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Unit 12

Screen time
Language structures & functions p. 266

Vocabulary p. 268

12.1 I’d never seen a film before p. 270

Consolidation p. 274

12.2 My agent asked me to work p. 276

Consolidation p. 280

Pairwork activities p. 282

Transcripts p. 284

Exam answer sheets p. 285

Bimester 11
1 Language structures
Past perfect
You may use it to talk about events that happened before another event in the past.

You may use past perfect to
talk about an event that didn’t
happen as you wished:
➜ We had intended to win the
game but we couldn’t.

• I hadn’t seen my father get angry before. (p. 272) • My father felt guilty because he had left me
• You had visited you aunt once in 2008 before she with a babysitter. (p. 272)
moved to London in 2010. • She hadn’t gone to the bank before she came
• We didn’t manage to get tickets because we here.
hadn’t paid them in advance. • Had it failed before last night discharge?
• Had they lived in that house for 20 years before
the earthquake?
To make questions we use:
In positive sentences we In negative forms we
Had in front of the subject
use: had plus the verb in use: hadn’t plus the verb
plus the verb in past
past participle. in past participle.

Simple past and past perfect are very similar because both of them
talk about past events but make sure that when you use past perfect,
Be aware you’re always talking about: an event in the past which is over or
finished and that clearly happened before another one.

2004 2006 2010

• Instagram appeared in 2010 as a photo-sharing social network which became very popular.
• Twitter registered 60,000 tweets per day in 2007; just one year before, Jack Dorsey had published
the first Twitter message.
• Mark Zuckerberg had launched Facebook six years before Instagram and two years before Twitter.

266 Language structures & functions

& functions
Reported speech
You may use it if you want to repeat what someone had
previously said.

Direct speech Reported speech

present simple past simple
• I watch horror movies. • She told me she watched horror movies.
present continuous past continuous
• I am reading a script today. • He told me he was reading a script that day.
past simple past perfect
• I accidentally lost this afternoon. • I told him I had accidentally lost that afternoon. (p. 278)
present perfect past perfect
• You have done everything right. • He told us we had done everything right.
past perfect past perfect
• We had rehearsed before noon. • They told me they had rehearsed before noon.
am / is / are going to was / were going to
• You are going to play a blind man. • He told me I was going to play a blind man. (p. 276)
will would
• I will go to the cinema tomorrow. • She said she would go to the cinema the following day.
can could
• You can go. • The director said we could go. (p. 276)

Reported questions
Change time expressions when
In reported questions, we use the same tense using reported speech:
changes as in reported speech. ➜ Today – that day
➜ Tomorrow – the following day
➜ Yesterday – the day before

The word order in reported questions also changes:

• What have you done with it?
The assistant director asked me what had I done with it. (p. 276)
Be aware In reported yes / no questions, we use if.
• Do you want to work tomorrow on a film called Day of Disaster?
She asked me if I wanted to work the next day on a film called
Day of Disaster. (p. 276)

Language structures & functions 267

the cinema
action n /ˈækʃn/
adventure n /ədˈvenʧə/ (AmE /ədˈvenʧər/)
advertisement n /ədˈvɜːtɪsmənt/
(AmE /ədˈvɜːrtɪsmənt/)
animation n /ænɪˈmeɪʃn/
audience n /ˈɔːdiəns/
character n /ˈkærɪktə/ (AmE /ˈkærɪktər/)
comedy n /ˈkɒmədi/
curtain n /ˈkɜːtn/ (AmE /ˈkɜːrtn/)
fantasy n /ˈfæntəsi/
film director n /fɪlm daɪˈrektə/
(AmE /fɪlm daɪˈrektər/)
historical drama n /hɪsˈtɒrɪkl ˈdrɑːmɘ/
(AmE /hɪsˈtɒrɪkl ˈdræmə/)
musical n /ˈmjuːzɪkl/
performance n /pɘˈfɔːməns/ (AmE /pərˈfɔːrməns/)
popcorn n /ˈpɒpkɔːn/ (AmE /ˈpɒpkɔːrn/)
romance n /ˈrəʊmæns/
row n /rəʊ/
scene n /siːn/
science fiction n /ˈsaɪəns ˈfɪkʃn/
screen n /skriːn/
seat n /siːt/
special effects n /ˈspeʃəl ɪˈfekts/
star n /stɑː/ (AmE /stɑːr/)
thriller n /ˈɵrɪlə/ (AmE / ˈɵrɪlər/)
ticket n /ˈtɪkɪt/

268 Vocabulary
reporting verbs
ask v /ɑːsk/ (AmE /æsk/)
explain v /ɪksˈpleɪn/
persuade v /pəˈsweɪd/ (AmE /pərˈsweɪd/)
promise v /ˈprɒmɪs/
say v /seɪ/
suggest v /səˈʤest/
tell v /tel/
warn v /wɔːn/ (AmE /wɔːrn/)

Vocabulary 269
Unit Screen time
12.1 I’d never seen a film before
E Speaking Parts 3 & 4 • Writing Part 3 (story) | V cinema | L past perfect

1 2

Vocabulary: cinema
1 Put the words below into one of three categories:

A Describing a film B At the cinema C Types of film

action fantasy science fiction
adventure historical drama screen
advertisement musical seat
animation performance special effects
audience popcorn star
character romance thriller
comedy row ticket
curtain scene

Exam practice: Speaking Parts 3 and 4

➤ Talk to the examiner, not your partner.
➤ The examiner will let you speak for 2 You are each going to describe a photograph that shows
about one minute. Try to keep talking someone watching a film. Work in pairs, taking turns to be the
until you are asked to stop. examiner and the student. Student A: describe photograph 1.
Student B: describe photograph 2.

3 Your photos both showed people watching films. Talk together

about the different kinds of films you like watching, and say
where and when you like to watch them.
➤ The examiner will let you talk for about
two or three minutes.
➤ Keep the conversation going by asking
your partner questions.


4 Discuss the questions with your partner.

1 What can you remember about the first time you went to the cinema?
2 How much TV did you watch before you were five?
3 What did you enjoy about going to the cinema when you were little?
4 How are films different now from how they were when you were five?
5 What was the name of the first film you ever saw in the cinema?
Track 1 5 Listen to a retired film director talking about his first visit to a cinema.
How would he answer the questions in Activity 4?

Language structures & functions: past perfect
6 Read the example and write yes or no beside the sentences below. If
you wrote no, correct the sentence.

My father felt guilty because he had left me with a babysitter the

night before.

1 The actions in this sentence happened at different times in the past.

2 The first verb is in past perfect. The second is in past simple.
3 We use past perfect for the action which happened first.
4 We form past perfect with had + infinitive.
5 We often use past perfect when we are telling a story.

7 Read the story. Put the verbs in brackets into past simple or
past perfect.

A strange coincidence
One evening when I was about 16, my younger sister Daniela and I (1)  
(decide) to go to the cinema. We wanted to see Grease, with John Travolta and
Olivia Newton John. It was an incredibly popular film at that time and we were
the only people in our school who (2)  (not see) it.
About an hour after the film had started, the fire alarm (3)  (go off)
and we all had to leave the cinema. I got separated from my sister. Of course
mobile phones (4)  (not exist) then so I couldn’t just call her and ask
her where she was. When I (5)  (get) home, the first thing my Dad said
was “Where’s Daniela?” I (6)  (never see) my father get angry before, but
that time he did.
A short time later, my sister arrived home. She (7)  (catch) the wrong
bus and had got terribly lost. Luckily she had met a kind lady who (8)
(bring) her home.
Several years later we were invited to a wedding. The bride was a friend of
my sister’s and when we were introduced to her aunt, we (9)  (recognise)
her as the lady who (10)  (help) my sister all those years before!

Exam practice: Writing Part 3 (story)

8 Read the exam task.

• Your English teacher has asked you to write a story.

• Your story must begin with this sentence:
Just as the film began, I received a text message on my mobile phone.
• Write your story in about 100 words.

Plan your story with a partner. Think about these questions:

1 Who were you with? 4 What had happened?
2 What kind of film were you going to see? 5 What did you do?
3 Who sent you the message?

9 Write your story. When you have finished, read the checklist on
page 282 and make changes if you need to.

➤ The main events of your story will be

in past simple. If you refer back to a
time before the main events, use past
10 Work with a partner. Read each other’s stories. Say two positive ➤ If your story doesn’t follow logically
things and make one suggestion for improvement. from the sentence you are given, you
could lose marks.

Language practice

1 Complete the sentences using simple past or past perfect.

0 Last weekend my friends and I decided (decide) to go to the cinema.

1 We (look) on the internet and (choose) a film that none of us
2 John (pass) his driving test the week before so he
(offer) to drive us.
3 Unfortunately none of us (go) to that cinema before and we
(get) terribly lost.
4 By the time we (get) to the cinema, the film

2 Write your own story using the simple past and the past perfect tenses.


Exam practice: Reading Part 2

3 The people below all want to see a film. Read the descriptions of five films. Decide
which film would be most suitable for the following people.

A Famous at Last
Toby and Amelia win a competition to star
1 Antonio enjoys
in a TV documentary about their lives.
watching films with
complicated stories What they don’t realise is that the show
that demand his will become a huge success and that their
attention. He likes lives will never be the same again. Younger
films with plenty of audiences will find plenty to laugh at in this
action, as he gets movie, but it does have a serious message
bored quite easily. about the price of fame as well.
B Escape
This entertaining film is based on a true story.
A teenage criminal steals millions of dollars
and then goes on the run. The film explores
the developing relationship between him and
the detective who is chasing him. This is quite
a serious film, so don’t expect car chases and
gun fights – you’ll be disappointed.
2 Julia has two
C Remember
children aged 10
The last thing Anna remembers is the murder
and 12, who love
comedies. Julia of her son. Despite having no memory from
prefers drama, but that day on, she is determined to find his
would like to find a killer. This exciting, eventful film is split
film that they will all into two separate stories, one going back
enjoy. in time and one going forward. You have
to concentrate throughout or you will get
completely lost, but it’s worth the effort!
D Flying Phoebe
This film tells the true story of Australian, Tim
Starr, whose life-long ambition was to take his
1930s motorcycle, which he called ‘Phoebe’, to
the Atacama desert in Chile, to test its speed.
Tim battles with ill-health and lack of money.
3 Jozef likes
He eventually makes it to Chile, but will the
exciting films
motorbike perform as he hopes? There is

set in beautiful
landscapes. He never a dull moment in this story.
particularly enjoys E Clowns Allowed
films about real Adrian dreams of becoming a clown and runs
people who follow away from home to join the circus. He is helped
their dream despite by ex-clown Mikey, who agrees to teach him
facing many everything he knows. Children will certainly
difficulties on the find this comedy very amusing, but there is
little depth to the story and the adults sitting
with them may wish they were elsewhere.

Unit Screen time
12.2 My agent asked me to work
E Reading Part 4 | V reporting verbs | L reported speech

They said it would be fun!

So, you think you’d like to be a film extra?
Well, read this description of Chris Maitland’s
last job and then decide!
When my phone rang last Thursday, I recognised
the number immediately as my agent Caroline’s.
She asked if I wanted to work the next day on a
film called Day of Disaster. My diary was full that
week, but I said I would cancel my plans for the
next day. I was worried that if I turned her down
now, she would never offer me work again. Also,
I needed the money.
I arrived at the film set on time, at 5 a.m., still Exam practice: Reading Part 4
half asleep. The assistant director told me to go
to the costume department, where they put lots 1 Read the article and questions. For each question, circle the
of nasty, sticky make-up on me to make it look correct letter A, B, C or D.
like I had been in an accident. Then, for the next
1 What is the writer doing in the text?
few hours, we just had to wait.
A giving advice on how to become a film extra
Most of us had forgotten to bring anything to
B explaining why he wanted to become a film extra
read and we were too far away to watch the
C giving an accurate description of the work of film extras
filming, so we passed the morning talking and
joking together. Finally, the assistant director D complaining about the conditions in which film extras work
came over. He told me I was going to play a blind 2 What does Chris say about Caroline’s offer of work?
man and put a bandage over my eyes. During A He felt he had to accept it, even though he had something else
the filming, the other extras had to look after me. to do.
Some time after lunch, I took off my bandage B He was a bit disappointed with the kind of work she offered.
and threw it away. The assistant director asked C He was excited because he thought the film sounded
me what I had done with it, but I told him I’d interesting.
accidentally lost it that afternoon. Luckily he
D He was surprised at the amount of money she offered.
believed me!
3 Chris spent his time in the waiting area
At 7 p.m., the director said we could go and
A chatting to the other extras.
have our make-up removed. I was so keen to get
B putting his make-up and costume on.
home I got straight into my car still covered in
blood and dirt. I don’t know what the garage staff C reading the book he had brought with him.
thought when I stopped to fill up with petrol! D watching the stars of the film performing.

➤ Read all the options carefully and think
about the meaning. Don’t choose an
option just because it contains a word
or idea from the text.

4 Why did the other extras have to help Chris?

A He got injured during filming.
B He couldn’t see what he was doing.
C He had never done this kind of work before.
D He had thrown away part of his costume.
5 What would Chris say about his day as a film extra?

I felt lively at the beginning of the
day, but by the end I was really tired
and couldn’t wait to get home.

I was held up in traffic in
the morning but once I got
there I enjoyed getting
dressed up in my costume.
Most of the people there were very
friendly but I didn’t get on with
the assistant director – I had an
argument with him.

It was a long day, although we
didn’t do that much work. We

finished late so I didn’t stay

behind to get cleaned up.

Language structures & functions: reported speech

2 Look at the examples from the text and choose the correct words
to complete the rules.

‘I’ll cancel my plans for tomorrow.’

➔ I said I would cancel my plans for the next day.
‘You’re going to play a blind man.’
➔ He told me I was going to play a blind man.
‘I accidentally lost it this afternoon.’
➔ I told him I had accidentally lost it that afternoon.
‘You can go and have your make-up removed.’
➔ The director said we could go and have our make-up removed.

1 In reported speech the tense usually moves back / forward.

2 Time expressions like tomorrow usually change / stay the same.
3 Both say and tell are used in reported speech. Say / Tell needs an object
(me, him, her, etc).

Language booster
reported questions
yes / no questions:
My agent asked me ‘Do you want to work tomorrow?’
My agent asked if I wanted to work the next day.
Wh- questions:
He asked me, ‘What have you done with your bandage?’
He asked me what I had done with my bandage.

3 Write what the person actually said, or report what they said.

0 I told my friends I couldn’t go out with them the next day.

I said, ‘ I can’t go out with you tomorrow .’
1 I asked my agent how much I would get paid.
I asked my agent, ‘How much get paid?’

2 I said, ‘What me to do?’ © UNO INTERNACIONAL

I asked the director what he wanted me to do.

3 The director said we had to pretend to be in pain.

The director said, ‘You pretend to be in pain.’
4 I said, ‘I am too tired to get my make-up removed.’
I told him too tired to get my make-up removed.

Vocabulary: reporting verbs
4 Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs below. There
may be more than one right answer.

explain persuade promise say suggest tell warn

I knew from a very early age that I wanted to be an actor. My parents (0)  warned me that it would
be a hard life and (1)  that I train as an accountant instead, but I (2)  them I
would not be happy. I (3)  why I wanted to be an actor, and finally (4)  them
to send me to stage school. I (5)  to work hard, and I did. While I was there, one of my
teachers (6)  it would be good for me to get some experience, so I signed up with an
agency and started working as an extra. That’s how my career began.


5 Pair work. You and your friend are going to work as film extras for the first time.
Your agents have given both of you different advice. Student A: turn to page
283. Student B: turn to page 284.

6 Tell your partner about the advice you were given. Talk together to decide which
pieces of advice were good and which were bad. When you have decided, turn to
page 282 to check.

Language practice

1 Read the conversation and report what the people say.

0 Journalist: What happened?

1 Sam: I saw a strange light in the sky.
2 Journalist: Can you describe the light?
3 Sam: It was long and blue, and it moved very fast.
4 Journalist: Where was the light?
5 Sam: I saw it over the clock tower and then it disappeared in
the direction of the castle.
6 Journalist: Oh no! It sounds like the Saturn Soldiers are back!

0 The journalist asked Sam what had happened.


2 What is the speaker doing in each sentence? Choose the correct word to complete
the second sentence.

0 James said, ‘I’ll do my homework as soon as this programme finishes.’

James (persuaded / promised) to do his homework as soon as the programme
1 The waitress said to me, ‘Don’t touch that plate, it’s very hot.’
The waitress (warned / complained) me not to touch the plate because it was
very hot.
2 My brother said, ‘Why don’t we go shopping to get Mum a present?’
My brother (reminded / suggested) that we go shopping to get Mum a present.
3 ‘Don’t touch my MP3 player!’ I said to my sister.
I (explained / told) my sister not to touch my MP3 player.
4 ‘The producer of a film is the person who provides the money,’ my dad said.
My father (offered / explained) that the producer of a film is the person who
provides the money.
5 ‘I’m sorry I’m late,’ the teacher said to the class.
The teacher (apologised / persuaded) to the class for being late.

Exam practice: Writing Part 1

3 Here are some sentences about someone’s career in the film industry. For each
question, complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first.
Use no more than three words.
0 Matt started working in the film industry when he was 18.
Matt has worked in the film industry since he was 18.
1 Matt directed his first film when he was 22 years old.
Matt directed his first film at of 22.
2 Matt wasn’t given much time to make the film by the producers.
The producers Matt much time to make the film.
3 Matt said that lots of things had gone wrong during filming.
Matt said, ‘Lots of things wrong during filming.’

4 Making the film was much harder than Matt had expected.
Making the film wasn’t as Matt had expected.
5 The film got good reviews, but it didn’t make much money.
The film got good reviews even it didn’t make much money.

Pairwork activities

Unit 12 Lesson 1
9 Writing Part 3 checklist

The story has about 100 words.

There is a beginning, a middle and an end.
The story leads on logically from the opening sentence.
There are two or three paragraphs.
The story happens in the past.
A variety of tenses are used.
Capital letters and other punctuation are used correctly.
Sentences start with a variety of different words.
Conjunctions such as after that and finally are used correctly.
There are no spelling mistakes.

Unit 12 Lesson 2

Rules for Film Extras
1 Never arrive late.
2 Don’t speak to the stars.
3 Take a book or crossword with you.
4 Don’t bring friends or pets with you.

5 Ask what kind of clothes you should wear.

6 Don’t bring a camera.
7 Fill in your form and hand it in at the end of the day.

282 Pairwork activities

Unit 12 Lesson 2: Student A
5 Read the advice and then prepare to report it to your partner using verbs like said, warned,
suggested, explained.

Don’t worry if you get held up and arrive a bit

late, film sets are quite relaxed places. Don’t
speak to the stars unless they speak to
you first, otherwise you could get fired. Take
a book or a crossword because there will be
a lot of waiting around and you will get bored.
Make sure you fill in your form and hand it in
before you leave, or you won’t get paid.

Pairwork activities 283

Unit 12 Lesson 2: Student B
5 Read the advice and then prepare to report it to your partner using verbs like said, warned,
suggested, explained.

Bring your friend or your pet with you. They

may be needed in the scene and if not
they can keep you company while you are
waiting to be called onto the set. Before
you go, find out what kind of clothes you
should wear. Bring a camera – you might get
some good pictures of the stars.


284 Pairwork activities


U12 Track 1, Activity 5

INTERVIEWER: James, you’ve had a very successful career as a film director.
But tell me, can you remember the very first time you went to
the cinema?
JAMES: Oh yes, very clearly! It was a Saturday morning in 1937 and my
parents were chatting over breakfast about how they’d spent the
previous evening. They were talking about ‘the pictures’. That’s
what we used to call films in those days. I was fascinated. I was
about five years old and, until that day, I had never seen a film.
I hadn’t even heard of television – in fact we didn’t even have a
telephone in our house. Our only contact with the outside world
came from the radio in the sitting room.
I started pleading with my father to take me to see a film. I think
he felt a bit guilty because they’d left me with a babysitter the
night before. Anyway, whatever the reason, he took me to the
cinema that very afternoon.
The size of it amazed me, and I loved the atmosphere
immediately. In those days there was still an usherette – a girl
who showed you to your seats in the dark if you arrived after the
film had started – and she was there with her tray of sweets and
ice cream in the breaks. My mother had given me some money
before we left home, so I queued up and bought myself some
chocolates. I remember I felt very grown up!
But the film itself was the most important thing. When the
curtains opened and the lights went down, I couldn’t believe
my eyes. There was the screen, with huge close-ups of the
characters. There were sudden changes of scene that took my
breath away, and action that was shown from many different
angles. Obviously audiences are used to all that now – these days
film scenes only last a few seconds and are filled with special
effects. In those days one scene could last for several minutes.
And of course the sets were very basic, if you compare them
to today’s.
But the performances the actors gave were wonderful. I had

never experienced anything like it and I loved the cinema from

that point on. And, no, I can’t remember what the film was called!

Transcripts 285
Exam answer sheets


Reproduced with the permission of Cambridge ESOL.


Reproduced with the permission of Cambridge ESOL.


Reproduced with the permission of Cambridge ESOL.


Reproduced with the permission of Cambridge ESOL.


Reproduced with the permission of Cambridge ESOL.