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Chapter 3 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN The Deployment of AWSN Airborne Wireless sensor nodes in Airplane Monitoring system (AMS). General aircraft body is
consisted of left and right wing, cockpit or cabin, engine, vertical tail , left and right horizontal stabilizer, landing gear, front, middle, and rear sections which
are installed in subsystems of aircraft. Due to the dispersing deployment characteristic of the subsystems, cluster-star network topology is more suitable for
AWSN in AMS. Figure below illustrates how the WSN is deployed inside cabin, fuel tank, on the wings and other sections of the airplane with cluster star
topology. To meet the requirements of AMS, one or more clusters are constructed in each subsystem or respective region of aircraft body, and cluster head
and sensor nodes in each cluster formed cluster topology. The deployment of sensor nodes at certain optimum locations inside airplane enumerates as
follows: (1) Fuel Tank: -The sensor nodes are deployed inside fuel tanks which are in the wings and tail of the airplane to measure the level of fuel. (2)
Exhaust: - Sensors placed inside the exhaust would monitor whether any obstructions exist in it. (3) Wheels: -The routine examination for health and
condition of the wheels should be implemented before takeoff and after landing of aircraft. Moreover, the wheels might be also damaged while the aircraft is
on the runway or in the air. (4) Engine: - The engine is the “heart” of an airplane, which should be monitored in real-time. Overheating or physical damage of
the engine is harmful for airplanes. Most severe catastrophic failures even airplane crashes are associated with the safety of engine. Thus, sensor nodes
installed in and around the engine would monitor temperature and state of the engine surrounds and all components. (5) Wings: - Wings in the aircraft are
always exposed to corrosion, impact, and crack damage due to external various complicated climatic environments. Sensor nodes installed in the wings
would monitor vibration or strain arising from them to diagnose or forecast the localization, severity of them. (6) Fire and Safety: - Certain areas inside the
airplane such as the aircraft cabin and the passenger area carry items like luggage, cockpit, the kitchen, passenger section, and the cargo, where smoke
sensor nodes might detect fire indication and send alerts through the AMS. (b) Identifying Possible sensor nodes: - We have different sensors with different
response times their latency is studied and a minimum standard response foreach aircraft system is listed below. The real time requirements in different
aircraft systems are: - Aircraft systems Latency Automation systems Environmental monitoring systems Flight motion control system Wing control < 3ms <
1s < 60ms < 100ms The Figure above defines different types of sensors required for installation on an Jet Turbo Fan Engine system, normally used in
commercial aero planes. a) Studying individual sensor characteristics: TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES FOR IMPLEMENTATION:- Some of the technological
challenges for implementing safety-critical control systems based on WSN are as follows.:- 1.Control under communication constraints:- The communication
between sensors, controllers and actuators for both distributed engine control systems based on WSN and fly-by-wireless flight control systems will occur
through a shared bandwidth-limited wireless network. The use of a wireless communication channel introduces a number of communication constraints,
which have to be considered during the controller design. Two of such communication constraints that can have significant effects on the performance of the
control system are network-induced time delays and packet dropouts. The network-induced delay can be further sub-divided into sensor-to-controller delay,
controller-to-actuator delay, and the computational delay in the controller. Sensor-to-controller delay and controller-to actuator delay will depend on the
communication protocol and can be either constant, time varying or random in nature. Network congestion and channel quality can also result in random
network transmission delay. This delay can destabilize a system designed without considering the delay or can degrade the system performance. Packet
dropouts in wireless communication can occur due to transmission errors, long transmission delays or due to packet collisions. References [20∼23] provide a
brief introduction to networked control systems(NCS)and also present a survey on the recent developments in stability of NCS under communication
constraints. In wireless communication networks, systems with packet dropouts can be described by stochastic models. The packet dropping of the wireless
network can be modeled as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Bernoulli process with a packet dropping probability (PDP). The maximum PDP
that a networked control system can tolerate before becoming unstable is called packet dropout margin (PDM). By improving PDM, which can be viewed as a
measure of stability robustness for a system with packet dropouts, the stability of networked control systems with packet dropouts can be improved. A new
framework, labeled decentralized distributed full authority digital engine control (D2FADEC) was proposed in [11,12] and was studied for stability under time
delays and packet dropouts. It was shown that the PDM is dependent on a closed-loop system matrix structure and that a controller design based on a
decentralized framework further improves the PDM. 2. 3.2 MAC protocols for wireless control systems:- Each sensor node within the WSN has limited energy
and computational resources. In order to make optimal use of these finite resources, a number of protocols based on medium access control (MAC) have
been developed. These protocols stress on energy efficiency by reducing the energy loss due to wireless medium. Several MAC protocols like carrier sense
multiple access (CSMA), IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE 802.11 are discussed in [24]. Since MAC protocols focus on energy efficiency and not on reduction in
communication delay or packet dropouts, the performance of control systems based on these protocols is limited. Research should be conducted to design
MAC protocols which are not only energy efficient, but also offer high quality of service(QoS)in terms of time delay, bandwidth utilization and data loss due to
packet collisions. A very few studies have focused on this approach. For example, across-layer framework for an integrated design of wireless networks and
distributed controllers, which significantly improves the performance and stability of the controller, is presented in[25]. 4. 3.3 Dedicated spectrum for
wireless aircraft systems:- Before implementing WSN for safety critical systems, it is necessary to ensure that their operability will not be compromised due
to interference between various wireless networks. The WSNs should not interfere with the aircraft communication, navigation, and surveillance radio
systems and the intra-aircraft wireless communication. The effect of crew/passenger portable wireless electronics devices on WSN also has to be considered
during design of WSN. 5. 3.4 Optimum power source:- Powering all the sensors using the conventional batteries will not only increase the size and weight of
the system but will also limit their service life and will require expensive maintenance. A widely investigated alternative is to use energy harvesting
techniques to generate electrical power for operating these sensors. WSN can operate almost maintenance free by use of both energy harvesting methods
and by implementing strict power management[26,27]. Vibration-based harvesting technique is seen as one of the promising techniques for aerospace
applications. Current vibration energy harvesters are constructed as mechanical resonators with a transducer element that converts motion into electricity.
They are further divided into three groups of generators based on their physical transduction principle: piezoelectric, electrostatic, and electromagnetic.
Piezoelectric vibration-based energy converters deliver the highest efficiency at lowest cost and increased life cycle. Piezo ceramic bimorph beams and
MEMS-based piezo resonators can be used to harvest the energy from vibrations while bulk ceramic and fiber composites directly bonded to the aircraft
structure can be used to harvest strain energy. As there is a significant temperature gradient between the cabin lining and aircraft shell, thermoelectric
generators can also be used to harvest this energy. The operation of these thermoelectric devises is based on Seebeck-effect and it has been shown that a
MEMS-based thermoelectric generator can be efficiently used to generate sufficient power. Use of MEMS-based steam microturbines to generate electricity
from waste heat of engine exhaust should also be investigated. 6. 3.5 Certification of aircraft wireless systems:- Use of wireless communication networks for
safety critical functions of an aircraft require a very high degree of safety assurance and certification [28]. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has
certified a number of on aircraft wireless radio frequency (RF) systems which include wireless smoke and fire detection systems passenger wireless network
systems and cabin emergency lighting systems with wireless controls. However, all these systems are non-safety critical systems and typically operate in an
unlicensed spectrum. Specific regulations for aircraft wireless systems do not exist and there is a need to develop specific regulations for such novel
applications of WSN. Such regulations are necessary to ensure that there is no interference between portable electronic devices carried by passengers,
existing airplane radio transmitters and transmitters within the proposed WSN. There is no worldwide spectrum allocated specifically for fly by wireless
systems. The new certification rules must ensure that WSN are protected against unauthorized introduction and modification of data, denial or loss of service,
gradual degradation of service and introduction of misleading or false data. The current FAA regulations expect physical isolation between safety critical and
other communications networks like passenger entertainment networks. Use of WSN for the entire aircraft makes physical isolation challenging. The new
regulations must also address security threats including safety threats, business threats, channel jamming attacks, etc Chapter 4 DEVELOPMENT a)
Establishing Network mechanisms between sink gateways and respective aircraft system computer:- Multipath Propagation In Aircrafts:- Metallic materials
consisting of magnesium, aluminum, steel, titanium, alloys, and non-metallic materials consisting of reinforced plastic, transparent plastic, composite, and
carbon-fiber are used in an aircraft construction. These materials cause signal losses during propagation. The Boeing 787's aircraft is made of 50%
composite, 20% aluminum, 15% titanium, 10% steel, and 5% other materials. Aluminum and composite materials constitute more than 20% of the Airbus
A380's airframe (AirbusA380 2012). Metallic and non-metallic materials have different influences on the electromagnetic waves. A mathematical model for
aircraft wireless communication system has been developed by considering the signals loss during propagation in aircrafts. The spatial characteristics of
multipath channel are modelled, verified, and analysed by Rayleigh distribution. It considers the multipath propagation reflections of electromagnetic waves
on the walls of aircraft and other objects in the indoor aircraft environment The indoor propagation channel considers reflection and diffraction of radio waves
on various obstacles during transmission. The propagation channel produces attenuated and delayed pulses for each transmitted pulse. The transmitted
signal reaches to the receiver by multiple paths or through multipath propagation. The component such as delay, attenuation and phase shift of the received
signals are determined by obstacles encountered and the length of travel of the electromagnetic waves. Multipath channel impulse response at time instant
T and position P are determined by Equation given below: where K (T, P) represent the number of multipath components. refers to the amplitude of the
signals, α(T,P) refers to the phase shift of the signals, is a delta function and θ(T,P) refers to the time delay of the multipath component. The number of
physical paths is theoretically infinite. A practical model considers the amplitude of the signals in physical paths as well as thermal noise power in the
channel. When indoor propagation velocity of the objects is low, the multipath parameters change slowly with respect to the data rates. Wireless sensor
nodes in Engine systems: The WEMS module is an engine monitoring module mounted directly on the aircraft engine. It is not installed in the avionics
compartment or similar fuselage location, for example, which on the other hand, is the preferred location for the ground data link unit that connects to many
airborne units. The WEMS module is interfaced in one example to the Full Authority Digital Engine Controller (FADEC)/Engine Control Unit (ECU) on the
engine. The WEMS module is typically Small, in one example, about 2x2x4 inches, and can record, store, encrypt and transmit “full flight’ engine data.
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