7

Thermal conductivity
Low value – higher heat retained in welded zone – higher level of stress on
cooling.

Carbon steel - 1
Stainless steel - 0.3
Aluminium - 4.2

Yield strength
Higher yield - higher residual stress.

Carbon steel - 1
Stainless steel - 1.2
Aluminium - 0.5

Modes of elasticity
Measure of stiffness; greater stiffness - greater distortion resistance.

Carbon steel - 1
Stainless steel - 0.95
Aluminium - 0.3

Effect of preheat
Preheating is advantageous against hydrogen cracking, but can cause problems.
Consider the case of a butt weld under high restraint. Preheat closes the gap,
so the weld deposited is smaller in volume. On cooling, both plates shrink and
the normal weld transverse shrinkage stresses.

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-6 Copyright © TWI Ltd
10.4 Correcting distortion
Flame straightening
Any heating and cooling of metals in a restrained environment imposes some
residual stress and subsequent distortion. This effect can be used to modify the
shape of a component by localised heating and subsequent cooling.
Typical examples of flame straightening are:

 Beams - removing or increasing camber.


 Straightening flanges.
 Patch plates - removal of buckles and bulges.

Heating must be done quickly using a localised intense heat source. Oxy-
acetylene torches are therefore recommended, but not cutting torches. The
temperature rise needs to be sufficient to produce plastic deformation in the
material, but too high a temperature may be detrimental to the material
properties as well as having little extra effect on the amount of deformation
obtained. For C and C-Mn steels that have developed higher strengths through
a quenching and tempering or controlled rolling production technique,
temperatures should not exceed approximately 650°C. Steels that are supplied
in the normalised condition are not likely to be damaged by higher
temperatures, but without specialist knowledge it is probably safest to avoid
higher heating temperatures.

Heating to full or only part thickness has a significant effect on the type of
distortion achieved. Full thickness heating procedures promote longitudinal
distortion, whilst part thickness heating will produce more angular movement.

By preventing expansion using external restraints, the effectiveness of the


operation is increased. Simple clamping arrangements or using the material’s
self-weight may be sufficient.

For removing bulges in thinner plate, the expansion which occurs on heating
must be removed by hammering, as upsetting of the material must occur.

The effect of the operation cannot be fully assessed until the component has
cooled completely. Care must also be taken to ensure cold air is not flowing
across the component, as differential cooling will take place which will cause
distortion.

The use of oxy-acetylene flame straightening must be controlled by procedures


to ensure that:

 Correct heating torches are used.


 Temperatures are monitored to avoid overheating. The use of thermal
crayons or other devices is recommended.
 Areas to be heated should be clearly defined before heating takes place.

Stress-relieving weldments
Stress-relieving operations are carried out on welded components for many
reasons: to reduce the level of residual stress and the risk of brittle fracture, to
aid machining stability, etc.

Note: The residual stresses cannot be removed completely, only reduced to an


acceptable level.

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-7 Copyright © TWI Ltd
The most common method of stress relief is a thermal treatment which involves
the heating and cooling of the component in a controlled manner. This heats
the material to a temperature where the yield strength reduces and high
residual stresses cause plastic deformation to relieve these stresses. On
cooling, the residual stresses in the weldment are significantly reduced.

Vibratory stress relief


Involves mechanically inducing vibrations in the component.

Explosive stress relief


Involves causing shock waves from an explosive charge to counteract the
residual tensile stresses.

Mechanical peening
Mechanical deformation of individual runs by mechanical methods. This can be
as crude as hammer peening and may be effective but difficult to control.

These methods vary in their effectiveness and not all are covered by
international codes or practices.

Thermal stress relief may be carried out in a furnace where the whole
component will be stress relieved. This is the usual situation for pressure
vessels and boilers, etc, but local stress relief may also be considered, eg on
pipework, wherein usually only the joints are stress relieved. This is carried out
using local heating bands.

Where stress relief is specified by an application standard, the minimum


requirements for the thermal cycle will be laid down. Such details and
requirements are a good guide to be used where no application standard is
specified.

A written procedure should be in place and rigorously worked to, to ensure the
operation is performed correctly. Such a procedure should include:

 Method - furnace or local?


 Method of heating - gas, electrical?
 Number of thermocouples - sufficient plus spares.
 Position of thermocouples - must be as specified.
 Method of attachment of thermocouples - spark discharge or brick.
 Calibration of thermocouples - valid and within date?
 Calibration of recording equipment - valid?
 Speed of chart - correct for paperwork?
 Component supports - must be adequate to avoid collapse.
 Identification on chart - job number, date, time, signature.
 Heating rate - maximum.
 Soaking temperature - range allowed.
 Soaking time - minimum.
 Cooling rate - maximum allowed.
 Withdrawal temperature - into cold air.

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-8 Copyright © TWI Ltd
For local stress relief the following must also be considered:

 Heated band width.


 Insulated band width.
 Proximity of fittings such as nozzles and attachments.

Most codes of practice prohibit any welding on components after a stress-


relieving operation. The stress-relieving operation is usually an essential
variable of the welding process as weldment properties can be affected by the
stress-relieving cycle. Where metals have gained their properties through
microstructural modification due to the heating and cooling cycle in their
production, care must be taken that these properties are not detrimentally
affected by the stress-relieving process.

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-9 Copyright © TWI Ltd
10.5 Questions on residual stress and distortion

1 In which directions do residual stresses form in a weld?

2 What level (relative to a material's yield point) do residual stresses reach?

3 Which types of distortion result from residual stresses?

4 How can residual stresses be controlled?

5 List the ways in which distortion may be controlled.

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-10 Copyright © TWI Ltd
10.6 Questions on stress-relieving weldments

1 Specify the ways in which stress relief may be applied.

2 Produce a checklist of the controls required to ensure that the stress relief conforms
to a specification.

3 State the objectives of PWHT.

4 Name the different information sources where guidance on stress relief can be found.

5 Which factors require consideration in relation to the use of furnaces or local stress
relief?

DAC1-50615
Development of Residual Stress and Distortion 10-11 Copyright © TWI Ltd
Residual Stress

In case of a heated bar,


the resistance of the
surrounding material to
the expansion and
contraction leads to
Design and Construction formation of residual
Residual Stress and Distortion stress

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Residual Stress Nature of Residual Stress

Origins of residual stress in welded joints Heating and cooling


leads to expansions
and contractions

Cold weld unfused

Hot weld

Cold weld fused

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Types of Residual Stress Types of Residual Stress

Longitudinal residual stress after welding Residual stress after welding


Maximum stress = YS at
Compression Tension
room temperature

Tension YS at room
temperature

Compression

The higher the heat input the wider the tensile zone!
The longer the weld, the higher the tensile stress!

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10-1
Types of Residual Stress Residual Stress

Residual stress after PWHT Residual stresses are undesirable because:


 They lead to distortions.
Compression Tension
 They affect dimensional stability of the welded
assembly.
 They enhance the risk of brittle fracture.
 They can facilitate certain types of corrosion.

Factors affecting residual stresses:


 Parent material properties.
 Amount of restrain.
 Joint design.
 Fit-up.
YS at PWHT temperature YS at room temperature
 Welding sequence.
After PWHT, peak residual stress is less than a quarter of its initial level!

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Factors Affecting Residual Stress Factors Affecting Residual Stress

Parent material properties: Joint design:


 Thermal expansion coefficient - the greater the  Weld metal volume.
value, the greater the residual stress.  Type of joint - butt vs. fillet, single vs. double side.
 Yield strength - the greater the value, the greater Amount of restrain:
the residual stress.
 Thickness - as thickness increase, so do the
 Young’s modulus - the greater the value (increase stresses.
in stiffness), the greater the residual stress.
 High level of restrain lead to high stresses.
 Thermal conductivity - the higher the value, the
 Preheat may increase the level of stresses (pipe
lower the residual stress.
welding!).
 Transformation temperature - during phase
transformation, expansion/contraction takes place. Fit-up:
The lower the transformation temperature, the  Misalignment may reduce stresses in some cases.
lower the residual stress.  Root gap - increase in root gap increases shrinkage.

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Factors Affecting Residual Stress

Welding sequence:
 Number of passes - every pass adds to the total
Ɛ [%]

Rm
contraction.
 Heat input - the higher the heat input, the greater Ɛ
E [kN/mm2]
σ [N/mm2]

the shrinkage.
Re
 Travel speed - the faster the welding speed, the
less the stress.
 Build-up sequence. E
Molecular Steel

Temperature ºC

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10-2
Section 11

Revision Session
11 Revision Session
11.1 Multiple choice questions
1 Charpy tests are carried out on steels to:

a Calculate critical defect sizes.


b Check for corrosion.
c Check the moisture content of the plate.
d Measure notch toughness.

2 Arc butt welds in work hardenable aluminium alloys:

a Are stronger than the parent material.


b Are weaker than the parent material.
c Can only be made in the flat position.
d Are always porous.

3 Strain is:

a The extension of material in relation to its original length.


b A filter in a gas hose.
c A cause of brittle fracture.
d None of the above.

4 Buckling in a column in a steel structure is made more likely by:

a Bolted joints.
b Magnetic fields.
c Weld distortions.
d Vibration.

5 By how much does a carbon manganese steel beam deflect compared with
an aluminium alloy beam of the same size under the same load?

a One third.
b Four times.
c The same.
d Twice.

6 Designers work out fatigue life from a diagram called:

a IIW formula.
b S-N curve.
c Schaeffler diagram.
d A flow chart.

7 Compensating plates are used on pressure vessels to:

a Prevent vibration.
b Stop corrosion.
c Reduce stress concentrations at openings.
d Balance the weight.

DAC1-50615
Revision Session 11-1 Copyright © TWI Ltd
8 Fatigue cracks in otherwise sound butt welds transverse to the stress start
at:

a The root.
b The toe.
c Inter-run ripples.
d Chipping hammer marks.

9 The main purpose of mid-span stiffeners in a girder is to:

a Keep the flanges square.


b Increase the moment of inertia.
c Distribute the load.
d Stop distortion.

10 The tensile strength of mild steel weld metal:

a Is greater than that of mild steel plate.


b Is lower than that of mild steel plate.
c Is the same as its yield strength.
d Cannot be measured.

11 The elastic limit of a mild steel bar is the:

a Breaking stress of the bar.


b Greatest stress which can be applied without yielding the bar.
c Working stress of the bar.
d Strain at failure of the bar.

12 A fatigue crack in a crankshaft is most likely to appear:

a Smooth.
b Jagged.
c Torn.
d With a chevron pattern.

13 The neutral axis of bending in a section is:

a The central point of the section.


b The axis of maximum stress.
c The axis of zero strain.
d None of the above.

14 A 10mm fillet weld indicated with a Z to BS EN 22553 requirements has a


nominal:

a Throat dimension of 10mm.


b Area of 10mm.
c Leg length of 10mm.
d None of the above.

15 The fatigue life of a welded joint is NOT likely to be improved by:

a Changing the design.


b Peening the weld toes.
c Stress relieving.
d Using higher strength material.

DAC1-50615
Revision Session 11-2 Copyright © TWI Ltd
16 The static strength used for designing a building frame is based on the:

a Percentage elongation.
b Hardness.
c Ultimate tensile strength.
d Yield strength.

17 Welds are classified with respect to fatigue resistance based on:

a Heat input.
b Stress concentration effect.
c Thickness.
d Current.

18 A mitre fillet weld with two equal leg lengths of 12mm has a throat
thickness of:

a 0.8mm.
b 17mm.
c 9.5mm.
d 8.5mm.

19 In a cylindrical pressure vessel a lack of fusion flow in the circumferential


seams of the shell experience:

a Half the hoop stress.


b The same as the hoop stress.
c Twice the hoop stress.
d Quarter of the hoop stress.

20 The design strength of a fillet weld is based on:

a The root penetration.


b The throat thickness.
c Face concavity.
d Mitre angle.

21 Distortion from welding is greatest in metals which have a:

a High coefficient of thermal expansion.


b Low coefficient of thermal expansion.
c Low melting temperature.
d Low thermal conductivity.

22 Which of the following is characteristic of overload failure:

a Fracture at 45 degrees to the load.


b Rough and torn appearance.
c Plastic deformation.
d All of the above.

23 A product operating at high temperature could experience:

a Low fracture toughness.


b Creep.
c Brittle fracture.
d All of the above.

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Revision Session 11-3 Copyright © TWI Ltd
24 Welds often reach which level of residual stress?

a 50% yield.
b 80% yield.
c Yield stress.
d Twice the yield stress.

DAC1-50615
Revision Session 11-4 Copyright © TWI Ltd
11.2 Short answer questions
1 Which law describes the elastic area on a stress-strain graph?

2 How does the Young’s modulus for aluminium alloys compare with that for
steel? Give the value of Young’s modulus in steel.

3 What is design stress usually based on in the UK?

4 What is stress?

5 What is the effect of drilling a hole in stressed plate?

6 What is the typical level of residual stress in a welded joint before and after
PWHT?

DAC1-50615
Revision Session 11-5 Copyright © TWI Ltd
7 Will a different grade of steel have a different fatigue life?

8 Will an unwelded component fail by fatigue when cyclically loaded in


compression? What difference would welding make?

9 List five techniques to improve fatigue life.

10 Describe the features on a brittle fracture surface.

11 Describe the features of a ductile fracture surface.

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Revision Session 11-6 Copyright © TWI Ltd
11.3 Long question
A lifting lug attached by fillet welds requires a design review. Comment on 50
items which would be assessed during such a review.

DAC1-50615
Revision Session 11-7 Copyright © TWI Ltd