2 vues

Transféré par Carlos Armando

Ornitoptero

- Aeronautical Engineering Units 130710[1]
- (Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series) Carter Ralph, Meredith Silberstein, Piyush R. Thakre, Raman Singh (Eds.) - Mechanics of Composite and Multi-functional Materia
- TM 1-400 Theory of Flight
- Wing Design K-12
- Courses Uploads Attachment 258
- The Work of Wings
- Theory of Flight
- Southwest Rotorcraft
- Aerodynamic Forces
- 3. IJGET - Genaral - Computational Studies on Aileron - Vadivelu
- Srinath10 - Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Airfoils in Unsteady Viscous Flows
- finalessay
- ad-1-unit-vii-ppt
- pdfjoiner 4
- Final Report Fluid Mechanics
- Power-Pump-Valve-Dynamics-A-Study-of-the-Velocity-and-Pressure-Distribution-in-Outward-Flow-Bevel-Face-and-Flat-Face-Power-Pump-Valves.pdf
- A Novel Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Design for Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
- AD-1-2012-2013-02-Slides
- proj2
- 494ea4ea9346a3eebbc841f4187aa4855ff287ad

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

net/publication/271375424

Micro Aerial Vehicle

Conference Paper in Collection of Technical Papers - AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference · April 2011

DOI: 10.2514/6.2011-1988

CITATIONS READS

7 124

4 authors, including:

Cranfield University Beihang University (BUAA)

111 PUBLICATIONS 1,106 CITATIONS 56 PUBLICATIONS 394 CITATIONS

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

All content following this page was uploaded by Daochun Li on 24 August 2015.

52nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference<BR> 19th AIAA 2011-1988

4 - 7 April 2011, Denver, Colorado

Flapping Wing Rotor Micro Aerial Vehicle

Department of Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering,

Cranfield University, Beds, MK43 0AL, UK

In this paper, investigation was made into the design, experiment, and aerodynamic

analysis of a novel flapping wing rotor applicable to micro aerial vehicles (MAV). Attention

was firstly focused on the design of a simple, reliable and lightweight flapping rotor

configuration and wing structure to meet the challenging demands for high mechanical and

power efficiency and vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) capability of an MAV. The

experimental work demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the innovative design.

The paper presents an approach of experiment and processing the measured flapping wing

total dynamic forces to extract the unsteady aerodynamic force. A potential-flow-based

method, unsteady panel method was used to calculate the lift created by flapping wing

system. As the method is two dimensional, strip theory is adopted to evaluate the

aerodynamics of three dimensional flapping wings. Compared with measured data, the

numerical results show good agreement with the first order lift component, which is caused

by the rigid wing.

Nomenclature

aij = matrix element

bx,z = unitary influence of body sources on the body

Cp = pressure coefficient on the airfoil surface

Fin = inertial force of the wing

H = wing displacement in plunging direction

H0 = amplitude of the wing mass center

L = total lift of the flapping wing

L0 = average value of the lift

NP = number of panel on the body

Nw = number of time steps

m = wing mass

mx,z = unitary influence of body doublets on the body

U∞ = free stream speed

vT = the tangential velocity over the airfoil

wx,z = unitary influence of wake doublets on the body

α = the initial angle of incidence

φ = distribution of potential in the flow field

µ = doublet strength distribution

ω = flapping frequency

MAV = micro aerial vehicles

VTOL = vertical take-off and landing

FFT = fast Fourier transform

1

Research Fellow, Department of Aerospace Engineering, d.li@cranfield.ac.uk.

2

Reader, Department of Aerospace Engineering, s.guo@cranfield.ac.uk, AIAA Member.

3

Postgraduate Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Student Member of AIAA.

4

Postgraduate Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering.

1

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Copyright © 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

I. Introduction

S timulated by the flapping wing aerodynamic efficiency and superior flight performance of birds and flying

insects at low Reynolds Number, many researchers have made substantial work on developing flapping wing

micro aerial vehicles (MAV)1-2. In 1996, the U.S. Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) launched

a three-year MAV program with the goal of creating a flyer less than 15 centimeters in dimension for military

surveillance and reconnaissance3. US Air Force Research Laboratory has the goal to develop a bird-sized MAV by

2015 and an insect-sized MAV by 2030. To gain further insight of the flow field and mechanics of the insect

flapping wing, an insect like flapping wing mechanisms of double spherical Scotch yoke to mimic the insect

flapping wing motion was developed by śbikowski et al. in Cranfield University4-5. Tsai and Fu6 obtained the

average lift of a planar membrane wing through 3D aerodynamic calculation firstly, and then made an ultra-light,

small size flapping MAV of gross weight less than the average lift. In the MAV, the concept of four-bar linkage was

adapted. Electrical-discharge wire cutting technique was used to reduce the body mass of the flapping MAV from 11

to 5.9 g. In the same time, flight endurance of the MAV was increased to 6 minutes 7 seconds7. Recently, a single-

wing-rotating MAV was developed by Ulrich et al8-9 to emulate the natural samara. In the investigation, a dynamic

model was created to study the pitch and heave control of the Samara MAV. It shows the advantage of the highly

efficient stable autorotation and landing at terminal velocity without sustaining any damage.

Based on the previous research, it is noted that the weight cost would be too heavy for human made mechanism

to mimic the complex insect flapping motion. To minimize the weight cost and power demand, Guo et al. developed

an alternative concept of flapping wing rotor and a multi-bar linkage of flexible hinge mechanism for flapping

amplification10-13. As the limit of piezoelectric actuator, a lift of only 0.2 gram was created in Ref. 11. In order to

increase flapping-rotor lift, this current paper presents a new design of flapping wing rotor MAV, which is actuated

by a mini electric motor.

The investigation into the aerodynamics of flapping wings has many challenges due to the unsteadiness of the

flow. Theodorsen14 and Garrick15 were the first trying to give an expression to the forces produced by a flat plate

plunging and pitching with small amplitudes. If the limitations of small oscillations and flat plate are removed, there

is no available analytical expression for predicting the aerodynamic forces of flapping wing. This has led the

research to the development of numerical methods to compute the flow field around the wing. CFD methods are the

most suitable to capture the phenomena that occur in unsteady aerodynamics. The main issues arising when using

Navier-Stokes or Euler-based methods are the time involved and the difficulty in regenerating the grid at each time

step. Therefore, potential-flow-base methods have been developed by most of the researchers. Fairgrieve and De

Laurier16 were the first to investigate the effect of large amplitude on the efficiency of an oscillating flat plat. Their

method is based on a time marching scheme that computes at each step the aerodynamic forces with the wake free to

move in the motion plane. Recently, Ansari17 developed a model for the computation of the forces acting on a flat

plate oscillating in pitching and plunging. This approach accounts for two wakes shedding respectively from the

leading and trailing edges of the wing section. Base on the work by Jones and Platzer18, 19 and Katz and Plotkin20, a

numerical method was developed by Liani and Guo et al21. It can compute forces in time domain for an airfoil with

arbitrary thickness. This method was coupled with strip theory to calculate the unsteady aerodynamics of the rotor

flapping MAV designed in this paper.

Based on the new flapping wing rotor design concept, a micro flapping wing rotor test model was designed and

built as shown in Fig. 1(a). It is made of the following primary components: an electric motor and a Lithium battery

to supply power for the model; a gear mechanism to decrease the rotation speed, and a short off-centered bar linked

to a driving rod to transform the rotation to vertical linear motion as shown in Fig. 1(b). The driving rod forces a pair

of wings to flap through a U-shape lever mechanism. The U-shape mechanism is free to rotate around the driving

rod and seat on a bearing connected to the upper end of a fixed vertical rod, which is mounted at the base. The wing

is made of three spar beams supporting a thin polymer foil skin of 8cm length and 4cm width. The beams are made

of 2 layers of carbon/epoxy laminate. The total mass of the flapping wing rotor model is 9.1 gram. The flapping

wings produce the aerodynamic force including lift and thrust that drives the wings moving at a rotating speed

around the drive rod. The motion will produce more aerodynamic force and result in a higher speed. As an angle of

incidence is set to the wings, a maximum rotating speed and force is limited by the drag and the input driving power.

Although similar to a rotorcraft, the main difference and advantage of this particular design is its toque free rotor

mechanism, hence called a flapping wing rotor MAV.

In the experiment, to measure the dynamic force produced by the flapping wings, the whole model was mounted

on a force transducer, as shown in Fig. 2. Through an amplifier unit of amplification gain of 1k, the amplified

2

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

electric signal was acquired by using a multi channel A/D converter with up to 50 kHz sampling rate per channel.

The signal was then input to a computer to be processed by using the software Tracer DAQ V2.1.6.1 and further

analyzed by using MATLAB.

a). b).

A potential-flow-based unsteady panel method was used to calculate the lift created by the flapping wing. Based

on the inviscid assumption, the flow can be described by Laplace equation20, 21,

∇ 2φ = 0 (1)

where φ is the potential function. The solution of this equation with the boundary conditions of no disturbance at

the far field and impermeability on the body surface is given in the form of integrals on the surface of the body and

on the wake. The panel method gives a solution to Eq. (1) through the discretization of the flow field boundary. The

surface of the wing section is discretized with panels. On each of the panels, sources and doublets of unknown

strength are placed. The strength of these singularities may be computed based on the application of the Neumann

condition on the body. Therefore the condition of zero normal wash on each panel of the body is enforced. When a

zeroth-order discretization is used, the panels in which the body is split up are flat. The normal wash field and the

strength of the doublets are constant over each panel. The values of the normal wash representative of the panel are

the ones found in the mid point. The condition of impermeability of each panel is

Np Np Np Np Np Np

∑∑ ( bxi, j nxi + bzi, j nzi )χ j + ∑∑ ( mxi , j nxi + mzi , j nzi )µ j + ∑∑ ( wxi, j nxi + wzi , j nzi )∆φk = vbi ni

i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1

(2)

3

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

where NP stands for the number of panels and Nw for the current time step. Besides, bx, bz, mx, mz, and wx, wz are the

coefficients of the sources on the body, doublets on the body and doublets on the wake respectively. Equation (2)

provides a set of NP equation in NP +1 unknowns. So the equation known as the Kutta-Joukowski condition will be

used. The form of the Kutta-Joukowski condition employed in this paper is based on the theory given in Katz and

Plotkin20, in the following form

∆φk = µ N p − µ1 (3)

Equation (2) and (3) form a set of NP +1 equations with NP +1 unknowns. It can be rewritten in the metrical form

as following

a11 a12 L a1N P a1NW µ1 RHS1

a21 a22 L a2 N P a2 NW µ2 RHS2

M M O M M M = M (4)

aN P 1 aN P 2 L aN P N P aN P NW µ N P RHS N P

−1 0 L 1 −1 ∆φ NW 0

Once Eq. (4) has been solved, the aerodynamic force can be computed by integrating pressure coefficients over

the airfoil surface. For unsteady motions, the pressure coefficients are defined as

vT2 2 ∂φ

C p = −1 + + 2 (5)

U ∞ U ∞ ∂t

2

where vT is the tangential velocity over the airfoil, as the normal velocity is zero due to the no-through flow

condition. Before advancing to the next time step, the wake needs to be updated computing the velocities induced at

each vortex location. It is observed that the potential at a point P(x, z) produced by a doublets of edges P1(x1, 0) and

P2(x2, 0) is given by

µ z z

φ= arctan − arctan (6)

2π x − x2 x − x1

where µ is the doublet strength distribution. When the unsteady aerodynamics for a single wing section is ready,

strip theory was used to extend the 2D aerodynamic to compute the lift of 3D flapping wing rotor MAV described in

section II. For the pair of flapping wings, the total aerodynamic force can be obtained by integrating the distributed

force alone the span.

p

L(t ) = 2∑ cos (α )Li (7)

i =1

where p is the number of the wing sections; α is the initial angle of incidence. Li is the lift acted on section-i.

A. Experimental results

In the experiment, the original wing was mounted onto the actuator with an incidence angle of 35deg. With the

same MAV model and test setup, the dynamic force created by the flapping wing was recorded twice as data set 1

and data set 2. A set of test data in time history within one second is shown in Fig. 3. It is noted that the dynamic

forces are not exactly periodic. Some effects due to any thin film skin deformation and free play in the hinge and

bearing are inevitable. The test data was thus processed by a frequency analysis to filter out these effects as much as

possible. In the process, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was used to transfer the response time history into frequency

domain. The resulting frequency response of the two sets test data are shown in Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b respectively. It is

noted that the no zero response value occurs at zero frequency indicating an average dynamic force mainly due to

steady aerodynamic force in the test data. At the point of zero frequency, the amplitude shown in Fig. 4 is the

average value of dynamic force time history, which was verified by integrating the test data along time. In this

4

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

current experiment, constant values of 0.04825N (data set 1) and 0.04756 N (data set 2) are obtained. From Fig. 4,

we find that there are different peak values near the 2nd frequency between the two sets of data. These peaks should

be caused by the noise, and will be removed.

Based on the processed test data in frequency analysis, the aerodynamic lift time histories can be rebuilt with the

following equation

n

L = L0 + ∑ Ai sin(ωi t ) (8)

i =1

where L0 is the mean value of the time history. Ai and ωi are the amplitude and frequency of the i-order harmonic.

The average value of data set 1 and data set 2 are used here. Figure 5 shows the results with single or multi

harmonics. Single harmonic expression can’t approximate the time history of dynamic force, and that more

harmonics can give much realistic simulation of the actual time history. There is no obvious difference between 2-

harmonics and 5-harmonics expressions.

a). b).

Figure 3. Time histories of measured dynamic force: a) data set 1; b) data set 2

a).

5

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

b).

Figure 4. Frequency analysis of measured dynamic force: a) data set 1; b) data set 2

a). b).

The dynamic force mainly includes unsteady aerodynamics and inertial force. In order to obtain the net unsteady

aerodynamics, inertial force of the flapping wing will be estimated in the following way. It is assumed that the

flapping wing vibrates in the form of

H ( t ) = H 0 sin(2πωt ) (9)

where H0 is the amplitude of the wing mass center in plunging direction. In this case, the wing is assumed to be rigid

and that the mass center of the wing is located at the geometric center. ω is the flapping frequency, which can be

obtained from Fig. 4. The first frequency of 25.10 Hz is adopted. Here the pitching motion is ignored. According to

Newton's second law, the inertial force can be described as

Fin ( t ) = 2mH

&& ( t ) = − ( 2πω ) 2 H m sin ( 2πωt )

0 (10)

where m is the mass of a single wing. With the wing mass m = 0.3 g, and H0 = 0.0145m, the time history of inertial

force is calculated, as shown in Fig. 6. Then the net aerodynamic lift produced by the flapping wing is obtained from

the single and multi harmonics approximation of the test data.

6

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

a).

b).

Figure 6. Net lift of flapping wing: a) single harmonic; b) multi harmonics.

B. Numerical results

Based on the unsteady panel method described in section III, a Fortran code was created to calculate the lift

produced by the flapping wing rotor MAV. As an example, a wake convection of a flapping two-dimensional wing

section is provided in Fig. 7. According to Eq. (7), the total lift of the flapping wing rotor MAV was obtained, which

was compared with experimental lift, as shown in Fig. 8. An average lift of 0.0271N (2.77 gram) is obtained from

the numerical method, which is smaller than experiment value (4.89 gram) by 43.35%. The reason might be that the

wings were assumed to be rigid in the numerical calculation of lift, and only single harmonic motion was

considered. However, from the frequency analysis in Fig. 4, the second mode takes an important role in the unsteady

aerodynamics. The flexible deformation of the wing should have significant contribution to the flapping lift. In fact,

the peak values agree well when only the first harmonic of experimental dynamic force was considered, as shown in

Fig.8a.

7

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Figure 7. Wake convection of a wing section

a).

b).

Figure 8. Comparison between numerical and experimental lift: a) single harmonic; b) multi harmonics

8

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

V. Conclusion

In this paper, investigation was made into the design, experiment, and unsteady aerodynamics calculation of a

flapping wing rotor MAV. Apart from the traditional rigid lever mechanism and symmetrical flapping wing

configuration, this current research produced a new design concept of flapping rotor MAV configuration. The

flapping rotor concept has the potential of making the MAV in a much simple configuration to achieve VTOL than

the traditional flapping aircraft or more efficient than the helicopter. By applying the unsteady penal method and

strip theory, a Fortran program code was made to computing the lift produced by the flapping wing rotor MAV.

To demonstrate the design and validate the analysis, a flapping wing rotor test model was built and experiment

was carried out to measure the lift time history. To compare with the numerical results, the test data was processed

by employing the frequency analysis. From the experimental results, an average lift value of equivalent to 4.89 gram

was obtained, which is much larger than the numerical results. This is mainly because of the assumption of rigid

flapping wing, and only a single harmonic vibration mode was taken in the theoretic calculation. It is noted that the

experimental lift mainly composed of the first two modes, with the first mode corresponding to the primary flapping

motion, and the second mode caused by elastic deflection of the flapping wing. Nevertheless, the predicted peak

value of lift time history agrees well with the experimental results.

References

1

Shyy, W., Berg, M. and Ljungqvist, D., “Flapping and flexible wings for biological and micro air vehicles,” Progress in

Aerospace Science. Vol. 35, 1999, pp. 455-505.

2

Ellington, C. P., “The novel aerodynamics of insect flight: applications to micro-air vehicles,” Journal of Experimental

Biology, Vol. 202, 1999, pp. 3439-3448.

3

śbikowski, R., “Fly like a Fly,” IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 42, No. 11, 2005, pp. 46-51.

4

Galiński, C., and śbikowski, R., “Insect-like flapping wing mechanism based on a double spherical Scotch yoke,” Journal of

the Royal Society, Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 223-235.

5

Galiński, C., and śbikowski, R., and Pedersen, “Four-Bar Linkage Mechanism for Insect like Flapping Wings in Hover:

Concept and an outline of Its Realization,” Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 127, No. 4, 2005, pp. 817-824.

6

Tsai, B., and Fu, Y., “Design and aerodynamic analysis of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle,” Aerospace Science and

Technology, Vol. 13, 2009, pp. 383-392.

7

Yang, L., Hsu, C., and Han, H., “Light flapping micro aerial vehicle using electrical-discharge wire-cutting technique,”

Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 46, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1866-1874.

8

Ulrich, E. R., Humbert, J. S. and Pines, D. J., “Pitch and Heave Control of Robotic Samara Micro Air Vehicles,” Journal of

Aircraft, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1290-1299.

9

Ulrich, E. R., Faruque, I., Grauer, J., Pines, D. J., Hnmbert J. S. and Hubbard Jr, J. E., “Control Model for Robotic Samara:

Dynamics About a Coordinated Helical Turn”, Journal of Guidance Control, and dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1921-1926

10

Lal Kummari, K., Li, D., Guo, S., Huang, Z., “Development of piezoelectric actuated mechanism for flapping wing micro-

aerial vehicle applications,” Advances in Applied Ceramics, Vol. 109, No. 3, 2010, pp. 175-179.

11

Guo, S., Li, D., Huang, Z., “A smart material aeroelastic flapping wing micro rotorcraft,” International Forum on

Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics 2009, Seattle, Washington, IFASD-2009-163.

12

Chung, H., Lal Kummari, K., Croucher, S. J., Lawson, N., Guo, S., Huang, Z., “Development of piezoelectric fans for

loaded application,” Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, Vol. 149, 2009, pp.136-142.

13

Lal Kummari, K., Croucher, S. J., Lawson, N. J., Liani, E., Allegri, G., Guo, S., Chung, H., and Huang, Z., “The application

of piezoelectric actuator and compliant structures to achieve flapping wing motion for a MAV,” Journal of Materials Science &

Engineering, Vol. 26, 2008, pp. 642-646.

14

Theodorsen, T., “General theory of aerodynamic instability and the mechanism of flutter,” NACA TR 496, 1935.

15

Garrick, I. E., “Propulsion of a flapping and oscillation airfoil”, NACA 567, 1936.

16

Fairgrieve, J. D., Delaurier, J. D., “Propusive performance of two-dimensional thin airfoil undergoing large-amplitude pitch

and plunge oscillations,” UTIAS Thchnical Note No. 226, CN ISSN 0082-5263, July 1982.

17

Ansari, S. A., Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic model for insect-like flapping wings in the hover with micro air vechicle

applications, PhD thesis, Crafield University (DCMT Shrivenham) 2004.

18

Jones K.D., Platzer, M. F., “Time-domain aeroelastic analysis of a two airfoil system with application to unsteady rotary

wing flow fields,” AIAA 95-0337, 33rd Aerospace Science and Meeting Exhibit, 1995, Reno, NV.

19

Jones, K. D., Platzer, M. F., “Time-domain analysis of low-speed flutter,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 34, No.5, 1996.

20

Katz, J., Plotkin A., Low-speed aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, 2001

21

Liani, E., G., Guo, S., Allegri, G., “Potential-flow-based aerodynamic analysis of a flapping wing,” 25th AIAA Applied

Aerodynamics Conference, Miami, AIAA 2007-4068.

9

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

- Aeronautical Engineering Units 130710[1]Transféré parmaitham100
- (Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series) Carter Ralph, Meredith Silberstein, Piyush R. Thakre, Raman Singh (Eds.) - Mechanics of Composite and Multi-functional MateriaTransféré parAhmad Hamadeh
- TM 1-400 Theory of FlightTransféré parerik_x
- Wing Design K-12Transféré parproxymo1
- Courses Uploads Attachment 258Transféré parMohammad Tawfik
- The Work of WingsTransféré parWilliam Robertson
- Theory of FlightTransféré parFikri Rosli
- Southwest RotorcraftTransféré paryetinegro
- Aerodynamic ForcesTransféré parBotond Balázs
- 3. IJGET - Genaral - Computational Studies on Aileron - VadiveluTransféré pariaset123
- Srinath10 - Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Airfoils in Unsteady Viscous FlowsTransféré paredwardsilva
- finalessayTransféré parapi-270085429
- ad-1-unit-vii-pptTransféré parOsman Kutlu
- pdfjoiner 4Transféré parapi-275247752
- Final Report Fluid MechanicsTransféré parRaphael Andres Rubiano Vasco
- Power-Pump-Valve-Dynamics-A-Study-of-the-Velocity-and-Pressure-Distribution-in-Outward-Flow-Bevel-Face-and-Flat-Face-Power-Pump-Valves.pdfTransféré parpedro heraclitoromanhotmail.com
- A Novel Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Design for Small Horizontal Axis Wind TurbinesTransféré parFajar Hidayat
- AD-1-2012-2013-02-SlidesTransféré partengyan
- proj2Transféré parAlvaro Quispe Briceño
- 494ea4ea9346a3eebbc841f4187aa4855ff287adTransféré parRifky Kurnia Putra
- Areodynamics of Windmill BladesTransféré parSamuel Abebaw
- bernoulliwoochangchung-1213360646168171-9Transféré parjahiranazri
- A Vortex Model of the Darrieus Turbine: An Analytical and Experimental StudyTransféré parjohn arbuckle
- Sharp Transition in the Lift Force of a Fluid Flowing Past Nonsymmetrical Obstacles. Evidence for a Lift Crisis in the Drag Crisis Regime - Bot 2016Transféré parKonstantin Predachenko
- Annexure_H List of ATA ChaptersTransféré parMohammad Norouzzadeh
- 1.5049998Transféré parEdy Budiman
- Cfd en Arogeneradores de eje verticalTransféré parkrato7
- Ansys Fluent Project in Advanced Fluid MechanicsTransféré parالسيد الميالي النجفي
- final reportTransféré parapi-395462585
- Numerical Simulation of Mass Ratio's Effect OnTransféré parbestniaz

- Step7 STL Cheat Sheet by AlphabetTransféré parAdrian McDermott
- High School DxD Ss Heroinas Fantasia Bonku (Infinit-TradPro)Transféré parCarlos Armando
- The Kybalion - William Walker AtkinsonTransféré parRadu Andrei Linte
- 219 Pdfsam Imav2014 ProceedingsTransféré parCarlos Armando
- 0272Transféré parCarlos Armando
- 10.2514@5.9781600866654.0001.0010Transféré parCarlos Armando
- Turnitin_WhitePaper_PlagiarismSpectrum.pdfTransféré parAin Syahira
- 9789401792073-c2Transféré parCarlos Armando
- Frequency WavelengthTransféré parCarlos Armando
- Application of algorithms(control).pdfTransféré parCarlos Armando
- 80511023Transféré parCarlos Armando
- PrincipalTransféré parCarlos Armando
- tiducc9aTransféré parCarlos Armando
- 1-s2.0-S1568494607000531-main.pdfTransféré parCarlos Armando
- a book of job.pdfTransféré parashutosh
- Practica 5Transféré parCarlos Armando
- 3729-Article Text-6824-1-10-20180104Transféré parCarlos Armando
- 7a158f1894f1e249259bdfbf367dc0584647.pdfTransféré parCarlos Armando
- Met is 232869Transféré parCarlos Armando
- Multilevel_adaptive_otsu_thresholding.pdfTransféré parCarlos Armando
- Composite DrawingTransféré parCarlos Armando
- First HomeworkTransféré parCarlos Armando
- ej3c.pdfTransféré parCarlos Armando
- ej3cTransféré parCarlos Armando
- Composite DrawingTransféré parCarlos Armando
- ECGTransféré paromar farooq
- Um 016512Transféré parCarlos Armando

- HVX MODSTransféré parleandrolimeira
- Unit 2Transféré parVasudeva Singh Dubey
- RE-ENTRYTransféré parlakshmanapt
- THREAD ROLLING.pptxTransféré parShubham Sarkar
- Metabo 2013 Feb-AprilTransféré parRiverland Welding and Tool Supplies
- highmast_tech14&16mts.pdfTransféré parmanoj983@gmail.com
- Saudi Aramco Safety HandbookTransféré parmaliankadu
- jet propulsion.pdfTransféré pararvind
- Air America InformationTransféré parJason Holloway
- 3_Machines_Then_and_Now_Oxford_Read_and_Disco.pdfTransféré parlucky
- Pit Quarry (2)Transféré parOrlando Barrios
- Hmh-463 Jagman Report (8sep16)Transféré parNia Towne
- Essex and Suffolk Gliding Club. The StoryTransféré parkurion
- PDF 1 PennTransféré parAditya Raghunandan
- thermal engineer or CAE engineer or Cooling engineer or HVAC engTransféré parapi-78805299
- x313BG Off Assign 31may45Transféré parDongelx
- Fluid Flow in Rocket NozzlesTransféré parVenkat Akella
- Aircraft Legislation (b)Transféré parAde Yahya
- List of SketchTransféré parMinoj Sarasan
- Dsc11 Assembly FullTransféré parAnupam Rana
- IIST BTech 2018 Final List Aerospace EngineeringTransféré parAmit
- Bf109G-2 'Black 6'Transféré parIP2297
- Business__Corporate_Aviation_Management___On_Demand_Air_Travel (1).pdfTransféré parJohn
- Fall Hazard ManagementTransféré paradriancovalciuc4863
- harmonicsTransféré parTI Ignitors
- Benjamin Hockman CVTransféré parBen Hockman
- Quality Assurance/ FAA A&P IA / Leadership/ MaintenanceTransféré parapi-121836126
- R7210202 Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic MachineryTransféré parsivabharathamurthy
- AD0575A INTRODUCTION TO MANPORTABLE AIR DEFENSE WEAPON SYSTEMTransféré parTiter
- Munitions HandlingTransféré parKen Smith