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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter explains about background, objectives that need to be achieve, problem
statement about the project that need to be solve, scope of research and also organization of
this project report.

1.1 Background

Drilling is a process to produce hole on a workpiece with using drilling tools that
considered (M.H. Osman1, 2017) traditional material removal process also apply widely in
major industrial productions. Chips are been produce during drilling process which the drill
rotated and sheared the material. Drill tool produced the holes according to the diameter of
.the drilling tool when accumulation of chip removal and thrust movement

During drilling, the drilling tools strongly influenced the process such as type of
workpiece and drilling parameters. The chips that have been produced during the drill rotated
and sheared will evacuated according to the drill shear angles and removed from the
machining area. Performance of the drilling process that used suitable tools in terms of tool
life, surface roughness, and diameter accuracy will be affected the process. In die
manufacturing, the drill process was employed to facilitate the assembly process between die
components or to produce the holes for cooling channel inside the die.

The used of suitable drilling tools must be accompanied with the right drilling
parameters. Among important parameters, cutting speed and feed rate are dominant to control
the searing action during materials engagement as well as to evacuate the chips consistently.
To avoid tool breakage tremendously or to avoid the workpiece material deformed due to
excessive force from the drilling thrust was the proper control of cutting parameters. In
production of AISI D2, surface roughness is one of the major criteria to represent the
accuracy on the machined parts. (M.H. Osman1, 2017)
Drilling is the most problematic machining process in removal of chips from cutting region.
The leading reason is that chip forming is in closed area and not seen described an
experimental research study on machinability in the dry drilling of aluminium alloys
(AA7075-T6) and on the potential of the new design of tools and coatings. Tool wear
evolution and burr size were analyse, as well as the impact of the process parameters on
torque, power, feed force and tool temperature. Drilling of aluminium alloys effectively in
dry condition is possible. Drilling tools available in industry, varied from High Speed Steels
(HSS), carbide and polycrystalline diamond (PCD), depended on the applications.

1.2 Problem Statement


The optimization results showed that the combination of low cutting speed, low feed rate,
andhigh point angle is necessary to minimize burr height. When surface roughness at lower
cutting speed and feed rates at higher point angle that was the best result obtained.

Drilling burr poises significant problem in the manufacture of mechanical components. Burr
is plastically deformed work piece material that is attached at its edge. Undesired projection
of material (burr) tends to lower part quality and does not facilitate easy assembly. Burr
formation in drilling is a major problem in precision engineering, which necessitates
additional cost of deburring. Understanding the mechanism of burr formation helps one to
adopt ways to prevent or, at the best, reduce burr formation. Analytical modeling,
investigating tool/workpiece interaction and finding out the influence of workpiece material
under varying cutting conditions facilitate understand creation of burr. Several studies
examined effects of machining and other parameters on drilling burr formation for varying
workpiece materials. (Songmene, 2014)
The aim of the work reported here was to utilize response surface methods to optimize
surface finish and holes diameter accuracy in the drilling. There will have the effects of
drilling parameters on the surface roughness were evaluated and optimum machining
conditions for minimizing the surface roughness were determined using Response Surface
Method. Optimization of machining parameters not only increases the utility for machining
economics, but also the product quality to a great extent. As a result, there have been a great
many research developments in modeling surface roughness and optimization of controlling
parameters to obtain a surface finish of desired level since only proper selection of cutting
parameters can produce a better surface finish. (Kilickap, 2011)
1.3 Objectives

The objectives are as follows:

(a) To find the drill parameters such as diameter drilling tools, feed rate, spindle
speed that are commonly effect response.
(b) To investigate the response of MRR surface roughness for drilling
(c) To optimize the response of surface roughness drilling using size RSM.

1.4 Scopes of the Research

The scopes of research are as follows:

(a) Research on the effects of drilling parameters on drilling tools, cutting, feed
rate, spindle speed, point angle on burr height and surface roughness produced
when drilling.

(b) Study the most significant parameters on surface quality based on changes of
feed rate and drill diameters affect average surface roughness considerably in
high cutting speed.

(c) To determine the main effect significant factors and optimum machining
condition to the performance of drilling holes using which diameter of drilling
tools.

(d) To identify the method that have to be used to get the data analysis for drilling.
1.5 Organisation of Final Year Project Report

This study consist of 5 chapters. In first chapter, the introduction about the project provides
objectives, problem statement of the study and also scope of the project. Chapter 2 consist of
literature review that is relevant to the present study of drill parameters using different type of
drilling diameters using response surface method. Chapter 3 explains the method and
working procedure used in this study from starting until completing this study. Chapter 4
analyses and discusses the results that have been complete. The result collection from the
experiment will be analyse in this chapter. Data and finding during the experiment will be
discuss further in this chapter. In chapter 5, the conclusion are drawn from the overall
findings of the project along with recommendation for the future work.
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter discuss about literature review of the project. This section finding about
optimizing of drilling process for aluminium alloys using response surface method. The main
resource from research journal, reference book and also online source.

2.1 Introduction
Drilling is one of the most important machining processes. Approximately 75% of all metal
cutting process involves drilling operation. In automotive engine production, costing of
drilling hole is among the highest. Therefore, surface integrity is an important parameter in
manufacturing engineering. It is because, surface integrity can influence the performance of
final parts and it’s quality. In order to study the relationship between drilling process
parameters and surface integrity, a systematically approach, the design of experiments
(DOE); response surface method (RSM) can be used effectively

2.2 Machine operation


Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross- section in solid
material. There is some different type of drilling as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1
2.2.1 Type of drilling machine

Drilling machine or drill presses are one of the most common machine found in the machine
shop. Machine thatturns and advances a rotary tool into a workpiece is called drill press. It is
used for drilling holes but when used with proper tooling, it can be used for a number of
machining operations. The most common machining operations performed on a drill press are
drill, reaming, reaming, tapping, counterboring, countersinking, and spotfacing.
There are many different types of drilling machine, but most drilling machines will fall into
four broad categories which is upright sensitive, upright, radial, and special purpose.

TYPE OF MACHINE DESCRIPTION


Upright Sensitive Drill Press The upright sensitive drill press (Figure 1) is
a light-duty type of drilling machine that
normally incorporates a belt drive spindle
head. This machine is generally used for
moderate-to-light duty work. The upright
sensitive drill press gets its name due to the
fact that the machine can only be hand fed.
Hand feeding the tool into the workpiece
Figure 1
allows the operator to "feel" the cutting
action of the tool. The sensitive drill press is
manufactured in a floor style or a bench
style.
Upright Drill Press The upright drill press (Figure 2) is a heavy
duty type of drilling machine normally
incorporating a geared drive spindle head.
This type of drilling machine is used on
large hole-producing operations that
typically involve larger or heavier parts. The
upright drill press allows the operator to
hand feed or power feed the tool into the
workpiece. The power feed mechanism
FIGURE 2 automatically advances the tool into the
workpiece. Some types of upright drill
presses are also manufactured with
automatic table-raising mechanisms.
Radial Arm Drill Press The radial arm drill press (Figure 3) is the
hole producing work horse of the machine
shop. The press is commonly referred to as
a radial drill press. The radial arm drill press
allows the operator to position the spindle
directly over the workpiece rather than
move the workpiece to the tool. The design
of the radial drill press gives it a great deal
FIGURE 3 of versatility, especially on parts too large to
position easily. Radial drills offer power
feed on the spindle, as well as an automatic
mechanism to raise or lower the radial arm.
The wheel head, which is located on the
radial arm, can also be traversed along the
arm, giving the machine added ease of use
as well as versatility. Radial arm drill
presses can be equipped with a trunion table
or tilting table. This gives the operator the
ability to drill intersecting or angular holes
in one setup.
Gang Drill Machines The gang style drilling machine (Figure 4)
or gang drill press has several work heads
positioned over a single table. This type of
drill press is used when successive
operations are to be done. For instance, the
first head may be used to spot drill. The
FIGURE 4 second head may be used to tap drill. The
third head may be used, along with a
tapping head, to tap the hole. The fourth
head may be used to chamfer.
Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine The multiple spindle drilling machine is
commonly referred to as a multi spindle
drill press. This special purpose drill press
has many spindles connected to one main
work head (Figure 5).
All of the spindles are fed into the
workpiece at the same time. This type of
drilling machine is especially useful when

FIGURE 5 you have a large number of parts with many


holes located close together.

Micro-Drill Press The micro drill press is an extremely


accurate, high spindle speed drill press. The
micro drill press is typically very small
(Figure 6) and is only capable of handling
very small parts. Many micro drill presses
are manufactured as bench top models.
They are equipped with chucks capable of
holding very small drilling tools.
FIGURE 6
Turret Type Drilling Machine Turret drilling machines are equipped with
several drilling heads mounted on a turret
(Figure 7). Each turret head can be equipped
with a different type of cutting tool. The
turret allows the needed tool to be quickly
indexed into position. Modern turret type
drilling machines are computer-controlled
so that the table can be quickly and
accurately positioned.

FIGURE 7

2.2.2 Type of drilling characteristics


Drilling tools are used in majority of holes making processes industry. The formation of high
a high quality hole, which has high surface integrity and high dimension accuracy, requires
the use of a drill to make a hole and a reamer for finishing. Some of the characteristics of
drilling which sets it apart from most of the other metal cutting processes are the chips of the
material in which the drilling is made exits out of the hole which creates the cutting. As the
chips exit from the hole which creates the cut, it might cause some problem if the chips are
huge. We need to have a constant grip on the drilling machine otherwise it could wander
around. During drilling deep hole also need a coolant. The cutting characteristics were
evaluated using the thrust force, cutting torque, surface roughness, wear behavior of the
cutting edges, and cutting edge temperature. (Masato Okada1, 2014). Figure 2 shows names
each parts of a drill.
Figure 2
There is shape specifications and cutting characteristics
Shape specifications Cutting characteristics
Helix angle Is the inclination of the flute with respect to the axial direction
of s drill, which corresponds to the rake angle of a bit. The rake
angle of a drill differs according to the position of the cutting
edge, and it decreases greatly as the circumference approaches
the centre. The chisel edge has a negative rake angle, crushing
the work. High-hardness material have small rake angle while
soft material have large rake angle.
Flute angle It is determined by depth of hole, bush length, and regrinding
allowance. Since the influence on the tool life is great, it is
necessary to minimize it as much as possible.
Point angle In general, the angle is 118 degree which is set differently to
various applications. The small point angle is for soft material
with good machinability while large point angle for hard
material and high- efficiency machining.
Web thickness It is an important element that determines the rigidity and chip
raking performance of a drill. The web thickness is set
according to applications.
Margin The tip determines the drill diameter and functions as a drill
guide during drilling. The margin width is determined in
consideration of friction during hole drilled. The small margin
width have poor guiding performance while large margin width
have good guiding performance.
Diameter back taper To reduce friction with the inside of the drilled hole, the
portion from the tip to the shank is tapered slightly. The degree
is usually represented by the quality of reduction in the
diameter with respect to the flute length. It is set at a larger
value for high- efficiency drills and the work material that
allows drilled holes.
2.2.2.1 Cutting edges shape
As shown in the table below, it is possible to select the most suitable cutting edge geometry
for different applications. If the most suitable cutting edge geometry is selected then higher
machining efficiency and higher holes accuracy can be obtain.

Figure 2.1
2.2.2.2 Web thinning
The rake angle of the cutting edge of a drill reduces toward the centre, and it changes into a
negative angle at the chisel edge. During drilling, the centre of a drill crushes the work,
generating 50- 70% of the cutting resistance. Web thinning is very effective for reduction in
the cutting resistance of a drill, early removal of cut chips at the chisel edge, and better initial
bite.

Figure 2.2
2.2.2.3 Drilling chips
2.3 Process parameters
Real time optimizing of drilling process parameters during drilling operation for obtaining
maximum drilling rate as well as minimum drilling cost, to get high productivity and high
MRR by changing process parameters such as drilling diameters, cutting speed and feed rate.
(SHAIK NOOR AHAMED1, 2018)It also improve drilling performance like tool life,
material removal rate. The effect of parameters are the relationship between the cutting force
signal and drill wear as well as other cutting parameters including spindle rotational speed,
feed rate and drill diameter were established by lots of experiments. Besides that, the tool
wear can estimated knowing the thrust force, feed per revolution and drill diameter. The
temperature of cutting edge increases with the increase of spindle speed and feed rate. Other
than that, the coolant can perform roll for reduction tool temperature, thrust force, surface
roughness. Amount of metal remove is function of speed and feed. (Nurul Adlina M.J., 2014)
Feed is varies from 0.05mm to 0.35mm per revolution and it’s variation is depends on hard
and soft material. Wear is thought to occur from chemical reaction in the contact zone
between the tool and the work piece. Besides that, precise measurement of tool dimension
indicate that the wear was concentrated at the tool center region and at the intersection
between the conical and cylindrical regions.

2.3.1 Spindle speed


The cutting speed in a drilling operations refers to the peripheral speed of a point on the
surface of the drill in contact with the work. The cutting speed (v) may be calculated as:
v = (pi*d*n)/1000 m per minute.
Where,
d is the diameter of the drill in mm
n is the rpm of the drill spindle.
2.3.2 Feed
The feed of a drill is the distance the drills moves into the work at each revolution of the
spindle. It is expressed in mm. the feed may also be expressed as peed per minute. The feed
per minute may be defined as the axial distance moved by the drill into the work per minute.
The feed per minute may be calculated as

2.3.3 Depth of cut


The depth of cut in drilling is equal to one half of the drill diameter. The depth of cut to
determine the material removal rate, which is the volume of workpiece material that can be
removed per time unit. The depth of cut (t) may be expressed as
t = D/2

2.4 CNC Vertical Milling Machine


Milling is the process of machining using rotary cutters to remove material by advancing a
cutter into a workpiece. This may be done varying direction on one or several axes, cuter
head speed, and pressure. Milling covers a wide variety of different operations and machines,
on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy- duty gang milling operations. It is one
of the most commonly used processes for machining custom parts to precise tolerances.
Milling can be done with a wide range of machine tools. The original class of machine tools
for milling was the milling machine. After the advent of computer numerical control (CNC),
milling machines evolved into machining centers which is milling machines augmented by
automatic tool changers, tool magazines or carousels. Milling centers are generally classified
as vertical machining centers or horizontal machining centers.
Milling is a cutting process that uses a milling cutter to remove material from the surface of a
workpiece. The milling cutter is a rotary cutting tool, often with multiple cutting points. As
opposed to drilling, where the tool is advanced along its rotation axis, the cutter in milling is
usually moved perpendicular to its axis so that cutting occurs on the circumference of the
cutter. As the milling cutter enters the workpiece, the cutting edges (flutes or teeth) of the tool
repeatedly cut into and exit from the material, shaving off chips (swarf) from the workpiece
with each pass. The cutting action is shear deformation; material is pushed off the workpiece
in tiny clumps that hang together to a greater or lesser extent (depending on the material) to
form chips. This makes metal cutting somewhat different (in its mechanics) from slicing
softer materials with a blade.
The milling process removes material by performing many separate, small cuts. This is
accomplished by using a cutter with many teeth, spinning the cutter at high speed, or
advancing the material through the cutter slowly; most often it is some combination of these
three approaches. The speeds and feeds used are varied to suit a combination of variables.
The speed at which the piece advances through the cutter is called feed rate, or just feed; it is
most often measured in length of material per full revolution of the cutter.
There are two major classes of milling process:
• In face milling, the cutting action occurs primarily at the end corners of the milling
cutter. Face milling is used to cut flat surfaces (faces) into the workpiece, or to cut
flat-bottomed cavities.
• In peripheral milling, the cutting action occurs primarily along the circumference of
the cutter, so that the cross section of the milled surface ends up receiving the shape
of the cutter. In this case the blades of the cutter can be seen as scooping out material
from the work piece. Peripheral milling is well suited to the cutting of deep slots,
threads, and gear teeth.
In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the
spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be
raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two
subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill.
• A turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both perpendicular and
parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. The most common example of this
type is the Bridgeport, described below. Turret mills often have a quill which allows
the milling cutter to be raised and lowered in a manner similar to a drill press. This
type of machine provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction: by
raising or lowering the quill, and by moving the knee.
• In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle's axis,
while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis.
Turret mills are generally considered by some to be more versatile of the two designs.
However, turret mills are only practical as long as the machine remains relatively small.
As machine size increases, moving the knee up and down requires considerable effort and
it also becomes difficult to reach the quill feed handle (if equipped). Therefore, larger
milling machines are usually of the bed type.
A third type also exists, a lighter machine, called a mill-drill, which is a close relative of
the vertical mill and quite popular with hobbyists. A mill-drill is similar in basic
configuration to a small drill press, but equipped with an X-Y table. They also typically
use more powerful motors than a comparably sized drill press, with potentiometer-
controlled speed and generally have more heavy-duty spindle bearings than a drill press
to deal with the lateral loading on the spindle that is created by a milling operation. A mill
drill also typically raises and lowers the entire head, including motor, often on a
dovetailed vertical, where a drill press motor remains stationary, while the arbor raises
and lowers within a driving collar. Other differences that separate a mill-drill from a drill
press may be a fine tuning adjustment for the Z-axis, a more precise depth stop, the
capability to lock the X, Y or Z axis, and often a system of tilting the head or the entire
vertical column and powerhead assembly to allow angled cutting. Aside from size and
precision, the principal difference between these hobby-type machines and larger true
vertical mills is that the X-Y table is at a fixed elevation; the Z-axis is controlled in
basically the same fashion as drill press, where a larger vertical or knee mill has a
vertically fixed milling head, and changes the X-Y table elevation. As well, a mill-drill
often uses a standard drill press-type Jacob's chuck, rather than an internally tapered arbor
that accepts collets. These are frequently of lower quality than other types of machines,
but still fill the hobby role well because they tend to be benchtop machines with small
footprints and modest price tags.
2.5 Drilling characteristics
Drilled holes are characterized by their sharp edge on the entrance side and the presence
of burrs on the exit side (unless they have been removed). Also, the inside of the hole
usually has helical feed marks.
Drilling may affect the mechanical properties of the workpiece by creating low residual
stresses around the holes opening and a very thin layer of highly stressed and disturbed
material on the newly formed surface. This causes the workpiece to become more
susceptible to corrosion and crack propagation at the stressed surface. A finish operation
may be done to avoid these detrimental conditions.
2.5.1 Material removal rate (MRR)
The material removal rate (MRR) in drilling is the volume of material removed by the
drill per unit time. (J.Pradeep Kumar1*, 2012) For a drill with a diameter D, the cross-
sectional area of the drilled hole is 𝜋𝑑 2 /4. The velocity of the drill perpendicular to the
workpiece f is the product of the feed fᵣ and the rotational speed N where N = V /π D.
Thus,
MRR = (𝜋𝑑 2 /4) (f) mmᵌ /min
Conversion of feed rate fᵣ (mm/rev) to feed rate f (mm/min)
f = N fᵣ (mm/min)

2.5.2 Surface roughness


The optimization of surface integrity in drilling process using response surface method
(RSM) is presented. This paper investigates the effects of drilling parameter such as
spindle speed, feed rate and drill diameter on the surface roughness and surface texture of
drilled hole by applying RSM. There are three factors (spindle speed, feed rate and drill
diameter) under investigation, therefore, by applying RSM there will be 20 experimental
observations. One factor plot analysis found that the most significant parameter was
spindle speed followed by drill diameter and feed rate. Thus, surface roughness decreased
when increasing the spindle speed, feed rate and drill diameter. There were interactions
between all the parameter of spindle speed, feed rate and drill diameter in drilling process
under investigation. (Nurul Adlina M.J., 2014)

2.6 Material work piece


Aluminium alloy was chosen as the work piece material for the test sample. There were
combinations of two pieces of work piece. The dimension of each work piece was 150
mm x 50 mm x 9 mm. The cutting tool used was twist drill high speed steel (HSS). The
diameters of the drill were 3.5 mm, 5 mm and 5.5 mm.

2.7 Design of experiment


L9 orthogonal array was used as the experimental setup for the machining parameters.
The experimental array has three parameters and three levels as shown in Table 1. The
parameters selected according to the recommended range from the handbook.
Factor unit level
1 2 3
A Feed rate mm/min 136 206.225 291
B Spindle RPM 680 825 970
speed
C Drilling Φ mm 3.5 5 5.5
tools

2.7.1 Response surface method


The optimization of surface integrity in drilling process using response surface method
(RSM) is presented. Response surface methodology uses statistical models, and therefore
practitioners need to be aware that even the best statistical model is an approximation to
reality. In practice, both the models and the parameter values are unknown, and subject to
uncertainty on top of ignorance. Of course, an estimated optimum point need not be
optimum in reality, because of the errors of the estimates and of the inadequacies of the
model.

Nonetheless, response surface methodology has an effective track-record of helping


researchers improve products and services: For example, Box's original response-surface
modeling enabled chemical engineers to improve a process that had been stuck at a
saddle-point for years. The engineers had not been able to afford to fit a cubic three-level
design to estimate a quadratic model, and their biased linear-models estimated the
gradient to be zero. Box's design reduced the costs of experimentation so that a quadratic
model could be fit, which led to a (long-sought) ascent direction.

Use Define Custom Response Surface Design to create a design from data you already
have in the worksheet. You can specify which columns contain your factors and other
design characteristics, such as blocks or point type.
Response surface designs allow you to model curvature in your data and identify factor
settings that optimize the response. (M.H. Osman1, 2017)
2.8 Review on drilling research
The optimization process respectively aimed at the minimum surface roughness and
maximum metal removal rate. In this study, the effects of parameters such as spindle
speed, feed rate and drill diameter on the surface integrity were investigated in term of
surface roughness and appearance observation of hole by using a mathematical and
statistical approach, RSM and one factor plot analysis.