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Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150

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Land Use Policy


journalhomepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/landusepol

Benefits of pedestrianization and warrants to pedestrianize an area


a,∗ b
Nikhil Soni , Neetishree Soni
b
a Urban Transport Planner, Institute of Urban Transport, India
Civil Engineer, Freelance Consultant

article info abstract

Article history: With the rapid increase in numbers of private vehicles on the road, many transportation related issues like congestion, crashes
Received 23 November 2015 Received in and injuries, pollution, noise etc. have grown very rapidly. Urban settlements like core CBD and heritage town, which were
revised form 6 May 2016 Accepted 11 planned for NMT and pedestrians, are worst affected. Environment, in such areas, has degraded to the extent that people do
May 2016 not wish to visit these areas anymore. On another hand, these areas have very significant role in economy and identity of the
city. Due to unavailability of space and socio-economic system, only feasible way to upgrade mobility and environment in
Keywords: such special areas is to pedestrianize them. Pedestrianization of the congested street is a very effective, low-cost and
Pedestrianization
sustainable solution. Other than congestion reduction, Pedestrianization has numerous benefits. These list of benefits can be
Sustainable planning
used to advocate Pedestrianization of any street. It can also help in estimating the cost to benefit ratio of such schemes. The
Land-use policy
Pedestrian safety first part of this paper summarize various benefits of Pedestrianization from the experience of Pedestrianization scheme
Walking around the globe and various researches conducted on its impact. These Benefits can be separated in various categories based
on impacts on Transportation, Society, Environment, Economics, and Health. The second part of the paper list down various
warrants that can be used as the indicators for the need of Pedestrianization in an area. These warrants can also be used as
justification to pedestrianize an area. This paper will help various urban policy makers, land-use and transportation planner,
environmentalists and citizens etc. in decision making to solve various urban issues related to transportation.

© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction streets has been implemented in many cities around the world for a long time.
The policy of Pedestrianization has also been adopted by many Asian cities in
With the rapid increase in a number of private vehicles on the road, many the last 20 years e.g. in Japan, Singapore, Shanghai, and Beijing etc. There
transportation related issues like congestion, crashes and injuries, pollution, must be a lot of benefits of Pedes-trianization that attracted town planners and
noise etc. have grown very rapidly. Urban settlements like core CBD and policy makers around the world. But whenever a street is about to get
heritage town, which were planned for NMT and pedestrians, are worst pedestrianize, there is huge opposition from businessmen having shops on
affected. Environment, in such areas, has degraded to the extent that people those streets. Most of the times, it becomes impossible to justify the policy of
do not wish to visit these areas anymore. On another side these areas have Pedestrianization. The argument often put forward by retailers that their
very signif-icant role in economy and identity of the city. Due to customers need car access (presumably in order to carry the goods home), is
unavailability of space and socio-economic system, only feasible way to simply not correct (Kumar and Ross, 2006).
upgrade mobility and environment in such special areas is to pedestrianize
them. Narrow streets, low car ownership (due to lack of parking space), high
population density, mixed land-use and small size of trip length creates a 1.1. Objective and research goal
favorable environment for Pedestrianization in such areas. Pedestrianization
of congested area and commercial The goal of this paper is to list down various benefits of Pedestri-anization
from the experience of Pedestrianization scheme around the globe and various
researches conducted on its impact. Another objective of the paper is to list
down various warrants that can be used as indicator and justification for the
∗ need of Pedestrianiza-tion in an area. This paper will help various urban
Correspondence to: Tel.: +91 9039337535, House No. 5, Street No. 1, Maulana Azad Road, Moti
Mata Square, Barwani, M.P. 451551, India. policy makers, land-use and transportation planner, environmentalists and citi-
E-mail address: soninikhil08@gmail.com (N. Soni).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.05.009
0264-8377/© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
140 N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150

zens etc. in decision making to solve various urban issues related to 3. Transportation related benefits
transportation.
3.1. Mobility & accessibility improvement

1.2. Concept of pedestrianization In most of the cases, poor access for pedestrians in an area is due to
improved access for the car and other personated vehicle users (Ravetz, 1980).
Cambridge dictionary defines Pedestrianization as “to make an area into Hence, banning cars and other personalized vehicles must result in
one where vehicles are not allowed to go”. Hence, Pedes-trianization is to improvement in mobility and accessibility for sus-tainable mode users. The
convert (a street) into an area for the use of pedestrians only, by excluding all safer, more favorable and more enjoyable environment for personalized
motor vehicles. “Car-free” space or city is another popular term. An area vehicles like cars result into the low levels of walking and cycling (Kumar,
cannot be pedestrianized in isolation. It is always coupled with improvement 2006). When the pedestrian-friendly area is created, Pedestrian traffic has a
and creation of effective and sufficient public-transportation facilities, pedes- tendency to increase dramatically (TEST, 1989). The pedestrians get more
trian infrastructure and non-motorized transportation (e.g. bicycle) space to walk in pedestrianized areas as compared to other areas, which
infrastructure. Absolute Pedestrianization is not possible in real world. allows them to walk with desired and most comfortable speed. TEST (1989)
Compromises have to be made in order to continue with proper functioning of research proves that the number of pedestrians tends to double after a
urban system; for convenience of public and various government authorities pedestrian friendly area is created and the physical environment for
and to make Pedestrianiza-tion scheme acceptable and popular among pedestrians radically improves after Pedestrian-ization. Pedestrianization
citizens. For example emergency vehicles like ambulances, police, fire- makes an area more accessible for all and mobility of all users improves
fighting trucks etc. must be allowed to enter in a Pedestrianized area. significantly. In locations like Chandani Chowk (Old Delhi, India), where
Similarly Public buses like urban transportation and school buses must be pedestrians, NMT users and transit users have high mode share, mobility and
allowed to pass through pedestrianized area. If a pedestrianized area is hav- accessibility improvement is maximum.
ing commercial activities, delivery vans and freight trucks must be allowed.
Similar nature motorized transportation can be given permission. This
permission can be time bound e.g. freight can be allowed for limited and fixed
time period in non-peak hour or night. Streets to be used by these permitted 3.2. Reduction in car use, congestion & parking need
vehicles can be predeter-mined. There are lot of ITS solutions and electrical
systems are in market that can allow only permitted vehicles to enter an area Very high motorized-vehicle friendly infrastructures with lavish parking
and block others. Based on level of compromises there can be three types of amenities, wide roads, and flyovers etc. serve as a catalyst for increasing car
pedestrianized area as following: dependency (Poboon, 1997). Pedestrianization discourages motorized-vehicle
friendly infrastructures and facili-ties that results into discouraging car
dependency. If the walking distance to the public transport stop is further than
to where the car is parked, the average human being will use the car
(Knoflacher, 2006). In such areas, public transport gives tough competition to
cars. Cars no longer provide last mile connectivity. Parking is now as far as a
1.2.1. Full-time pedestrianization bus stop or more. Hence, a large number of visitors shift from private to
Pedestrians have absolute priority. Vehicular access is restricted to public transport. It leads to reduced car use, hence decreases parking needs.
emergency services only but service vehicles may be allowed in specific
period, for selected locations.

3.3. Increase public transport & NMT use


1.2.2. Part-time pedestrianization
vehicular access is only allowed in specific periods. In order to minimize
The pleasurable shopping experience, safety, improved air qual-ity and
vehicular access to the area, there is no on-street parking space. However, low noise levels attract customers to pedestrian commercial streets (Newby et
loading bays are provided for loading and unload-ing purposes. al. 1991; Forest, 1981). This attraction makes them shift mode from
personalized vehicle to transit or NMT. Pedestrian count (volume) is the most
recognizable indicator of Pedestrianization scheme success (Hall and Hass-
Klau, 1985). In research of Monheim (1980), it was concluded that the biggest
1.2.3. Traffic calming
pedestrianized areas, among studied cities, showed the largest increases in
Footpaths are normally widened and on-street parking spaces are reduced
pedestrian traffic. TEST (1989) research concludes that public transportation
as far as possible. Taxi stands and green minibus stands are only provided if
usage increased in all cities and as a result, car usage became constant or
relocation is not practical. There is no restriction to vehicular access.
decreased. For example in Vienna, when a comprehensive Pedestrianization
However, vehicles are slowed down through the use of traffic calming
design was executed, the city experienced a 34% growth in railway transport
measures, such as speed tables, curb build-outs, sharpened corners, road
usage and a 53% increase in bus travelers (TEST, 1989). US Department of
narrowing, gateways, etc.
Trans-portation (1994) research shows that the number of travelers who drive
alone changed their habits due to Pedestrianization. Roughly 30% of these
2. Benefits of pedestrianization travelers were ready to shift to a different way of transportation if appropriate
pedestrian and cycling facilities were provided.
The most common positive impacts of Pedestrianization can be
categorized into following five categories:

• Transportation related 3.4. Road crashes & injury reduction


• Social
• Environmental Urban congestion is in such condition that pedestrians are
• Economic
• Health related
regularly sufferers of crashes. The main cause behind
pedestrian crash and fatality is interaction and conflict of
pedestrian and
N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150 141

vehicle. Pedestrianization make these interactions and conflicts almost of belongingness and ownership, citizens tend to become more responsible
negligible. This results in reduction of traffic crashes involv-ing pedestrians. and civilized. Using public property with care, keeping surrounding clean,
Intersections are predominantly unsafe to older pedestrians who seldom have helping and sharing are some indicators.
enough time to cross safely (US Department of Transportation, 1987). A
research, by Webster and Mackie (1996), of traffic- calming areas in the UK, 4.3. Increase in security & safety
concluded that there was a 29% decrease in traffic crashes to bicyclists, for
children crash rate cut down by 48% and an overall crash reduction by 60% Due to continuous activities happening in such areas, crime rates get
after implementation of traffic calming policies. Netherlands and Germany reduced, people feel more secure and comfortable in such places. Very low
have traffic calming at area-wide unlike other countries where traffic calming chances of crashes make people feel safe, relaxed and tension free to walk
is for isolated streets. This guarantees that faster through traffic gets shifted to freely. Children, aged people and disable people feel safe in such places.
arterial roads and not simply shifted to another local street. The outcomes of Young children running into the street are at great risk of a traffic crash. This
huge scale traffic calming projects in the Dutch cities (Eindhoven and fear resulted in restric-tion of children less than 6 year age on vehicular streets
Rijswijk) con-cluded that the crashes rates were decreased by 80% in Australia (Gehl, 2011). Barely some children are permitted to travel freely
(Schlabbach, 1997). The British Department of Transport established that the on the footpaths of areas with vehicular traffic. On contrast to it, nearly no
risk of pedestrian death in crashes rises from 5% at 20 mph (32 km/h) to 45% children are forced to walk hand in hand with their parents in pedestrianized
at 30 mph (48 km/h) and 85% at 40 mph (64 km/h). Area-wide traffic calming areas (Gehl, 2011). Woonerfs–Dutch residential yards (living-courts) are
in Dutch neighborhoods has reduced traffic crashes by 20%–70% (Kraay and residential neighborhoods in which vehi-cles move at very slow speed as a
Dijkstra, 1989). Traffic calming in German neighborhoods has reduced traffic result of traffic calming devices and landscaping. Maximum allowed speed of
injuries overall by 20%–70% and serious traffic injuries by 35%–56% (Hass- vehicles in Woon-erfs of Netherlands is 15 km/h. Children’s safety was
Klau, 1992). significantly improved by the formation of woonerfs (Wiedenhoeft 1981).
Tem-porary street closings are low-cost methods to increase pedestrian safety
(USDT Federal Highway Administration, 1989). Several fes-tivals in Toronto
depend on temporary street closings for their success. In New York City, play
3.5. Improvement in LOS, speed & trip time streets are closed to traffic during specified hours to permit a supervised
program and have increased child safety (Institute of Transportation
The majority of people are dependent on public transport, walking and Engineers, 1994). When streetscape measures improved pedestrian safety in a
NMT in most of the Indian cities (roughly 60–80%). Pedestrianization number of Toronto streets, accident rates went down and pedestrian traffic
reclaims public space for the development of infrastructure for these increased, as did local business (Rosenblatt Naderi, 1998).
sustainable mode users. Hence, Pedestri-anization of an area leads to
improvement in LOS and speed of these mode users. The success of a city
center cannot only be understood from an idea of decreasing traffic issues but
from the quantity of people who get advantage from them in a recreational
way (Monheim, 1992). Removal of traffic lanes results in more uni-form 4.4. Heritage preservation and urban renewal
traffic flow and fewer crashes without increasing total trip times (Burden and
Lagerwey., 1999). In 1997, Saint George Street (Toronto) was changed from In many cities around the world, Pedestrianization schemes have been
four lanes to two, but it still transports the same capacity of people as before. proved to be most effective, low cost and sustainable way of heritage
preservation. Pedestrianization preserved heritage buildings from harmful
vehicular pollutants and vibration. It also helps in reducing encroachment of
heritage land or parking and other transportation infrastructure projects like
4. Social benefits road widening, fly-over construction etc. According to the paper published by
Urban Redevelopment Authority of Singapore (1998), pedestrian streets in
4.1. Social interaction & relations Singapore are example of one type of conservation, which helped in
conservation of its Indigenous style, characteristics and building with high
Pedestrianized streets encourage face-to-face social interac-tions and architectural value. After the implementation of Pedes-trianization in 1995,
communication that are necessary to the enthusiasm and excitement of urban valuable historical buildings could be well conserved and maintained.
life (Beatley and Manning, 2016; Engwicht, 1993). Pedestrian streets promote Consequently, tourists and the public can still have a chance to visit and take a
social interactions and commu-nication by providing a public forum (Gehl, look on all those histori-cal buildings now. That pedestrian street also
2011). Greater road traffic levels also have major impacts on the levels of becomes one of the famous tourist spots in Singapore.
social inter-action and community connectedness at the neighborhood levels
(Ross, 1999). It was originated from a research in San Francisco (Whitelegg,
2002; Appleyard, 1981) that areas with less traffic were having more the Besides heritage preservation, Pedestrianization would also be effective in
community interactions and people had more opportunities to meet and to urban redevelopment. The quality of buildings can also be improved due to
have good social activities in such areas. Pedestrianization also inspires local better management of traffic. Planners are able to have more focus on the new
people to make a purchase in their own neighborhoods and it also invites development on aesthetic design of the pedestrian street without disturbance
more cus-tomers from a broader part raising the community relations (Ross, by heavy motorized traf-fic. Different and specific cultural characteristic of
1999; Kumar, 2005). pedestrian areas can be revealed and community livability can also be
increased. Reclaimed land can be used for urban renewal like parks, public
amenities, community spaces etc.

4.2. Sense of belongingness, responsibility & pride


4.5. Livability improvement
Walking gives the opportunity to people to know the culture, traditions,
environment, heritage and people of the city in detail. This creates a sense of Streets, undoubtedly, are a major portion of the public realm, that is,
belongingness, responsibility & pride. In addition, people take pride and places where people interact with their community. More attractive, safe and
assume ownership of walkable city centers that are interactive and lively. Due walkable streets increase community livabil-ity (Forkenbrock and Benshoff,
to increased sense 2001). Therefore, Pedestrianization
142 N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150

can be an effective measure of improving lifestyle and commu-nity liability in noise level is equivalents to a 50% decrease in perceived noise levels (the
with the segregation of vehicles used by residents. It encourages both optional City of Toronto Council and Committees, 1999).
and social activities for pubic, increases neighborhood interaction and
community cohesion and leads the city to be successful. Reduced noise, less
5.4. Micro-climate improvement
pollution, aesthetical improvement, safety, and security, increased
accessibility and mobility make the city better place to habitat. In the early
Pollution due to vehicular movement causes the greenhouse effect that
1960s, Munich City Council decided to redesign the old city primarily for result into temperature increase. Dust and noise degrade environment further.
pedestrians. Before the redesign, an estimated 70,000 peo-ple visited the area
Banning vehicular movement in an area helps in creating better micro climate.
each day. Nowadays, 400,000 people go there daily. Munich’s walking areas There is a considerable decrease in temperature, noise and dust. On another
are connected with transit stops and train stations to encourage walking and
hand, reclaimed land can be used for greenery and plantation. Due to a better
leaving the car at home (Zuckermann, 1991). Pedestrianization and traffic environment, people can now open their buildings to outside to achieve indoor
calming have also been proven to be an effective measure of improving
human comfort by passive techniques.
lifestyle and safety to the residents (Kumar, 2006).

5.5. Greenery & plantation


5. Environmental benefits
Pedestrianized areas have enough space for the development of green
5.1. Air pollution reduction spaces like roadside tress, parks etc. in place of parking areas and vehicular
lanes. Istanbul historic peninsula Pedestrian-ization project resulted in an
Numerous researches have been carried out in the UK and Europe in order increase in a number of trees and green spaces. Restoration of Chenggyecheon
to test the environmental impacts of Pedestrian-ization. Most of these studies River in South Korea’s capital city, Seoul, is another example.
showed that there are many positive impacts of Pedestrianization to the
environment. For example, Chiquetto (1997) examined the environmental
impacts of Pedestri-anization in Chester by the use of a set of traffic and 6. Economic benefits
environmental predictive models. The results showed that the
Pedestrianization gets diverse variations in the levels of environmental effects TEST (1989) scholars tried to prove the hypothesis that a good physical
for var-ious portions of the network, predominantly in relation to various environment is a good economic environment. They con-cluded that
environmental indicators. In common words, the Pedestrianiza-tion has been Pedestrianization significantly contributes to economic improvements and the
proven to be advantageous to Chester people. Huge decreases to the levels of most effective variable to measure this is retail turnover. Sellers in the
environmental degradation have been found in the central area and such pedestrianized area benefitted from a remarkable growth in sales. An OECD
benefits accumulate to a large number of people who live, work or undertake (1978) research, that involved more than 100 pedestrianized cities around the
leisure activities on the pedestrianized roads (Chiquetto, 1997). One more world, found that the turnovers in the city centers increased in 49% of the
analo-gous research in relation to environmental aspect also reinforced the cities and remained constant in 25%. Cities in Austria, Germany and Scandi-
benefits with concrete statistics, Air quality monitoring indi-cates emission navia had more than 60% increases in turnover.
reductions by as much as 40% for certain pollutants in pedestrianized street
(Lloyd Wright, 2004). After Pedestrianiza-tion implementation,
concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) fell from 8 ppm to 1 ppm in
Cologne (Germany) and from 35 ppm to less than 5 ppm in Gothenburg 6.1. Increase in footfall, sales & rent
(Sweden) (Brambilla and Longo, 2016). A survey of cities around the world
regarding their Pedestrianization schemes revealed that environmental Researchers of Hall and Hass-Klau (1985) and Monheim (1980) on
improvement closely related to the removal of traffic (OECD, 1978). Pedestrianization concluded that retail turnover and customers in a shop are
directly proportional to the number of pedestrians in that area. Hasselt
(Belgium) pedestrianized its streets to create pedestrians friendly
environment. Free transit for residents of those streets was introduced. This
improved commerce and busi-ness, thus growing municipal revenue. This
5.2. Fuel & land saving resulted into reduction of business taxation rates (CNN, 1998).

Due to decreased personalized vehicle use and increased pedes-trian, In Dallas (Texas) office buildings with landscaping and good pedestrian
transit and NMT users, there will be a huge saving on fuel in pedestrianized amenities tend to have higher occupancy rates than others (Goldsteen, 1989).
area. On other hand infrastructure for transit, pedestrian and NMT requires In Toronto, buildings that are not on the PATH (the underground pedestrian
much lesser space as compared to personalized vehicles, so there will be a lot corridors) gets half annual rent and have higher vacancy rates than analogous
Buildings connected to PATH (Goodman, 1984). Pedestrianization normally
of saving on land. Park-ing area reduction is another factor that results into
increases land values. Increases in land values result into Property tax assess-
the reclaiming of urban public land.
ments and rents increase. Increased sales balances rent increases (Brambilla
and Longo, 2016). In TEST (1989) researchers increases in rental rates as high
5.3. Noise reduction as 625%. In York (UK) the explosion in sales rates resulted into rent increase
of up to 400% (Chartered Surveyor Weekly, 1987).
Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic affects physical as well as
psychological health. It causes sleeping disorders, hearing disor-ders,
headache, depression etc. Many researches have been carried out to analyze
the impact of Pedestrianization on Noise pollu-tion. All studies have shown 6.2. Saving on fuel, land & road infrastructure
that Pedestrianization significantly decreases noise pollution. Noise decrease,
by 10–15 decibels at street level, was experienced in Copenhagen (Denmark) Pedestrian and cycling facilities are less expensive to build
due to Pedestrianization (Brambilla and Longo, 2016). A decrease of 6 dB
and maintain than roads for cars. On the other hand, these
facilities require lesser land. Hence, there is a lot of saving.
The decrease
N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150 143

in the usage of personalized modes results in reducing save fuel consumption. in profit. The increase in transit use also leads to a decrease in fare rates.
Improved revenue leads to better transit services e.g. high frequency, lesser
waiting time, more comfortable in-vehicle environment, faster journey etc.
6.3. Saving on reduced negative externalities These improvements attract and encourage more people to use public
transport leading to more and more revenue generation.
Private vehicle dependency gives direct benefits only to the vehicle user.
There are no significant external marginal benefits. In fact, Private vehicle
dependency forces a variety of economic, social and environmental costs. 7. Health benefits
Private vehicle use imposes more external costs on people who drive less than
their share of costs. On other hand, people who drive more than average 7.1. Unpolluted air intake in respiration
benefited by subsidy. The pedestrian, NMT users and disadvantaged people
(low income, disabled, children, and seniors) take a maximum share of these Vehicles emit many harmful gasses and dust like Hydrocarbons, Carbon
costs (Litman, 2003). Pedestrianization would force people to shift from monoxide (CO), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Particulate matter, Sulfur oxide
private vehicle to sustainable modes, resulting into cost saving to society on (SOx), Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) etc. As dis-cussed in previous
reduced negative externalities. section Pedestrianization help in reducing all these pollutants in the air by
banning the use of motor vehicles, hence help in improving lungs and
It is proved to be wrong that whatever it is social and envi-ronmental respiratory system. Clean air intake in respiration leads to many health
costs, increased mobility (of cars) provide net economic benefits. Many benefits and safety from fatal diseases of lungs.
Research point that increased motor-vehicle mobil-ity has overall negative
economic impacts beyond an optimal level. This is because the marginal European researchers estimated the impact of outdoor (total) and traffic-
productivity of improved mobility is declining and vehicle use imposes related air pollution on public health in Austria, France, and Switzerland
external costs that balance direct economic gains (Boarnet and Marlon, 1995; (Künzli et al., 2000). This assessment estimates the public-health impacts of
Helling, 1997). Improvements to pedestrian safety lead to significant savings current patterns of air pollution. Although individual health risks of air
(Rosenblatt Naderi, 1998; Couture, 1997, Newman and Kenworthy, 1999a,b). pollution are relatively small, the public-health consequences are
considerable. They found air pol-lution caused 6% of total mortality or more
than 40 000 attributable cases per year. About half of all mortality caused by
Newman and Kenworthy (1999a,b) identifies the five major neg-ative air pollution was attributed to motorized traffic, accounting also for: more
impacts of heavy car uses that are larger road expenditure, a larger percentage than 25 000 new cases of chronic bronchitis (adults); more than 290 000
of income spent on traveling, reduced transit cost recovery, increased episodes of bronchitis (children); more than 0.5 million asthma attacks; and
transportation fatalities and injuries and increased pollution from vehicle more than 16 million person- days of restricted activ-ities (Künzli et al.,
emissions. Pedestrianization is the most effective solution to all these negative 2000).
impacts that results into direct economic gain to the city. Reductions in crash
rates, road fatalities, pollution, congestion, noise etc. are having economic
benefits to whole society. 7.2. Exercise, fat/calories loss & fitness

Pedestrianization force people to walk more and numerous ben-efits will


6.4. Increase in employment come along once walking becomes everyday habit. One of the finest methods
of aerobic workout is walking. It is most conve-nient, self-regulating and
Pedestrianization improves shop occupation rates and rents as discussed naturally safe exercise without any need of special equipment. Walking is as
previously. Forest (1982) examined pedestrianized areas in five French cities; natural as breathing and in fact, human body is designed by nature to walk a
Metz, La Rochelle, Rouen, Grenoble and Stras-bourg. Shop occupancy, lot. A person with 60 kg weight can lose 75 cal by walking at 2 km/h for 30
property values, and shop rents increased after Pedestrianization due to min (99 cal at 4.8 km/h and 150 cal at 6.4 km/h). Walking increases muscle
increased rivalry for storefronts and sales of goods increased 10–20% per mass, tone muscles, increase bone density, stimulates and strengthens bones. It
year. This resulted into the dis-placement of weaker businesses by stronger also benefits by maintaining healthy joints preventing many diseases e.g.
ones, especially chain stores and luxury goods stores (Forest, 1982). arthritis. Adequate walking strengthens and shapes legs (calves, quads,
Brambilla and Longo (2016) mentioned that once a street is pedestrianized, hamstrings and buttock muscles). Pedes-trian friendly built environment and
vacancy rates are expected to drop drastically e.g. downtown Ponoma (Cali- walking as transport mode encourages physical activity in Children and
fornia) and Knoxville (Tennessee) had a drop in vacancy rates from 25% to Adolescents which directly influence their physical and mental health (Giles-
0% within one year of Pedestrianization. High occupancy means more people Corti et al., 2009).
required to a run shop, hence more people get employed. More customers
lead to more profit and business. As a result, more employment is generated
and salaries of employees are expected to increase.
7.3. Improvement in metabolism & digestion

Walking, being a form of aerobic exercise, increases the rate of


6.5. Income from public transit users metabolism resulting into more calories burning, even at rest. It also helps in
improving the digestive system. Food digests eas-ily and fast. It also improves
Newman and Kenworthy (1999a,b) proved that cities with large mode hunger and eating habits. The main source of energy during prolonged
share of public transit, NMT users and pedestrians have greater wealth (gross walking is predominantly fat oxidation due to improved metabolism (Ainslie
regional product per capita) than cities with heavy car use. The US et al., 2002). Vig-orous regular walking resulted in a reduction of body fat
Department of Transportation (1994) sur-vey suggested that proper pedestrian stores, endogenous insulin requirements, and food intake, and perhaps
and cycling infrastructure and facilities would increase public transport users improved the ability to eliminate cholesterol by increasing the plasma high-
of almost by 100%. As discussed previously, Pedestrianization increases tran- density lipoprotein fraction (Leon et al., 1979). The European countries with
sit users. This increases vehicle occupancy of transit and transit no longer run the highest levels of walking and cycling have much lower rates of obesity,
under its capacity. This leads to transit operation diabetes, and hypertension than
144 N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150

Table 1 8. Warrants for pedestrianization


Footpath-width recommendation of IRC 103: 2012.

Land-use Type Clear Effective Width (in m) Pedestrians must get absolute priority in all situations. Consid-ering
Minimum width of footpath and Residential area 1.8 countless benefits of Pedestrianization, it can be implemented in any situation
Commercial/Mixed 2.5 and it should not need any warrants. There are some basic aspects that can be
Shopping frontage 3.5 to 4.5 used as warrants and indicators for Pedes-trianization of heritage cores. These
Bus Stops 3
warrants can be classified into two categories as following:
High-Intensity commercial area 4

Qualitative Warrants
Table 2
London Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTALS). (For interpretation of the ref-erences to
• Preservation of Heritage, Tourism and Recreational spaces
colour in this table, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.). • Safety and Security Reasons: streets with schools, hospitals, old age homes,
crash prone areas need traffic calming or complete Pedestrianization

• Reclaiming public space for public welfare and development of public


amenities
• On popular public demand

Quantitative Warrants

• High mode share of sustainable modes like pedestrian, NMT and transit

• Street geometry and street width are not sufficient and appropri-ate for
motorized transport
• Presence of good public transport within walking or bicycling distance

countries like the United States. The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden, for • Noise level is in unacceptable range
example, have obesity rates only a third of the Ameri-can rate, while • Pollution (Air Quality Index: AQI) is in unacceptable range
Germany’s rate is only half as high (WHO, 2002). • LOS is in unacceptable range

Qualitative warrants are self-explanatory and a list of qualita-tive warrants


7.4. Improvement in nervous & psychological health can be never-ending. Quantitative warrants are being discussed in the
following section.
The ability to walk to improvement in mood is undoubted. Reg-ular and
moderate-intensity brisk walking has been established to be as effective as 8.1. High mode share of sustainable modes
antidepressants in cases of minor to moderate depression by getting the active
release of feel-good endorphins into the blood, reducing stress and anxiety. Streets, where the majority of people use sustainable modes (NMT,
Walking in groups or in the public palace where a lot of people are present Pedestrian, and Transit etc.) can be pedestrianized if street space or width is
(for exam-ple pedestrian streets) helps in decreasing feelings of isolation and limited and congestion exists. Comprehensive research is needed to define
loneliness. Pedestrianization is the best mean to encourage people to walk and ‘high mode share’. Roughly more than 50% mode share of sustainable modes
provide them opportunities to have exercises in busy urban lifestyle. 1 in 14 can be defined as ‘high mode share’. Almost all Indian cities have mode share
people over 65 and 1 in 6 over 80 get affected Dementia (mental decline and of sustain-able modes (pedestrian included) more than 50%. If such areas are
memory loss). Regular exercise like walking reduces dementia risk by up to pedestrianized, excellent public transport must be provided which is easily
40%. Older people who walk 10 km or more per week can avoid brain accessible from all parts of pedestrianized area.
shrinkage (Age, UK). Brisk walk increases circulation and oxygen supply to
all cells in the body resulting into a feeling of more alertness, energetic and
alive. 8.2. Street geometry and street width

Heritage cities usually have narrow streets due to climatic, topography and
various other reasons. On another hand, the major-ity of these cities have the
7.5. Cardiovascular & pulmonary fitness non-linear geometry of streets. Streets, which do not have geometry suitable
for vehicular traffic, must be pedestrianized e.g. streets which have turning
Regular walking has been proven scientifically to reduce the risk of heart radius lesser than the minimum required for moving the car to turn (e.g. 6.4 m
disease and stroke. It lowers levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol brings up levels radius centerline of the inner lane – AASHTO). All the streets, having an
of HDL (good) cholesterol. Walking briskly for up to 30 min daily helps to effective clear width (=Total width − Obstruction Width or Dead width) lesser
prevent and control the high blood pressure that can cause strokes reducing than the minimum required as standards (e.g. IRC 103: 2012 as given in
stroke risk by up to 27% (Stroke Association, UK). A walking habit reduces following Table 1), must be pedestrianized.
the risk of developing type-2 diabetes, asthma and some cancers (e.g. cancer
of the colon, breast, and womb).
8.3. Public transport accessibility level based warrant
Research conducted in East Belfast, United Kingdom, proved that Urban
renewal programs and improvement in walking infras-tructure can improve Congested regions,
where excellent public transport access is
the health of inactive residents. Maximizing walkability increases walking on
average by 36 min/person/week. Through walkability upgrades, guidelines for
available within walking or bicycling distance, can be
physical activity are met by 12.8% of inactive people (Alberto et al., 2015). pedestrian-ized to discourage personalized modes use. Many
countries have ‘Public Transport Accessibility Level’ to
measure public transport accessibility. For example London
Public Transport Accessibility
N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150 145

Table 3
Recommended noise standards for India.

Category of Area Limits in dB (A) Note

Day Night
Industrial area 75 70 1. Daytime is reckoned in between 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.
Commercial area 65 55 2. Night time is reckoned in between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Residential area 55 45 3. Silence zone is referred as areas up to 100 m around such premises as
hospitals, educational institutions, and courts etc.
Silence Zone 50 40 4. Mixed categories of areas should be declared as one of the four above-
mentioned categories by the Competent Authority and the corresponding
standards shall apply.

Table 4
Indian Air Quality Index: AQI (Source: CPCB India). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this table, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.).

Levels (PTALS) are a comprehensive and precise measurement of the Following Table 4 shows categories of Indian AQI. Table 5 shows various
accessibility of a point to the public transport (bus stops, rail stations, light pollutant considered for calculation of Indian AQI and their respective
rail stations, underground stations and Tram halt). It takes into account concentration ranges. Fig. 1 shows AQI example of Anand Vihar area of New
access-egress (walk) time; the reliability of the service modes available; the Delhi, India.
number of services available; and the level of service i.e. average waiting For Indian cities AQI below 200 is recommended and accept-able. AQI
time etc. It does not consider the speed or utility of accessible services; above 200 creates breathing discomfort to most people on prolonged
Crowding & ability to board services; & ease of interchange. Following Table exposure. If motorized vehicles are a major source of pollution in an area that
2 shows the PTALS designed for London: has AOI in unacceptable range for the majority of the time period, then
Pedestrianization should be done. Acceptable range should ideally be 0–200
AQI. Similarly from AQI of any country can be used to decide acceptable
8.4. Noise level based warrant level of AQI and Pedestrianization strategy.

Noise is defined as unwanted sound. It is measured in decibel. The decibel


(dB) is a logarithmic unit. A decrease of 6 dB in noise level is equivalents to a 8.6. LOS based warrant
50% decrease in perceived noise levels. The Researches show that
Pedestrianization can reduce noise level up to 15–20 dB (A). When a street The LOS (level of service) for pedestrians is defined by Gallin (2001) as
has noise level in the unacceptable range, mainly due to vehicular traffic, it “an overall measure of walking conditions on a route, path or facility. This is
can be pedestrianized in order to bring noise level in acceptable range. The directly linked to factors that affect pedestrian mobility, comfort and safety. It
Central Pollu-tion Control Board Committee (of India) on Noise Pollution reflects the pedestrians’ percep-tions of the degree to which the facility is
Control recommended noise standards for ambient air (Environment Pro- pedestrian friendly”. Many researchers proposed various methodologies to
tection Rules, 1986, India) as given in Table 3 below: calculate LOS for pedestrians e. g. Fruin (1971), Pusharev and Zupan (1975),
Mori¯ and Tsukaguchi., (1987), Kaiser (1994), Khisty (1994), Sarkar (1995),
Dixon (1996), Sarkar (1996), Helbing and Molnar (1997), Muraleetharan et
8.5. Pollution (Air quality index: AQI) based warrant al., (2003), Gallin (2001) etc. The two main crite-ria to evaluate the Level of
Service on pavements were defined in the 1970s by Fruin (1971) and by
Pollution in cities is measured in Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is also Pusharev and Zupan (1975). Both publications established 6 different service
known as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and Pollutant levels (A–F), based on speed, flow rates, space available per pedestrian, and
Standards Index. The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells the ability to manoeuvre without conflicts and changes in the walking speed,
how clean or polluted air is and what associated health effects might be. AQI including the ability to cross or walk against the main stream and ability to
is an overall scheme that transforms pass other pedestrians. The Highway Capacity Manual explains that “there are
individual air pollutant (e.g. SO2 , NO2 , PM2.5 , PM10 , O3 , CO, Pb, and additional environmental factors which contribute to the walking experience,
NH3 ) levels into a single number, which is a simple and lucid and therefore to the per-ceived level of service. These environmental factors
description of air quality for the citizens. It is a piecewise linear function of should be considered because they can greatly influence pedestrian activ-ity”.
the pollutant concentration. At 1st stage AQI for indi-vidual pollutant is These environmental factors are: comfort, convenience, safety,
calculated, then the largest or “dominant” AQI value (among all pollutant) is
reported for the location. AQI cate-gory color and AQI category range may
differ country to country.
146 N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150

Table 5
Indian AQI categories and breakpoint concentrations with averaging times (units: g/m3 unless mentioned otherwise) (Source: CPCB India). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this table,
the reader is referred to the web version of this article.).

*One hourly monitoring (for mathematical calculation only).

security features and economy aspects.) LOS can be classified in two types Table 7
Environmental LOS – Khisty (1994).
e.g. Physical LOS and Environmental LOS. Physi-cal LOS was developed by
Fruin (1971) and improved by many other researchers. LOS is based on LOS A Greater or equal to 85% satisfied 5 points
physical quantitative analysis. It depends on effective footpath width, speed, LOS B Greater or equal to 60% satisfied 4 points
LOS C Greater or equal to 45% satisfied 3 points
flow, density, space, delay at intersection and time to cross road etc. This
LOS D Greater or equal to 30% satisfied 2 points
methodology is widely used and it is adapted by HCM 2000. (refer Table 6) LOS E Greater or equal to 15% satisfied 1 points
LOS F Less than 15% satisfied 0 points
Environmental LOS was developed by Khisty (1994) and improved by
many other researchers. LOS as perceived by its users based on qualitative
environmental factor like Attractiveness, Com-fort, Convenience, Safety, Case 1. When LOS is in unacceptable range (‘D’, ‘E’ or ‘F’) only for some
Security, System Coherence and System Continuity. (Refer Table 7) month in a year, the part-time pedestrian scheme can be implemented. For
example, most for tourist places have tourist season when a lot of people come
The 2010 HCM incorporates tools for multimodal analysis of urban as a tourist. This results into the degradation of pedestrian LOS, hence this
streets to encourage users to consider the needs of all trav-elers. This method seasonal period must be pedestrianized. Following Figure 10.2 shows that a
is designed for evaluating “complete streets,” context sensitive design street has LOS in an unacceptable range in the month of May, June and July
alternatives, and smart growth from the perspective of all users of the street. It only, hence these three months need an implementation of Pedes-trianization
is used to evaluate the tradeoffs of various street designs in terms of their if there is space constraint. Such situations occur in Pilgrimage sites, natural
effects on the perception of auto drivers, transit passengers, bicyclists, and tourist spots, during special events like sport and cultural festivals etc. (Refer
pedes-trians of the quality of service provided by the street. Fig. 2)

Streets, where pedestrian LOS is not within acceptable range i.e. ‘A’, ‘B’
Case 2. When LOS is in unacceptable range (‘D’, ‘E’ or ‘F’) only for few
or ‘C’, footpath widening must be done to bring LOS in an acceptable range.
If after footpath widening sufficient space is not available for Motorized days in a week, the part-time pedestrian scheme can be implemented. For
modes, the street must be pedestrian-ized. In other term streets must have example, most of the Indian cities have weekly market days when lots of
2 people come as shoppers. This results into the degradation of pedestrian LOS,
Pedestrian Space more than 1.9 m /Ped and Pedestrian flow lesser than 21
hence these special days must be pedestrianized. Following Figure 10.3 shows
ped/min/m in every situation.
that a street has LOS in an unacceptable range in a weekend (Friday, Saturday,
and Sunday) only. Hence, these three days need an implementation of

Table 6
Physical LOS of footpath based on HCM 2000.

2
LOS Space (m /p) Flow Rate (p/min/m) Speed (m/s) Conflicts
A >5.6 ≤16 >1.30 Pedestrians move in desired paths, walking speeds are freely selected and
conflicts between pedestrians unlikely.
B >3.7–5.6 >16–23 >1.27–1.30 There is enough space to select walking speeds, bypass other pedestrians and
to avoid crossing conflicts. Pedestrians begin to be aware of other pedestrians
and to respond to their presence when selecting a walking path.
C >2.2–3.7 >23–33 >1.22–1.27 Space is sufficient for normal walking speeds, and for bypassing other
pedestrians in primarily in unidirectional streams. Reverse direction or
crossing movements can cause minor conflicts, and speeds and flow are lower.
D >1.4–2.2 >33–49 >1.14–1.22 Freedom to select individual walking speeds and to bypass other pedestrians is
restricted. Crossing or reversing flow movements face a high probability of
conflict, requiring frequent changes in speed and position.
E >0.75–1.4 >49–75 >0.75–1.14 Virtually all pedestrians restrict their normal walking speed, frequently
adjusting their gait. At the lower range, forward movement is possible only by
shuffling. Space ix nor sufficient for passing slower pedestrians.
F ≤0.75 Variable ≤0.75 All walking speeds are severely restricted, and forward progress is only made
by shuffling. There is frequent, unavoidable contact with other pedestrians.
N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150 147

Fig. 1. AQI example of Anand Vihar, New Delhi, India (Source: CPCB India).

Pedestrianization if there is space constraint. Such situations occur near places urban issues. Other than quantifiable benefit there are a lot of ben-efits that
of worship, heritage sites, markets, cinema theaters etc. (Refer Fig. 3) can be quantified and their value to society is precious. Developing countries
like India, where cities have high- density mixed land-use core areas, benefits
get multiplied many times. Hence, these countries must adopt
Case 3. When LOS is in unacceptable range (‘D’, ‘E’ or ‘F’) most of working Pedestrianization schemes for the congested parts of their cities. The
day time, then full-time pedestrian scheme should be implemented. For government need to make policies and laws that can force and guide city
example, most of the markets in core CBD areas (like Chandni Chowk) have authorities to imple-ment Pedestrianization schemes strictly.
a crowd for the whole working time of day. This results into the degradation
of pedestrian LOS during working time, hence street need to be Quantitative Warrants such as Mode share of sustainable modes, Street
pedestrianized for a whole working time. Even in some hours during working geometry and street width, Public transit accessibility, Noise level, Pollution
time have LOS in acceptable range; full-time pedestrian scheme is needed. (Air Quality Index: AQI) and LOS etc. can be used as an indicator for the
Following Fig. 4 shows that a street has LOS in unacceptable for most of need for Pedestrianization and also as a sci-entific justification for
work-ing daytime. Hence full-time Pedestrianization is needed if there is Pedestrianization policy. All countries need do research to fix acceptable
space constraint. Such situations occur in congested areas with mixed land levels of such indicators and must make strict rules regarding implementation
uses like heritage city markets, CBD areas etc. (Refer Fig. 4) of pedestrian friendly schemes.

10. Discussion
9. Summary and conclusion
10.1. Opposition to pedestrianization schemes
The following figure summarizes benefits of Pedestrianization as
discussed above (Fig. 5). Experience of most of pedestrianized area and streets around world is that
This is evident from the discussion that Pedestrianization of a street or an implementation of pedestrian scheme has to go through lot of opposition from
area of the city brings a lot of benefits to every section of society. users. Most people oppose it due to many misconception and negative
Pedestrianization is low cost, high benefit, easy and fast to implement, perception. Businessmen hav-ing shops in area to be pedestrianized and
sustainable and long lasting solution to contemporary motorized vehicle users

Fig. 2. Example of Part time Pedestrianization for few months.


148 N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150

Fig. 3. Example of Part time Pedestrianization on few days.

living in area to be pedestrianized are two main stakeholders that oppose distance and time of walking in deciding maximum walking dis-tance.
pedestrian schemes. Researchers conclude that Business-men’s opposition Shopkeepers think that car parking close to shop preferably in front of shop is
frequently due to many misapprehensions which are being discussed here. very important for bring a buyer to shop. Most of shopkeepers exaggerate the
Shopkeepers think that motorized vehi-cle users are having more money and perceived significance of road side parking in front of shops. Newby et al.
greater buying power than pedestrians and transit users. But truth is buying (1991) research proved that Car drivers do not give any important to parking
power and vehicle ownership does not have any direct scientific correlation. close to the shops (in Leicester City). As already discussed, there are lot of
Pedes-trian and transit user households save more money because they spent researches that prove Pedestrianization bring lot of economic benefits to a
less money on commuting. They may have more money to spend than Commercial Street. Once businessmen realize these benefits after
households with cars. For example research by Pol-lution Probe in 1992 implementation of Pedestrianization, their opposition generally drops rapidly.
found that pedestrians have about $7000 per year more to spend on shopping Hence before implementation of Pedestrianization scheme, it very important
than car users in south-ern Ontario. Perception of shopkeepers is that to educate people about benefits of Pedestrianization.
motorized traffic is good for commercial streets and it attracts people from far
dis-tance. Various researches prove that it is not Motorized vehicle
accessibility but the accessibility for all modes and overall human
environment attract buyers to a commercial street. As discussed earlier that
Pedestrianization increase retail turnover, improve shop occupancy rate and 10.1.1. Conflict between bicyclist and pedestrians
attract more buyers. Most of shopkeepers are motorized vehicle users As already discussed Pedestrianization is always coupled with
themselves, hence they tend to overes-timate personalized motor-vehicle development of pedestrian and bicycle friendly infrastructure and provision of
users in their customer’s mode share while underestimate pedestrians and efficient public transportation facilities. Pedestrianized area becomes very
transit users. Hall & Hass-Klau in 1985 did detailed research on this aspect attractive for bicyclists because of improvement in traffic safety and perceived
and found that it is mere misconception of shopkeepers. It is general percep- safety. If needs of bicyclist not kept in mind, pedestrianized areas may become
tion that buyers cannot walk long distances and Pedestrianization cause full of conflicts between bicyclists and pedestrians. Hence while planning
inconvenience to all visitors, especially abled people, elderly people and Pedestrianiza-tion scheme, needs of bicyclist must be taken care of. Sufficient
children. There is also misconception that shops located far away from transit bicycle parking spread all over pedestrianized area must be pro-vided.
stop and main road have maximum loss due to Pedestrianization. Visitors, Wherever possible, depending on flow and space available in streets,
including personalized motor-vehicle users, are willing to walk much greater exclusive bicycle lanes must be provided. Bicyclist move-ment can be
distances than Business-men think (Newby et al., 1991; Hall and Hass-Klau, restricted in peak hour or Bicyclist may be allowed only for few hours in day.
1985). Physical environment in which people walk is much more important Urban designers and architects can be very helpful in providing innovative
than design solution for pedestrian bicyclist conflict points. Hence they must in
involved in planning process. All roads leading to pedestrianized areas must
have exlcu-sive bicycle lane to provide safety and accessibility to bicyclists.

Fig. 4. Example of Full-time Pedestrianization during working day.


N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150 149

Fig. 5. Summary of Pedestrianization Benefit.

ity) system (Monheim, 1997). Past experience of growth of cities has


validated claims of this model. International experience suggest that if car
friendly transportation infrastructure (e.g. wide roads, car parking, flyovers
etc.) and car friendly land-use (e.g. no restric-tions on car use and speed in
residential and commercial areas) are provided in cities, mode share of cars
increases, resulting into var-ious urban transportation issues like congestion,
pollution, traffic crashes etc. (Fig. 6B) and vice versa. Transportation system
charac-teristics have very significant influence on Mode choice and travel
behavior of people. Pedestrianization being a policy that promotes creation of
pedestrian, NMT and transit friendly transportation sys-tem and land-use
pattern, supposed to increase mode share of pedestrian, bicyclist and transit
(Fig. 6C). Pedestrianization policy, hence, can be very helpful from changing
travel behavior and mode choice in any city. In long time when private vehicle
users will real-ize benefits of walking, bicycling and using transit, they will
shift from private modes to sustainable modes. More pedestrian traf-fic will
lead to less car traffic in long run. Knoflacher (1980) proved that public
transportation and personalized car users become equal competitor and
substitute of each other when parking for private vehicles are as far from land-
use as transit stops. This make the utility of private vehicle and public transit
comparable, influenc-ing mode choice behavior. Pedestrianization is
application of this concept in real world. Pedestrianization makes area private
vehi-cle free or in other world it forces private vehicle parking to move out of
land-uses. Hence it can be concluded in long run, Pedestrian-ization may lead
to decrease in mode share of private vehicle and increase in mode share of
pedestrian, non-motorized traffic and transit users.

Acknowledgment
Fig. 6. Urban transportation systems model.
This paper is partially based on master thesis (2015) of Author, Nikhil
10.1.2. Mode choice and travel behavior change over time Soni, submitted to IIT Delhi, India under guidance of Prof. Dr. Geetam
The urban transportation systems model (Fig. 6A) suggests that urban Tiwari. We are grateful to Dr. Geetam Tiwar (Professor, IIT Delhi, India) and
transportation system and urban land-use (activity) system interact with each Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Program (Tripp, IIT Delhi,
other to generate traffic flow. This flow in return influence urban India) for their guidance, motivation and support. We are also thankful to
transportation system and urban land-use (activ- anonymous reviewers for their
150 N. Soni, N. Soni / Land Use Policy 57 (2016) 139–150

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