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I M.

E - CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING&MANAGEMENT
14CMT14 - PROJECT FORMULATION AND APPRAISAL

UNIT I – PROJECT FORMULATION AND COSTING


2 MARKS
1. What do you mean by generation of ideas in the project cycle?
2. What do you mean by screening of ideas in the project cycle?
3. What are the key issues would you like to examine in a preliminary screening issue?
4. List the characteristics of real opportunity stated by Murphy.
5. What are the factors to be examined in the cost structure of a project?
6. State the factors under the assessment of risk.
7. How to conduct market survey?
8. How to judge the adequacy of markets?
9. List the characteristics of the market.
10. Write the steps involved in the market analysis
11. List the sources of secondary information
12. State the information’s sought in a market survey
13. List the methods of demand forecasting
14. Enumerate the advantages of jury of executive opinion method.
15. Write down the steps in Delphi method of demand forecasting.
16. Give the linear relationship in the trend projection method.
17. What is exponential smoothing method?
18. What is moving average method?
19. What is chain ratio method?
20. What is consumption level method?
21. How to calculate income elasticity of demand?
22. How to calculate price elasticity of demand?
23. What is an end use method?
24. State the steps in calculating demand by end use method.
25. Define bass diffusion model.
26. What is leading indicator method?
27. State the steps in calculating demand by leading indicator method.
28. What is econometric method?
29. State the steps in calculating demand by econometric method.
30. Is technical analysis necessary for a project? Why?
31. Distinguish financial feasibility and economic feasibility of a project
32. Economic feasibility study is unavoidable for a project. Why?
33. State the necessary information sought for a technical analysis
34. What information is required for preparing the project implementation schedule?
35. What are the project clearance requirements?
36. Diagrammatically represent the feasibility study of a project
37. What are the objectives of capital budgeting?
38. What qualities and traits are required to be a successful entrepreneur?
39. What are the important facets of a project analysis?
40. List the factors to be looked after during financial analysis.
41. What is breakeven point?
42. How to calculate effective demand for the past and present?
43. What is market planning?
44. What is an end use method?
45. What are the classification of material input and utilities?
46. What are the various ways of acquiring technology?
47. What are the aspects to be considered in technical analysis?
48. What are the components of cost of a project?
49. How would you evaluate secondary information?
50. Why ecological analysis is necessary for a project?

16 MARKS
1. What do you understand by detailed project report and explain it in detail?
2. Discuss the suggestions helped in scouting for project ideas
3. What factors have a bearing on choice of technology? Explain.
4. Describe the general sources of secondary information available for a project
a. What are the types materials and inputs ?
b. What questions would you raise in assessing whether the material requirements of the
project would be reasonably met?
5. What are the components of cost of a project? Discuss them in detail(T2)
a) What points should be kept in mind while estimating the working capital
requirements and planning for financing?(T2)
Discuss in detail the major components of cost of production(T2)
Discuss the items that are considered in estimating the working results(T1)
What key issues would you examine in the preliminary screening and explain them(T1)
Explain PFR and its clearance(T2)
Discuss about the environmental pollution control clearances required(T1)
Describe with a case study the forest clearance required for a project(T1)
Explain the qualities and traits required to be a successful entrepreneur(T1)
Describe all the methods available for demand forecasting (T1)
Describe the important project charts and layouts(TD2)
a) Discuss the contents of a balance sheet(T1)
b) What are the items found in a cash flow statement?(T2)
Write in detail about the estimates and techno-economic feasibility report(T1)
a) Describe the project identification process(T1)
b) What are the important aspects to be considered under corporate appraisal?(T1)
19. Discuss the sources of positive NPV(T2)
20. Discuss the processes involved in sample survey(T1)
21. Explain any two of the technical analysis methods(T1)
22. Explain the process of identification of equipment & machinery for a
manufacturing industry(T1)
23. Discuss the importance of considering alternative ways of transforming an idea in
to a project (T1)
24. What is break-even point? How it is calculated for a new project? Explain(D,T&F1)
With a flow diagram explain project life cycle and different stages of a project(TD1)
4. Describe the components of the cash flow stream of a project.
(OR)
5. How would you measure the cost of debt capital and cost of preference capital? Illustrate
with your own example.

6. Describe the various means of finance.


(OR)
7. Explain the schemes of various project financing financial institutions.

8. "Private sectors play a major role in Infrastructure Development Project". Do you agree?
Discuss.
(OR)
9. Describe the scope of Technology Transfer.
1. Trace the role played by industrial sectors in project and sectoral development.
2. Describe the types of project.
3. State the steps involved in project report preparation.
4. Discuss the priority and evaluation of international competitiveness in Project Appraisal.
5. Mention the scouting land screening of project ideas of Project Identification.
6. Explain the economic analysis of Project Appraisal.
7. Discuss the components of feasibility studies.
8. How to prepare feasibility report?

PART B — (4 ? 15 = 60 marks)
Answer any FOUR questions.

9. Discuss the stages of Project Life Cycle.


10. Explain the following : (a) BOOM (b) BOT.
11. Enumerate the basic criteria for selecting the best project opportunities.
12. Describe the various aspects of Project Formulation.
13. Enumerate the project appraisal of managerial and technical aspects.
14. Describe the importance of project identification for an existing company.
15. Explain the contents of ideal project report.
II UNIT – PROJECT COSTING
2 MARKS

List the components of a cash flow stream(T1)


Find the PV of Rs. 2000 receivable 6 years hence if the rate of discount is 10%(C1)
What do you mean by present value of a perpetuity?(T,F1)
How is the time horizon for cash flow analysis established?(T1)
A company advertises that it will pay a lump sum of Rs.10,000 at the end of 6 years to investors who
deposit Rs. 1,000 annually. What would be the interest rate?(C1)
Define capital recovery factor(T1)
Define Technological life of a plant(D1)
What is terminal cash flow?(D1)
What are the methods available for calculating time value of money?(T1)
Define sinking fund factor(T,D1)
Define post tax principle(D1)
What are the different points of view in the analysis of cash flow statement ?(T1)
What is Rule of 72 and Rule of 69?(D1)
What is an annuity?(D1)
How can you calculate the PV of a cash flow series?(T,D1)
If you deposit Rs.5,000 today at 12% rate of interest. In how many years will the amount grow to Rs.
1,60,000?. Use the rule of 72(C1)
What do you mean by exclusion of financing cost principle? (T1)
State the reasons for the importance of cost of capital(T1)
How the cost of specific source of finance calculated?(T,F1)
Differentiate cost of debt capital and preference capital(T1)
What are the two methods of determining cost of retained earnings?(T2)
How the weighted average cost of capital calculated?(T,F1)
Mention any four misconceptions circumventing the use of cost of capital in practice(T1)
Define cost of external equity(D1)
What assumptions must be satisfied in order to use the average cost of capital for appraising new
investments?(T1)

16 MARKS

1. Discuss the basic principles for measuring the project cash flows(T2)
2. Mention the importance of time value of money and discuss the various methods of finding time
value of money(T3)
3. State and comment upon the various misconceptions about the cost of capital concept(T1)
4. For evaluating a project the following information is available:
Total outlay of the project is Rs. 450 million. This consists of Rs.250million
of FA and Rs.200 million of CA
Equity – Rs.100 million, Term loans – Rs. 200 million,
WC advance – Rs. 100 million and Trade credit – Rs. 50 million
Term loan is repayable in 10 equal semi annual installments of Rs. 20 million
each. The first installment will fall due after 18 months. Rate of interest on term
loan will be 15%
The levels of WC advance and trade credit will remain at Rs. 100 million and
Rs. 50 million rest till they are paid back or retired at the end of 6 years. The WC
advance will carry an interest rate of 18%
Revenues will be Rs. 500 million / year. OC are Rs.320 million / year .
Depreciation rate on FA IS 33 1/3%
NSV of FA & CA at the end of 6 years will be Rs. 80 million and Rs 200 million
respectively. Tax rate – 50%
Define the cash flow from the equity funds point of view (C3)
5. a) Explain time horizon for cash flow analysis.(T2)
b) What are the steps involved in defining cash flow from total funds point of view(T1)
6. Bionics Ltd., invests in a project with the following informations :
Total outlay – Rs.25 million ( Plant and Equipment – Rs 16 million and gross WC – Rs. 9 million)
Project is financed with an equity of Rs. 7 million , Long term debt of Rs. 11 million, WC advance
of Rs.5 million , Trade credit of Rs. 2 million .
Interest rate on debentures – 15%, Interest rate on WC – 17%
Life of the project – 6 years
NSV – Rs . 6 million , WC is liquidated at its par value
Revenues – Rs 20 million / year, Increase in OC – Rs. 9 million / year
Tax rate – 50% , Rate of depreciation – 331/3%
Determine the cash flow from long term funds point of view(C3)
7. Explain the importance of time value of money with numerical examples for the methods to
determine it(T2)
8. At the time of his retirement Mr. X is given a choice between 2 alternatives (i) an annual pension
of Rs. 10,000 as long as he lives (ii) a lump sum amount of
Rs. 50,000. If he expects to live for 15 years and interest rate is 15% which option
appears to be more attractive. Explain(C1)
9. a) Mr. Vinay plans to send his son for higher studies abroad after 10 years. He expects the cost of
studies to be Rs. 1,00,000. How much should he save annually to have a sum of Rs. 1,00,000 at
the end of 10 years, if the rate of interest s 12% (C1)
b) A finance company offers to give Rs. 8,000 after 12 years in return for Rs.1000 deposited
today, using Rule of 69 find out the approximate interest offered (C1)
10. What is the difference between the effective rate of interest and nominal rate of
interest in the following cases.(C1)
Case A : Nominal ROT is 12% and frequency of compounding is twice a year
Case B : Nominal ROT is 12% and frequency of compounding is 6 times a year
Case C : Nominal ROT is 24% and frequency of compounding is 4 times a year
Case D : Nominal ROT is 24% and frequency of compounding is 12 times a year

11. a) South India Corporation has to retire Rs.1 crore of debentures each at the end of 8,9 and 10
years from now. How much should the firm deposit in a sinking fund account annually for 5 years
in order to meet the debenture requirement needed? The net interest rate earned is 8%(C1)
b) You have a choice between getting Rs. 5,000 now and Rs. 20,000 after 10 years. Which would
you choose? Explain with reasons (C1)

12. Calculate the PV of the uneven series (C1)


Year : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Casflow : 1000 2000 2000 3000 3000 4000 4000 5000

13. a)Define weighted average cost of capital and illustrate with an example (T1)
b) Explain the procedure to work out weighted marginal cost of capital schedule(T2)
14. What are the different approaches for finding the rate of return form various sources
of financing?(T2)
15. From the facts given below calculate the cost of retained earnings
The company has net earning amounting to Rs. 50,000. If the retained earnings are distributed to the
share holders can be invested by them in securities carrying a return of 10% per annum. The share
holders of the company are in the 30% tax bracket. Share holders will have to incur 2% brokerage cost
for making new investments(C3)
16. a) Explain preference capital(T1)
b) Himmat Ltd., issues Rs. 100 face value preference shares carrying 14% dividend which are
repayable at par after 12 years. The net amount realized per share is Rs.92. What is the cost of
preference capital?(C1)
17. a) Vaneta enterprises issues Rs. 100 face value preference stock which carries 2% dividend and
redeemable after 12 years at par. The net amount realized per preference stock is Rs. 95. What is the
cost of preference capital?(C1)
b) Mysore manufacturing company issues Rs. 100 face value debentures carrying interest of 15%.
The debentures are repayable in 3 annual installments of Rs. 30, Rs. 30 and Rs.40 at the end of 7,8,9
years respectively. The interest of course is payable only on the outstanding amount. The issue cost is
3% , the tax rate is 60% . What is the cost of debenture capital to the company?(C2)
18. Describe the rules applicable to the measurement of costs& returns as given in the manual for
preparation of reports developed by the planning commission(T2)
19. Discuss the possible sources of optimistic bias as well as pessimistic bias in cash flow
estimation(T2)

UNIT-III – PROJECT APPRAISAL


2 MARKS
1. Comment on the pay back period as a project Appraisal Method (T1)
2. What do you understand by project risk?(T1)
3. How the modified internal rater of return of is calculated?(T1)
4. If cash flows of different year are perfectly uncorrelated, how is the standard deviation of NPV
defined ? (T,F1)
5. What does IRR means?(T1)
6. Write down the equation for NPV using risk adjusted discount rate (F1)
7. Why MIRR is superior to the regular IRR?(T1)
8. How is the NPV defined ?(T,D1)
9. What is the rationale for the NPV method ?(T2)
10. What are the features of NPV method ?(T1)
11. Define the two measures of benefit cost ratio (T2)
12. What is internal rate of return? How it is calculated?(T,F1)
13. What is an investment Opportunity Schedule?(T1)
14. What is discounted pay back period?(T,F1)
15. Evaluate the accounting rate of return Criterion (T1)
16. List the types of project risk (T1)
17. Illustrate the difference between variance and semi- variance with an example(T1)
18. What is a scenario analysis?(T1)
19. What is the risk profile method?(T1)
20. List the stages of sensitive analysis (T1)
21. Write the key steps involved in decision tree analysis (T1)
22. What do you mean by risk adjusted discount rate method ?(T1)
23. What is a certainty equivalent method ?(T1)
24. What are the prop and cons of Monte Carlo simulation(T1)
25. List the approaches used for obtaining probability distribution of the basic variables (T1)

16 MARKS

1. (a) Explain with examples (T,F1)


(i) NPV
(ii) BCR
(iii) IRR
(iv) ARR
(b) Work out IRR for the following cash flows (C1)

Year 0 1 2 3 4

Cash 25000 12440 12440 12440 12440


flow
(Rs)
2. A company has two Proposals X and Y which would require an initial investment of Rs 23,
742, and Rs 20,136 Respectively. The cash inflows of the two proposal area
Year 1 2 3 4

Proposal X 20000 4000 2000 2000


(Rs)
Proposal Y 2000 2000 4000 20000
(Rs)

Which of these two proposals should be selected? Use DCF and NPVI methods. Assume
the cost of capital of 8% comment on the selection criteria of the proposals (C2)
3. ABC Construction Company has determined the following discrete probability distributions for
net cash flows generated by a contemplated project. Assume the probability distributions for
future cash flows to be the independent. Also assume that the discount rate is 4% if the proposal
will require an initial out lay of Rs 5000 Determine the expected value of NPV and SD of the
expected value. (C2)
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3
Probability Cash flow Probability Cash flow Probability Cash flow
(RS) (RS) (RS)
0.1 1000 0.20 1000 0.3 1000
0.2 2000 0.30 2000 0.4 2000
0.3 3000 0.40 3000 0.2 3000
0.4 4000 0.10 4000 0.1 4000
4. YYY construction company is considering tow mutually exclusive investment projects A and
project B The expected cash flow of these project are as follows :

Year 0 1 2 3 4 5

Proposal A -1000 -1200 -600 -250 2000 4000


(Rs)
Proposal B -1600 200 400 600 800 1000
(Rs)
(i) construct the NPV Profile for the profile for the project A & B
(ii) What is the IRR of each project
(iii) Which project would you choose if the cost capital is 10% %20%
(iv) What is each project MIRR if the cost of capital is12% (C2)

5. An all equity firm is evaluating the following project the risk free is 11% and the expected
market risk premium is 6% the firm’s cost of capital is16%
Project A B C D E

Beta 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.7

Expected 15 16 21 22 23
return (%)
(i) Which project is accepted
(ii) If the firm cost of capital is used as hurdle rate which project will be accepted or rejected
incorrectly?(C3)
6. Calculate NPV of the two project X and Y with reinvestment rate 14% and 20% using the
following data
project X (Rs) project Y(Rs)
Investment out lay 110000 110000
Cash flow I year 31000 71000
II year 40000 40000
III year 50000 40000
IV year 70000 20000

The cost of capital is 10% (C1)


7. An investment project involves a current outlay of Rs 10000 the mean and standard deviation of
cash flow perfectly correlated are as follows
Year 1 2 3 4

Mean cash 5000 3000 4000 3000


flow (Rs)
SD (Rs) 1000 1000 2000 1200

Calculate the expected NPV and SD of NPV


8. ABC construction company is considering tow mutually exclusive investment projects X and
project Y The expected cash flow of these project are as follows:

Year 0 1 2 3 4 5

Proposal X 1500 1000 700 200 2500 5000


(Rs)
Proposal Y 1700 300 500 500 700 200
(Rs)
(1) construct the NPV Profile for the profile for the project X& Y
(2) What is the IRR of each project?
(3) Which project would you choose if the cost capital is 11% %22%
(4) What is each project MIRR if the cost of capital is11% (C1)
9. ABC limited is considering a cement project for which it proposal to employ a debt- equity ratio of
2:1 its pre tax cost of debt will be 16% & its expected tax rate is 30% there are three firms X,Y,Z
engaged wholly in cement manufacturing their tax rate is 30% their equity betas and debt- equity ratio
are as follows
Project X Y Z

Equity Beta 1.25 1.15 1.10

Debt- Equity 2.25 2.00 2.10


Ratio
The risk free rate is 12% and the expected return on the market port folio is 17% what should be the
required rate of return on ABC cement project (C3)
10. The probability distributions of the out come of an investment is shown below
Out 1000 2000 3000 4000
Come(Rs)
Probability 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.2
Calculate (i) Range (ii) mean absolute deviation
(iii) SD (IV) Co-efficient of variation
(V) Semi-variance (C2)
11. One person is considering an investment which requires a cement out of Rs 25000 the expected
value and SD of cash flow are
Year 1 2 3 4

Expected Value 12000 10000 9000 8000


SD 5000 6000 5000 6000
The cash flow are perfectly correlated calculate the expected NPV & SD of NPV of this investment
if the risk free interest rate is 8%(C2)
12. Kejriwal company is considering two mutually exclusive investments A and B. Investment A
require an outlay of Rs 10000 and generation a net cash flow of Rs 3000 for 6 year. Investments B
require an outlay of Rs 30000 and generation a net cash flow of Rs 11000 for 5 year. The required
rates of return on these Investments are 12% (for A) and 14% (for B). which of two should the firm
choose. (C1)
13. The Expected cash flow of a project are given below
Year 0 1 2 3 4 5

Cash 30000 7000 8000 9000 10000 8000


flow
(Rs)
The certainty equivalent factor behaves as per following equation
Calculation the NPV of the Project if the risk free of return is 8%(C1)
14. After carefully assessing the risk – preference of its management the tristar shipping company
has determined the max risk profile these show the max. SD of profitability acceptable for a
particular expected value of profitability index the max. Risk profiles are
Expected value 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
profitability
index
Max SD 0.00 0.03 0.08 0.16 0.25 0.30

The company is considering an investment proposal involving an outlay of Rs 5 million the


distribution of NPV for this investment is a follows
NPV (Rs) 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Probability 0.02 0.03 0.10 0.4 0.3 1.15

Should the company accept the investment proposal ? (C3)


IV UNIT – PROJECT FINANCING
2 MARKS
1. How can an Organization raise their capital?(T1)
2. What are the special schemes available to get financial assistance?(T1)
3. What are the ways in which Financial institutions provide direct financial assistance?(T1)
4. What are the indirect ways of Financial assistance?(T1)
5. Give the structure of Financial institutions in India? (T2)
6. How is the Break even point for a project calculated?(T1)
7. What is meant by Preference capital? (T1)
8. Write down the methods of computing Fixed assets coverage ratio and ROI after taxes?(T,F1)
9. Define Fixed assets coverage ratio and Debt service coverage ratio (T,F1)
10. What is Debt equity ratio?(T,F1)
11. Mention four sources of financing for a project(T1)
12. What are the salient features of a finance lease and an Operating lease?(T2)
13. Briefly explain the three types of Debentures used in India(T1)
14. What are the three schemes of Seed Capital assistance?(T1)
15. What are the factors to be considered in the Technical appraisal ?(T1)
16. What do the financial appraisal assesses?(T1)
17. What are the key financial indicators used by financial institutions?(F1)
18. How to calculate ROI before taxes and current ratio?
19. What is Deferred credit?(T1)
20. What does Debt consist of?(T1)
21. What does Equity consist of ?(T1)
22. What are the contributions made by the promoters?(T1)
23. What is a Composite cost?(T1)
24. What are the efforts made to improve the Marketing strategy?(T1)
25. What do you mean by DSCR?(T,F1)
16 MARKS
1. Explain in detail the procedure for Term loan(T1)
2. Explain the issues considered in the Project appraisal(T1)
3. What are the sources of Finance and explain any five in detail(T1)
4. Explain the structure of Financial institutions in India(T2)
5. What are the Norms and Policies of financial institutions(T2)
6. Explain the Direct and Indirect assistance given by the financial institutions(T1)
7. What are the special schemes to serve the industries and explain any two?(T1)
8. Explain in detail the Key financial indicators(T1)
9. Show typical financial plans of an organization. Substantiate your suggestions(T1)
10. i. Illustrate the features of Hire purchase. How does it differ from Leasing?(T1)
ii. Discuss briefly the state of venture capital in India(T2)
11. Explain in detail the expectations and stipulations of financial institutions for funding of
projects(T1)
12. i. Briefly explain the functions and limitations of various financial institutions(T1)
ii. What are the financial ratios to be considered for SWOT analysis of Construction
industries?(T2)
V UNIT – PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION
2 MARKS

1. Differentiate BOT and BOOT(T1)


2. What is meant by Technology transfer?(T1)
3. Differentiate Technology transfer and Technology hire(T1)
4. List some foreign collaboration projects implemented in India(T2)
5. Differentiate Collaboration and Amalgamation(T2)
6. What are the features of BOLT? Give examples?(T1)
7. Enumerate the justification for Private sector participation in Infrastructure projects?(T1)
8. What is the scope of technology transfer?(T1)
9. Mention the phases and forms of TT(T1)
10. What is a Licensing Agreement?(T1)
11. What are the advantages of a Joint venture?(T1)
12. What are the main features of TT associated with product buy back agreement(T1)
13. Under what circumstances is TT associated with operation and management introduced in a
running plant?(T1)
14. How is the TT linked to consultancy contract?(T2)
15. What are the advantages and disadvantages of TT associated with other contracts?(T2)
16. What are the two types of participation in Foreign Collaboration?(T1)
17. Mention any four objectives of Government policy for FC(T1)
18. What should the TT include?(T1)

16 MARKS
1. Explain in detail the various forms of TT(T1)
2. What are the factors considered in the choice of technology and explain the phases of TT?(T1)
3. Write short notes on: (T1)
 Ecological analysis
 ARR
 International practice of Project appraisal
 Risk analysis
4. Write short notes on (T1)
 Technology transfer
 EIA
 Payback period
 Economic analysis
5. Write short notes on (T1)
 Financial institutions
 Decision tree analysis
 BOT and BOLT projects
 Cost of Capital
6. “Infrastructures are the backbone of a country”. Discuss with Indian context (T2)
7. Discuss the recent Highway projects in India. Also mention the role of private participation in
these projects.(T2)
8. Discuss the ongoing Infrastructure projects in India. Also mention the role of private
participation in these projects (T2)
9. Foreign collaboration would mean Technical and Financial participation. What steps would you
take to invite FC for your project?(T2)
10. Enumerate the Advantages and Limitations of the private participation in Infrastructure projects
in India and Illustrate the importance and need of Collaborative projects for the national
development(T2)

10. Bionics Ltd., invests in a project with the following informations :


Total outlay – Rs.25 million ( Plant and Equipment – Rs 16 million and gross WC – Rs. 9 million)
Project is financed with an equity of Rs. 7 million , Long term debt of Rs. 11 million, WC advance
of Rs.5 million , Trade credit of Rs. 2 million .
Interest rate on debentures – 15%, Interest rate on WC – 17%
Life of the project – 6 years
NSV – Rs . 6 million , WC is liquidated at its par value
Revenues – Rs 20 million / year, Increase in OC – Rs. 9 million / year
Tax rate – 50% , Rate of depreciation – 331/3%
Determine the cash flow from long term funds point of view(C3)

11. For evaluating a project the following information is available:


Total outlay of the project is Rs. 500 million. This consists of Rs.300million
of FA and Rs.200 million of CA
Equity – Rs.150 million, Term loans – Rs. 150 million,
WC advance – Rs. 150million and Trade credit – Rs. 50 million
Term loan is repayable in 10 equal semi annual installments of Rs. 25million
each. The first installment will fall due after 20 months. Rate of interest on term
loan will be 14%
The levels of WC advance and trade credit will remain at Rs. 150 million and
Rs. 50 million rest till they are paid back or retired at the end of 6 years. The WC
advance will carry an interest rate of 18%
Revenues will be Rs. 500 million / year. OC are Rs.320 million / year .
Depreciation rate on FA IS 33 1/3%
NSV of FA & CA at the end of 6 years will be Rs. 80 million and Rs 200 million
respectively. Tax rate – 50%
Define the cash flow from the equity funds point of view (C3)