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H I

{edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya

Xya {ejU H|$Ð

ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emñÌ
nona-1 d 2

àW_df©: dmoUÁ`

go{_ñQ>a 1 d 2 gmR>r

K J
© Hw$bg{Md, {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya (_hmamîQ´>)
àW_md¥Îmr : 2007
{ÛVr` Amd¥Îmr : 2011
V¥Vr` Amd¥Îmr : 2013
~r. H$m°_. (ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emñÌ) ^mJ - 1 H$[aVm
gd© h·H$ ñdmYrZ. oedmOr odÚm[rR>mÀ`m [admZJroedm` H$m{UË`mhr àH$mamZ{ Z·H$c H$aVm `{Uma Zmhr.

àVr : 2,000

àH$meH$ :
S>m°. S>r. ìhr. _wio
Hw$bg{Md,
{edmOr {dÚmnrR>,
H$moëhmnya - 416 004.

_wÐH$ :
AYrjH$,
{edmOr {dÚmnrR> _wÐUmb`,
H$moëhmnya - 416 004.

ISBN-978-81-906178-4-0

H Xya oejU H|$Ð AmoU oedmOr odÚm[rR> `m]ÔcMr _mohVr [wT>rc [Î`mda o_iy eH{$c.
oedmOr odÚm[rR>, odÚmZJa, H$m{ëhm[ya - 416 004. (^maV)
H Xya oejU [nafX - B§oXam Jm§Yr amîQ->r` _w·V odÚm[rR>, Zdr oXëcr `m§À`m odH$gZ AZwXmZmVyZ `m gmohË`mMr oZo_©Vr H{$cr
Amh{.
(ii)
XyaoejU H|$Ð, oedmOr odÚm[rR>, H$m{ëhm[ya
n gëcmJma go_Vr n
_m. àm. (S>m°.) EZ. Oo. ndma àm. (S>m°.) Ho$. Eg. a§Jmßnm
Hw$cJwê$, {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya _m. Hw$cJwê$, H$Zm©Q>H$ amÁ` _wŠV {dÚmnrR>,
_m. àmMm`© (S>m°.) E. Eg. ^moB©Q>o _mZgJ§JmoÌr, åh¡gya-570006
à-Hw$cJwê$, {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya àm. ìhr. d|H$æ`m
àm. (S>m°.) Ama. H¥$îUm Hw$_ma g§MmcH$, {dÚmà~mo{YZr S>m°. ~r. Ama. Am§~oS>H$a _wŠV
_m. Hw$cJwê$, `ed§Vamd MìhmU _hmamîQ´> _wŠV {dÚmnrR>, {dÚmnrR>, amoS> Z§. 46, Á`w~cr {hc, h¡Ðm~mX-33 Am§Y«àXoe
kmZJ§JmoÌr, J§Jmnya S>°_Odi, Zm{eH$-422 222 S>m°. Oo. Eg. nmQ>rc
S>m°. A{Zc Jdir A{YîR>mVm, gm_m{OH$ emñÌo {dÚmemIm,
A{YîR>mVm, H$cm d c{cVH$cm {dÚmemIm, {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya
{edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya S>m°. Ama. Or. \$S>Vao
S>m°. gr. Oo. {Icmao A{YîR> m Vm, dm{UÁ` {dÚmemIm,
A{YîR>mVm, {dkmZ {dÚmemIm, {edmOr {dÚmnrR> , H$mo ë hmny a
{edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya S>m°. S>r. ìhr. _wio
S>m°. E. ~r. amOJo Hw$cg{Md, {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya
g§MmcH$, _hm{dÚmc` d {dÚmnrR> {dH$mg _§S>i, lr. ìhr. Q>r. nmQ>rc
{edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya {dÎm d coIm A{YH$mar,
S>m°. ~r. E_. {hS>}H$a {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya
narjm {Z`§ÌH$, {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya àm. (S>m°.) E. Ama. ^mogco (gXñ` g{Md)
S>m°. E. EZ. Omoer g§MmcH$,
d¡îUdr AnmQ>©_|Q>, gX{ZH$m Z§. 8, lra§JZJa, n§qnJ ñQ>oeZ Xya{ejU H|$Ð, {edmOr {dÚmnrR>, H$moëhmnya
Odi, J§Jmnya S>°_ Odi, Zm{eH$-422 222

n Aä`mg_§S>i : ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emñÌ n


AÜ`j - S>m°. S>r. Ho$. _moao
[a¨J amoS>, ZdrZ ~ho ZmH$m, _hmXodZJa, Bñcm_nya, Vm. dmidm, {O. gm§Jcr
l S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo l S>m°. `w. E_. _miH$a
Ho$. ~r. nr. H$m°coO, Bñcm_nya, {O. gm§Jcr AmQ>©g, H$m°_g© A°ÊS> gm`Ýg H$m°coO, ncyg, {O. gmVmam.
l S>m°. S>r. Or. Mm¡Jwco l S>m°. lr_Vr nr. Eg. Jm`H$dmS>
Ý`y H$m°coO, {edmOr noR>, H$moëhmnya. N>ÌnVr {edmOr H$m°coO, gmVmam.
l S>m°. Eg. E. OmYd l S>m°. E. ~r. gw`©d§er
S>r. Ama. _mZo _hm{dÚmc`, H$mJc, {O. H$moëhmnya. {d^mJà_wI, ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emñÌ {d^mJ,
l S>m°. E. Eg. H$ma§S>o ~r. nr. gmimoIo H$m°_g© H$m°coO, ~meu, {O. gmocmnya.
_{hcm _hm{dÚmc`, H$amS>, {O. gmVmam. l S>m°. lr_Vr dm`. ìhr. OwJio
qMVm_Uamd H$m°coO Am°\$ H$m°_g©, gm§Jcr.
(iii)
Xya oejU H|$Ð ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emñÌ
oedmOr odÚm[rR>,
H$m{ëhm[ya Aä`mg KQ>H$m§Mo boIH$
gÌ-1 gÌ-2
coIZ gh^mJ KQ>H$ H«$_m§H$ KQ>H$ H«$_m§H$
àm. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo 1 --
H$_©dra ^mD$amd nmQ>rc _hm{dÚmc`,
Bñcm_nya, {O. gm§Jcr.
S>m°. ~r. Ho$. _mZo 2 1
Hw$gy_VmB© amOmam_~mny nmQ>rc H$Ý`m _hm{dÚmc`,
Bñcm_nya, {O. gm§Jcr.
S>m°. S>r. Ho$. _moao 3 --
AmQ>©g A°ÊS> H$m°_g© H$m°coO, AmîQ>m,
Vm. dmidm, {O. gm§Jcr.
S>m°. S>r. Or. Mm¡Jwco 4 --
Ý`y H$m°coO, H$moëhmnya
S>m°. S>r. Ho$. nmQ>rc -- 2, 3
nr. ìhr. nr. _hm{dÚmc`, H$dR>o_hm§H$mi, {O. gm§Jcr.
S>m°. E_. ~r. dmK_moS>o -- 4
H$cm Am{U dm{UÁ` _hm{dÚmc`, gmVmam.
S>m°. EZ. ~r. OmYd -- 4
{edamO gm{hË`, dm{UÁ` Am{U S>r. Eg. H$X_,
{dkmZ _hm{dÚmc`, JS>qh½cO, {O. H$moëhmnya.
n g§nmXH n

S>m°. S>r. Ho$. _moao S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo


AmQ>©g A°ÊS> H$m°_g© H$m°coO, AmîQ>m, H$_©dra ^mD$amd nmQ>rc _hm{dÚmc`,
Vm. dmidm, {O. gm§Jcr. Bñcm_nya, {O. gm§Jcr.

(iv)
àñVmdZm
OyZ 2007 [mgyZ oedmOr odÚm[rR>mZ{ ]oh•ñW odÚmÏ`mªgmR>r XyaoejU H$m`©H«$_
am]odÊ`mM{ R>aodc{ Amh{. Ë`m AZwf§JmZ{ ]r. H$m°_. ^mJ-1 `m dJm©À`m odÚmÏ`mªgmR>r
ì`mdgmo`H$ AW©emñÌ h{ [wñVH$ ocohc{ Amh{. AW©emñÌ `m odf`mVrc VÁkm§Zr `m
[wñVH$mMr d{Jd{Jir àH$aU{ ochÿZ odf` odÚmWuo^_wI H$aÊ`mMm à`ËZ H{$cm Amh{. `m
[wñVH$mV àË`j ì`dgm`mer oZJS>rV AW©emñÌr` ogÕm§VmMr gIm{c MMm© gm{ß`m d
gwQ>gwQ>rV ^mf{V H{$cr Amh{. odÚmWu d dmMH$m§Zm odf`mM{ kmZ d Ame` g_Omdm åhUyZ
Amdí`H$ Ë`m oR>H$mUr V·V{ d Amc{I H$mTy>Z odf` AoYH$ gm{[m H$ê$Z gm§oJVcm Amh{.
`m [wñVH$mV ì`mdgmo`H$ AW©emñÌmMr Am{iI, _mJUrMr cdoMH$Vm, ì`m»`m,
àH$ma, _m[Z[ÕVr, _mJUrMr cdoMH$Vm R>aodUma{ KQ>H$ d _hÎd, _mJUr AZw_mZ /
A§XmO àH$ma, _m[ZmÀ`m [ÕVr, Vg{M CË[mXZogÕm§V, ]XcË`m à_mUmMm oZ`_,
CË[mXZ\$c ogÕm§V, _m{R>çm CË[mXZmM{ \$m`X{, CË[mXZ IM© g§H$ë[Zm d IMm©M{
Aë[H$mocZ AmoU XrK©H$mcrZ dH«$, CË[mXZIM© odf`H$ ÑoîQ>H$m{Z, àmßVrdH«$, [yU©
ñ[Ym©, _·V{Xmar, _·V{Xmar`w·V ñ[Ym©, Aë[moYH$ma ]mOma `m§Mr godñVa MMm© H$aÊ`mV
Amcr Amh{. `m]am{]aM od^mOZmMm gr_m§V CË[mXH$Vm ogÕm§V, I§S>, d{VZ, ì`mO d
Z\ $m `m]m]VÀ`m g§H$ë[Zm d ogÕm§V `m§Mr godñVa MMm© H{$cr Amh{.
]oh•ñW odÚmÏ`mªZm odf`mM{ ËdnaV AmH$cZ ìhmd{ åhUyZ odf`mMr _m§S>Ur,
CoÔîQ>ç{, àñVmdZm, odf`mMr _Ü`dVu H$ë[Zm, gmam§e, ñd`§•AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ,
gamdmgmR>r àíZ d AoYH$ dmMZmgmR>r [wñVH$m§Mr Zmd{ e{dQ>r oXcr Amh{V. AemnaVrZ{
odÚmÏ`mªZm odf`mM{ Mm§Jc{ AmH$cZ hm{B©c Aer A[{jm Amh{.

g§nmXH$Û`

(v)
AZwH«$_{UH$m
KQ>H$ H«$_m§H$ KQ>H$mMo erf©H$ nmZ H«$_m§H$
{d^mJ n{hcm : go{_ñQ>a-1

KQ>H$ 1 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emñÌmMr AmoiI 1

KQ>H$ 2 _mJUr \$cZ 28

KQ>H$ 3 _mJUrMo AZw_mZ 50

KQ>H$ 4 CËnmXZ \$cZ 67

{d^mJ Xwgam : go{_ñQ>a-2

KQ>H$ 1 CËnmXZ IM© d àmßVr 87

KQ>H$ 2 dñVy ~mOmamVrc qH$_V {ZpíMVr - ^mJ-1 114

KQ>H$ 3 dñVy ~mOmamVrc qH$_V {ZpíMVr - ^mJ-2 142

KQ>H$ 4 CËnmXZ KQ>H$ qH$_V {ZpíMVr 158

(vii)
n odÚmÏ`mªZm gyMZm :

àË`{H$ KQ>H$mMr gwédmV CoÔîQ>m§Zr hm{B©c. CoÔîQ>ç{ oXemXe©H$ AmoU [wT>rc


]m]r ñ[îQ> H$aUmar AgVrc.

1. KQ>H$m_Ü`{ H$m` oXc{c{ Amh{.

2. Vw_À`mH$Sy>Z H$m` A[{ojV Amh{.

3. odoeîQ> KQ>H$mdarc H$m`© [yU© H{$ë`mZ§Va Vwåhmcm H$m` _mhrV hm{Ê`mMr


A[{jm Amh{.

ñd`§ _yë`_m[ZmgmR>r àíZ oXc{c{ AgyZ Ë`m§Mr A[{ojV CÎma{hr X{Ê`mV


Amc{cr Amh{V. Ë`m_wi{ KQ>H$mMm Aä`mg `m{½` oXe{Z{ hm{B©c. Vw_Mr CÎma{ ochÿZ
Pmë`mZ§VaM ñd`§ AÜ``Z gmohË`m_Ü`{ oXc{cr CÎma{ [mhm. hr Vw_Mr CÎma{ (qH$dm
ñdmÜ`m`) Am_À`mH$S>{ _yë`_m[ZmgmR>r [mR>dm`Mr ZmhrV. Vwåhr `m{½` oXe{Z{
Aä`mg H$amdm, `mgmR>r hr CÎma{ "Aä`mg gmYZ' (Study Tool) åhUyZ C[`w·V
R>aVrc.

(viii)
gÌ - 1 : KQ>H$ 1
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emñÌmMr AmoiI
(INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS ECONOMICS)

1.1 C{Ôï>ço
1.2 {df` {ddoMZ
1.3 àmñVm{dH$
1.4 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr ì`m»`m
1.5 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr ì`mßVr d ñdê$n
1.6 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr d¡{eï>ço
1.7 {ZU©` à{H«$`m {gÕm§V d ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó
1.8 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr d¡{eï>ço
1.9 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó - Cnm``moOH$ emó
1.10 _hÎm_ Z\$m-CÚmoJg§ñWoMo EH$ C{Ôï>
1.11 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX
1.12 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ
1.13 gamdmgmR>r ñdmÜ`m`
1.14 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$
1.1 C{Ôï>ço :
1. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó hm {df` g_OyZ KoUo.

~r. H$m°_. ^mJ 1


ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó
2. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMo ñdê$n Am{U ì`már Aä`mgUo.
3. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr {d{dY d¡{eï>ço Aä`mgUo.
4. CÚmoJ§ñWm _hÎm_ Z\$m H$gm {_i{dVo Ë`mMm Aä`mg H$aUo.
5. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMo ì`dhmamVrb _hÎd g_OyZ KoUo.
1.2 {df` {ddoMZ :
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ho AmOÀ`m X¡Z§{XZ ì`dhmamV _hÎdmMo Amho. AW©ì`dñWoV {d{dY àH$maMo ì`dgm`
Ho$bo OmVmV. Ë`m gd© {R>H$mUr AW©emómMm dmna ì`dñWmnH$s` Am{U Cn`mo{OV AW©emó åhUyZ hmoV Amho.
^maVr` AW©ì`dñWm Am{W©H$ gwYmaUm H$m`©H«$_mÀ`m A§_b~OmdUrZ§Va doJmZo ~Xbbr Agë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo.
ZdZdrZ CËnmXZmbm MmbZm {_iV Jobr. `m ~XbË`m Am{W©H$ d ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrMo AdbmoH$Z H$ê$Z
AW©emómVrb {d{dY {gÕm§V VÎdo d g§H$ënZm `m§Mm dmna ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r H$gm Ho$bm OmVmo `mMo
{ddoMZ ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómV Ho$bo OmVo. `m AZwf§JmZo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr AmoiI Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
1.3 àmñVm{dH$ :
ì`dgm` :
ì`dgm` `m eãXmb B§JO « rV Business Ago åhUVmV. Business hm eãX Busy + ness `m XmoZ eãXm§nmgyZ
V`ma Pmbm Amho. Busy åhUOo H$m`©_¾ AgUo d ness åhUOo pñWVr. Aem arVrZo ""ì`dgm` åhUOo _Zwî`mMr
gVV H$m`©_¾ pñWVr hmo`.''1 "gm_m{OH$emó EZgm`Šbmo{n{S>`m'Zwgma ""ì`dgm` hr _Zwî`mMr H$m`©_¾ AdñWm
hmo`, Á`m_Ü`o gmVË` AgVo d CËnÞ {_i{dUo hm Ë`m pñWVrMm hoVy AgVmo.'' CËnÞ {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r AgUmar
_Zwî`mMr gVVMr H$m`©_¾Vm åhUOo ì`dgm` hmo`. àË`oH$ ì`ŠVrbm OrdZ OJÊ`mgmR>r d Hw$Qw>§~mÀ`m
nmbZnmofUmgmR>r CËnÞmMr JaO AgVo. Ë`m_wio àË`oH$ ì`ŠVr doJdoJù`m H$m_mV ì`J« AgVo. CXm. eoVH$ar
eoVr ì`dgm`mV, CÚmoOH$ CÚmoJY§ÚmV, ì`mnmar ì`mnmamV, ~±H$ MmbH$ ~±H$ ì`dgm`mV Jw§Vbobo AgVmV, Va
àmÜ`mnH$, dH$sb, S>m°ŠQ>a dJ¡ao bmoH$ Amnë`m godm bmoH$m§Zm CnbãY H$ê$Z XoVmV d Ë`mVyZ CËnÞ {_i{dVmV.
Ë`m§À`m `m ì`dgm`mbm "godm ì`dgm`' Ago åhQ>bo OmVo.
""ì`dgm` åhUOo Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mÀ`m CÔoemZo dm{UpÁ`H$ H¥$Vr H$aUo qH$dm Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r ñWmnZ
Ho$bobo g§KQ>Z hmo`.''2 `m ì`m»`odê$Z Ago ñnï> hmoVo H$s, ì`dgm` åhUOo bmoH$m§Zr Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r ñWmnZ

1. "Business means a state of being busy, parctically it is any consistent and continuous
activity aimed at earning an Income." - Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences.
2. "Business referred to commercial activities aimed at making a profit or to organisations
formed to make a profit."

2
Ho$bobr CÚmoJg§ñWm, CÚmoJY§Xm qH$dm VemM àH$maMo EImXo g§KQ>Z qH$dm Zâ`mÀ`m AnojoZo ~±H$ ì`dgm`,
{d_m, dmhVyH$ `mgmaIo ì`dgm` Mmb{dUo hmo`. `mbm "dm{UpÁ`H$ H¥$Vr' Ago åhUVmV.
ì`dgm` `m eãXmMm AW© A{YH$ ñnï> ìhmdm åhUyZ Ë`mMr gd©g_mdoeH$ Aer nwT>rbà_mUo ì`m»`m
{Xbr OmVo.
E\²$. gr. Hy$naÀ`m _Vo, ""ì`dgm` åhUOo g§nyU dm{UÁ` d CÚmoJ joÌ hmo`, Á`m_Ü`o _yb^yV CÚmoJ,
à{H«$`m CÚmoJ, dñVy{Z{_©Vr CÚmoJ Am{U {d{dY nyaH$ godm, {d^mOZ, ~±H$m, {d_m, dmhVyH$ dJ¡ao g_m{dï>
AgVmV. `mbmM "CÚmoJ-OJV' Ago åhUVmV.''3
Aem arVrZo CËnÞ {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r _Zwî` H$arV Agboë`m gd© àH$maÀ`m Am{W©H$ H¥$VtZm ì`dgm` åhQ>bo
OmVo. Ë`m_Ü`o {d{dY àH$maMo CÚmoJY§Xo, godm ì`dgm`m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. ì`dgm`mV dñVyMo CËnmXZ, dmQ>n d
{d{Z_` `m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
T>mo~i_mZmZo ì`dgm`mMo ì`mnma, dm{UÁ`, CÚmoJY§Xo d godm Ago dJuH$aU Ho$bo OmVo. ì`mnmamV dñVy§Mr
XodmU-KodmU hmoV AgVo. hm ì`dgm` H$aUmè`m§Zm ì`mnmar Ago åhUVmV. dm{UÁ`m_Ü`o dñVyÀ`m {d{Z_`
ì`dhmamgmR>r Amdí`H$ Agboë`m godm§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. Ë`m_Ü`o ~±H$, ì`dgm`, {d_mjoÌ, _mbgmR>dUyH$
gmo`r, godm ì`dgm`, dmhVyH$ BË`mXtMm g_mdoe hmoVmo. CÚmoJY§Úm_Ü`o Z¡g{J©H$ g§nÎmrMm emoY KoUo, CËIZZmÛmao
YmVy d I{ZOo H$mT>Uo, Ë`mda à{H«$`m H$aUo dJ¡a|Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. godmjoÌmV drOnwadR>m, nmUrnwadR>m, Vma-
Q>nmb-Q>o{b\$moZ godm, XiUdiU, dmhVyH$ BË`mXr {d{dY gm_m{OH$ godm§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. Aem arVrZo
ì`dgm`m_Ü`o Mma KQ>H$ g_m{dï> AgVmV.
åhUyZ, ì`dgm` = ì`mnma + dm{UÁ` + CÚmoJ + godm hmo`.
AW©ì`dñWoV Aem àH$maMo {d{dY ì`dgm` ApñVËdmV AgVmV. Ë`m_Ü`o gh^mJr AgUmè`m§Zm
ì`mdgm{`H$ (Businessmen) Ago åhUVmV.
AW©emó åhUOo H$m` ho ñnï> H$aÊ`mgmR>r A°S>_ pñ_W, _me©b, {nJy, am°{~Ýg dJ¡ao AW©emókm§Zr ì`m»`m
{Xë`m AmhoV. A°S>_ pñ_WZo AW©emó amÁ`emómnmgyZ doJio H$ê$Z Vmo EH$ ñdV§Ì {df` ~Zdbm.
A°S>_ pñ_WÀ`m _Vo, ""AW©emó åhUOo g§nÎmrMo emó hmo`.''4 Ë`mÀ`m _Vo _mZdr JaOm nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r
Amdí`H$ Agboë`m dñVy d godm åhUOo g§nÎmr hmo`. _mZdr l_mVyZ g§nÎmr {Z_m©U hmoVo d {VMm Aä`mg AW©emómV
Ho$bm OmVmo.
3. F. C. Cooper - "Business means the whole complex filed of commerce and industry,
the basic Industries and the network of ancilliary service, distribution, banking, insurance,
transport and so on, which serve and interpenetrate the world of business as a whole."
4. "An enquiry into the nature and causes of wealth of Nation." - Adam Smith.
3
ì`dgm`

1. ì`mnma 2. dm{UÁ` 3. CÚmoJY§Xo 4. godm

A§VJ©V Am§Vaamï´>r` ~±H$ ì`dgm`, eoVr d eoVrda Vma, Q>nmb,


ì`mnma ì`mnma {d_m ì`dgm`, AmYm[aV CÚmoJ, drO,
{dÎm nwadR>m g§ñWm O§Jb ì`dgm`, nmUrnwadR>m,
ñWm{ZH$ Am`mV dmhVyH$, _pÀN>_mar, aoëdo,
ì`mnma {Z`m©V IaoXr-{dH«$s gd© àH$maMo H$maImZo añVo dmhVyH$,
g§ñWm, ~m§YH$m_,
amÁ`nmVirdarb Om{hamV dJ¡ao XiU-diU dJ¡ao
ì`mnma

Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnma

{ZgJ©dmÚm§Zr ""AW©emómbm ì`mnmar KS>m_moS>rMo emó åhQ>bo.''5 VwJm} d ŠdoZoÀ`m _Vo, _mZdr JaOm nyU©
H$aÊ`mgmR>r d Ë`m JaOm§Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mgmR>r gmYZg§nÎmr Jmoim H$aÊ`mÀ`m {H«$`oVyZ Am{W©H$ KS>m_moS>r {Z_m©U
hmoVmV.
_me©bÀ`m _Vo, ""AW©emó _mZdmÀ`m X¡Z§{XZ ì`dhmamMm Aä`mg H$aVo, VgoM _mZdr H$ë`mUmgmR>r
Amdí`H$ Agbobr ^m¡{VH$ gmYZo {_i{dUo d Ë`m§Mm Cn`moJ H$aÊ`mer {ZJ{S>V d¡`{ŠVH$ d gm_m{OH$ à`ËZm§Mm
Aä`mg H$aVo.'' `m ì`m»`oV _me©bZo g§nÎmr ~amo~aM _mZdr àíZm§Mm XoIrb {dMma Ho$bm Amho. g§nÎmr H$er
{_idm`Mr? _mZdr JaOm nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r {VMm dmna H$gm H$am`Mm? d Am{W©H$ àíZm§Mr gmoS>dUyH$ H$er H$am`Mr?
`m _Zwî`mÀ`m dmJUyH$ser AW©emó g§~{§ YV AgVo. åhUOo _Zwî`mÀ`m CËnÞ {_i{dÊ`mÀ`m {H«$`oMm Aä`mg
AW©emómV Ho$bm OmVmo, Ë`m_wio Vo Am{W©H$ d gm_m{OH$ KS>m_moS>ter {ZJ{S>V AgVo, Ago _me©b åhUVmo.
àmo. am°{~ÝgÀ`m _Vo, ""A_`m©{XV JaOm d n`m©`r na§Vw _`m©{XV Agboë`m gmYZm§er g§~§{YV _mZdr
dV©UwH$sMm Aä`mg H$aUmao emó åhUOo AW©emó hmo`.''6

5. "Economics is the science of business Activity." - Physicorates.


6. "Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between
ends and scare means, which have alternative uses." - Prof. Robbins.

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_mZdmÀ`m A_`m©{XV JaOm§À`m nyV©VogmR>r _`m©{XV gmYZm§Mm dmna H$gm H$am`Mm, `mMm Aä`mg AW©emó
H$aVo. CÚmoJY§ÚmgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmè`m gmYZ-gm_wJr« À`m ghmæ`mZo ì`dgm` MmbdyZ Z\$m H$gm {_idm`Mm?
`m~m~V AW©emó _mJ©Xe©Z H$aVo.
Aem arVrZo AW©emó g§nÎmr d {VÀ`mer {ZJS>rV Am{W©H$ KSm_moS>r, _Zwî`mMo Am{W©H$ àíZ d gm_m{OH$
n«íZm§Mm Aä`mg H$aVo. _Zwî`mbm Am{W©H$ àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r Amdí`H$ Agbobo Am{W©H$ {gÕm§V, VÎdo,
g§H$ënZm `m§Mm Aä`mg AW©emómV Ho$bm OmVmo. gd©gmYmaUnUo, g_mOmV CËnmXZ H$emMo, H$moR>o, {H$Vr, H$go
d H$moUmgmR>r H$amd`mMo, ho Am{W©H$ àíZ AgVmV; Ë`m§Mm Aä`mg AW©emómV Ho$bm OmVmo.
ì`dgm` d AW©emó `m XmoZ eãXm§nmgyZ ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó hm eãX V`ma Pmbm Amho. ì`mdgm{`H$
AW©emómV Am{W©H$ {gÕm§V d àË`j ì`mdgm{`H$ H¥$Vr `m§Mo EH$ÌrH$aU Ho$bobo AgVo. Ë`m_Ü`o àË`j ì`dhmamer
g§~§{YV {ZU©` KoVbo OmVmV. CXm. AmXmZ-àXmZ g§~§Y, Jw§VdUyH$, ^{dî`H$mbrZ {Z`moOZ dJ¡a|~m~V XoIrb
{ZU©` KoVbo OmVmV. Ë`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnH$ ì`dgm`mVrb n[apñWVrMo AW©emómÀ`m ghmæ`mZo {díbofU H$aVmo
d AW©emór` {gÕm§V d VÎdm§Mm dmna àË`j ì`dhmamV H$arV AgVmo. åhUyZ ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómbm
"ì`dñWmnH$s` AW©emó' (Managerial Economics) qH$dm "ì`mdhm[aH$ AW©emó' (Applied Economics)
Agohr åhUVmV. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómV ì`dhmam§Zm àË`j Am{W©H$ {gÕm§Vm§Mr OmoS> {Xbobr AgVo. AW©emór`
{gÕm§V d VÎdm§À`m ghmæ`mZo ì`dgm`mVrb n[apñWVrMo {díbofU H$ê$Z {ZU©` KoVbo OmVmV. AW©emómV
{d{eï> C{Ôï>m§À`m nyVugmR>r, gmYZgm_J«rMm n`m©á dmna H$aÊ`mgmR>r Am{W©H$ {gÕm§V, VÎdo d V§Ìm§Mm Aä`mg
Ho$bm OmVmo. Ë`m_wio AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$mbm Am{W©H$ {díbofUmMr gmYZo d V§ÌmMm nwadR>m H$aVo, Ë`m§Mm dmna
H$ê$Z Vmo Amnbr ì`mdgm{`H$ YmoaUo R>a{dVmo. ì`dñWmnH$ ì`dgm` qH$dm CÚmoJ Mmb{dVmo, Ë`m_wio Ë`mbm
ì`mdgm{`H$ Ago åhQ>bo OmVo. ì`dñWmnH$ EImXr ì`ŠVr qH$dm AZoH$ ì`ŠVr AgVmV. ì`dñWmnH$mMr à_wI
XmoZ H$m`} AgVmV - (1) ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©K KoUo d (2) ì`dgm`m~m~V ^mdr {Z`moOZ H$aUo. hr H$m`} H$aÊ`mgmR>r
ì`dñWmnH$ AW©emómMr _XV KoV AgVmo. åhUyZ ""ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó åhUOo ì`mdgm{`H$ H¥$Vrbm
AW©emór` {gÕm§V d VÎdo `m§Mr {Xbobr OmoS> hmo`.''

ì`dgm`
ì`dñWmnZ
+ AW©emó

ì`mdgm{`H$
AW©emó

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1.4 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr ì`m»`m :
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó åhUOo H$m`? - ho ñnï> H$aÊ`mgmR>r doJdoJù`m AW©emókm§Zr ì`m»`m {Xë`m
AmhoV. Ë`mn¡H$s H$mhr à_wI ì`m»`m nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. _°H$Zoa d _oar`_À`m _Vo, ""ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrÀ`m {díbofUmgmR>r AW©emór` H$ënZm§Mm Cn`moJ
H$aUo åhUOo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó hmo`.''7
2. ñnoÝga d gmBJb_ZÀ`m _Vo, ""{ZU©` à{H«$`m d ^{dî`H$mbrZ {Z`moOZmbm MmbZm XoÊ`mgmR>r
AW©emór` {gÕm§V d ì`mdgm{`H$ H¥$Vr `m§Mo EH$ÌrH$aU åhUOo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó hmo`.''8 åhUOo
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$m§À`m {ZU©`m§Mr AW©emór` ~mOy ñnï> H$aVo, Á`m_Ü`o AW©emó AgVo.
3. B©. Q>r. {~«hm_ d Oo. Eb. nnmg `m§À`m _Vo, ""ì`mdgm{`H$ H¥$VtZm AW©emór` {gÕm§V d nÕVr bmJy
H$aUo åhUOo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó hmo`.''9 `m ì`m»`odê$Z Ago ñnï> hmoVo H$s ì`dñWmnH$ Amnbr H$m`} nma
nmS>Ê`mgmR>r ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómVrb VÎdo, H$ënZm d {gÕm§Vm§Mm dmna H$arV AgVmo.
Aem arVrZo darb gd© ì`m»`m§dê$Z {XgyZ `oVo H$s, ì`dñWmnH$ Ë`mbm X¡Z§{XZ OrdZm_Ü`o Oo ì`mdgm{`H$
àíZ AgVmV Vo gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r AW©emómMr _XV KoVmo. AW©emómV Am{W©H$ {díbofUmMr {d{dY gmYZo
g_m{dï> AgVmV. CXm. _mJUr, nwadR>m, qH$_Vr, ~mOmaì`dñWm, ñnYm© dJ¡ao. ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`mgmR>r `m
H$ënZm§Mm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo. Ë`mdê$Z ì`dñWmnH$ {ZU©` KoV AgVmo d ì`dgm`mer g§~§{YV ^{dî`H$mbrZ
YmoaUo R>a{dbr OmVmV. CXm. H$mJX H$maImÝ`mMm ì`dñWmnH$ _mJUr, CËnmXZmg§~§Yr H$go {ZU©` KoVmo d Ë`m~m~V
Amnbo ^{dî`H$mbrZ YmoaU H$go R>a{dVmo Vo nwT>rbà_mUo ñnï> H$aVm `oB©b.

df© XoemVJ©V CËnmXZ _mJUr


(000 Q>Z) (000 Q>Z)
1980-81 13.94 100
1981-82 16.90 100
1982-83 37.10 100
1983-84 43.30 100

7. According to the McNair and Meriam, "Managerial Economics Consists of the use of
economic modes of thought to analyse business situations."
8. M. H. Spencer and L. Siegelman expressed as "Managerial Economics is the integreation
of economic theory with business practice for the purpose of faciliating decision making and
forward planning."
9. E. T. Brigham and J. L. Pappas, "Managerial Economics is the application of economic
theory and methodology to business administration practice."

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gZ 1980-81 Vo 1983-84 `m Mma dfm©V XoemVrb H$mJXmMo CËnmXZ _mJUrnojm \$maM H$_r Amho,
Ë`m_wio H$mJX CËnmXZ dmT>dyZ Amnë`mbm _moR>çm à_mUmV Z\$m {_iob `mMm A§XmO ì`dñWmnH$mbm `oVmo.
Ë`m_wio Vmo CËnmXZ dmT>rMm {ZU©` KoVmo d ^{dî`mV {H$Vr CËnmXZ H$am`Mo `mg§~§YrMo {Z`moOZ H$aVmo. Aem
arVrZo _mJUr d CËnmXZmÀ`m {díbofUmdê$Z XoemV H$mJX Q>§MmB© Amho d ^{dî`mV XoIrb Vr amhmUma Amho `mMm
ì`dñWmnH$mbm A§XmO `oVmo d ^{dî`H$mbrZ H$mJX CËnmXZm~m~VMo YmoaU Vmo {Z{üV H$aVmo. Aem arVrZo
AW©emómVrb _mJUr, nwadR>m, CËnmXZ, Z\$m `m H$ënZm§Mm dmna H$ê$Z Vmo Amnë`m ì`dgm`mg§~§Yr {ZU©` KoV
AgVmo. `mbmM ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó Ago åhUVmV, H$s Á`m_Ü`o ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrbm AW©emór` H$ënZm
bmJy H$ê$Z {ZU©` KoVbo OmVmV.
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómÀ`m ì`m»`m§dê$Z Ë`mMr nwT>rb à_wI d¡{eï>ço d ñdê$n ñnï> hmoVo.
1. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó AW©ì`dñWoVrb {d{eï> KQ>H$m§Mm Aä`mg H$aVo, Ë`m_wio Vo gyú_bjr
AW©emómer {ZJS>rV AgVo.
2. VgoM, Vo amï´>r` CËnÞ, gaH$mar YmoaUo, Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnma, gmd©O{ZH$ Am`ì`` BË`mXr ñWyb KQ>H$m§er
XoIrb g§~§{YV Amho. Ë`m_wio Vo g_J«bjr AW©emómÀ`m H$joV `oVo.
Aem arVrZo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómÀ`m Aä`mgmV gyú_bjr d g_J«bjr AW©emómMm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
1.5 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr ì`már d ñdê$n :
CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m ì`dñWmnH$mbm Á`m Á`m àíZm§Zm Vmo§S> Úmdo bmJVo, Ë`m§À`mer g§~§{YV gd© Am{W©H$
KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómÀ`m ì`már_Ü`o hmoVmo. ho àíZ gyú_bjr AW©emó d g_J«bjr
AW©emó Aem XmoÝhr joÌmVrb AgVmV. `m àíZm§À`m gmoS>dUyH$sgmR>r Ë`m Ë`m joÌmVrb Am{W©H$ H$ënZm d
{gÕm§V Am{W©H$ {díbofUmgmR>r dmnabo OmVmV. `mn¡H$s H$moUË`m ^mJmMm dmna H$am`Mm, ho Ë`m àíZmÀ`m
ñdê$nmda Adb§~yZ AgVo. ì`mdgm{`H$ joÌmV OoWo Am{W©H$ {gÕm§V dmnabo OmVmV Ë`m joÌm§Mo dJuH$aU
XmoZ ^mJmV Ho$bo OmVo.
1. H$m`©H$mar qH$dm A§VJ©V ~m~r (Operational or Internal Issues)
2. n[apñWVrOÝ` qH$dm ~mø ~m~r (Environmental or External Issues)
1. H$m`©H$mar qH$dm A§VJ©V ~m~r (Operational or Internal Issues) :
ì`dñWmnH$mbm OmUdUmao H$mhr àíZ ho ì`dgm`mÀ`m A§VJ©V ~m~ter g§~§{YV AgVmV. åhUOo ho àíZ
ì`dgm`mVJªV {Z_m©U hmoUmao d ì`dñWmnH$mH$Sy>Z {Z`§{ÌV Ho$bo OmUmao AgVmV. CXm.
(1) dñVyÀ`m {ZdS>rMm àíZ, H$moUË`m dñVyMo CËnmXZ H$amd`mMo?
(2) V§ÌkmZmÀ`m {ZdS>rMm àíZ - åhUOo CËnmXZ H$go H$am`Mo? ^m§S>dbàYmZ H$s l_àYmZ V§Ì dmnam`Mo?

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(3) ^m§S>db-H$m_Jma à_mU {H$Vr R>odm`Mo?
(4) dñVyMr qH$_V {H$Vr AmH$mam`Mr?
(5) dñVyÀ`m {dH«$sMm àíZ - ñnY}bm Vm|S> H$go Úmd`mMo?
(6) ì`dgm`mVrb Jw§VdUyH$sMm àíZ - Jw§VdUyH$ {H$Vr d H$er H$am`Mr?
(7) Z\$m d ^m§S>dbmMo ì`dñWmnZ H$go H$am`Mo?
`mgmaIo àíZ ì`dñWmnH$mg_moa AgVmV Am{U Ë`mbm Ë`mMr gmoS>dUyH$ H$amdr bmJVo. ho àíZ
ì`dñWmnH$mbm ^{dî`H$mbrZ {Z`moOZmgmR>r XoIrb Cn`wŠV R>aVmV. ì`dgm`mV `eñdr hmoÊ`mgmR>r àË`oH$
ì`dñWmnH$mbm `m àíZm§Zm Vm|S> Úmdo bmJVo. ì`dñWmnH$ Am{W©H$ H$ënZm§À`m ghmæ`mZo `m àíZm§Mo {díbofU
H$ê$Z Vo gmoS>{dVmo d ì`dgm` `eñdr H$aÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$arV AgVmo.
ho gd© àíZ nwT>rb Am{W©H$ {gÕm§Vm§er g§~§{YV AgVmV.
(1) _mJUr {díbofU
(2) CËnmXZmMo {gÕm§V
(3) {d{Z_`mMo qH$dm _yë` {gÕm§V
(4) Z\$m{df`H$ {gÕm§V
(5) ^m§S>db-Jw§VdUyH$ {gÕm§V dJ¡ao.
ho {gÕm§V CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m A§VJ©V ~m~ter g§~§{YV AgVmV d Vo gyú_bjr AW©emómÀ`m H$joV `oVmV.
2. n[apñWVrOÝ` qH$dm ~mø ~m~r (Environmental or External Issues) :
Á`m n[apñWVrV CÚmoJ qH$dm ì`dgm` Mmb{dbm OmVmo Ë`mbm ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVr Ago åhUVmV.
Ë`m_Ü`o Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$ d amOH$s` n[apñWVtMm g_mdoe AgVmo. hr n[apñWVr ì`dgm`~mø AgVo qH$dm
Vr ì`dgm`~mø KQ>H$m§er g§~§{YV AgVo. `m n[apñWVrMm n[aUm_ ì`dgm`mda hmoVmo. AW©ì`dñWm ^m§S>dbemhr,
g_mOdmXr H$s {_l ñdê$nmMr Amho, Iwbr Amho H$s ~§{XñV Amho, Ë`mZwgma ì`dñWmnH$mbm Amnë`m ì`dgm`mMo
ì`dñWmnZ H$amdo bmJVo. AW©ì`dñWoVrb CËnmXZ, amoOJma, CËnÞ, qH$_Vr, ~MV-J§wVdUyH$ `m joÌm§Vrb
gd©gmYmaU n[apñWVr, ~±H$m, {dÎmr` g§ñWm, _hm_§S>io, Ë`m§Mr H$m`}, Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnmamMo ñdê$n d pñWVr,
l_ d ^m§S>db ~mOmamVrb pñWVr, gaH$maMr Am{W©H$ YmoaUo, Am¡Úmo{JH$ YmoaUo, _m¡{ÐH$ YmoaU, qH$_V{df`H$
YmoaU, gm_m{OH$ n[apñWVr, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm, J«mhH$ g§KQ>Zm dJ¡ao ~m~tMm g_mdoe Am{W©H$ n[apñWVrV hmoVmo.
amOH$s` n[apñWVrV XoemV bmoH$emhr, g_mOdmXr H$s hþHw$_emhr emgZàUmbr H$m`©aV Amho `mdê$Z ì`dñWmnH$
Ë`m Ë`m n[apñWVrer AZwê$n {ZU©` KoV AgVmo d ì`dgm`mg§~§Yr ^mdr YmoaUo R>a{dVmo. emgZmMm ImOJr
ì`mnma d ì`dgm` Am{U gmd©O{ZH$ joÌ `m~m~VMm Ñ{ï>H$moU, amOH$s` ñW¡`© dJ¡ao ~m~r {dMmamV KoD$Z Vmo
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{ZU©` KoV AgVmo. CXm. gaH$maMm ImOJr joÌm~m~VMm Ñ{ï>H$moU CXma Agob Va CÚmoOH$ _moR>çm à_mUmV
Jw§VdUyH$ H$ê$Z CÚmoJmMm {dñVma H$aVmV. `mCbQ> XoemV hþHw$_emhr gÎmm Agob d gaH$maMm Ñ{ï>H$moU
ImOJr joÌmbm nmofH$ Zgob Va CÚmoOH$ Jw§VdUyH$ H$_r H$aVmV. Aem arVrZo gaH$mar YmoaUm§Mm ì`dgm`mda
n[aUm_ hmoV AgVmo. Ë`m§Mm {dMma H$ê$ZM ì`dñWmnH$mbm {ZU©` ¿`mdo bmJVmV. `mgmR>r Ë`mbm g_J«bjr
AW©emómÀ`m H$ënZm Cn`wŠV R>aVmV. ì`dñWmnH$mbm OmUdUmao `m joÌmVrb àíZ g_J«bjr AW©emómer
g§~§{YV AgVmV. Vo g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWoer {ZJ{S>V AgVmV. VgoM Am§Vaamï´>r` n[apñWVrMmhr n[aUm_
ì`dgm`mda hmoV AgVmo. XoemMr Am`mV-{Z`m©V, Am§Vaamï´>r` ~mOmamVrb MT>CVma, _mJUr, {d{Z_` Xa,
naH$s` ^m§S>db dJ¡a|Mo ì`dgm`mda hmoUmao n[aUm_ {dMmamV ¿`mdo bmJVmV. Aem arVrZo g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWm
d Am§Vaamï´>r` joÌmVrb KS>m_moS>tMm {dMma ì`dñWmnH$mbm H$amdm bmJVmo. `m KQ>H$m§er g§§~§{YV àíZm§Mo
{díbofU g_J«bjr AW©emómÀ`m ghmæ`mZo Vmo H$arV AgVmo, Ë`m_Ü`o amï´>r` CËnÞ, amï´>r` CËnmXZ, Am{W©H$
{dH$mg d dmT>, Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnma, Am{W©H$ YmoaU, _m¡{ÐH$ YmoaU dJ¡a|er g§~§{YV {gÕm§Vm§Mm g_mdoe
hmoVmo.
Aem arVrZo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr ì`már gyú_bjr d g_J«bjr AW©emómn`ªV nmohmoMVo. ì`mdgm{`H$
AW©emó `m {df`mV nwT>rb {gÕm§V d VÎdm§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
1. _mJUr-{díbofU (Demand Analysis) : CÚmoJg§ñWobm Amnë`m dñVyÀ`m ~mOmamVrb _mJUrMm
{dMma H$amdm bmJVmo. Ë`mgmR>r AW©emómVrb _mJUr {díbofU d Ë`mg§~§{YV {gÕm§V {dMmamV KoVbo OmVmV.
_mJUrMm {gÕm§V Cn^moŠË`m§À`m dV©UyH$sg§~§Yr {díbofU XoVmo. Cn^moŠVm dñVyMr IaoXr H$er d {H$Vr qH$_Vrbm
H$aVmo, H$moR>o IaoXr Wm§~{dVmo `m~m~V {ddoMZ XoVmo. VgoM Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m AmdS>r-{ZdS>r, CËnÞ, qH$_V `m
KQ>H$m§V ~Xb Pmë`mg Ë`mMm _mJUrda H$m` n[aUm_ hmoVmo `mMo {díbofU hm {gÕm§V XoVmo. _mJUr {gÕm§VmÀ`m
ghmæ`mZo Amnë`m dñVyÀ`m _mJUrMm ~mOmamVrb ~amo~a A§XmO H$mTy>Z Vmo CËnmXZm~m~V {ZU©` KoVmo. VgoM
_mJUrda n[aUm_ H$aUmè`m BVa KQ>H$m§Mmhr {dMma Ë`mbm H$amdm bmJVmo. _mJUrÀ`m bd{MH$VoMm {dMma
H$ê$Z dñVyÀ`m _mJUrg§§~§Yr A§XmO dV©{dbo OmVmV. Aem arVrZo _mJUr {gÕm§VmMo kmZ ì`dñWmnH$mbm Cn`wŠV
R>aVo.
2. CËnmXZ {gÕm§V (Theory of Production) : CËnmXZ {gÕm§VmbmM CÚmoJg§ñWoMo {gÕm§V Ago
XoIrb åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o CÚmoJg§ñWoMm EHy$U IM©, gamgar IM©, gr_m§V IM©, EHy$U àmár, gamgar d gr_m§V
àmár `m§Mm Aä`mg AmVmo. {d{dY CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Vrb g§~§Y, AmXmZo-àXmZo `m_Yrb g§~§Y, ^m§S>db H$m_Jma
à_mU, n`m©á CËnmXZ à_mU `m§Mm Aä`mg AgVmo. `m g§H$ënZm ì`dñWmnH$mbm CËnmXZmg§~§{YV àíZm§Mr
gmoS>dUyH$ H$aÊ`mg Cn`wŠV R>aVmV.
3. IM©-{díbofU (Cost-Analysis) : ì`dñWmnH$ Vmo CËnmXZ H$arV Agboë`m dñVyÀ`m CËnmXZ
IMm©Mm {dMma H$arV AgVmo. CËnmXZ IM© {Z{üV H$aUo, IM©-CËnmXZ g§~§Y, VgoM IM© d Zâ`mg§~§YrMo
9
A§XmO dJ¡a|Mm Aä`mg ì`dñWmnH$mbm H$amdm bmJVmo. CËnmXZ IMm©Mo gImob kmZ d Ë`m§Mm ì`dhmamV Cn`moJ
H$aÊ`mÀ`m Hw$ebVoda CÚmoJg§ñWoMo `e Adb§~yZ AgVo.
4. _yë` {gÕm§V : qH$_VrÛmao CÚmoJg§ñWobm CËnÞ {_iV AgVo. CÚmoJg§ñWoMo `e {VÀ`m qH$_V{df`H$
YmoaUmV AgVo. doJdoJù`m ~mOmam§V åhUOo nyU©ñnYm©, _ŠVoXmar, _ŠVoXmar`wŠV ñnYm©, Aënm{YH$ma BË`mXt_Ü`o
dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr H$em R>aVmV, VgoM Ë`m§Mr qH$_V{df`H$ YmoaUo d A§XmO `m§Mr _m{hVr ì`dñWmnH$mbm Agmdr
bmJVo. {ZU©` à{H«$`oV Vr ì`dñWmnH$mbm Cn`wŠV R>aVo. Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r qH$_VrMo kmZ Amdí`H$ AgVo.
Ë`mgmR>r gyú_bjr AW©emór` _yë` {gÕm§V Cn`wŠV R>aVmV.
5. Z\$m{df`H$ {gÕm§V (Theory of Profit) : Z\$m {_i{dUo ho àË`oH$ CÚmoOH$mMo Ü`o` AgVo.
XrK©H$mimV Z\$m {_i{dUo ho `eñdr CÚmoJg§ñWoMo bjU AgVo. Z\$m AZoH$ KQ>H$m§da Adb§~yZ ~gVmo. Ë`m_Ü`o
CÚmoJg§ñWoMo A§VJ©V d ~møKQ>H$ g_m{dï> AgVmV. CXm. _mJUr, AmXmZm§À`m qH$_Vr, ñnYm©, CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m
qH$_Vr dJ¡ao. ì`dgm`mVrb YmoHo$ H$_r H$ê$Z Z\$m H$gm {_idmdm, Jw§VdUyH$sMm IM© H$gm H$_r H$amdm, `mo½`
Z\$m{df`H$ YmoaUm§Mr {ZdS>, Z\$m {Z`moOZmMr V§Ìo, Zâ`mMo ñdê$n d _moO_mn `m Jmoï>tMm g_mdoe Zâ`mÀ`m
ì`dñWmnZmV hmoVmo. `m gdmªMr _m{hVr ì`dñWmnH$mbm Agmdr bmJVo.
6. gmYZgm_J«rMo dmQ>n (Resource Allocation) : AW©emómV gmYZgm_J«rÀ`m dmQ>nmMm àíZ
_hÎdmMm AgVmo. ì`dñWmnH$mbm gmYZgm_J«rMo H$m`©j_ dmQ>n KS>dyZ AmUmdo bmJVo. ho H$arV AgVmZm
Ë`mbm gmYZgm_J«r dmQ>nmÀ`m àíZmbm Vm|S> Úmdo bmJVo. CËnmXZmgmR>r Amdí`H$ Agbobo ^m§S>db, l_,
^y_r, H$ƒm _mb dJ¡a|Mm g_mdoe gmYZgm_J«rV hmoVmo. hr gmYZo Xw{_©i na§Vw n`m©`r Cn`moJmMr AgVmV. n`m©á
CËnmXZ d Zâ`mgmR>r ^m§S>db Am{U l_m§Mo n`m©á à_mU H$moUVo, ho ì`dñWmnH$mbm emoYmdo bmJVo. Xw{_©i
gmYZm§Mm n`m©á dmna H$ê$Z Vmo CËnmXZ H$arV AgVmo. gmYZgm_J«r dmQ>nmMm àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r "AmXmZo-
àXmZo {díbofU' (Input-Output Analysis), "gaiaofr` {díbofU' (Linear Programming) `m§Mm dmna
H$amdm bmJVmo. `m gJù`m§Mr _m{hVr ì`dñWmnH$mbm Agbr nm{hOo. doJdoJù`m Cn`moJmV `m Xw{_©i gmYZm§Mo
dmQ>n H$go H$am`Mo? H$moUË`m Cn`moJmV Vr A{YH$ dmnam`Mr? d H$moR>o H$_r dmnam`Mr?- `mg§~§YrMo {ZU©`
ì`dñWmnH$mbm ¿`mdo bmJVmV.
7. ^m§S>db-Jw§VdUyH$ {díbofU (Capital-Investment Analysis) : ^m§S>db hm CÚmoJmMm _yb^yV
d Xw{_©i KQ>H$ AgVmo. ^m§S>dbmÀ`m CnbãYVoda CÚmoJY§ÚmMo AmH$ma_mZ Adb§~yZ AgVo. ^m§S>db C^maUrMo
_mJ©, ^m§S>dbmMo H$m`©j_ dmQ>n d ì`dñWmnZ, Jw§VdUyH$ àH$ënm§Mr {ZdS> H$aUo, ^m§S>dbmÀ`m bm^j_VoMo
_yë`_mnZ H$aUo, ^m§S>dbr A§XmOnÌH$, ^m§S>dbmMm IM© BË`mXt~m~VMm Aä`mg ^m§S>db-JwV§ dUyH$ {gÕm§Vm_Ü`o
AgVmo. ì`dñWmnH$mbm AW©nyU© {ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r `m ^m§S>db Jw§VdUyH$ {gÕm§VmMo kmZ AgUo Amdí`H$ AgVo.
Jw§VdUyH$ àH$ënm§Mr {ZdS> H$er H$am`Mr? Jw§VdUyH$ H$er, H$moR>o d {H$Vr H$am`Mr? Jw§VdUyH$sda Z\$m {H$Vr
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{_iob? {d{dY KQ>H$mV ^m§S>dbmMo H$m`©j_ dmQ>n H$go H$amd`mMo? ^m§S>dbmMm IM© H$_r H$gm H$am`Mm?
BË`mXr àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r ^m§S>db{df`H$ {gÕm§VmMo kmZ Cn`wŠV AgVo.
8. _mb gmR>m ì`dñWmnZ (Inventory Management) : CÚmoJg§ñWobm CËnmXZmgmR>r H$ÀÀ`m
_mbmMr Amdí`H$Vm AgVo, åhUyZ Ë`mMm gmR>m H$ê$Z R>odmdm bmJVmo. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMm AmXe© gmR>m {H$Vr
Agmdm H$s Á`m_wio _moR>çm à_mUmV ^m§S>db Jw§VyZ amhmUma Zmhr Am{U CÚmoJg§ñWobm H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr
Q>§MmB©hr ^mgUma Zmhr, hm àíZ ì`dñWmnH$mg_moa AgVmo. Ë`mgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmao H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m
gmR>çmMo {Z`§ÌU H$go H$amdo, Ë`mbm IM© H$_r H$gm H$amdm `mMo kmZ Ë`mbm H$ƒm _mb gmR>m ì`dñWmnZmVyZ
{_iVo.
9. Om{hamV~mOr (Advertising) : Amnbr dñVy bmoH${à` ìhmdr, {VÀ`m {dH«$sV dmT> ìhmdr åhUyZ
Om{hamV~mOrÀ`m {dH«$s nÕVrMm Adb§~ Ho$bm OmVmo. Om{hamVrda IM© {H$Vr H$amd`mMm, Om{hamV~mOrMo
CÚmoJg§ñWoda H$m` n[aUm_ hmoVmV, `m gdmªMm {dMma ì`dñWmnH$mbm H$amdm bmJVmo. Om{hamV~mOr hm {ZU©`
à{H«$`m d ^{dî`H$mbrZ {Z`moOZmMm EH$ ^mJ AgVo.
10. n[apñWVrOÝ` AWdm ~mø KQ>H$ (Environmental or External Issues) : CÚmoJg§ñWobm Á`m
ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrV d dmVmdaUmV H$m_ H$amdo bmJVo Ë`mg ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVr Ago åhUVmV. Ë`m_Ü`o
Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$, amOH$s` n[apñWVtMm g_mdoe hmoVmo. `m n[apñWVrer nwT>rb KQ>H$ g§~§{YV AgVmV.
AW©ì`dñWoMm àH$ma, amï´>r` CËnmXZ, amoOJma, qH$_Vr, ~MV d Jw§VdUyH$, ~±H$m, {dÎmr` g§ñWm, {d_m H§$nÝ`m,
Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnma, ^m§S>db d l_ ~mOmamMr pñWVr, gaH$maMr Am{W©H$ YmoaUo, _m¡{ÐH$ YmoaU, dJ¡ao. VgoM
gm_m{OH$ n[apñWVr, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm, J«mhH$ g§KQ>Zm dJ¡ao KQ>H$XoIrb `mV g_m{dï> AgVmV. `m gd© ~m~t
g_J«bjr AW©emómer {ZJS>rV AgVmV. Ë`m_wio ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómÀ`m ì`márV g_J«bjr AW©emómMm
g_mdoe hmoVmo. Aem arVrZo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emóm_Ü`o gyú_bjr d g_J«bjr AW©emómMo {gÕm§V d H$ënZm§Mm
g_mdoe hmoVmo.
1.6 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr d¡{eï>ço :
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ho {ZU©` à{H«$`m d ^{dî`H$mbrZ {Z`moOZmer g§~§{YV AgVo. Ë`m_Ü`o AW©emór`
{gÕm§VmMm dmna ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrÀ`m {díbofUmgmR>r Ho$bm OmVmo d ì`mdgm{`H$ àíZ gmoS>{dbo OmVmV.
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMm `m ñdê$nmdê$Z Ë`mMr nwT>rb d¡{eï>ço gm§JVm `oVmV.
1. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMo gyú_bjr ñdê$n CÚmoJg§ñWm d ì`dgm`mÀ`m {d{dY àíZm§er g§~§{YV
AgVo.
2. CÚmoJg§ñWoMo {gÕm§V, {d^mOZmMo Zâ`mda AmYm[aV {gÕm§V `m§À`mer Vo g§~§{YV AgVo.
3. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMm g_J«bjr ^mJ CÚmoJ d ì`dgm`mÀ`m n[apñWVrOÝ` àíZmer Vo {ZJS>rV
AgVmo. Ë`mMm dmna ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrÀ`m {díbofUmgmR>r Ho$bm OmVmo.
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ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó d AW©emó `mVrb \$aH$ :

ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó AW©emó

1. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómV AW©emómVrb 1. AW©emómV AW©emór` VÎdo d {gÕm§V


{gÕm§V d VÎdo `m§Mm Cn`moJ ì`dgm` d g_m{dï> AgVmV.
CÚmoJm§Mo àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r Ho$bm OmVmo.
2. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW© e mó gy ú _bjr 2. AW©emómbm gyú_bjr d g_J«bjr Aer
AW©emómda OmñV ^a XoVo Va g_J«bjr XmoÝhr d¡{eï>ço AgVmV, Ë`mMm Xmohmoda
AW©emómda H$_r ^a XoVo. gmaImM ^a AgVmo.

3. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW© e mómÀ`m gy ú _bjr 3. AW©emómVrb gyú_bjr ^mJmV ì`ŠVr d


^mJmV \$ŠV CÚmoJg§ñWoMm {dMma Ho$bm CÚmoJg§ñWm `m XmoÝhtMm {dMma Ho$bm OmVmo.
OmVmo, ì`ŠVrMm {dMma Ho$bm OmV Zmhr.
4. `m AW©emómVrb gyú_bjr ^mJ \$ŠV 4. AW© e mómVrb gy ú _bjr ^mJ
Zâ`mer g§~§{YV AgVmo. {d^mOZmÀ`m I§S>, ì`mO, doVZ d Z\$m
`m§À`mer g§~§{YV AgVmo.

1.7 {ZU©` à{H«$`m {gÕm§V d ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó :


(Theory of Decision-making and Business Economics) :
gZ 1950 Z§Va {ZU©` à{H«$`m {gÕm§V hm EH$ ZdrZ {df` {Z_m©U Pmbm. {ZU©` à{H«$`m {gÕm§V
ì`dñWmnH$mbm EH$mM doir AZoH$ C{Ôï>o H$er gmÜ` H$amdrV `mg§~§Yr _mJ©Xe©Z H$aVmV. ho {gÕm§V AW©emór`
{gÕm§Vm§nojm A{YH$ dmñVddmXr d bmJy nS>Umao AgVmV.
Aem arVrZo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó BVa {df`m§er g§~§{YV AgVo d Ë`m§Mm dmna Amnë`m ì`mdgm{`H$
{ZU©` à{H«$`oV H$arV AgVo.
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó d ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` à{H«$`m :
(Business Economics and Business Decisions) :
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómV ì`dñWmnH$ Amnbr C{Ôï>o gmÜ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r AW©emór` VÎdo, gmYZo d V§Ìo
`m§À`m ghmæ`mZo ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrMo {díbofU H$ê$Z, Ë`mdê$Z A§XmO ~m§YVmo d {ZU©` KoV AgVmo. {ZU©`

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KoUo ho ì`dñWmnH$mMo _hÎdmMo H$m`© AgVo, Vmo ì`dñWmnH$ à{H«$`oMm H|$Ðq~Xy AgVmo. {ZU©`mVrb AMyH$Voda
ì`mdgm{`H$ g§ñWoMo `e Adb§~yZ AgVo. ì`dñWmnH$mbm XaamoO AZoH$ {ZU©` ¿`mdo bmJVmV. ì`dñWmnH$ Oo
H$mhr H$arV AgVmo Vo {ZU©`mÀ`m _mÜ`_mVyZ H$arV AgVmo.
{ZU©` à{H«$`m åhUOo, ""EImXr H¥$Vr àË`j H$aÊ`mnydu KSy>Z `oUmao ~m¡{ÕH$ H$m`© hmo`.'' Aer {ZU©`
à{H«$`oMr ì`m»`m Ho$br OmVo. `mMm AW©, ì`dñWmnH$ EImXr ì`dgm`mg§~§YrMr H¥$Vr H$aÊ`mnydu Omo {dMma
H$arV AgVmo, Am{W©H$ Ñ{ï>H$moUmVyZ {d{dY KQ>H$m§Vrb g§~§Y VnmgyZ nmhV AgVmo Ë`mbm ~m¡{ÕH$ H$m`© Ago
åhUVmV. CXm. CËnmXZdmT>rMm {ZU©` KoÊ`mnydu ì`dñWmnH$ dñVyMr _mJUr, bmoH$m§Mo CËnÞ, Am`mV-{Z`m©V
dñVy§Mm nwadR>m, gaH$mar YmoaU, n`m©`r dñVy§Mr CnbãYVm `m§Mm {dMma H$arV AgVmo d Am{W©H$ {díbofUmVyZ
Ë`mbm `mo½` dmQ>ë`mg CËnmXZ dmT>rMm {ZU©` Vmo KoVmo. åhUyZ {ZU©` à{H«$`m åhUOo àË`j H¥$Vrnydu Ho$bo OmUmao
~m¡{ÕH$ H$m`© hmo`.
{ZU©` à{H«$`oÀ`m emómoŠV ì`m»`m nwT>rbà_mUo {Xë`m OmVmV.
(1) bwB©g A°bZÀ`m _Vo, ""{ZîH$f© qH$dm {ZdmS>çmàV `oÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnH$ H$arV Agbobo H$m`©
åhUOo {ZU©` à{H«$`m hmo`.''10
EImÚm ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`màV `oÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnH$mbm H$amdr bmJUmar H$m`} åhUOo {ZU©` à{H«$`m
hmo`, Agohr ì`m»`m ñnï> H$aVo.
(2) Om°O© Q>oarÀ`m _Vo, ""XmoZ qH$dm A{YH$ n`m©`m§VyZ H$mhr {ZH$fm§À`m AmYmamda EH$mMr {ZdS> H$aUo
åhUOo {ZU©` KoUo hmo`.''11
(3) S>r. B©. _°H$\$ab§S>À`m _Vo, ""doJdoJio n`m©` CnbãY AgVmZm {d{eï> n[apñWVrV H$m` H$am`Mo ho
R>adyZ `mo½` n`m©`mMr {ZdS> H$aUo åhUOo {ZU©` à{H«$`m hmo`.''12
darb ì`m»`m ì`dñWmnH$mbm Amnbo C{Ôï> gmÜ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r Oo AZoH$ n`m©`r _mJ© CnbãY AgVmV,
Ë`mn¡H$s `mo½` Aem EH$mMr {ZdS> H$aUo åhUOo {ZU©` KoUo Agm AW© ñnï> H$aVmV.

10. "Decision making is the work which a manager performs to arrive at conclusion and
judgement." - Louis A. Allen - 'Management and Organisation.'

11. "Decision making is the selection based on some criteria from two or more possible
alternatives." - George Terry - 'Principles of Management.'

12. "A decision is an act of choice wherein an executive forms a conclusion about what
must be done in a given situation. A decision represents behaviour chosen from a number of
possible alternatives." - D. E. MacFarland - 'Management, Principles and Practice.'

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(4) h~©Q>© gm`_ZÀ`m _Vo, ""{ZU©` KoUo `mV VrZ à_wI AdñWm g_m{dï> AgVmV; Ë`m åhUOo `mo½`
doioMr {ZdS> H$aUo, g§^mì` _mJ© emoYUo d Ë`mn¡H$s `mo½` _mJm©Mr {ZdS> H$aUo `m hmoV.''13
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$mbm H$er _XV H$aVo `m~m~V Zmo~ob nm[aVmo{fH$ {dOoVo h~©Q>© gm`_Z
åhUVmV, ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r `mo½` doioMr {ZdS> H$aUo, H¥$Vr H$aÊ`mgmR>r g§^mì` _mJ© emoYUo, {ZdS>
Ho$boë`m àË`oH$ H¥$VrnmgyZ {_iUmè`m CËnÞ d IMm©Mo _moO_mn H$aUo d CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m C{Ôï>nyVugmR>r AZoH$mVyZ
EH$m gdm}Îm_ H¥$VrMr {ZdS> H$aUo `m~m~V AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$mbm _XV H$aVo. ì`dñWmnH$mÀ`m {ZU©` à{H«$`oV,
CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZmV {dH«$s, Z\$m `m_Ü`o OmñVrV OmñV dmT> H$er H$am`Mr, CËnmXZIM© H$_rV H$_r H$gm
R>odm`Mm, `m n`m©áVm dV©UyH$sÀ`m g§X^m©V AW©emó _XV H$aVo. n`m©áVm pñWVr åhUOo OmñVrV OmñV (_hÎm_)
qH$dm H$_rV H$_r pñWVr hmo`. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómVrb n`m©áVm VÎd ì`dñWmnH$mbm CÚmoJg§ñWoMo CËnmXZ,
{dH«$s, IM©, Z\$m BË`mXr§~m~V {ZU©` KoÊ`mg _XV H$aVo.
Aem arVrZo {ZU©` KoUo åhUOo ì`dgm`mÀ`m C{Ôï>nyVugmR>r CnbãY Agboë`m AZoH$ n`m©`r _mJm©VyZ
EH$mMr {ZdS> H$aUo hmo`. {ZU©` KoUo hr ~m¡{ÕH$ à{H«$`m Amho. MMm© d {dMmamVyZ {ZU©` KoVbo OmVmV.
ì`dñWmnH$mbm XaamoO Ago AZoH$ {ZU©` ¿`mdo bmJVmV. H$mhr {ZU©` _yb^yV ñdê$nmMo Va H$mhr YmoaUmË_H$
AgVmV. {ZU©` à{H«$`oV ì`dñWmnH$ ì`mdgm{`H$ dmVmdaU d n[apñWVr Am{U CnbãY gmYZgm_J«r `m§Mm
{dMma H$arV AgVmo. {ZU©` doioV d AMyH$ Agmdo bmJVmV; AÝ`Wm Ë`mMm ì`dgm`mda à{VHy$b n[aUm_ hmoV
AgVmo. ì`mdgm{`H$ dmVmdaUmV XmoZ àH$maMo KQ>H$ n[aUm_ H$arV AgVmV. (1) A§VJ©V KQ>H$ d (2) ~mø
KQ>H$. A§VJ©V KQ>H$ CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m A§VJ©V ~m~ter g§~§{YV AgyZ Vo ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmV AgVmV. `m
A§VJ©V ~m~ter g§~{§ YV àíZ gyú_bjr AW©emómÀ`m H$joVrb AgVmV. ì`dñWmnH$ `m àíZm§À`m gmoS>dUwH$sgmR>r
gyú_bjr AW©emómMm dmna H$arV AgVmo. VgoM CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m ~mø n[apñWVrer g§~§{YV AgUmè`m àíZm§Mr
XoIrb gmoS>dUyH$ ì`dñWmnH$mbm H$amdr bmJVo, Vo àíZ ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmV ZgVmV. `m àíZm§À`m g§X^m©V
{ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnH$ g_J«bjr AW©emómMm dmna H$aVmo, H$maU Vo g_J«bjr AW©emómer {ZJ{S>V
AgVmV.
ì`dñWmnH$ `m ì`mdgm{`H$ àíZm§À`m g§X^m©V {ZU©` KoVmZm àW_ C{Ôï> {Z{üV H$aVmo, Ë`mMr ì`m»`m
H$aVmo, XoemVrb Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$, amOH$s` d Vm§{ÌH$ n[apñWVrMr _m{hVr KoD$Z `mo½` doioMr dmQ> nmhVmo d
`mo½` doir H¥$Vr H$ê$Z C{Ôï> nyU© H$aVmo. `m {ZU©` à{H«$`oV Vmo AW©emór` g§H$ënZm, {gÕm§V, VÎdo `m§Mm gmYZ
åhUyZ dmna H$arV AgVmo. AW©emór` {gÕm§VmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo doJdoJù`m KQ>H$m§Vrb g§~§Y ñnï> Ho$bo OmVmV d
Am{W©H$ KQ>H$m§Mo {díbofU Ho$bo OmVo. VgoM Am{W©H$ {gÕm§Vm_wio Am{W©H$ H$ënZm ñnï> hmoVmV. CXm. CËnmXZ

13. "Decision making comprises, three principle phases - Finding Occasions for making
decisions, finding possible courses of action and choosing among courses of action."
- Herbert Simon.

14
IM©, qH$_V, _mJUr, nwadR>m, ~mOma à{H«$`m dJ¡ao. Ë`mdê$Z ì`dgm`mer g§~§{YV Am{W©H$ KQ>H$m§Vrb g§~§Y
ñnï> hmoVmV. Ë`m_wio Am{W©H$ {díbofUmbm gwg§JVr àmá hmoD$Z Ë`mdê$Z ì`dñWmnH$ ~amo~a AZw_mZ H$mTy>Z
{ZîH$f© H$mT>Vmo d {ZU©` KoVmo. Aem arVrZo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$mbm Am{W©H$ {díbofUmgmR>r,
{ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r d àíZm§Mr gmoS>dUyH$ H$aÊ`mgmR>r _XV H$aVo. CXmhaUmW©,
(1) ^m§S>db C^maUrMm àíZ : CÚmoJmÀ`m C^maUrgmR>r qH$dm {dñVmamgmR>r ^m§S>dbmMr Amdí`H$Vm
AgVo. ì`dñWmnH$mg_moa hm ^m§S>db C^maUrMm àíZ Amho Ago _mZy. `m àíZm§À`m gmoS>dUyH$sgmR>r Ë`mÀ`mg_moa
nwT>rb n`m©`r _mJ© AmhoV. ~±Ho$H$S>yZ H$O© ¿`md`mMo? ^mJm§Mr {dH«$s H$ê$Z ^m§S>db C^o H$am`Mo? H$s ImOJr
gmdH$mamH$Sy>Z ¿`m`Mo? ~±Ho$Mm ì`mMm Xa 15%, ImOJr gmdH$mamMm 20%, Va ^mJ ^m§S>dbmda ì`mO Úmdo
bmJV Zmhr na§Vw ^m§S>db C^maUrgmR>r gwédmVrbm _moR>m IM© H$amdm bmJVmo. VgoM ~±Ho$H$Sy>Z H$O© {_iÊ`mg 6
_{hÝ`m§Mm H$mbmdYr bmJVmo, ^mJ {dH«$sÛmao ^m§S>db C^maUrgmR>r 1 _{hÝ`mMm H$mbmdYr bmJVmo, Va
gmdH$mamH$Sy>Z Ëd[aV ^m§S>db {_iVo. `mn¡H$s H$moUË`m n`m©`mMr {ZdS> H$am`Mr, `m~m~V ì`mdgm{`H$mbm
{ZU©` ¿`mdm bmJVmo. ~±H$mH$Sy>Z ^m§S>db ¿`m`Mo åhQ>ë`mg ì`mOXa _Ü`_ na§Vw H$mbmdYr OmñV, ^mJ^m§S>db
{dH«$sVyZ ^m§S>db Jmoim H$aÊ`mgmR>r ì`mO Zmhr na§Vw gwédmVrbm _moR>m IM©, ImOJr gmdH$mamH$Sy>Z ^m§S>db
¿`m`Mo Va ^m§S>dbmMr Ëd[aV CnbãYVm na§Vw ì`mOmMm Xa OmñV Aer n[apñWVr Amho. `m~m~V Vmo ì`mO,
Z\$m, ^m§S>db, H§$nÝ`mMr ^mJ {dH«$s `m AW©emómVrb H$ënZm§Mm dmna H$ê$Z H$_r IMm©V, `mo½` doir ^m§S>db
CnbãY hmoB©b Aem EH$m n`m©`mMr `m {VÝhrVyZ {ZdS> H$aVmo.
(2) dñVyÀ`m {ZdS>rMm àíZ : H$moUË`m dñVyMo CËnmXZ H$amdo, hm àíZ CÚmoOH$mbm ^oS>gmdVmo.
g_Om, ^maVmVrb H$mnyg d gwVr H$mnS>mbm naXoemV _moR>çm à_mUmV _mJUr Amho. H$mnyg IaoXr H$ê$Z {Z`m©V
Ho$ë`mg Ë`mbm 60 H$moQ>r én`o {_iVmV, Ë`mnmgyZ YmJm V`ma H$ê$Z Ë`mMr {Z`m©V Ho$ë`mg 119 H$moQ>r én`o
{_iVmV, Ë`mMo H$mnS> V`ma H$ê$Z {Z`m©V Ho$ë`mg 190 H$moQ>r én`o {_iVmV, Va H$mnS>mnmgyZ ao{S>_oS> H$nS>o
V`ma H$ê$Z {Z`m©V Ho$ë`mg 500 H$moQ>r én`o {_iVmV. Ë`m_wio ì`dñWmnH$mg_moa Agm àíZ nS>Vmo H$s, H$moUË`m
dñVyMr {ZdS> H$am`Mr? H$mnyg IaoXr H$ê$Z Vmo {Z`m©V H$am`Mm, Ë`mnmgyZ YmJm V`ma H$ê$Z Vmo {Z`m©V H$am`Mm,
H$mnS> V`ma H$ê$Z Vo {Z`m©V H$am`Mo, H$s ao{S>_oS> H$nS>o V`ma H$ê$Z {Z`m©V H$am`Mo? Ë`mÀ`m g_moa ho Mma n`m©`
AmhoV. Vmo AW©emómVrb _mJUr, Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnma, Am`mV-{Z`m©V, H$a dJ¡ao§Mm {dMma H$ê$Z Ë`mbm `mo½`
dmQ>ob Ë`m darbn¡H$s EH$m n`m©`mMr {ZdS> H$aVmo.
3) CËnmXZmg§~§YrMm {ZU©` : CËnmXZ {H$Vr H$am`Mo? gZ 1994-96 `m XmoZ dfm©V ^maVmVrb
gmIaoMo CËnmXZ AZwH«$_o 145 d 160 bj Q>Z BVHo$ Pmbo. Ë`mn¡H$s Xoem§VJ©V Cn^moJmgmR>r AZwH«$_o 118 d
125 bj Q>Z gmIa bmJbr d 1995-96 `m dfm©V 10 bj Q>Z gmIa {Z`m©V Ho$br. Var XoIrb 1994-95
`m dfm©Vrb 27 bj Q>Z d 1995-96 `m dfm©Vrb 25 bj Q>Z Aer EHy$U 52 bj Q>Z gmIa XoemV {e„H$
am{hbr. åhUOo gmIaoMo A{V[aŠV CËnmXZ Pmbo. `m n[apñWVrV gmIa H$maImÝ`mÀ`m ì`dñWmnH$mg_moa Agm
15
àíZ nS>Vmo H$s CËnmXZ dmT>dm`Mo? Amho Vo Mmby R>do m`Mo? H$s H$_r H$am`Mo? CËnmXZ dmT>{dbo Va qH$_Vr H$_r
Pmë`mZo VmoQ>m hmoVmo; Mmby Amho Vo H$m`_ R>do bo Var gmIaoÀ`m qH$_Vr H$_r Pmë`mZo VmoQ>m hmoVmo; H$_r Ho$bo Va CËnÞ
H$_r hmoD$Z VmoQ>m hmoVmo. AmVm `mn¡H$s H$moUVm n`m©` {ZdS>m`Mm hm àíZ ì`dñWmnH$mbm nS>Vmo. ì`dñWmnH$ XoemVrb
gmIa CËnmXZ, Ë`m§À`m qH$_Vr, _mJUr, {Z`m©V, Am§Vaamï´>r` ~mOmanoR>Vo rb gmIaoMr _mJUr, BVa Xoem§H$Sy>Z VoWo
hmoUmam nwadR>m, Am§Vaamï´>r` ~mOmamVrb gmIaoÀ`m {H§$_Vr `m§Mm Aä`mg H$aVmo. AW©emór` H$ënZm§À`m ghmæ`mZo
Ë`m§Mo {díbofU H$ê$Z H$_rV H$_r VmoQ>m H$gm hmoBb © `mgmR>r darbn¡H$s EH$m _mJm©Mm Adb§~ H$aVmo.
Aem arVrZo ì`dgm`mgm§~§YrMo {ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r AW©emómMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó
d ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` `m XmohmoV {ZH$Q>Mo g§~§Y AgVmV.
1.8 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr d¡{eï>ço (Features of Business Economics) :
ì`dñWmnH$mbm ì`dgm` Mmb{dVmZm ì`dgm`mer {ZJS>rV A§VJ©V àíZ d ~mø àíZm§Zm Vm|S> Úmdo bmJVo.
A§VJ©V àíZ gyú_bjr AW©emómer Va ~mø àíZ g_J«bjr AW©emómer g§~§{YV AgVmV.
1. gyú_bjr AW©emó (Micro-Economics) :
gyú_bjr AW©emómbmM A§ebjr AW©emó Ago XoIrb åhUVmV. gyú_bjr AW©emó AW©ì`dñWoVrb
Ho$di EH$m KQ>H$mMm Aä`mg H$aVo (Study of a Unit), g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWoMm Aä`mg H$arV Zmhr. ho AW©emó
AW©ì`dñWoVrb gyú_ KQ>H$m§Mm qH$dm A§emMm Aä`mg H$aVo. åhUOoM ho AW©ì`dñWoVrb bhmZmV bhmZ
KQ>H$m§Mm Aä`mg H$aUmao emó Amho. CXm. EImXr CÚmoJg§ñWm, Cn^moŠVm, {d{eï> qH$_V, doVZ, ì`{ŠVJV
CËnÞ, Z\$m, {d{eï> CÚmoJ dJ¡ao.
gyú_bjr AW©emómMr ì`m»`m nwT>rbà_mUo {Xbr OmVo, ""gyú_bjr AW©emó åhUOo ì`{ŠVJV KQ>H$
qH$dm bhmZmV bhmZ JQ>m§À`m Am{W©H$ dmJUwH$sMm Aä`mg hmo`.''14 `mMm AW© gyú_bjr AW©emómV
AW©ì`dñWoVrb EImÚm KQ>H$ qH$dm bhmZ JQ>mMm Aä`mg AgVmo. {d{eï> KQ>H$, {d{eï> JQ>, {d{eï> CÚmoJ
`m§Mm Aä`mg H$ê$Z {ZîH$f© H$mT>bo OmVmV. EImXm Cn^moŠVm ~mOmamV dñVyMr IaoXr H$er H$aVmo, EImXr
CÚmoJg§ñWm H$er H$m`© H$aVo qH$dm {d{eï> CÚmoJ, CËnmXZ, qH$_V, {dH«$s, Z\$m `m~m~V H$go {ZU©` KoVmo, Aem
ì`{ŠVJV JQ>m§Mm qH$dm KQ>H$m§Mm Aä`mg gyú_bjr AW©emó H$aVo. CXm. _hmamï´>mVrb ghH$mar gmIa
H$maImÝ`mn¡H$s A§~m ghH$mar gmIa H$maImZm {H$Vr gmIaoMo CËnmXZ H$aVmo, Ë`mMm CËnmXZ IM© {H$Vr, Ë`m
H$maImÝ`mMm gmIa CVmam {H$Vr, `m H$maImÝ`mVrb doVZ, Z\$m, {H$Vr Amho `mMm Aä`mg åhUOo gyú_bjr
AW©emó hmo`. _hmamï´>mVrb AZoH$ ghH$mar gmIa H$maImÝ`mn¡H$s Vmo EH$ H$maImZm Amho; åhUyZ gyú_bjr
AW©emó åhUOo AW©ì`dñWoVrb AZoH$ KQ>H$m§n¡H$s EH$m KQ>H$mMm Aä`mg hmo`.

14. "Micro Economics is the study of the economic actions of individuals and small groups
of Individuals."

16
Aem àH$mao gyú_bjr AW©emómV `m KQ>H$m§À`m g§~§Yr g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWoMm Aä`mg ZgyZ d¡`{ŠVH$
KQ>H$m§Mm Aä`mg AgVmo; EImÚm CÚmoJg§ñWoMo CËnÞ, Z\$m, qH$_Vr, CËnmXZ, doVZ, _mJUr, {dH«$s dJ¡ao
KQ>H$m§Mm Aä`mg AgVmo. gyú_bjr AW©emómV g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWoMm Aä`mg ZgyZ AW©ì`dñWoÀ`m EImÚm
KQ>H$mMm Aä`mg AgVmo, `m~m~V àmo. ~mopëS>¨J åhUVmV, ""O§JbmVrb AZoH$ PmS>m§n¡H$s EH$m PmS>mMm Aä`mg
åhUOo gyú_bjr AW©emó hmo`.''
gyú_bjr AW©emómÀ`m ghmæ`mZo AW©ì`dñWm H$er H$m`© H$aVo Vo g_OVo. VgoM Am{W©H$ YmoaUo
R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r Am{W©H$ {díbofUmMr gmYZo nwa{dVo. CXm. ~mOma `§ÌUm, qH$_V `§ÌUm dJ¡ao gyú_ AW©emómV
g_m{dï> AgVmV. Ë`mdê$Z qH$_V {H$Vr AmH$mam`Mr Vo R>a{dbo OmVo. gmYZgm_J«rÀ`m H$m`©j_ dmQ>nmgmR>r,
H$_mb CËnmXZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r, Cn^moŠË`mMr _mJUr R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r, dñVyMm CËnmXZ IM© H$mT>Ê`mgmR>r, {d{dY
H$a{df`H$ _m{hVrgmR>r gaH$mar YmoaUmMo dñVyMr qH$_V d doVZ `mdarb n[aUm_ d ^{dî`H$mbrZ A§XmO
R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r Cn`wŠV AgVo.
Aem arVrZo gyú_bjr AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$mbm CÚmoJg§ñWoMo A§VJ©V àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
CËnmXZ H$emMo, H$moR>o, {H$Vr, H$go d H$moUmgmR>r H$am`Mo, ho Oo n«íZ ì`dñWmnH$mg_moa AgVmV, Vo gyú_bjr
AW©emómVrb _mJUr, CËnmXZ, qH$_V, Z\$m, ^m§S>db, Jw§VdUyH$ dJ¡ao {gÕm§Vmer {ZJS>rV AgVmV. gyú_bjr
AW©emómMm dmna H$ê$Z ì`dñWmnH$ ho àíZ gmoS>drV AgVmo. Aem arVrZo CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m A§VJ©V ~m~ter
g§~§{YV AgUmao àíZ gyú_bjr AW©emómÀ`m H$joV `oVmV. ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` à{H«$`oV gyú_bjr AW©emómMm
dmna H$ê$Z ì`dgm`mg§~§Yr dV©_mZ d ^{dî`H$mbrZ {ZU©` KoVbo OmVmV.
2. g_J«bjr AW©emó (Macro-Economics) :
g_J«bjr AW©emómbmM g_yh AW©emó Agohr åhUVmV, H$maU g_J«bjr AW©emómV g_yhmMm qH$dm
JQ>mMm Aä`mg (Study of Group) Ho$bm OmVmo. g_J«bjr AW©emómMr ì`m»`m nwT>rbà_mUo {Xbr OmVo.
""g_J«bjr AW©emó AW©ì`dñWoVrb EHy$Um§Mm qH$dm gamgatMm Aä`mg H$aVo.''15
àmo. ~mopëS>¨JÀ`m _Vo, g_J«bjr AW©emó ì`{ŠVJV KQ>H$m§Mr MMm© H$arV Zmhr Va gm_y{hH$ KQ>H$m§Mr
MMm© H$aVo. d¡`{ŠVH$ CËnÞmEodOr amï´>r` CËnÞ, {d{eï> qH$_VrEodOr gd©gmYmaU qH$_V nmVir, d¡`{ŠVH$
CËnmXZmEodOr amï´>r` CËnmXZmMr MMm© H$aVo. Aem arVrZo g_J«bjr AW©emó AW©ì`dñWoVrb EHy$U CËnmXZ,
EHy$U amoOJma, amï´>r` CËnÞ, EHy$U Jw§VdUyH$, EHy$U Cn^moJ, EHy$U ~MV, EHy$U _mJUr d nwadR>m,
AW©ì`dñWoVrb doVZ nmVir, EHy$U IM© `m§Mm Aä`mg H$aVo. Xwgè`m ^mfoV, ho AW©emó g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWoer
{ZJ{S>V {d{dY KQ>H$m§Mm Aä`mg H$aVo d Ë`m§À`mVrb g§~§Y ñnï> H$aVo.

15.. "Macro Economic is the study of aggregates or averages covering the entire
economy."

17
àmo. A°ŠboÀ`m _Vo, g_J«bjr AW©emó Am{W©H$ ~m~tMm ì`má d Am{W©H$ OrdZmMm gdmªJrU {dMma
H$aVo. åhUOo g_J«bjr AW©emó AW©ì`dñWoVrb ì`{ŠVJQ> KQ>H$m§EodOr g_y{hH$ KQ>H$m§Mm {dMma H$aVo.
EImXr CÚmoJg§ñWm EImXm J«mhH$, qH$dm {d{eï> KQ>H$ `m§Mm Aä`mg Z H$aVm, AW©ì`dñWoVrb gd© KQ>H$, gd©
J«mhH$, gd© CÚmoJg§ñWm, gd© CÚmoJY§Xo `mMm Aä`mg H$aVo. WmoS>Š`mV, ~mopëS>¨J åhUVmV Ë`mà_mUo g_J«bjr
AW©emó åhUOo O§JbmVrb EImÚm PmS>mMm Aä`mg Zìho Va g§nyU© O§JbmMm Aä`mg hmo`. `m AW©emómV
AW©ì`dñWoVrb amï´>r` CËnÞ, amï´>r` CËnmXZ, EHy$U amoOJma, ~oH$mar, ^mddmT>, ^mdKQ>, ì`mnma MH«$o , Am§Vaamï´>r`
ì`mnma, Am{W©H$ dmT> d {dH$mg, gmd©O{ZH$ Am`-ì``, gaH$mar YmoaUo BË`mXter g§~§{YV AgVo.
ì`dñWmnH$mbm g_J«bjr AW©emómÀ`m joÌmVrb àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mg Vo Cn`wŠV R>aVo. ì`dgm` Mmb{dVmZm
CÚmoJg§ñWobm ~mø qH$dm n[apñWVrOÝ` àíZm§Zm Vm|S> Úmdo bmJVo. `m ~m~r ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmV ZgVmV.
CÚmoJg§ñWm H$m`© H$arV Agboë`m AW©ì`dñWoVrb Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$ d amOH$s` n[apñWVrer g§~§{YV H$mhr
àíZ AgVmV. Ë`m_Ü`o Jw§VdUyH$, CËnmXZ, amoOJma, qH$_Vr, Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnma, gaH$mar YmoaUo, amOH$s`
ñW¡`©, AW©ì`dñWoVrb Cn^moJmMr pñWVr `m§Mm {dMma H$amdm bmJVmo. CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m H$m`m©da ho KQ>H$ n[aUm_
H$arV AgVmV. Ë`m_wio ì`dgm`mg§~§Yr {d{eï> {ZU©` KoÊ`mnydu ì`dñWmnH$ ho KQ>H$ {dMmamV KoV AgVmo.
Ë`m~amo~aM Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`mnmamVrb n[apñWVr {dMmamV KoVbr OmVo. XoemMr Am`mV-{Z`m©V, Am§Vaamï´>r`
~mOmamVrb MT>-CVma, {d{Z_` Xa, naH$s` ^m§S>db, Jw§VdUyH$ BË`mXr KQ>H$m§Mm Ë`mÀ`m ì`dgm`mda n[aUm_
hmoV AgVmo. åhUyZ ì`dñWmnH$mbm `m KQ>H$m§Mr _m{hVr AgUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. Amnë`m ì`dgm`m~m~m~V
KoVboë`m {ZU©`mda gaH$mar YmoaUm§Mm H$m` n[aUm_ hmoB©b `mMm {dMma ì`dñWmnH$mbm H$amdm bmJVmo d Ë`mZwgma
ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` ¿`mdo bmJVmV. ho gd© KQ>H$ g_J«bjr AW©emómÀ`m H$joV `oVmV. `m KQ>H$m§À`m Aä`mgmdê$Z
ì`dñWmnH$mbm g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWoMo g§MmbZ H$go hmoVo Vo g_OVo. ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` à{H«$`oV Vo ì`dñWmnH$mbm
Cn`wŠV R>aVmV.
1.9 ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó - Cnm``moOH$ emó
(Bridges the gap between theoretical Economics or Prescriptive Science) :
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ho Am{W©H$ àíZm§gmR>r Cnm``moOZm gwM{dUmao emñÌ Amho. S>m°ŠQ>a Ogm EImÚm
amoJmda Am¡fY `moOZm gwMdyZ amoJ Zmhrgm H$aVmo, VgoM AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$mbm {d{dY Am{W©H$ àíZm§da
Cnm``moOZm gwMdyZ Vo àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mg _XV H$aVo. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ì`dñWmnH$mbm {d{dY Am{W©H$
g§H$ënZm, {gÕm§V d gmYZm§Mm nwadR>m H$aVo. Ë`m§À`m ghmæ`mZo ì`dñWmnH$ Am{W©H$ KQ>H$m§Mo {díbofU H$aVmo d
{d{eï> {ZîH$fm©àV nmohmoMVmo. AW©emó Am{W©H$ àíZm§À`m gmoS>dUwH$sgmR>r XmoZ àH$maMr Vm{H©$H$ V§Ìo nwa{dVo.
(1) n`m©áVm VÎd d (2) g_VmobmMo VÎd. n`m©áVm VÎdmMm Cn`moJ ì`dñWmnH$mbm Ë`mÀ`m {ZU©` à{H«$`oV hmoV
AgVmo. CXm. dñVyMo CËnmXZ {H$Vr H$amdo, hm àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r gyú_bjr AW©emómVrb CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m
g_Vmobmdê$Z ì`dñWmnH$mbm g_OVo H$s Á`m {R>H$mUr CÚmoJg§ñWoMo gr_m§V àmár d gr_m§V IM© g_mZ hmoVmV,

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Ë`m q~Xybm CËnmXH$mbm OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m hmoV AgVmo. åhUyZ Omon`ªV gràm d grI g_mZ hmoV ZmhrV Vmon`ªV
Vmo CËnmXZ dmT{dV OmVmo. Á`m {R>H$mUr XmoÝhr g_mZ hmoVmV Ë`m {R>H$mUr CËnmXZ dmT> Wm§~{dVmo. ho CËnmXZ n`m©á
CËnmXZ AgVo H$maU Ë`m CËnmXZmbm Ë`mbm OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m {_iVmo. `m CËnmXZmgmR>r Omo gamgar CËnmXZ
IM© `oVmo Ë`mMm {dMma H$ê$Z Vmo qH$_V R>a{dVmo d Z\$m {_i{dVmo. Aem arVrZo n`m©á CËnmXZ H$go H$am`Mo?
OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m H$moUË`m CËnmXZ q~Xybm {_iob? ho ì`dñWmnH$mbm CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m g_Vmobmdê$Z g_OVo.
CËnmXZ {H$Vr H$am`Mo `m n«íZmMo CÎma Vmo emoYyZ H$mT>Vmo.

grI gI
H$
n gàm/gràm/qH$

g_Vmob
qH$_V

A ~ j
CËnmXZ

`m AmH¥$VrV, grI = gr_m§V IM© dH«$, gI = gamgar IM© dH«$, gàm = gamgar àmár dH«$, Va gràm =
gr_m§V àmár dH«$ Xe©{dbo AmhoV d Ë`m§À`m ghmæ`mZo nyU©ñnY}À`m ~mOmamVrb CÚmoJg§ñWoMm g_Vmob Xe©{dbm
Amho. AmH¥$VrV "H$' q~XyV grI dH«$ gràm dH«$mbm ImbÀ`m {XeoZo N>oXy>Z da OmVmo. Ë`m_wio "H$' hm g_Vmob
q~Xy {Z_m©U hmoVmo. `m g_Vmobmbm CÚmoJg§ñWm "A~' BVHo$ CËnmXZ H$aVo d "An' qH$_V AmH$mê$Z n`m©á Z\$m
{_i{dVo. `mMm AW© "A~' ho n`m©á CËnmXZ Amho. Ë`mnwT>o CËnmXZ Ho$ë`mg grI hm gràm nojm OmñV hmoVmo
Ë`m_wio CÚmoJg§ñWobm VmoQ>m hmoVmo. åhUyZ ì`dñWmnH$ `m n[apñWVrV "A~' EdT>o CËnmXZ H$aÊ`mMm {ZU©` KoVmo.
Aem arVrZo CËnmXZ {H$Vr H$am`Mo, `m n«íZmMo CÎma ì`dñWmnH$mbm AW©emómVrb CÚmoJg§ñWoMm g_Vmob `m
g§H$ënZodê$Z {_iVmo.
AW©emómMo XmoZ àH$ma AmhoV. g¡Õm§{VH$ qH$dm dmñVddmXr AW©emó (Positive Economics) d
AmXe©dmXr qH$dm H$ë`mUH$mar AW©emó (Normative Economics). g¡Õm§VrH$ AW©emó AW©emómMo _yb^yV
{Z`_, VÎdo d {gÕm§V ñnï> H$aVo, Va AmXe©dmXr AW©emó {d{eï> àíZm§Mr gmoS>dUyH$ H$er H$amdr ho g_OÊ`mg
Cn`wŠV AgVo. Ë`mdê$Z Am{W©H$ YmoaUo R>a{dbr OmVmV, åhUyZ Vo ì`dñWmnH$mbm Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
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CXm. "_mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm' hr H$ënZm CËnmXH$mbm dñVyMr qH$_V {H$Vr AmH$mam`Mr, `m àíZmMo CÎma
emoYÊ`mg Cn`wŠV R>aVo. g_Om, CËnmXH$ CËnmXZ H$arV Agboë`m dñVyMr _mJUr bd{MH$ Agob Va CËnmXH$mbm
Ë`mÀ`m dñVyMr OmñV qH$_V AmH$maVm `oV Zmhr. H$maU Ë`mZo qH$_V dmT>{dë`mg Ë`mÀ`m dñVyMr _mJUr H$_r
hmoD$Z Ë`mMo ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b. VgoM Ë`mÀ`m dñVybm ~mOmamV n`m©`r dñVy CnbãY Agë`mg J«mhH$ Ë`m n`m©`r
dñVy§Mr IaoXr H$aVrb d qH$_V dmT>{dë`m_wio n{hë`m CËnmXH$mÀ`m dñVyMr _mJUr H$_r H$aVrb. n`m©`mZo
CËnmXH$mMm VmoQ>mM hmoB©b. CXm. "agZm erV no`.' agZm `m erV no`mbm ~mOmamV JmoëS>ñnm°Q>, {b_H$m, {H$gmZ
ñH°$me BË`mXr AZoH$ n`m©`r no`o CnbãY AmhoV. g_Om, agZm CËnmXH$mZo Amnë`m no`mMr qH$_V dmT>{dbr
Am{U BVa no`m§À`m qH$_Vr nydr© BVŠ`mM H$m`_ AgVrb Va bmoH$ agZmEodOr BVa no`m§Mr IaoXr H$aVrb.
n[aUm_r, agZmMr _mJUr H$_r hmoB©b d CËnmXH$mMo ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b. H$maU agZm no`mMr _mJUr bd{MH$ Amho
d Ë`m no`mbm ~mOmamV n`m©`r no`o CnbãY AmhoV. åhUyZ agZm CËnmXH$mbm Amnë`m no`mMr qH$_V àM{bV
qH$_Vrnojm dmT>{dVm `oUma Zmhr. `m àH$maMo AZw_mZ CËnmXH$mbm AW©emómVrb _mJUrÀ`m bd{MH$Vodê$Z
H$mT>Vm `oVo. Amnë`m dñVyMr qH$_V {H$Vr AmH$mam`Mr, `m àíZmMo CÎma CËnmXH$mbm _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm `m
g§H$ënZodê$Z emoYyZ H$mT>Vm `oVo.
VgoM ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó gaH$maMo Am{W©H$ YmoaU, H$a{df`H$ YmoaU, ~±H$m§Mo nVnwadR>m YmoaU, Am`mV-
{Z`m©V YmoaU BË`mXr gaH$mar YmoaUo g_OyZ KoÊ`mgmR>r Cn`wŠV R>aVo. gaH$mZo Amnë`m Am{W©H$ YmoaUmV CËnmXZ
H$a H$_r Ho$ë`mg CËnmXZ CËnmXZ dmT>dyZ A{YH$ Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aVmo. CËnmXZ H$a H$_r Pmë`m_wio
Vmo dñVyMr {H§$_V H$_r H$aVmo. Ë`m_wio _mJUr dmTy>Z Ë`mÀ`m dñVyMr {dH«$s dmT>Vo d Ë`mbm Z\$m hmoVmo.
~±H$m§Zr ì`mOXa H$_r Ho$ë`mg CËnmXH$ ~±H$m§H$Sy>Z ^m§S>db KoD$Z ì`dgm`mVrb Jw§VdUyH$ dmT>{dVmo.
CÚmoJmMm {dñVma H$ê$Z CËnmXZ dmT>{dVmo. VgoM gaH$maZo dñVydarb {Z`m©VH$a H$_r H$ê$Z Am`mVH$amV dmT>
Ho$ë`mg CËnmXH$mbm dñVyÀ`m qH$_Vr H$_r hmoD$Z Xoem§VJ©V d naXoer ~mOmanoR>oVrb _mJUr dmT>Uma Amho `mMm
A§XmO `oVmo. `m n[apñWVrMm bm^ {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r Vmo CËnmXZ dmT>rMm {ZU©` KoVmo d Z\$m dmT>{dÊ`mMm à`ËZ
H$aVmo. Aem arVrZo ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómVrb g§H$ënZm, VÎdo d {gÕm§V ì`dñWmnH$mbm {ZU©` à{H«$`m d
^{dî`H$mbrZ YmoaUo R>a{dÊ`mg Cn`wŠV R>aVmV.
ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ho ì`mdhm[aH$ AW©emó Amho. Vo gyú_bjr d g_J«bjr AW©emór` H$ënZm§Mm
dmna ì`dhmamV H$ê$Z ì`dñWmnH$mbm CËnmXZ {H$Vr, H$moR>o, H$go d H$moUmgmR>r H$am`Mo, hm àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r
g¡Õm§{VH$ VÎdo d H$ënZm§Mm nwadR>m H$aVo. `m H$ënZm d {gÕm§V àË`j ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrbm bmJy H$aÊ`mgmR>r
g§»`memó, J{UV, H$m`© g§emoYZ, ì`dñWmnZ {gÕm§V, g§JUH$emó dJ¡ao {df`m§Mr _XV KoVo. Ë`mdê$Z
ì`mdgm{`H$ àíZm§Mo {díbofU H$ê$Z {ZU©` KoVbo OmVmV d Cnm``moOZm gwM{dë`m OmVmV. CXm. g§»`memómVrb
AmboI, gamgar H$mT>Uo, _m{hVr g§H$bZ, {VMo {díbofU, ghg§~§Y, à{VJ_Z, {ZX}em§H$, H$mbgmaUr dJ¡ao
H$ënZm dmnaë`m OmVmV, Va J{UVmVrb gaiaofr` nÕVr, Jo_ {WAar, {Û{_Vr` ^y{_Vr, \$bZ, KmVm§H$,
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dJ©g_rH$aUo, ghg_rH$aUo dJ¡a|Mm Cn`moJ H$ê$Z Am{W©H$ {gÕm§VmMo {díbofU H$ê$Z Vo ì`mdgm{`H$ n[apñWVrbm
bmJy Ho$bo OmVmV d Ë`mdê$Z {ZU©` KoD$Z ì`dñWmnH$ Amnë`m ì`dgm`mgm§~§Yr ^{dî`H$mbrZ YmoaUo R>a{dVmo.
Aem arVrZo ho emó {d{dY ì`mdgm{`H$ àíZm§da Cnm``moOZm emoYyZ H$mT>Vo. åhUyZ ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómbm
Cnm``moOZm gwM{dUmao emó Ago åhUVmV. Vo g¡Õm§{VH$ AW©emó d ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` `m§Zm OmoS>Umam Xwdm
Amho.
1.10 _hÎm_ Z\$m-CÚmoJg§ñWoMo EH$ C{Ôï>
(Profit Maximization - A Goal of Business Firm) :
OwÝ`m qH$dm nma§n[aH$ {dMmagUrZwgma CÚmoJg§ñWm hr EH$ Am{W©H$ g§ñWm AgyZ OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m {_i{dUo
ho {VMo EH$_od C{Ôï> AgVo, Ago _mZbo OmV hmoV.o na§Vw AmYw{ZH$ AW©emók ~mopëS>J§ , ~m°_mob, àmo. {hJrÝg², {Q>~a
{gQ>mìo hñH$s, _obdrZ [aS>a, nrQ>a S´>H$a, àmo. Omob S>rZ dJ¡aÀ| ` _Vo CÚmoJg§ñWoMo _hÎm_ Z\$m {_i{dUo EdT>o EH$M
C{Ôï> ZgVo, Va Ë`m~amo~aM _hÎm_ {dH«$s dmT>, _hÎm_ CËnÞ {_i{dUo, H$_mb {dH$mg Xa amIUo, nwae o r amoIVm
R>do Uo, ~mOmamV {Q>H$y Z amhUo, Zmdbm¡{H$H$ àñWm{nV H$aUo BË`mXr C{Ôï>o XoIrb CÚmoJg§ñWoMr AgVmV.
CÚmoJg§ñWm åhUOo EH$ qH$dm AZoH$ ì`ŠVr AgVmV, Vo {VÀ`mg§~§Yr CËnmXZ, {dH«$s, Z\$m dJ¡ao~m~V
{ZU©` KoV AgVmV. Ë`m_Ü`o OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mg§~§Yr {ZU©` KoVbm OmVmo. Z\$m {_i{dUo ho
CÚmoJg§ñWoMo à_wI C{Ôï> AgVo. Z\$m XmoZ àH$maMm AgVmo (1) gd©gmYmaU Z\$m d (2) A{V[aŠV Z\$m.
gd©gmYmaU Z\$m CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZIMm©VM g_m{dï> AgVmo, Vmo CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm _mo~Xbm AgVmo. Va
A{V[aŠV Z\$m _hÎm_ Zâ`mÀ`m VÎdmer {ZJ{S>V AgVmo. _hÎm_ Z\$m åhUOo A{V[aŠV Z\$m hmo`, Vmo gamgar
CËnmXZ IMm©nojm OmñV AgUmar {e„H$ AgVmo. åhUOo CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m gamgar CËnmXZ IMm©nojm OmñV {_iUmao
CËnÞ åhUOo A{V[aŠV Z\$m hmo`. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo _mo~Xbo d ì`dñWmnH$mMo doVZ {Xë`mZ§Va {eëbH$ amhUmè`m
CËnÞmbm A{V[aŠV Z\$m åhQ>bo OmVo. `mMm AW© CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m gd©gmYmaU Zâ`mnojm OmñV AgUmao CËnÞ
åhUOo _hÎm_ Z\$m hmo`. Ë`mbmM OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m qH$dm H$_mb Z\$m Agohr åhUVmV. _hÎm_ Z\$m åhUOo
CËnmXH$mbm AënH$mi d XrK©H$mimV {_iUmar OmñVrV OmñV _moR>r a¸$_ hmo`. AënH$mi hm H$_r H$mbmdYr
Agë`m_wio CËnmXH$mbm dñVyÀ`m nwadR>çmV Vm~S>Vmo~ ~Xb H$aVm `oV Zmhr. qH$_Vr dmT>ë`mg _mJUrÀ`m
à_mUmV CËnmXZ dmT>{dVm `oV Zmhr. na§Vw XrK©H$mimV _mÌ _mJUrÀ`m à_mUmV nwadR>m dmT>{dVm `oVmo d dmT>rd
qH$_VrMm bm^ KoVm `oVmo. H$maU XrK©H$mi hm _moR>m H$mbmdYr Agë`m_wio CÚmoJg§ñWm ^m§S>db d CËnmXZ
gmYZgm_J«r Jmoim H$ê$Z Amnbm {dñVma H$aVo, CËnmXZ dmT>{dVo d ~mOmamVrb Amnë`m dñVyMm nwadR>m dmT>{dVo.
CÚmoJg§ñWoMm _hÎm_ Z\$m hm CËnmXZ d qH$_V `m XmoZ KQ>H$m§da Adb§~yZ AgVmo. nyU©ñnY}V ~mOmamV
AZoH$ CÚmoJg§ñWm AgVmV. `m ~mOmamV dñVyMr qH$_V dñVyÀ`m _mJUr d nwadR>çmdê$Z R>aVo. d¡`{ŠVH$
CÚmoJg§ñWobm nyUñ© nY}À`m ~mOmamV qH$_V R>a{dVm `oV Zmhr. nyUñ© nY}V d¡`{ŠVH$ CËnmXZg§ñWm "qH$_V R>a{dUmar'
ZgVo Va "qH$_V KoUmar' AgVo. Ë`m_wio nyU©ñnY}À`m ~mOmamV ì`{ŠVJV CÚmoJg§ñWm ~mOmamV ApñVËdmV
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AgUmè`m qH$_Vrbm OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aVo. ~mOmamV AnyUñ© nYm© Agob Va CÚmoJg§ñWm§Mr
g§»`m H$_r AgVo. Ë`m_wio àË`oH$ CÚmoJg§ñWoMm qH$_Vrda H$mhr à_mUmV à^md AgVmo. `m ~mOmamV CÚmoJg§ñWm
"qH$_V emoYUmar' AgVo. H$moUË`m qH$_Vrbm Amnë`mbm OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m hmoB©b Ë`mMm emoY Vr KoV AgVo.
`m àH$maMr n[apñWVr _ŠVoXmar, _ŠVoXmar`wŠV ñnYm©, Aënm{YH$ma BË`mXr ~mOmamV AmT>iyZ `oVo.
doJdoJù`m ~mOmamV CÚmoJg§ñWm qH$_V d CËnmXZ `m Xmohm|À`m g_Ýd`mVyZ _hÎm_ Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mMm
à`ËZ H$arV AgVmV. CÚmoJg§ñWoMm _hÎm_ Z\$m hm A{V[aŠV Zâ`mer g§~§{YV AgVmo. Á`m CËnmXZ d qH$_VrÀ`m
g_Vmobmbm CÚmoJg§ñWobm A{V[aŠV Z\$m {_iVmo Ë`mbmM _hÎm_ Zâ`mMr AdñWm Ago åhUVmV. CÚmoJg§ñWoMr
hr pñWVr XmoZ nÕVrZo XmI{dVm `oVo.
(1) EHy$U àmár d EHy$U IM© nÕVr
(2) gr_m§V àmár d gr_m§V IM© nÕVr.
1. EHy$U àmár d EHy$U IM© nÕVr (Total Revenue and Total Cost) :
`m nÕVrV CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m EHy$U CËnÞ d EHy$U IMm©Mm {dMma Ho$bm OmVmo. EHy$U CËnÞmbmM EHy$U
àmár Ago åhUVmV. EHy$U CËnmXZmbm qH$_VrZo JwUbo AgVm EHy$U àmár `oVo, Va EHy$U CËnmXZmbm gamgar
IMm©Zo JwUë`mg EHy$U IM© `oVmo. EHy$U IMm©nojm EHy$U àmár _moR>r Agë`mg Z\$m hmoVmo. Ë`m_wio EHy$U Z\$m
= EHy$U àmár - EHy$U IM©. hm Z\$m CËnmXZmÀ`m Á`m q~Xybm OmñVrV OmñV AgVmo, Ë`m {R>H$mUr CÚmoJg§ñWoMm
g_Vmob gmYbm OmVmo d Ë`m {R>H$mUr gr_m§V IM© d gr_m§V àmár XmoÝhr g_mZ AgVmV. CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m _hÎm_
Zâ`mMr hr AdñWm AmH¥$VrV XmI{dbr Amho.
I
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n
S>
EHy$U IM©/àmár

H$

A ~ j
CËnmXZ

AmH¥$VrV EHy$U àmárdH«$ d EHy$U IM©dH«$mÀ`m ghmæ`mZo CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m _hÎm_ Zâ`mMr AdñWm XmI{dbr
Amho. "An' hm EHy$U àmßVr dH«$ Amho Vmo S>mdrH$Sy>Z COdrH$S>o da OmVmo, H$maU CËnmXZg§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZmV
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OgOer dmT> hmoV OmVo, VgVer {VÀ`m EHy$U àmárV dmT> hmoVo. "AI' hm EHy$U IM©dH«$ Amho. Vmo XoIrb
S>mdrH$Sy>Z COdrH$S>o da OmUma Amho. Aem arVrZo XmoÝhr dH«$ da OmUmao AgVmV. EHy$U àmárdH«$ daÀ`m
~mOybm Va EHy$U IM©dH«$ ImbÀ`m ~mOybm Amho. H$maU CÚmoJg§ñWoMr gamgar àmár hr gamgar IMm©nojm
OmñV AgVo. gwédmVrbm CÚmoJg§ñWm H$m`©j_VoZo CËnmXZ H$arV AgVo. Ë`m_wio Vr CËnmXZ OgOgo dmT>{dV
OmVo VgVgm {VMm gr_m§V IM© KQ>V OmVmo. na§Vw CËnmXZmÀ`m EH$m {d{eï> AdñWoZ§Va CÚmoJ g§ñWoMr H$m`©j_Vm
KQ>Vo d CËnmXZmV KQ>Ë`m \$bmMm {gÕm§V àË``mbm `oVmo. Ë`m_wio EH$m {d{eï> q~XyZ§Va gr_m§V IM© dmT>V
OmVmo. Ë`m_wio gwédmVrbm EHy$U àmárdH«$ "An' d EHy$U IM©dH«$ "AI' `m XmohmoVrb A§Va dmT>V OmVo d EH$m
{d{eï> q~XyZ§Va Vo H$_r hmoV OmVo. Ë`m_wio AmH¥$Vrbm H$_imÀ`m nmH$irgmaIm AmH$ma `oVmo.
AmH¥$VrV Á`m {R>H$mUr EHy$U àmárdH«$ "An' d EHy$U IM©dH«$ "AI' `m XmohmoVrb A§Va OmñVrV OmñV
Amho, Ë`m {R>H$mUr CÚmoJg§ñWobm _hÎm Z\$m {_iVmo. hr AdñWm A~ `m CËnmXZ q~Xybm `oVo. A~ CËnmXZmbm
"~H$' hm EHy$U IM© Va "~S>' EHy$U àmár Amho. `m {R>H$mUr ~S> - ~H$ = H$S> BVH$m Z\$m hmoVmo. AmH¥$VrV
"An' d "AI' `m XmoZ dH«$mVrb A§Va A~ `m CËnmXZmbm OmñVrV OmñV Amho; åhUyZ Ë`m {R>H$mUr {_iUmam
H$S> hm Z\$m _hÎm_ qH$dm OmñVrV OmñV Amho.
VgoM An dH«$mbm S> q~XyV EH$ ñne©aofm H$mT>br Amho d AI dH«$mbm H$ q~XyV VerM ñne©aofm H$mT>br
Amho. `m XmoÝhr ñne© aofm§Mm CVma (Slope) gmaImM qH$dm g_mZ Amho. Ë`m_wio "A~' CËnmXZmbm gr_m§V àmár
d gr_m§V IM© XmoÝhr g_mZ (gràm = grI) hmoVmV. åhUyZ A~ CËnmXZ q~Xybm CÚmoJg§ñWobm OmñVrV OmñV
Z\$m {_iVmo. Aem arVrZo Á`m {R>H$mUr EHy$U àmárdH«$ d EHy$U IM©dH«$mVrb A§Va OmñVrV OmñV AgVo, Ë`m
{R>H$mUr CÚmoJg§ñWobm _hÎm_ Z\$m {_iVmo.
EHy$U IM© d EHy$U àmár `m§À`m ghmæ`mZo _hÎm_ Zâ`mMo ñnï>rH$aU nwT>rb CXmhaUmdê$Z XoVm `oVo.

CËnmXZ qH$_V/gàm EHy$U gr_m§V gamgar EHy$U gr_m§V


ZJ àmár àmár IM© IM© IM©
1 20 20 - 10 10 -
2 18 36 16 9 18 8
3 14 42 6 8 24 6
4 12 48 6 8 32 8
5 10 50 2 9 45 13

CÚmoJg§ñWm OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r dñVy§À`m {dH«$sV dmT> H$aVo, Ë`mgmR>r qH$_V H$_r H$aVo.

23
`m VŠË`mV dñVyMo CËnmXZ, Ë`mÀ`m qH$_Vr, EHy$U ì`már, EHy$U IM©, gamgar IM©, gr_m§V IM©, gr_m§V àmár
XmI{dbr Amho. CÚmoJg§ñWm Amnbo CËnmXZ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ZJ dmT>{dV OmVo, Ë`mMr {dH«$s ìhmdr åhUyZ
qH$_V AZwH«$_o 20, 18, 14, 12 d 10 é. Aer H$_rVH$_r H$arV OmVo. Ë`m_wio CËnmXZ OgOgo dmT>V OmVo
VgVer dñVyÀ`m {dH«$snmgyZ {Vbm AZwH«$_o 20, 36, 42, 48, 50 é. Aer EHy$U àmár {_iVo.
dñVyÀ`m CËnmXZmMm gamgar IM© 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 `m CËnmXZmÀ`m ZJmbm AZwH«$_o 10, 9, 8, 8 d 9 é.
Agm `oVmo. CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m H$m`©j_ ì`dñWmnZm_wio IM© gwédmVrbm H$_r hmoV OmVmo. na§Vw CËnmXZmÀ`m EH$m
{d{eï> AdñWoZ§Va Vmo dmT>V OmVmo. H$maU CËnmXZg§ñWobm AmVm _moR>çm CËnmXZmMo VmoQ>o OmUdy bmJVmV.
n[aUm_r, {VMr H$m`©j_Vm H$_r hmoVo. Ë`m_wio gamgar IM© {Vgè`m dñVy§À`m CËnmXZmZ§Va dmT>V OmVmo. gamgar
IM© gwédmVrbm KQ>Vmo d nwÝhm Vmo dmT>Vmo, Ë`m_wio gr_m§V IM© XoIrb gwédmVrbm KQ>V OmVmo d {Vgè`m dñVyÀ`m
CËnmXZmZ§Va dmT>V OmVmo.
dñVyÀ`m `m CËnmXZ à{H«$`oV, CÚmoJg§ñWm Ooìhm 3 dñVy§Mo CËnmXZ H$aVo Voìhm EHy$U àmár d EHy$U IM© `m
XmohmoVrb A§Va gdm©V OmñV Amho, åhUOo Vo 18 é. BVHo$ Amho. `mMm AW© CÚmoJg§ñWobm EHy$U IMm©nojm EHy$U
àmárÀ`m énmZo 18 é. A{YH$ dmT>mdm {_iVmo. Aem arVrZo 3 dñVy§À`m CËnmXZmbm CÚmoJg§ñWobm OmñVrV OmñV
Z\$m {_iVmo. VgoM Ë`m CËnmXZmbm CÚmoJg§ñWoMo gr_m§V IM© d gr_m§V àmár XoIrb g_mZ hmoVmV. Ë`m_wio 3 `m
CËnmXZ ZJ g§»`obm CÚmoJg§ñWoMm g_Vmob gmYbm OmVmo d {Vbm OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m {_iVmo.
2. gr_m§V IM© d gr_m§V àmár {díbofU nÕVr :
(Marginal Cost and Marginal Revenue Analysis) :

`m nÕVrV CÚmoJg§ñWoMm g_Vmob gr_m§V IM© d gr_m§V àmárdH«$mÀ`m ghmæ`mZo gmYbm OmVmo. `m g_Vmob
q~Xybm AgUmè`m CËnmXZmÀ`m ZJ g§»`obm CÚmoJg§ñWobm OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m hmoVmo. CÚmoJg§ñWobm g_Vmob
àñWm{nV H$aÊ`mgmR>r XmoZ AQ>tMr nyV©Vm H$amdr bmJVo. (1) Amdí`H$ AQ> d (2) Xwæ`_ AQ>. Amdí`H$
AQ>r_Ü`o grI d gràm XmoÝhr g_mZ (MC = MR) Agbr nm{hOo. Va Xwæ`_ AQ>r_Ü`o grI dH«$mZo gràm dH«$mbm
ImbÀ`m {XeoZo N>oXyZ da Jobo nm{hOo. `mMm AW© gràm dH«$ KQ>Vm Agmdm d grI dH«$ dmT>Ë`m ñdê$nmMm Agbm
nm{hOo. `m XmoÝhr AQ>tMr nyV©Vm Á`m {R>H$mUr hmoVo, Ë`m {R>H$mUr CÚmoJg§ñWoMm g_Vmob gmYbm OmD$Z {Vbm
OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m hmoVmo. Omon`ªV CÚmoJg§ñWoMr gr_m§V àmár gr_m§V IMm©nojm OmñV AgVo Vmon`ªV CËnmXZ
dmT>{dbo OmVo; Á`m {R>H$mUr gr_m§V àmár d gr_m§V IM© g_mZ hmoVmV Ë`m {R>H$mUr CËnmXZ dmT> Wm§~{dbr OmVo.
H$maU nwT>o CËnmXZ Mmby R>odë`mg gr_m§V IM© gr_m§V àmárnojm OmñV hmoV OmVmo. Ë`m_wio CÚmoJg§ñWobm VmoQ>m
hmoVmo. Xwgè`m eãXmV, Omon`ªV {dH$ë`m OmUmè`m gr_m§V ZJmnmgyZ {_iUmao CËnÞ Ë`m§À`m CËnmXZ IMm©nojm
OmñV AgVo, Vmon`ªV CËnmXZ dmT>{dbo OmVo, Ë`m {R>H$mUr XmoÝhr g_mZ hmoVmV Ë`m {R>H$mUr CËnmXZ g§ñWobm
"_hÎm_ Z\$m' hmoVmo.

24
CÚmoJg§ñWoMm _hÎm_ Zâ`mMm hm g_Vmob AmH¥$VrÀ`m ghmæ`mZo nwT>rbà_mUo ñnï> Ho$bm Amho.

grI gI
_hÎm_ Z\$m a
n
` gàm
\$
àmár/ IM©

gràm

A ~ j
CËnmXZ

j-Ajmda CËnmXZ d `-Ajmda àmár d IM© Xe©{dbo AmhoV. AmH¥$VrV "g' q~XyV, "grI' dH«$ "gràm'
dH«$mbm ImbÀ`m {XeoZo N>oXyZ da OmVmo. Ë`m_wio "g' q~XyV CÚmoJg§ñWoMm g_Vmob {Z_m©U hmoD$Z "A~' `m
CËnmXZmbm "n\$`a' `m Mm¡H$moZmBVH$m Z\$m hmoVmo. Vmo _hÎm_ Z\$m AgVmo. "g' q~XyÀ`m nwT>o CËnmXZ Ho$ë`mg grI
hm gràm nojm OmñV hmoVmo. Ë`m_wio "A~' `m CËnmXZmnojm OmñV CËnmXZ Ho$ë`mg CÚmoJg§ñWobm VmoQ>m hmoVmo.
åhUyZ "A~' hr CËnmXZmMr CƒV_ nmVir R>aVo. "gàm' dH«$ CÚmoJg§ñWoMr gamgar àmár Xe©{dVmo Va "gràm' hm
dH«$ gr_m§V àmár Xe©{dVmo.
darb ñnï>rH$aU nwT>rb H$mën{ZH$ CXmhaUmdê$Z ñnï> hmoVo.

CËnmXZ qH$_V/gàm EHy$U gr_m§V gamgar EHy$U gr_m§V


ZJ àmár àmár IM© IM© IM©
1 15 15 - 7 7 -
2 12 24 9 6 12 5
3 9 27 3 5 15 3
4 7 28 1 5.50 22 7

25
CÚmoJg§ñWm OgOgo CËnmXZ dmT>{dVo VgVer {VMr EHy$U àmár d EHy$U IM© XoIrb dmT>V OmVmo.
{Vgè`m ZJmÀ`m CËnmXZmbm {VMr gr_m§V àmár d gr_m§V IM© g_mZ hmoVmV. Ë`m {R>H$mUr CÚmoJ g§ñWobm
OmñVrV OmñV Z\$m {_iVmo. åhUyZ dñVyÀ`m VrZ ZJm§Mo CËnmXZ H$ê$Z CËnmXZ g§ñWm _hÎm_ Z\$m {_idob.
Aem arVrZo CÚmoJg§ñWm Eàm d EI Am{U grI d gràm `m§À`m ghmæ`mZo _hÎm_ Z\$m {_i{dVmV.
1.11 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX :
ì`dgm` : H$m`©_¾ AdñWm
A§VJ©V KQ>H$ : ì`dgm`mer {ZJS>rV AgUmao d ì`dñWmnH$mH$Sy>Z {Z`§{ÌV hmoUmao KQ>H$
~mø KQ>H$ : Oo KQ>H$ CÚmoJg§ñWm d ì`dñWmnH$ `m§À`m {Z`§ÌUmV ZgVmV
Z\$m : IM© dOm OmVm {e„H$ amhUmar a¸$_
ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` : àË`j H¥$Vr nydu Ho$bo OmUmao ~m¡{ÕH$ H$m`©
1.12 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ :
Imbrb dmŠ`o MyH$ H$s ~amo~a Vo {bhm.
1. ì`ŠVrMr AH$m`©_¾ pñWVr åhUOo ì`dgm` hmo`.
2. dm{UÁ`H$ H¥$Vr hr ì`dgm`mMm EH$ ^mJ Amho.
3. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ho Ho$di g¡Õm§{VH$ emó Amho.
4. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó ho Cn`moOH$ emó Amho.
5. ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`à{H«$`m hr ~m¡{ÕH$ {H«$`m Zmhr.
6. gm_m{OH$ H$ë`mU gmÜ` H$aUo ho CÚmoJg§ñWoMo _w»` C{Ôï> AgVo.
CÎmao :
1. MyH$ 2. ~amo~a 3. MyH$ 4. ~amo~a 5. MyH$ 6. MyH$
1.13 gamdmgmR>r ñdmÜ`m` :
(A) XrKm}Îmar àíZ.
1. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr g§H$ënZm {dfX H$am.
2. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMo ñdê$n ñnï> H$am.
3. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr ì`már ñnï> H$am.
4. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó Am{U ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`à{H«$`m `mVrb g§~§Y ñnï> H$am.
5. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emómMr à_wI d¡{eï>o {bhm.
6. CÚmoJg§ñWm _hÎm_ Z\$m H$gm {_i{dVo Vo ñnï> H$am.
26
(~) Q>rnm {bhm.
1. ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó d ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`
2. gyú_ AW©emó
3. ñWyb AW©emó
4. _hÎm_ Z\$m CÚmoJg§ñWoMo EH$ C{Ôï>
1.14 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$ :
1. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo> : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
A{OV npãbHo$eÝg², Bñbm_nya, {O. gm§Jbr
2. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo : "ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó'
_ohVm npãbqeJ hmD$g, nwUo 30
3. àm. am_ Xoe_wI : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
4. H. L. Ahuja : "Modern Economic Theory"
5. M. L. Seth : "Principles of Economics"
6. K. K. Dewtt : "Modern Economic Theory"
7. Dr. M. N. Shinde : "Managerial Economics"
8. D. Gopalkrishana : "Managerial Economics"
9. O. M. Agarwal and : "Business Economics"
R. Narayan

³³³

27
gÌ - 1 : KQ>H$ 2
_mJUr \$bZ
(Demand Function)

2.1 C{Ôï>ço
2.2 àmñVm{dH$
2.3 _mJUrMr g§H$ënZm
2.4 _mJUrMo àH$ma
2.5 _mJUr \$b
2.6 _mJUrMm {Z`_
2.7 _mJUrMm {dñVma d g§H$moM
2.8 _mJUrVrb dmT> d KQ>
2.9 _mJUrV ~Xb KS>{dUmao KQ>H$
2.10 dñVy§Mo àH$ma
2.11 _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm
2.12 qH$_V bd{MH$VoMo _mnZ
2.13 _mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm
2.14 _mJUrMr N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm
2.15 gmam§e
2.16 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX

28

~r. H$m°_. ^mJ 1


ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó
2.17 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ
2.18 gamdmgmR>r ñdmÜ`m`
2.19 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$

2.1 C{Ôï>ço :
1. _mJUrMr g§H$ënZm g_OyZ KoUo.
2. _mJUrMo ñdê$n Aä`mgUo.
3. dñVy§Mo àH$ma Aä`mgUo.
4. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hr g§H$ënZm g_OyZ KoUo.
2.2 àmñVm{dH$ :
Amnë`m Zoh_rÀ`m ì`dhmamV AmnU _mJUr hm eãX AZoH$ AWm©Zo dmnaV AgVmo. na§Vw AW©emómV
_mJUr `m eãXmbm ì`mnH$ AW© Amho. Amnë`m JaOm dñVyMr CnbãYVm IaoXrgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmam n¡gm
Aem AZoH$ KQ>H$m§er _mJUrMm g§~§Y `oV AgVmo. qH$_VrVrb ~Xbm§Mo _mJUrda {d{dY n[aUm_ hmoV AgVmV,
åhUyZ qH$_V d _mJUrVrb nañna à_mUera g§~§YmMmhr Aä`mg H$aUo Amdí`H$ R>aVo. Ë`m AZwf§JmZo AmnU
`m KQ>H$m_Ü`o _mJUr \$bZmMm Aä`mg H$aUma AmhmoV.
2.3 _mJUrMr g§H$ënZm (Concept of Demand) :
Amnë`m X¡Z{§ XZ OrdZmV Á`m {d{dY JaOm AgVmV Ë`m§À`m nyVV© go mR>r AZoH$ dñVyM
§ r JaO AgVo. `mgmR>rM
àË`oH$ ì`ŠVr AZoH$ dñVy§Mr IaoXr H$aV AgVo. àË`oH$mbm AZoH$ dñVy§À`m IaoXrMr BÀN>m AgVo. na§Vw Ho$di
BÀXm AgyZ MmbV Zmhr H$maU BÀN>obm _mJUr åhUVm `oV Zmhr. H$moUVrhr dñVy IaoXr H$aÊ`mgmR>r ì`ŠVrMr Or
BÀN>m AgVo Ë`m BÀN>obm Am{W©H$ Hw$dVrMo nmR>~i Agmdo bmJVo. `mMm AW© Agm hmoVmo H$s ì`ŠVrbm EImXr
JaO nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r Or dñVy Amdí`H$ AgVo, Vr dñVy IaoXr H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m ì`ŠVrMr BÀN>m Agbr nm{hOo
Am{U _hÎdmMo åhUOo Aem dñVyMr IaoXr H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`mÀ`mH$S>o Amdí`H$ {VVHo$ n¡go Agbo nm{hOoV. Aem
àH$mao ì`ŠVrbm JaOm nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r Á`m dñVy§Mr Amdí`H$Vm AgVo Ë`m§À`m IaoXrgmR>rÀ`m BÀN>obm Am{W©H$
nmR>~i Agob VaM Ë`mMo ê$nm§Va _mJUr_Ü`o hmoD$ eH$Vo. `mdê$Z Ago åhUVm `oVo H$s _mJUr åhUOo dñVy
IaoXrgmR>r BÀN>obm Agbobo n¡emMo Am{W©H$ nmR>~i hmo`.
Amnë`m XaamoOÀ`m ì`dhmamV AmnU AZoH$ dñVy d godm§Mr _mJUr H$aV AgVmo. AÞYmÝ`, Mhm, gmIa,

29
^mOrnmbm, XyY, KaJwVr dmnamÀ`m {d{dY dñVy, embo` gm{hË`, H$nS>o, ImÚnXmW© `mgma»`m dñVy§Mr _mJUr
H$aV AgVmo. AWm©V, gwédmVrbm AmnU `m§À`m IaoXrgmR>rMr BÀXm ì`ŠV H$aVmo Am{U Oa Amnë`mH$S>o n¡go
CnbãY Pmbo Va Ë`m§Mr IaoXr H$aVmo åhUOoM BÀN>obm Am{W©H$ nmR>~i {_imbo VaM Ë`mMo ê$nm§Va _mJUrV
hmoVo. `m ì`mnH$ AWm©Zo _mJUrbm AW©emómV _hÎdmMo ñWmZ Amho. ghO ~mobr ^mfoV dmnabm OmUmam _mJUr
hm eãX doJim AgVmo Am{U AW©emómVrb _mJUr hm eãX doJim AgVmo. AW©emómVrb eãXmbm Am{W©H$
Hw$dVrMo nmR>~i A{^àoV AgVo. `mAZwf§JmZo AW©emómV _mJUrÀ`m ì`m»`m {d{dY AW©emókm§Zr Ho$boë`m
AmhoV.
1. ñQ>mo{Z`a d hoJ - ""_mJUr åhUOo {Vbm n¡emMo nwaogo nmR>~i bm^bobo AgVo Aem dñVy§Mr Ho$bobr
_mJUr hmo`.''
2. ~oZh°_ - ""dñVyMr _mJUr åhUOo {d{eï> doiobm, {d{eï> qH$_Vrbm IaoXr Ho$br OmUmar dñVy§Mr
ZJg§»`m hmo`.''
3. ~m°~a - ""Cn^moŠVm ~mOmamV {d{eï> doiobm doJdoJù`m qH$_Vrbm qH$dm doJdoJù`m CËnÞ nmVù`m§Zm
dñVy§Mo Oo {d{dY ZJ IaoXr H$aVmo Ë`mg _mJUr Ago åhUVmV.''
4. ""Á`m _mZ{gH$ BÀN>obm Am{W©H$ eŠVrMo nmR>~i AgVo Ë`mbm _mJUr Ago åhUVmV.''
_mJUrÀ`m g§H$ënZoV doiobm _hÎd Amho. hr doi EH$ Vmg, EH$ {Xdg, EH$ AmR>dS>m, EH$ _{hZm qH$dm
A{YH$ df} Aem ñdê$nmV Agy eH$Vo. `m ì`m»`m§dê$Z Ago ñnï> hmoVo H$s, _mJUrer H$m§hr à_wI KQ>H$m§Mm
g§~§Y `oV AgVmo. Vo KQ>H$ åhUOo ì`ŠVrMo CËnÞ, dñVyMr qH$_V, n`m©`r d nyaH$ dñVy, VgoM dñVy CnbãY
hmoÊ`mMm H$mbmdYr dJ¡ao hmoV. gm_mÝ`V: `mdê$ZM _mJUrMo àH$ma nS>V AgVmV.
2.4 _mJUrMo àH$ma (Types of Demand) :
1. qH$_V _mJUr (Price Demand) : dñVyMr qH$_V Am{U _mJUr `m_Yrb g§~§Y {H§$_V _mJUrÛmao
Xe©{dbm OmVmo. {d{eï> doiobm doJdoJù`m qH$_VtZm Ho$bobr _mJUr `m qH$_V _mJUrÛmao Xe©{dbr OmVo. BVa
n[apñWVr H$m`_ qH$dm pñWa AgVmZm qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV H$gm ~Xb hmoVmo `mMo {ddoMZ `m
qH$_V _mJUrÛmao ñnï> Ho$bo OmVo. BVa KQ>H$ qH$dm n[apñWVr åhUOo J«mhH$m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>r, nyaH$ d n`m©`r
dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr d CnbãYVm, ì`ŠVrMo CËnÞ `m hmoV. d¡`{ŠVH$ Am{U ~mOmamVrb _mJUrnÌH$ ho qH$_V
_mJUrÛmao Xe©{dbo OmVo.
2. CËnÞ _mJUr (Income Demand) : bmoH$m§Mo CËnÞ Am{U dñVy§Mr _mJUr `m_Yrb g§~§Y CËnÞ
_mJUrÛmao ñnï> Ho$bm OmVmo. CËnÞmV ~Xb Pmë`mZ§Va _mJUrV H$go ~Xb hmoVmV `mMo {ddoMZ `m _mJUrÛmao
Ho$bo OmVo. bmoH$m§À`m CËnÞmV dmT> Pmbr Va _mJUrV dmT> hmoVo Am{U CËnÞmV KQ> Pmbr Va _mJUrVhr KQ>
hmoVo. gm_mÝ`V: ì`dhmamV Ago {XgyZ `oVo H$s bmoH$m§À`m CËnÞmV dmT> Pmbr Va bmoH$ nydunojm Cƒ àVrÀ`m

30
dñVy dmnaVmV. `mCbQ> CËnÞmV KQ> Pmbr Va _mÌ IaoXr H$_r Ho$br OmVo. {edm` nydunojm H$_r XOm©À`m dñVy
dmnaë`m OmVmV. Cn^moŠË`m§À`m AmdS>r-{ZdS>r VgoM Ë`m§Mo CËnÞ, dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr, nyaH$ d n`m©`r dñVy§À`m
qH$_Vr dJoao KQ>H$ pñWa AgVmV Ago J¥{hV Yê$Z CËnÞ _mJUrMo {díbofU Ho$bo OmVo.
3. N>oXH$ _mJUr (Cross Demand) : EImÚm dñVyÀ`m _mJUrV nyaH$ qH$dm n`m©`r dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV
~Xb Pmë`m_wio hmoUmao ~Xb N>oXH$ _mJUr Xe©{dVo. åhUOo nyaH$ qH$dm n`m©`r dñVy§À`m qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmë`m_wio
Xwgè`m EImÚm dñVyÀ`m _mJUrV hmoUmao ~Xb N>oXH$ _mJUr ñnï> H$aVo. n`m©`r dñVy åhUOo Mhm d H$m°\$s, Jwi
d gmIa, g§Ìr d _mog§~r dJ¡ao dñVy hmoV Va nyaH$ dñVy åhUOo EImÚm dñVyMr IaoXr Ho$ë`mg Ë`m dñVy~amo~a IaoXr
H$amdr bmJUmar dñVy hmo`. CXm. ~yQ> gm°Šg, KmoS>m ImoJra, Q>r. ìhr. d A°ÝQ>oZm, eQ>©-n°ÝQ> dJoao. Aem arVrZo
MhmÀ`m qH$_VrV dmT> Pmë`mg Ë`mMo H$m°\$sÀ`m _mJUrda hmoUmao n[aUm_ qH$dm Q>r. ìhr. À`m qH$_VrV dmT>
Pmë`mda A°ÝQ>oZmÀ`m _mJUrda hmoUmao n[aUm_ N>oXH$ _mJUr ñnï> H$aVo.
_mJUrÀ`mdarb àH$mamn¡H$s qH$_V _mJUrMm dmna Zoh_rÀ`m ì`dhmamV OmñV à_mUmV Ho$bm OmVmo. `m
AZwf§JmZo AmnU _mJUrMr g§H$ënZm g_OyZ KoD$ eH$Vmo.
2.5 _mJUr (Demand Function) :
dñVyMr _mJUr d _mJUrda à^md Q>mH$Umao {d{dY KQ>H$ `m§À`m_Ü`o nañna g§~§Y AgVmo. `m KQ>H$m§_Ü`o
Omo H$m`m©Ë_H$ g§~§Y AgVmo. Ë`mMo ñnï>rH$aU _mJUr \$bmÛmao Ho$bo OmVo. Cn^moŠË`mMo CËnÞ Ë`m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>r
dñVyMr qH$_V nyaH$ d n`m©`r dñVy§Mr CnbãYVm BVa dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr bmoH$g§»`m dñVy§À`m Om{hamVr `m§Mm
à^md _mJUrda nS>V AgVmo. `m gdmªMm _mJUrer AgUmam g§~§Y åhUOoM _mJUr \$bZ hmo`. Ë`mMr g{dñVa
ì`m»`m nwT>rbà_mUo H$aVm `oVo.
""_mJUr \$bZ åhUOo dñVyMr _mJUr d {VÀ`mda n[aUm_ H$aUmao KQ>H$ `m_Yrb g§~§Y Xe©{dUmao
J{UVr g_rH$aU hmo`. ho g_rH$aU nwT>rbà_mUo Xe©{dbo OmVo.
D = f (A, B, C, D, E.... n)

D= dñVyMr _mJUr
F = \$bZ \$b
A = dñVyMr qH$_V
B = ì`ŠVrMo CËnÞ
C = BVa dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr
D = bmoH$g§»`m
E = Om{hamV~mOr
n= EHy$U KQ>H$/eodQ>Mm KQ>H$
31
`m g_rH$aUmMm AW© Agm hmoVmo H$s dñVyMr _mJUr hr `m gd© KQ>H$m§da Adb§~yZ Amho.
1. ì`{ŠVJV qH$dm d¡`{ŠVH$ _mJUr :
Cn^moŠVm {d{eï> qH$_Vrbm dñVy§À`m doJdoJù`m ZJm§Mr _mJUr H$arV AgVmo Ë`mbm ì`{ŠVJV _mJUr
Ago åhUVmV. Va ~mOmamVrb AZoH$ J«mhH$m§À`m _mJUrMo EH$ÌrH$aU ~mOmamVrb EHy$U _mJUr hmo`. ì`{ŠVJV
_mJUrnÌH$ åhUOo dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmë`mg EImXr dñVy qH$dm Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m _mJUrV hmoUmao ~Xb
Xe©{dUmao H$moï>H$ hmo`. dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr dmT>ë`m Va Cn^moŠVm IaoXr H$_r H$aVmo. `mCbQ> qH$_Vr H$_r Pmë`m
Va IaoXr dmT>dVmo. Aem arVrZo BVa n[apñWVr H$m`_ AgVmZm qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV hmoUmao ~Xb
d¡`{ŠVH$ _mJUrnÌH$m_wio g_OVmV. nwT>rb H$moï>H$mÛmao ho d¡`{ŠVH$ _mJUrnÌH$ ñnï> hmoVo.

qH$_V _mJUr
50 100
40 200
30 300
20 400
10 500

darb CXmhaUmV Ago {XgyZ `oVo H$s qH$_V 50 é. AgVmZm 100 ZJm§Zm _mJUr `oVo. dñVy§Mr qH$_V
OgOer H$_r hmoB©b Vgo _mJUr dmT>V OmVo. åhUOoM qH$_V H$_r Pmbr Va _mJUrV dmT> hmoV OmVo.
Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m _mJUr nÌH$mdê$Z nwT>rbà_mUo _mJUr dH«$ V`ma H$aVm `oVmo.
`
_
500
400

qH$_V 300
200
100
_
A j
10 20 30 40 50
_mJUr
32
AmH¥$Vr_Yrb __ hm _mJUr dH«$ S>mdrH$Sy>Z COdrH$S>o Imbr OmUmam Amho dñVyMr qH$_V Am{U _mJUr
`mVrb ì`ñV g§~§Y `m_YyZ ñnï> hmoVmo. qH$_V 10 én`mdê$Z 50 é. dmT>V Joë`mg _mJUr 500 ZJmdê$Z 100
ZJ Aer H$_r hmoVo. åhUOo dñVyMr qH$_V d _mJUr XmohmoV nañna{damoYr/ì`ñV à_mU g§~§Y AgVmV.
2. ~mOmamMo _mJUrnÌH$ :
AZoH$ J«mhH$m§À`m _mJUrMo EH$ÌrV nÌH$ åhUOo ~mOmamMo _mJUrnÌH$ hmo`. ~mOmamV {d{dY J«mhH$
doJdoJù`m qH$_Vrbm dñVy§Mo AZoH$ ZJ IaoXr H$aV AgVmV. doJdoJù`m J«mhH$m§Zm EH$mM dñVyMr Cn`mo{JVm
{^Þ {^Þ AgVo Ë`mZwgma IaoXr Ho$br OmVo. Á`mbm EImÚm dñVyMr Cn`mo{JVm OmñV dmQ>V Ë`mMr IaoXr Vr
ì`ŠVr OmñV à_mUmV H$aVo. Á`mbm Cn`mo{JVm H$_r dmQ>Vo Vr ì`ŠVr dñVyMr IaoXr H$_r H$aVo. ~mOmamV gd©
J«mhH$m§Zr {d{eï> {H§$_V nmVirbm Or IaoXr Ho$bobr AgVo {VMr EH$ÌrV ~oarO åhUOoM ~mOmamMr EHy$U
_mJUr AgVo åhUyZ Ë`mbm ~mOmamMo _mJUr nÌH$ Ago åhUVmV.

qH$_V A Mr _mJUr ~ Mr _mJUr ~mOmamMr


_mJUr
50 20 15 35
40 30 20 50
30 40 25 65
20 50 30 80

darb VŠË`m_Ü`o Ago {XgyZ `oVo H$s, ~mOmamV XmoZ J«mhH$ AmhoV. dñVyMr qH$_V 50 é. AgVmZm
Vo J«mhH$ AZwH«$_o 20 Vo 15 ZJm§Mr IaoXr H$aVmV. Ë`mMr EHy$U ~oarO 35 ZJ BVH$s hmoVo Vr ~oarO
åhUOoM ~mOmamMo _mJUrnÌH$ hmo`. qH$_Vr_Ü`o OgOer KQ> hmoV OmB©b VgVer _mJUrV dmT> hmoV
` ` ` _
80 80 80
70 70 70
60 _1 60 60
50 50 50
_2
qH$_V

40 40 40
30 30 30
20 20 20 _
10 _1 10 _2 10

A 20 30 40 50 j A 20 30 40 50 j A 20 30 40 50 j
"A' Mo _mJUrnÌH$ "~' Mo _mJUrnÌH$ ~mOmamMo _mJUrnÌH$
33
Joë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo. qH$_V é. 50, 40, 30, 20 Aer H$_r hmoV Joë`mZ§Va ~mOmamVrb _mJUr AZwH«$_o
35, 50, 65, 80 ZJ Aer dmT>V Joë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo. ~mOmamVrb J«mhH$m§À`m _mJUrMm Omo dH«$ AgVmo
Ë`m gd© dH«$m§Mr ~oarO åhUOo ~mOmamVrb EHy$U _mJUr dH«$ hmo`. Ë`mMo {ddoMZ nwT>rb AmH¥$VrÀ`m
ghmæ`mZo H$aVm `oVo.
darb AmH¥$VrV A d ~ J«mhH$m§Mm "__' hm ~mOmamMm EH${ÌV _mJUr dH«$ Xe©{dbm Amho. Vmo S>mdrH$Sy>Z
COdrH$S>o Imbr KgaV OmUmam Amho. `mMm AW© _mJUr d qH$_V Xmohm|V ì`ñV à_mU g§~§Y AgVmV, ho ñnï>
H$aVmo.
2.6 _mJUrMm {Z`_ (Law of Demand) :
dñVyMr qH$_V Am{U _mJUr `m§Mm nañna g§~§Y _mJUrÀ`m {Z`_mÛmao ñnï> Ho$bm OmVmo. _mJUrMm {Z`_
nwT>rbà_mUo Amho.
""BVa n[apñWVr H$m`_ AgVmZm dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV dmT> Pmë`mg dñVy§À`m _mJUrV KQ> hmoVo `mCbQ>
dñVy§À`m qH$_VrV KQ> Pmë`mg dñVy§À`m _mJUrV dmT> hmoVo.''
BVa n[apñWVr åhUOo J«mhH$m§Mo CËnÞ Ë`m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>r, bmoH$g§»`m, \°$eÝg, n`m©`r dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr
dJ¡ao ho gd© KQ>H$ pñWa AgVmZm _mJUrMm {Z`_ AZw^dmg `oVmo. dñVyMr qH$_V Am{U dñVyMr _mJUr `m_Yrb
g§~§Y hm _mJUrÀ`m {Z`_mÛmao ñnï> Ho$bm OmVmo.

dñVyMr qH$_V _mJUr ZJg§»`m

50 100
40 120
30 140
20 160
10 180

dñVyMr qH$_V hr OgOgr H$_r hmoV OmB©b VgVgo dñVy§À`m _mJUrV dmT> hmoV OmVo. dñVyMr qH$_V
AZwH«$_o 50, 40, 30, 20 Am{U 10 én`o Aer H$_r hmoV Joë`mZ§Va _mJUr hr AZwH«$_o 100, 120, 140,
160 Am{U 180 ZJ Aer dmT>V Jobr Amho. åhUOoM dñVyMr qH$_V Am{U dñVyMr _mJUr `m§_Ü`o nañna
{damoYr g§~§Y AgVmo.

34
`
_
180
160

qH$_V 140
120
100
_
A j
10 20 30 40 50
_mJUr
_mJUrÀ`m {Z`_mMr J¥{hVo -
1. bmoH$m§Mo CËnÞ pñWa AgVo.
2. bmoH$m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>r pñWa AgVmV.
3. n`m©`r dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr pñWa AgVmV.
4. XoemMr bmoH$g§»`m pñWa AgVo.
_mJUrÀ`m {Z`_mÀ`m _`m©Xm :
BVa n[apñWVr Oa pñWa Zgob Va _mJUrMm {Z`_ AZw^dmg `oV Zmhr. dmñV{dH$ nmhVm BVa KQ>H$ ghgm
pñWa ZgVmV Ago ì`dhmamV {XgyZ `oV.o bmoH$g§»`m, J«mhH$m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>r, CËnÞnmVir, \°$eÝg `m KQ>H$m§_Ü`o
~Xb hmoV AgVmV. Oa `m KQ>H$m§_Ü`o ~Xb Pmbo Va hm {gÕm§V AZw^dmg `oV Zmhr åhUyZ {gÕm§VmÀ`m _`m©Xm
nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. bmoH$m§À`m CËnÞmVrb ~Xb : qH$_VrV dmT> Pmbr Va _mJUrV KQ> hmoVo d qH$_VrV KQ> Pmbr Va
_mJUrV dmT> hmoV AgVo. qH$_Vr H$_r Pmë`m AgVmZm CËnÞmVhr KQ> Pmbr Va _mJUr dmT>Ê`mEodOr KQ>V
AgVo. `mCbQ> qH$_Vr dmT>V Joë`m d CËnÞhr dmT>V am{hbo Va _mJUr dmT>V Ago.
2. bmoH$m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>r, \°$eÝg_Yrb ~Xb : {d{dY dñVy§À`m ~m~VrV Ago {XgyZ `oVo H$s,
J«mhH$m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>r gVV ~XbVmV. VgoM \°$eZ ~XbVo. dñVy AmdS>br Va qH$_VrMm \$ma {dMma Z
H$aVm IaoXr Ho$br OmVo. \°$eZ ~Xbbr åhUOo qH$_V dmT>br Varhr dñVy IaoXr Ho$br OmVo. `m AdñWoV hm
{gÕm§V bmJy hmoV Zmhr.

35
3. n`m©`r dñVy§À`m qH$_VrVrb ~Xb : J«mhH$ Á`m dñVy IaoXr H$aVmo Ë`m dñVy§Zm n`m©`r dñVy CnbãY
Pmë`m Va _yi dñVy§Mr IaoXr H$_r Ho$br OmVo. åhUOoM qH$_Vr H$_r hmoD$Zhr _mJUr dmT>V Zmhr. VgoM EImÚm
dñVyMr qH$_V dmT>V AgVmZm Ë`m dñVybm n`m©` AgUmar dñVy ñdñV {_iV Agob Va bmoH$ ñdñV dñVyMr
IaoXr H$aVmV.
4. bmoH$g§»`oV ~Xb : H$moUË`mhr XoemV bmoH$g§»`m pñWa amhV ZgVo. bmoH$g§»`m dmT>V Jobr Am{U
qH$_Vr H$_r Pmë`m Varhr _mJUrV dmT>M hmoV OmVo. `mCbQ> bmoH$g§»`m H$_r Pmbr d qH$_Vrhr H$_r Pmë`m
VargwÕm _mJUrV KQ>M hmoV AgVo, åhUOoM hm {gÕm§V AZw^dmg `oV Zmhr.
_mJUr {gÕm§VmMo AndmX :
_mJUrÀ`m {gÕm§Vmbm nwT>rb AndmX AmhoV.
1. {J\o$ZÀ`m dñVy : Á`m dñVy H$_r àVrÀ`m AgVmV Ë`m dñVy§Zm {J\o$ZÀ`m dñVy Ago åhUVmV. H$m§hr
dñVy Aem AgVmV H$s Ë`m§À`m {H§$_Vr H$_r Pmë`m Varhr Ë`m§Mr _mJUr dmT>V Zmhr. CXm. H$_r àVrMo YmÝ`,
OmS>o^aS>o H$mnS>, `m dñVy _mJUrÀ`m {Z`_mbm AndmX AmhoV. _me©bZo hm {Z`_ _m§S>ë`mZ§Va B§½b§S>_Ü`o ga
am°~Q>© {J\o$Z `m§Zr `m dñVy§Mo {ddoMZ Ho$bo, åhUyZ `m dñVy§Zm {J\o$ZÀ`m dñVy Ago åhUVmV. `m dñVy _mJUrÀ`m
{Z`_mbm AndmX R>aVmV.
2. `wÕH$mbrZ pñWVr : Á`m XoemV `wÕ gwê$ AgVo Aem XoemV ZmJ[aH$ ^{dî`H$mbrZ gmo` åhUyZ
qH$_Vr dmTy>Zhr OmñV _mJUr H$aVmV. ^{dî`mV dñVy {_iUma ZmhrV `m {^VrZo OmXm qH$_Vrbm dñVy§Mr IaoXr
Ho$br OmVo.
3. _§XrMm H$mi : Á`mdoir AW©ì`dñWoV _§XrMr AdñWm AgVo Ë`mdoir ZmJ[aH$ dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr H$_r
hmoD$Zhr dñVy§Mr IaoXr H$aV ZmhrV qH$dm Iny H$_r IaoXr H$aVmV. åhUOoM qH$_Vr H$_r Pmë`m Varhr dñVy§À`m
_mJUrV dmT> hmoV Zmhr. åhUyZ Am{W©H$ _§XrMm H$mi _mJUrÀ`m {Z`_mbm AndmX Amho.
4. _m¡ë`dmZ dñVy d Xw{_©i dñVy : `m dñVy§_Ü`o _m{UH$ _moVr, {hao, Xw{_©i {MÌo, _yVu `m§Mm g_mdoe
hmoVmo. Aem dñVy lr_§V bmoH$ Ho$di à{VîR>m åhUyZ dmnaVmV. Ë`m_wio `m dñVy {OVŠ`m _hmJ {VVH$s Ë`m§Mr
IaoXr OmñV Ho$br OmVo. åhUOoM Ë`m§Mr _mJUr dmT>VM AgVo. `mCbQ> `m dñVy§Mr qH$_V H$_r Pmbr Va Ë`m§Mr
_mJUr H$_r hmoVo, åhUyZ Ë`m dñVy {Z`_mbm AndmX R>aVmV.
5. OrdZmdí`H$ dñVy : OrdZmdí`H$ dñVy§Zm hm {Z`_ bmJy hmoV Zmhr. H$maU `m dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr
dmT>ë`m Varhr Ë`m§Mr IaoXr H$amdr bmJVM AgVo. EImÚm Hw$Qw>§~mbm Xa _{hÝ`mbm 10 {H$.J«°. Jhÿ bmJV
AgVrb Va JìhmÀ`m qH$_Vr dmT>ë`m åhUyZ Ë`mMr IaoXr H$_r Ho$br OmV Zmhr. `mCbQ> JìhmMr qH$_V H$_r
Pmbr Va _mJUr Xa _{hÝ`mbm 25 {H$.J«°. Ho$br OmV Zmhr. åhUOoM OrdZmdí`H$ dñVy§gmR>r hm {Z`_ bmJy hmoV
Zmhr.
36
2.7 _mJUrMm {dñVma d g§H$moM :
""BVa KQ>H$ pñWa amhÿZ \$ŠV dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV dmT> qH$dm KQ> Pmë`m_wio dñVyMr _mJUr H$_r qH$dm
OmñV hmoV Agob Va Ë`mbm _mJUrMm {dñVma d g§H$moM Ago åhUVmV.'' _mJUrMm {dñVma qH$dm g§H$moM
hmoVmZm \$ŠV qH$_VrV ~Xb hmoV AgVmo, BVa KQ>H$ nyduà_mUoM pñWa AgVmV. qH$_VrV dmT> Pmë`mZ§Va
_mJUr KQ>Vo hm g§H$moM AgVmo. `mCbQ> qH$_VrV KQ> Pmë`mZ§Va _mJUrV dmT> hmoVo hm _mJUrMm {dñVma AgVmo.
2.8 _mJUrVrb dmT> d KQ> :
dñVyMr qH$_V H$m`_ amhÿZ BVa KQ>H$m§_Ü`o ~Xb Pmë`m_wio _mJUrV Or dmT> qH$dm KQ> hmoV AgVo Ë`mbm
_mJUrVrb dmT> d KQ> Ago åhUVmV. Cn^moŠË`mMo CËnÞ dmT>bo, \°$eZ ~Xbbr Va qH$dm AmdS>{ZdS> ~Xbbr
Va _mJUrV dmT> hmoVo Ë`mbm _mJUrVrb dmT> Ago åhUVmV. gd©gmYmaUnUo Ago {XgyZ `oVo {H$ CËnÞmV dmT>
Pmë`mZ§Va _mJUrV dmT> hmoVo. Ë`mbm _mJUrVrb dmT> Ago åhUVm `oVo Va CËnÞmV KQ> Pmë`mZ§Va _mJUrV KQ>
hmoVo Ë`mbm _mJUrVrb KQ> Ago åhUVmV.
2.9 _mJUrV ~Xb KS>{dUmao KQ>H$
_mJUrV ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUUmao KQ>H$ Imbrbà_mUo.
1. dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV ~Xb hmoVmo.
2. Cn^moŠË`mMo CËnÞ ~Xbbo Va _mJUrV ~Xb hmoVmo.
3. bmoH$m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>rV ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV ~Xb hmoVmo.
4. n`m©`r d nyaH$ dñVy§À`m qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV ~Xb hmoVmo.
5. bmoH$g§»`m dmT>br Va _mJUrV ~Xb hmoVmo.
6. n`m©daU d hdm_mZ{df`H$ KQ>H$ _mJUrda n[aUm_ H$aVmV.
2.10 dñVy§Mo àH$ma (Types Goods) :
dñVy§Mo {d{dY àH$ma nwT>rbn«_mUo nS>VmV.
1. Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m dñVy Am{U CËnmXH$m§À`m dñVy : Á`m dñVy A§{V_ Cn^moJmgmR>r dmnaë`m OmVmV
Ë`m§Zm Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m dñVy Ago åhUVmV. Aem dñVy§Mr IaoXr H$ê$Z bmoH$ Amnë`m JaO nyU© H$aVmV. àË`oH$
ì`ŠVr {d{dY dñVy§À`m JaOm ^mJ{dÊ`mgmR>r Cn^moJ KoV AgVo. VgoM H$m`©j_Vm {Q>H${dÊ`mgmR>r AZoH$ dñVy
d godm§Mm Cn^moJ KoVbm OmVmo. Ë`m gd© dñVy§Zm Cn^mo½` dñVy Ago åhUVmV. AÞ, Mhm, H$m°\$s, XyY, \$io,
^mOrnmbm, _gmë`mMo nXmW©, ~oH$ar \y$S> d BVa gd©àH$maMo ImÚnXmW©, gm`H$br, dmhZo, gm~Z, gm¢X`©àgmYZo,
KaJwVr dmnamÀ`m dñVy, Q>r. ìhr. \«$sO, {_Šga, \y$S> àmogoga, _mo~mB©b d BVa {dÚwV CnH$aUo dJ¡a|Mm g_mdoe
Cn^mo½` dñVy§_Ü`o Ho$bm OmVmo.

37
Cn^mo½` dñVy V`ma H$aÊ`mgmR>r Á`m dñVy dmnaë`m OmVmV Ë`m dñVy§Zm CËnmXH$mÀ`m dñVy Ago åhUVmV.
CXm. {d{dY àH$maMr `§Ìgm_wJ«r, H$ƒm _mb, B_maVr, dmhZo `m§Zm CËnmXH$m§À`m dñVy Ago åhUVmV.
Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m dñVy Am{U CËnmgXH$mÀ`m dñVy `m XmoÝht_Ü`o nañna g§~§Y hm g_ñdê$nmMm AgVmo. `mMm
AW© Agm hmoVmo H$s Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m dñVy§À`m _mJUr_Ü`o dmT> Pmbr Va CËnmXH$mÀ`m dñVy§_Ü`ohr dmT> hmoV AgVo.
2. {dZmer dñVy Am{U A{dZmer dñVy : Á`m dñVy Cn^moJ KoVë`mZ§Va Zï> hmoVmV Ë`m§Zm Zmed§V dñVy
Ago åhUVmV. CXm. AÞ, Mhm, H$m°\$s, XyY, \$io, ^mOrnmbm, _gmë`mMo nXmW©, ~oH$ar, \y$S>, Á`yg, erVno`o d
BVa gd©àH$maMo ImÚnXmW© `m gd© dñVy§Mm Cn^moJ KoVë`mZ§Va g§nwï>mV `oVmV åhUyZ `m dñVy§Zm Zmed§V dñVy Ago
åhUVmV.
Á`m dñVy§Mm Cn^moJ nwZ:nwÝhm H$aVm `oVmo Aem dñVy§Zm A{dZmer dñVy Ago åhUVmV. dmhZo, gm`H$br,
Q>r. ìhr., \«$rO, {_Šga, \y$S>àmogoga, _mo~mB©b, dm°qeJ _{eZ, BVa {dÚwV CnH$aUo, KaJwVr dmnamÀ`m dñVy,
^m§S>r, H$nS>o dJ¡a|Mm g_mdoe CËnmXH$m§À`m dñVy_Ü`o Ho$bm OmVmo.
3. ñdV§Ì dñVy : Á`m dñVy dmnam_Ü`o à_wI AgVmV Am{U Ë`m§Zm ñdV§Ì _mJUr AgVo Ë`m dñVy§Zm ñdV§Ì
dñVy Ago åhUVmV. åhUOoM à_wI dñVy hr ñdm`Îm AgVo. CXm. dmhZ à_wI dñVy Amho Va noQ´>mob ho Xwæ`_ dñVy
Amho. Ka hr à_wI dñVy Amho Va {dQ>m {g_|Q, dmiy `m dñVy Xwæ`_ AmhoV.
4. namoj qH$dm ào[aV dñVy : Á`m dñVy§Mr _mJUr BVa dñVy§À`m _mJUrda Adb§~yZ AgVo Aem dñVy§Zm
namoj qH$dm ào[aV dñVy Ago åhUVmV. CXm. Ka `m à_wI dñVyMr _mJUr dmT>br Va ~mOmamV AmnmoAmnM IS>r,
{g_|Q>, dmiy, {dQ>m, gir `m dñVy§Mr _mJUr dmT>Vo. Ka `m à_wI dñVyÀ`m _mJUrda `m ~mH$sÀ`m dñVy§Mr _mJUr
Adb§~yZ Amho åhUyZ `m dñVy namoj g_Oë`m OmVmV. dmhZm§Mr _mJUr dmT>br VaM Ë`m§Mo gwQ>o ^mJ `m§Mr
_mJUr dmT>Vo. åhUOo gwQ>çm ^mJm§Mr _mJUr hr namoj _mJUr Amho, åhUyZ Ë`m§Zm namoj dñVy Ago åhUVmV.
2.11 _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm (Elasticity of Demand) :
_mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm `m g§H$ënZobm AW©emómV A{Ve` _hÎdmMo ñWmZ Amho. dñVyMr qH$_V d _mJUr
`m_Yrb nañna g§~§Y `m g§H$ënZoÛmao ñnï> Ho$bm OmVmo. _mJUrÀ`m bd{MH$VoMr g§H$ënZm gd©àW_ Hw$Zm} `m
AW©emókmZo _m§S>br. Ë`mZ§Va Oo. Eb. {_b `m§Zr Ë`mMr _m§S>Ur Ho$br. S>m°. _me©b `m§Zr Amnbo Cn`mo{JVm
{díbofU _m§S>bo. Ë`m_Ü`o bd{MH$VoMo g{dñVa {ddoMZ Ho$bo. _mJUrMm {Z`_ hm Ho$di JwUmË_H$ ~Xb
Xe©{dVmo. _mJUrV Zo_H$m {H$Vr à_mUmV ~Xb Pmbm ho `m {Z`_mVyZ ñnï> hmoV Zmhr. _mJUrVrb ~XbmMo à_mU
_moOÊ`mgmR>r bd{MH$VoMr g§H$ënZm _m§S>Ê`mV Ambr. qH$_VrV {d{eï> à_mUmV ~Xb Pmë`mZ§Va _mJUrV
{H$Vr à_mUmV ~Xb hmoVmo Ë`mMo ñnï>rH$aU `m g§H$ënZoÛmao g_OyZ `oVo. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hr Jw§VmJw§VrM
dmQ>Vo; nU àË`jmV Vr Ver Zmhr. Amnë`m X¡Z§{XZ ì`dhmamV hr g§H$ënZm J«mhH$ CËnmXH$ ì`mnmar `m§Zm Iyn
Cn`wŠV Am{U _mJ©Xe©H$ Amho.
38
_mJUrÀ`m bd{MH$VoMr ì`m»`m :
1. S>m°. _me©b : ""_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb Am{U qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb `m§Mo JwUmoÎma åhUOo
_mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hmo`.''
2. àm. E. Eb. _o`g© : ""{Xboë`m _mJUr dH«$mda qH$_Vrg§~§Yr ~Xb Pmbm AgVm Ë`mMm n[aUm_
åhUyZ _mJUr Ho$boë`m ZJg§»`oV hmoUmè`m ~XbmÀ`m à_mUmg _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm Ago åhUVmV.''
_mJUrda Oo doJdoJio KQ>H$ à^md Q>mH$VmV Ë`m§Mm {dñVma H$ê$Z _mJUrÀ`m bd{MH$VoMo qH$_V bd{MH$Vm,
CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm Am{U N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm Ago VrZ àH$ma nS>VmV.
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm (Price Elasticity of Demand) :
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb Am{U qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb `m§Mo JwUmoÎma åhUOo _mJUrMr qH$_V
bd{MH$Vm hmo`. _mJUrÀ`m qH$_V bd{MH$VoMo gyÌ nwT>rbà_mUo Amho.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm =
qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb
mq mp mq p
ep = d OR c
q p q mp

qH$_V bd{MH$VoMo àH$ma :


qH$_V bd{MH$VoMo à_wI nmM àH$ma nCVmV Vo nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. g§nyU© bd{MH$ _mJUr : dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV WmoS>mgm ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV _moR>çm à_mUmV
~Xb KSy>Z Ambm Va Ë`mbm g§nyU© bd{MH$ _mJUr Ago åhUVmV.
`

qH$_V _ _

A j
_mJUr
39
2. g§nyU© Abd{MH$ _mJUr : dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV {H$Vrhr _moR>m ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV Aënà_mUmV
~Xb KSy>Z `oVmo V|ìhm Ë`mbm g§nyU© Abd{MH$ _mJUr Ago åhUVmV.
`

qH$_V

_
A j
_mJUr
`m{R>H$mUr _mJUr __ dH«$ hm A` Ajmbm g_m§Va AgVmo. qH$_VrV _moR>m ~Xb hmoD$Zhr _mJUrV
Aëngmhr ~Xb hmoV Zmhr, ho `mVyZ ñnï> hmoVo.
3. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$ : O|ìhm _mJUrVrb d qH$_VrVrb ~Xb g_mZ AgVmV Ë`mdoir _mJUrMr
bd{MH$Vm hr EH$ BVH$s g_Obr OmVo. CXm.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm = =1
qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
` _

H$

qH$_V
H$1

A ~ ~1 j
_mJUr
H$H$1 Am{U ~~1 ho A§Va g_mZ Amho.
40
4. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm OmñV : Oo§ìhm _mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb ho qH$_VrVrb à_mUera
~Xbmnojm OmñV AgVmV Ë`mdoir _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm OmñV g_Obr OmVo.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm = = 2
qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 5%
`
_
H$

qH$_V H$1
_

A ~ ~1 j
_mJUr
H$H$1 ho A§Va ~~1 A§Vamnojm H$_r Amho. ~~1 ho A§Va OmñV Amho. åhUOoM _mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb
OmñV Amho.
5. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm H$_r : Oo§ìhm _mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb ho qH$_VrVrb à_mUera
~Xbmnojm H$_r AgVmV Ë`mdoir _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm OmñV g_Obr OmVo.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 5%
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm = = 0.5
qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
`
_
H$

qH$_V H$1

A ~ ~1 _mJUr j
41
H$H$1 ho A§Va ~~1 A§Vamnojm OmñV Amho. ~~1 ho A§Va H$_r Amho. åhUOoM qH$_VrVrb à_mUera
~Xb OmñV Amho.
2.12 qH$_V bd{MH$VoMo _mnZ (Measurement of Price Elasticity of Demand) :
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm _moOÊ`mÀ`m à_wI VrZ nÕVr AmhoV.
(1) EHy$U IM© nÕVr (2) JwUmoÎma nÕVr (3) q~Xy_mnZ qH$dm ^y{_Vr nÕVr
1. EHy$U IM© nÕVr (Total outlay Method) : qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmë`mZ§Va Cn^moŠË`mMm Ë`m dñVy§darb
IM© H$gm ~XbVmo `mdê$Z bd{MH$Vm _moObr OmVo, Ë`mbm EHy$U IM© nÕV Ago åhUVmV. ""EImÚm dñVyÀ`m
qH$_VrV ~Xb hmoÊ`mnydu d ~Xb Pmë`mZ§Va Ë`m dñVydarb IMm©V Ogo ~Xb hmoVmV Ë`mbm EHy$U IM© nÕVr
Ago åhUVmV. qH$_VrV dmT> qH$dm KQ> hmoD$Zhr IMm©V ~Xb hmoV Zgob Va Ë`mdoir _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$
AgVo. qH$_V dmT>ë`mZ§Va Ë`m dñVydarb IM© nydunojm H$_r Pmbm Am{U qH$_V H$_r Pmë`mZ§Va IM© dmT>bm
Va _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm OmñV AgVo. qH$_VrV dmT> Pmë`mg IM© dmT>Vmo d qH$_V H$_r Pmbr Va
IM© H$_r Ë`mdoir _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm H$_r AgVo, ho nwT>rb VŠVm Xe©{dVmo.

qH$_V _mJUr EHy$U _mJUrMr


(é.) (ZJ) IM© (é.) bd{MH$Vm
10 5 50
5 10 50 o _m.b. = 1

10 5 50 _m.b>. h 1
5 20 100 o nojm OmñV
10 5 50 _m.b. g 1
5 7 35
o nojm H$_r

darb VŠVm qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmë`m_wio dñVyÀ`m _mJUrVrb ~XbmÛmao dñVydarb EHy$U IMm©V Pmboë`m
~Xbmdê$Z _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm1, 1 nojm OmñV qH$dm 1 nojm H$_r Agë`mMo Xe©{dVmo.
2. JwUmoÎma nÕVr (Proporitional Method) : `m nÕVrV qH$_VrV à_mUera ~Xb Pmë`m_wio _mJUrV
Oo à_mUera ~Xb KS>yZ `oVmV Ë`mMo JwUmoÎma H$mT>bo OmVo d Ë`mdê$Z _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm _moObr OmVo.
JwUmoÎma nÕVr_Ü`o _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm _moOÊ`mgmR>r Imbrb gyÌ dmnabo OmVo.

42
_mJUrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb 10%
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm = = 1, _mb = 1
qH$_VrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb 10%
_mJUrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb 10
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm = = 2, _mb = 1 h 2
qH$_VrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb 5
1 nojm OmñV
_mJUrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb 5
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm = = 0.5, _mb = 1 g 0.5
qH$_VrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb 10
1 nojm H$_r
3. q~Xy_mnZ qH$dm ^y{_Vr nÕVr (Point Method or Geometrical Method) : _mJUrMr
bd{MH$Vm _moOÊ`mgmR>r ^y{_H$m nÕVrMr dmna H$ê$Z _mJUr dH«$mdarb {d{eï> AWdm doJdoJù`m q~XyMr
bd{MH$Vm _moObr OmVo. _mJUr dH«$mdarb _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm _moOÊ`mgmR>r hr nÕVr dmnabr OmVo.
_mJUrdH«$mdarb {d{eï> q~XynmgyZ ImbMo A§Va
_mJUrMr qH$_V bd{MH$Vm =
_mJUrdH«$mdarb {d{eï> q~XynmgyZ ImbMo A§Va

b. =V
` _m.
_
_m.b. h 1
A
_m.b. = 1
qH$_V ~
_m.b. g 1
H$
_m.b. = 0
_1
A j
_mJUr

AmH¥$Vr_Ü`o __ hm _mJUr dH«$ Amho Vmo AmR> g|._r. Amho Ago AmnU J¥{hV Yê$`m. `mdê$Z àË`oH$
q~XyOdi AgUmar bd{MH$Vm g_OVo.
1. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$ : AmH¥$VrV d q~XyÀ`m {R>H$mUr _mJUr dH«$mMo ImbMo d daMo A§Va
g_mZ Amho åhUyZ `m {R>H$mUr _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hr EH$ Amho.
43
~_1 4
~ q~XyV _mb = = = 1, EH$Îd bd{MH$ _mJUr
~_ 4
2. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm H$_r : AmH¥$VrV H$ q~XyÀ`m {R>H$mUr _mJUr dH«$mMo ImbMo A§Va
H$_r Amho Am{U daMo A§Va OmñV Amho åhUyZ `m {R>H$mUr _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hr EH$nojm H$_r Amho.
H$_1 2
H$ q~XyV _mb = = = 0.33, 1 nojm H$_r
H$_ 6
3. _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm OmñV : AmH¥$VrV A q~XyÀ`m {R>H$mUr _mJUr dH«$mMo ImbMo
A§Va OmñV Amho Am{U daMo A§Va H$_r Amho. åhUyZ `m {R>H$mUr _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hr EH$nojm OmñV Amho.
A_1 6
A q~XyV _mb = = = 3, 1 nojm OmñV
A_ 2

_ 8
_ q~XyV _mb = = = V, _mb = V
_1 0

_1 0
_1 q~XyV _mb = = = 0, _mb = 0
_ 8
2.13 _mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm (Income Elasticity of Demand) :
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb Am{U CËnÞmVrb à_mUera ~Xb `m§Mo JwUmoÎma åhUOo _mJUrMr CËnÞ
bd{MH$Vm hmo`. _mJUrÀ`m CËnÞ bd{MH$VoMo gyÌ nwT>rbà_mUo Amho.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb
_mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm =
qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb
mq my
YE = d
q y

mq = _mJUrV Pmbobm ~Xb


q = _yi _mJUr
my = CËnÞmV Pmbobm ~Xb
y = _yi CËnÞ

44
CËnÞ bd{MH$VoMo àH$ma :
CËnÞ bd{MH$VoMo à_wI nmM àH$ma nS>VmV, Vo nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. g§nyU© bd{MH$ _mJUr : Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m CËnÞmV WmoS>mgm ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV _moR>çm à_mUmV
~Xb KSy>Z Ambm Va Ë`mb g§nyU© CËnÞ bd{MH$ _mJUr Ago åhUVmV.
`

CËnÞ _ _1

A j
_mJUr
`m {R>H$mUr _mJUr dH«$ hm Aj Ajmbm g_m§Va AgVmo. CËnÞmV _moR>m ~Xb hmoD$Zhr _mJUrV ~Xb hmoV
Zmhr ho `mVyZ ñnï> hmoVo.
2. g§nyU© Abd{MH$ _mJUr : Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m CËnÞmV {H$Vrhr _moR>m ~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrV
Aënà_mUmV ~Xb KSy>Z `oVmo V|ìhm Ë`mb g§nyU© Abd{MH$ _mJUr Ago åhUVmV.
`

_1

CËnÞ

_
A j
_mJUr
`m {R>H$mUr _mJUr dH«$ hm A` Ajmbm g_m§Va AgVmo. CËnÞmV _moR>m ~Xb hmoD$Zhr _mJUrV Aëngmhr
~Xb hmoV Zmhr ho `mVyZ ñnï> hmoVo.
45
3. _mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm EH$ : Oo§ìhm _mJUrVrb d CËnÞmVrb ~Xb g_mZ AgVmV Ë`mdoir
_mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hr EH$ BVH$s g_Obr OmVo. CXm.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
_mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm = = 1
CËnÞmVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
` _

H$

CËnÞ
H$1

_1

A ~ ~1 j
_mJUr
H$H$1 Am{U ~~1 ho A§Va g_mZ Amho.
4. _mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm OmñV : Oo§ìhm _mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb ho CËnÞmVrb
à_mUera ~Xbmnojm OmñV AgVmV Ë`mdoir _mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm OmñV g_Obr OmVo.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
_mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm = = 2
CËnÞmVrb à_mUera ~Xb 5%
`
_
H$

CËnÞ H$1
_1

A ~ ~1 j
_mJUr
46
H$H$1 ho A§Va ~~1 A§Vamnojm H$_r Amho. ~~1 ho A§Va OmñV Amho. åhUOoM _mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb
OmñV Amho.
5. _mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm H$_r : Oo§ìhm _mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb ho CËnÞmVrb
à_mUera ~Xbmnojm H$_r AgVmV Ë`mdoir _mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm EH$nojm H$_r g_Obr OmVo.
_mJUrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 5%
_mJUrMr CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm = = 0.5
qH$_VrVrb à_mUera ~Xb 10%
`
_
H$

CËnÞ H$1

_1

A ~ ~1 _mJUr j

H$H$1 ho A§Va ~~1 A§Vamnojm OmñV Amho. ~~1 ho A§Va H$_r Amho. åhUOoM CËnÞmVrb à_mUera ~Xb
OmñV Amho.
2.14 _mJUrMr N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm :
EH$m dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV ~Xb Pmë`m_wio Xwgè`m dñVyÀ`m _mJUrV Omo ~Xb hmoVmo Ë`m_Yrb nañna g§~§YmMo
JwUmoÎma `m g§H$ënZoÛmao Ho$bo OmVo.
ì`m»`m - ""` dñVyMm qH$_VrV à_mUera ~Xb Pmë`m_wio j dñVyMm _mJUrV Oo à_mUera ~Xb hmoVmV
Ë`m§Mo JwUmoÎma åhUOo _mJUrMr N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm hmo`.''
j dñVyÀ`m _mJUrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb
_mJUrMr N>XH$ bd{MH$Vm =
` dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrVrb eoH$S>m ~Xb

N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm hr YZ, F$U qH$dm eyÝ` AgVo.


1. XmoÝhr dñVy EH$_oH$mg n`m©`r AgVrb Va _mJUrMr N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm YZ AgVo.
2. XmoÝhr dñVy nañna nyaH$ AgVrb Va _mJUrMr N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm F$U AgVo.
47
3. XmoÝhr dñVy nañnam§er g§~§YrV ZgVrb Va _mJUrMr N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm eyÝ` AgVo.
2.15 gmam§e :
_mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm hr g§H$ënZm X¡Z§{XZ ì`dhmamV {d{dY KQ>H$m§À`m Ñ{ï>Zo _hÎdmMr Amho. CËnmXH$,
ì`mnmar, J«mhH$ `m§À`mgmR>r bd{MH$Vm _mJ©Xe©H$ R>aVo. dñVyMr qH$_V Am{U _mJUrVrb ~Xb `m_Ü`o Omo
à_mUera g§~§Y AgVmo Ë`mMo {ddoMZ _mJUrÀ`m bd{MH$VoÛmao hmoVo. gaH$mabm Amnbr gmd©O{ZH$ IM©{df`H$
YmoaUo AmIVmVZm bd{MH$Vm Cn`wŠV R>aVo. Ë`mMà_mUo ~mOmamVrb ~XbVr pñWVr g_OyZ KoÊ`mgmR>r ì`mnmar
dJm©bm `m g§H$ënZoMm \$m`Xm hmoVmo.
2.16 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX :
_mJUr : {d{eï> doir {d{eï> qH$_Vrbm IaoXr Ho$br OmUmar ZJg§»`m
Cn^moŠË`mMr dñVy : Cn^moJmgmR>r dmnabr OmUmar dñVy
{dZmer dñVy : Cn^moJmZ§Va Zï> hmoUmar dñVy
A{dZmer dñVy : nwZ:nwÝhm dmnamV `oUmar dñVy
ñdV§Ì dñVy : ñdV:gmR>r _mJUr AgUmar _w»` dñVy
namoj dñVy : _w»` dñVyÀ`m _mJUrda Adb§~yZ AgUmar dñVy
_mJUrMr bd{MH$Vm : qH$_VrVrb d _mJUrVrb à_mUera g§~§Y Xe©{dUmar g§H$ënZm
2.17 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ :
Imbrb dmŠ`o MyH$ H$s ~amo~a Vo {bhm.
1. _mJUr_Ü`o Am{W©H$ nmR>~i JaOMo AgVo.
2. dñVyMr _mJUr d dñVyMr qH$_V `m XmoÝhr_Ü`o nañna g§~§Y AgVmo.
3. Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m dñVy `m Cn^moJmgmR>r AgVmV.
4. ^mOrnmbm d XyY `m Zmed§V dñVy AmhoV.
5. {g_|Q> d IS>r `m namoj dñVy AmhoV.
6. {J\o$ZÀ`m dñVy `m _mJUrÀ`m {Z`_mbm AndmX ZmhrV.
CÎmao :
1. MyH$ 2. ~amo~a 3. MyH$ 4. ~amo~a 5. ~amo~a 6. MyH$
1.18 gamdmgmR>r ñdmÜ`m` :
(A) XrKm}Îmar àíZ.
1. _mJUrMr \$bmMr g§H$ënZm {dfX H$am.
48
2. _mJUr bd{MH$Vm hr g§H$ënZm ñnï> H$am.
3. dñVy§Mo {d{dY àH$ma ñnï> H$am.
(~) Q>rnm {bhm.
1. qH$_V bd{MH$VoMo àH$ma
2. CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm
3. N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm
4. Zmed§V dñVy
5. Cn^moŠË`mÀ`m dñVy d CËnmXH$mÀ`m dñVy
6. ào[aV dñVy
2.19 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$ :
1. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo> : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
A{OV npãbHo$eÝg², Bñbm_nya, {O. gm§Jbr
2. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo : "ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó'
_ohVm npãbqeJ hmD$g, nwUo 30
3. àm. am_ Xoe_wI : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
4. H. L. Ahuja : "Modern Economic Theory"
5. M. L. Seth : "Principles of Economics"
6. K. K. Dewtt : "Modern Economic Theory"
7. Dr. M. N. Shinde : "Managerial Economics"
8. D. Gopalkrishana : "Managerial Economics"
9. O. M. Agarwal and : "Business Economics"
R. Narayan

³³³

49
gÌ - 1 : KQ>H$ 3
_mJUrMo AZw_mZ/A§XmO
(Demand Forcasting)

3.1 C{Ôï>ço
3.2 {df` {ddoMZ
3.3 àmñVm{dH$
3.4 _mJUr AZw_mZmMm AW©
3.5 ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`à{H«$`oV _mJUr AZw_mZmMo _hÎd
3.6 _mJUr AZw_mZ _moOÊ`mÀ`m nÕVr
3.7 gmam§e
3.8 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX
3.9 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ
3.10 gamdmgmR>r ñdmÜ`m`
3.11 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$

3.1 C{Ôï>ço :
1. _mJUr AZw_mZ hr g§H$ënZm g_OyZ KoUo.
2. _mJUr AZw_mZmMo _hÎd g_OyZ KoUo.
3. _mJUr AZw_mZmÀ`m {d{dY nÕVtMm emór` Aä`mg H$aUo.
4. _mJUr AZw_mZmÀ`m {d{dY àH$mam§Mm Aä`mg H$aUo.

50

~r. H$m°_. ^mJ 1


ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó
3.2 {df` {ddoMZ :
Xwgè`m KQ>H$m_Ü`o AmnU _mJUr{df`rMm Aä`mg Ho$bm. _mJUr _mJUrMr g§H$ënZm, _mJUrMo àH$ma,
_mJUr \$bZ, dñVy§Mo {d{dY n«H$ma `m§Mm Aä`mg Ho$bm. `m{edm` _mJUrÀ`m bd{MH$VoMr g§H$ënZm qH$_V
bd{MH$Vm, CËnÞ bd{MH$Vm VgoM N>oXH$ bd{MH$Vm `m g§H$ënZm `m§Mmhr Aä`mg Ho$bm. AmVm `m VrZ
H«$_m§H$mÀ`m KQ>H$m_Ü`o AmnU _mJUrÀ`m AZw_mZmMm Aä`mg H$aUma AmhmoV. CËnmXH$ hm Amnë`m dñVy§Zm
^{dî`mV {H$Vr _mJUr Agob `mMm A§XmO KoV AgVmo Ë`mMo {ddoMZ `m KQ>H$m_Ü`o H$am`Mo Amho.
3.3 àmñVm{dH$ :
_mJUrMo AZw_mZ hr g§H$ënZm ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emóm_Ü`o A{Ve` _hÎdmMr _mZbr OmVo. CËnmXZm~m~V
CËnmXH$ {d{dY YmoaUo R>a{dV AgVmo. Ë`mZwgma CÚmoJmMm {dñVma H$aV AgVmo. Aemdoir ^{dî`mMm A§XmO
KoD$ZM {ZU©` ¿`mdo bmJVmV. åhUyZ H$moUVrhr CÚmoJg§ñWm qH$dm CËnmXH$ ^{dî`mVrb Amnë`m CËnmXZmbm
_mJUr H$er Agob `mMm A§XmO KoV AgVmo. hm A§XmO Ambm Va CËnmXH$mbm {d{dY CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mr
OwidmOwid H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo. H$m_Jma, H$ƒm _mb, `§Ì gm_wJ«r, ^m§S>db C^maUr, ì`dñWmnZmVrb ~Xb
`mgma»`m {d{dY ~m~tMo {Z`moOZ H$aUo eŠ` hmoV.o åhUOoM ~mOmamVrb n[apñWVrMm A§XmO Ambm Va ~mOmamVrb
_mJUr nwadR>m qH$_Vr `m§Mr nyd©H$ënZm CËnmXH$mg `oV AgVo. `mMm AW© Agm hmoVmo {H$ àË`oH$ CËnmXH$
Amnë`m CËnmXZmbm _mJUr H$er Agob? Ë`m_Ü`o ~Xb H$go hmoVrb? `mMm A§XmO ~m§YV AgVmo Am{U
Ë`mAZwf§JmZo Vmo ^{dî`mMm A§XmO KoV AgVmo. `m A§XmOmgmR>r àË`oH$ CËnmXH$mbm qH$dm ì`mdgm{`H$mbm
_mJUrAZw_mZ `m g§H$ënZoMm Cn`moJ hmoV AgVmo. Aem àH$maÀ`m AZw_mZm_wio CËnmXH$mbm ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`
KoÊ`mgmR>r bmJUmar `mo½` Vr ~¡R>H$ d nmíd©^_y r V`ma H$aUo eŠ` hmoV.o WmoS>Š`mV Ago åhUVm `oVo H$s, ^{dî`mV
Amnë`m dñVy d godm§Zm {H$Vr à_mUmV _mJUr `oBb © `mg§X^m©V A§XmO ì`ŠV H$aUo åhUOo _mJUrMo AZw_mZ hmo`.
3.4 _mJUr AZw_mZmMm AW© :
1. ""{d{eï> H$mbmdYrZ§Va dñVyMr _mJUr {H$Vr Agob ho OmUyZ KoUo åhUOo _mJUrMo AZw_mZ hmo`.''
2. ""dñVyÀ`m ^{dî`H$mbrZ _mJUr~m~VMm A§XmO åhUOo _mJUrMo AZw_mZ hmo`.''
àË`oH$ CÚmoJg§ñWm {d{dY _mJm©Zr ~mOmamMm A§XmO KoV AgVmV. Ë`mAZwf§JmZo ~mOmam`o gìh}jU Ho$bo
OmVo. Amnë`m CËnmXZmer g§~§{YV KQ>H$m§Mm Aä`mg Ho$bm OmVmo. Ë`mMr _m{hVr Jmoim Ho$br OmVo. dV©_mZH$mimV
Amnë`m dñVy§Zm _mJUr H$er Amho? Ë`m_Ü`o dmT> hmoVo Amho H$s KQ> hmoV Amho? `mMr _m{hVr KoVbr OmVo.
~mOmamV n`m©`r dñVy {H$Vr à_mUmV AmhoV? Ë`m§Mm Amnë`m dñVyÀ`m _mJUrda {H$Vr n[aUm_ hmoVmo `mMmhr
Aä`mg Ho$bm OmVmo. ñWm{ZH$ ~mOma, {d^mJr` ~mOma VgoM Am§Vaamï´>r` ~mOmamV dñVy§Zm AgUmar _mJUr
`m§Mmhr A§XmO KoVbm OmVmo. `m A§XmOmZwgma CËnmXH$ qH$dm CÚmoJg§ñWm Amnë`m CËnmXZmV ~Xb H$aV OmVmV.
nwT>rb CXmhaUmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo _mJUrAZw_mZ hr g§H$ënZm g_OyZ `oVo.

51
df© dñVyMr _mJUr _mJUrVrb ~Xb
2008 5000
2009 6000 20 Q>¸o$
2010 7200 20 Q>¸o$
2011 8640 20 Q>¸o$
2012 10368 20 Q>¸o$
2013 12442 20 Q>¸o$

darb VŠË`m_Ü`o 2008 gmbmnmgyZ CÚmoJg§ñWm dñVyZm AgUmar _mJUr Xe©{dbr Amho. Vr _mJUr
Xadfu AZwH«$_o 5000, 6000, 7200, 8640, 10368 Am{U 12442 BVŠ`m ZJmn`ªV dmT>bobr Amho.
åhUOoM hr dm{f©H$ dmT> 20 Q>¸o$ BVH$s Amho. åhUOo CËnmXH$mbm Agm A§XmO `oVmo H$s Amnë`m dñVy§Zm
à{Vdfu 20 Q>ŠŠ`m§Zr _mJUr dmT>V Amho. nwT>rb H$m§hr df} _mJUrV `mM XamZo dmT> hmoV amhÿ eH$Vo Ago AZw_mZ
CËnmXH$ H$mT>Vmo. AmVm `m AZw_mZmbm AZwgê$Z CËnmXH$ Amdí`H$ Ë`m gmYZgm_wJ«rMr Am{U BVa CËnmXZ
KQ>H$m§Mr OwidmOwid H$aVmo. H$ƒm _mb, H$m_Jma, `§Ìgm_wJ«r BË`m{X CËnmXZ KQ>H$ {H$Vr à_mUmV Jmoim
H$am`Mo `mMo {Z`moOZ H$aÊ`mV `oVo. hr dmT>rd _mJUr nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r J«mhH$m§Zm {dVaUì`dñWm H$er
CnbãY H$ê$Z Úm`Mr `mMohr {Z`moOZ H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo. dñVy§Mr {dH«$s H$aVmZm Om{hamV H$er H$am`Mr? `m
Om{hamVrda {H$Vr IM© H$am`Mm? Om{hamVrgmR>rMo H$ama H$moUmer H$am`Mo? `m g§X^m©Vrb {ZU©` YoUo
CËnmXH$mbm eŠ` hmoVo. `m gd© ~m~tMm A§XmO Amë`mZ§Va CËnmXH$ Amnbo ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©` ^¸$_nUo
KoD$ eH$Vmo Am{U ^{dî`mVrb YmoaUo AmIyZ Amnë`m ì`dgm`mMo `mo½` arVrZo {Z`moOZ H$aV amhVmo.
~mOmamVrb ^a^amQ> hmoUo, ñnYm©eŠVr_Ü`o dmT> hmoUo, ApñVËd {gÕ hmoUo `m gd© ~m~r CËnmXH$mgmR>r ghOeŠ`
hmoVmV. ~mOmamV Z\$m {_i{dUo, {dH«$s dmT>{dUo `m gd© ~m~tÀ`m AZwf§JmZo _mJUrMm A§XmO CËnmXH$mg
\$m`ÚmMm R>aVmo.
Am{W©H$Ñï>çm àJV AgUmè`m Xoem§_Ü`o {d{dY joÌmVrb CËnmXH$ _mJUrÀ`m AZw_mZmMm dmna ì`mdgm{`H$
{ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r H$aVmV. Ë`m VwbZoV {dH$gZerb Xoem§V `mMm \$ma _moR>m dmna hmoV Zmhr. A{bH$S>o
OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m àgmamZ§Va _mÌ gd©M Xoem§V H$m`©aV AgUmè`m ~hþamï´>r` H§$nÝ`m `m g§H$ënZoMm dmna gam©gnUo
H$aV AmhoV. Cn^mo½` dñVy, AÞnXmW©, ~oH$ar \y$S>, IoiUr, dmhZo, gm`H$br, {dÚwVdñVy, erVno`o, embo`
gm{hË`, V`ma H$nS>o, _mo~mB©b `m joÌmV Á`m H§$nÝ`m AmhoV Ë`m H§$nÝ`m _mJUrMo AZw_mZ g§H$ënZoMm _moR>çm
à_mUmV dmna H$aV AmhoV.

52
_mJUr AZw_mZmMo gmYmaUnUo AënH$mbrZ d XrK©H$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ Ago XmoZ à_wI àH$ma nS>VmV.
AënH$mbrZ _mJUrAZw_mZ XmoZ Vo VrZ dfm©n`ªVMo A§XmO AgVmV Va XrK©H$mbm_Ü`o nmM dfm©nojm OmñV
H$mbmdYrMo A§XmO AgVmV. Á`m CÚmoJg§ñWm EH$mnojm OmñV dñV§yMo CËnmXZ H$aVmV Ë`m g§ñWm XrK©H$mbrZ
_mJUrAZw_mZ nÕVrMm Adb§~ H$aVmV. EImÚm CÚmoJg§ñWobm Amnë`m ñnY©H$ g§ñWoMr _m{hVr `mo½` ñdê$nmMr
Agob Va XrK©H$mbrZ AZw_mZMm \$ma _moR>m Cn`moJ hmoVmo.
_mJUr AZw_mZmMo àH$ma :
_mJUr AZw_mZmMo XmoZ àH$ma AmhoV.
1) AënH$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ d 2) XrK©H$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ
1) AënH$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ : AënH$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ `m àH$maMo _mJUrMo AZw_mZ XmoZ Vo
VrZ dfmªgmR>r Ho$bo OmVo. Ë`mMm CÔoe gw`mo½` CËnmXZ YmoaU R>a{dUo hm AgVmo. ~mOmamVrb nwadR>çmZwgma
_mJUrg§~§Yr A§XmO dV©{dUo, Á`m_wio A{V[aŠV CËnmXZ hmoUma Zmhr VgoM H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMm IM© H$_r H$aUo,
gw`mo½` qH$_VYmoaU R>a{dUo, ~mOmamVrb n[apñWVrZwgma CËnmXZmÀ`m qH$_Vr H$_r-OmV H$aUo VgoM {dH«$sMo
C{Ôï> R>a{dUo, CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m AënH$mbrZ JaOm R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r _mJUrMo AZw_mZ Cn`wŠV R>aVo. åhUyZ ì`mdgm{`H$
AWdm CÚmoOH$ d ì`dñWmnH$ AënH$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ dV©dVmV.
2) XrK©H$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ : `m àH$maMo _mJUr AZw_mZ nmM qH$dm Ë`mnojm OmñV dfm©gmR>r
Ho$bo OmVo. Ë`mMm CÔoe CÚmoJg§ñWoMo CËnmXZ dmT>{dUo, CÚmoJg§ñWoMm {dñVma dmT>{dUo hm AgVmo. CÚmoJmÀ`m
XrK©H$mbrZ JaOm ^mJ{dUo VgoM Amdí`H$ AgUmao _Zwî`~i R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r XrK©H$mbrZ _mJUr AZw_mZ
Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
3.5 ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`à{H«$`oV _mJUr AZw_mZmMo _hÎd :
ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`à{H«$`oV CËnmXH$ ì`mdgm{`H$ VgoM g§`moOH$ `m§À`mgmR>r _mJUr AZw_mZmMr g§H$ënZm
A{Ve` _hÎdmMr R>aVo. nwT>rb _wÔçm§À`m ghmæ`mZo `m g§H$ënZoMo _hÎd g_yOZ `oVo.
1. ^{dî`H$mbrZ _mJUr AmH$S>çm§_Ü`o g_OVo : _mJUr AZw_mZm_wio ^{dî`mV CËnmXZmbm {H$Vr
_mJUr {Z_m©U hmoB©b Vo g_OVo. _mJUrAZw_mZ_Ü`o _mJrb H$m§hr dfm©Vrb AmH$S>odmarMm AmYma KoD$Z nwT>rb
dfm©V {H$Vr _mJUr dmT>ob `mMm A§XmO `oVmo. `m A§XmOm_wio CËnmXH$ Amnë`m CËnmXZmMo {Z`moOZ H$emàH$mao
H$am`Mo ho R>ady eH$Vmo. WmoS>Š`mV, nwT>rb VrZ-Mma dfm©_Ü`o _mJUrV H$gm ~Xb hmoB©b `mMm {ZpíMV A§XmO
Amë`mZ§Va CËnmXH$mbm CËnmXZmMo AmË_{dídmgnyd©H$ {Z`moOZ H$aVm `oVo. VgoM Ë`mMr ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`
j_Vm dmT>Vo. åhUyZ CËnmXH$mgmR>r _mJUrAZw_mZ hr g§H$ënZm Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
2. dñVy§À`m nwaR>çmMm A§XmO `oVmo : _mJUr AZw_mZm_wio ^yVH$mimVrb AmH$S>odmarMm AmYma AgVmo.
53
`mÀ`m ghmæ`mZo ^{dî`mV {H$Vr dñVy§Zm _mJUr Agob `mMm A§XmO `oVmo Ë`m_wio AmnmoAmnM {H$Vr nwadR>m
H$amdm bmJob `mMm Zo_H$m A§XmO CËnmXH$mbm `oVmo. AWm©V `m gdmªgmR>r _mJUr AZw_mZ IynM \$m`Xoera R>aVo.
^{dî`mV dñVy§À`m nwadR>çmMo `mo½` {Z`moOZ H$aUo d Ë`mgmR>rMo YmoaU R>a{dUo `mgmR>r hr g§H$ënZm _mJ©Xe©H$
R>aVo Ago åhUVm `oVo.
3. dñVy§À`m qH$_VrMm A§XmO `oVmo : _mJUrÀ`m AZw_mZm_YyZ CËnmXH$mbm ~mOmamMm gd© A§XmO `oV
AgVmo. {d{dY KQ>H$m§Mr _m{hVr {_iVo. _mJUr nwadR>m Cn^moŠË`m§Mm dV©ZàH$ma ~mOmamVrb ì`dhmamÀ`m nÕVr,
nwadR>çmÀ`m nÕVr Aem gd© ~m~tMr _m{hVr Jmoim Pmë`mZ§Va qH$_Vr g_OVmV. `mdê$Z ^{dî`mV qH$_VnmVirV
H$gm ~Xb hmoB©b `mMm Zo_H$m A§XmO Amë`mZ§Va CËnmXH$ Amnë`m Zâ`mÀ`m `moOZm R>ady eH$Vmo. `mÑ{ï>Zo
CËnmXH$mbm _mJUrAZw_mZ `m g§H$ënZoMm Cn`moJ hmoVmo.
4. H$ƒm _mb d CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mr OwidmOwid H$aUo : CËnmXZmV dmT> H$aÊ`mgmR>r H$ƒm _mb,
B§YZ, H$m_Jma, drO, COm©, I{ZOo, nmUr dJ¡ao KQ>H$m§Mr JaO Ago. AWm©V ho gd© KQ>H$ AJXr ghOnUo CnbãY
hmoV ZgVmV. Amdí`H$VoZwgma Ë`m§Mr Jmoim~oarO H$amdr bmJVo. CËnmXH$mbm EH$Xm ^{dî`mVrb _mJUrMm
A§XmO Ambm Va Vmo `m gd© KQ>H$m§Mr C^maUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. `m KQ>H$m§Mr IaoXr {H$Vr d H$er H$am`Mr? Ë`mda
{H$Vr IM© H$am`Mm? `mMo {Z`moOZ H$aVm `oVo.
5. ^m§S>dbmMr C^maUr H$aUo : CËnmXH$mbm ^{dî`mV CËnmXZ dmT>dÊ`mgmR>r ^m§S>dbmMr JaO
AgVo Oa _mJUrV dmT> hmoÊ`mMr {ZpíMV h_r {Z_m©U hmoUma Agob Va CËnmXH$ ^m§S>dbmMr C^maUr H$aVmo.
g_Om _mJUrV gmYmaUnUo drg Vo n§Mdrg Q>ŠŠ`m§Zr dmT> hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm _mJUr AZw_mZmVyZ {XgyZ Ambr Va
Ë`mZwgma ^m§S>dbmMr C^maUr H$aÊ`mMr V`mar CËnmXH$ H$aV amhVmo. `m gdm©gmR>r Ë`mbm _mJUr AZw_mZ hr
g§H$ënZm Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
6. CÚmoJmMm {dñVma H$aUo : _mJUr AZw_mZm_wio CËnmXH$mbm ~mOmamMm g§nyU©nUo A§XmO Ambobm
AgVmo. Amnë`m dñVy H$emàH$mao {dH$ë`m OmVrb `mMm A§XmO `oVmo. `m~amo~aM AÝ` H$moUË`m dñVy§Zm _mJUr
{Z_m©U hmoB©b `mMm AmamIS>m ~m§YVm `oVmo. Ë`mAZwf§JmZo ZdrZ CËnmXZmÀ`m `moOZm V`ma H$aUo CËnmXH$mbm
eŠ` hmoVo. gÜ`m ^maVr` AW©ì`dñWoV AÞnXmW© CÚmoJ, dmhZ CÚmoJ, erVno`o, ~oH$ar `mgma»`m CÚmoJm§_Ü`o
{d{dY H§$nÝ`m BË`mXrgmR>r _mJUr AZw_mZ g§H$ënZoMm dmna H$aV AmhoV.
7. {dH«$s{df`H$ `moOZm AmIUo : _mJUr AZw_mZmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo CËnmXH$ ^{dî`mV Amnë`m CËnmXZmMr
{dH«$s H$moUH$moUË`m ~mOmamV H$emàH$mao H$am`Mr `mÀ`m _moR>çm `moOZm {ZpíMV H$ê$ eH$Vmo. CXm. ~hþamï´>r`
H§$nÝ`m ^maVr` CnI§S>mV _mJUrMo AZw_mZ H$ê$Z {dH«$s{df`H$ `moOZm AmIVmZm {XgVmV.
8. l_eŠVrMo {Z`moOZ : CÚmoJg§ñWobm qH$dm CËnmXH$mbm _mJUrÀ`m AZw_mZm_wio CËnmXZ dmT>{dÊ`m-
54
~amo~aM Ë`mgmR>r bmJUmar l_eŠVr H$emàH$mao dmnamV AmUm`Mr `mMo {Z`moOZ H$aVm `ooVo. CËnmXZ
dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r Hw$eb H$m_Jma, V§Ìk, ì`dñWmn{H$` dJ©, dmhVyH$ d BVa H$m_mgmR>r bmJUmao H$m_Jma `m§Mo
{Z`moOZ CËnmXH$mg H$aVm `oVo. Ë`m§Mr ^aVr H$emàH$mao H$am`Mr `mg§X^m©Vrb {ZU©` CËnmXH$ KoD$ eH$Vmo.
3.6 _mJUr AZw_mZ _moOÊ`mÀ`m nÕVr :
_mJUr AZw_mZmÀ`m gìh}jU nÕVr Am{U g§»`memór` `m à_wI XmoZ nÕVr AmhoV. `m XmoZ nÕVt_Ü`o
BVa H$m§hr CnnÕVr g_m{dð> AmhoV.
_mJUr AZw_mZ nÕVr

~mOma gìh}jU nÕVr g§»`memór` nÕV

1. àË`j _wbmIV nÕVr 2. _V AmO_mdUr nÕVr 1. AmboI nÕVr 2. H$mbgmaUr nÕVr

(A) g§nyU© gìh}jU (~) Z_wZm gìh}jU


nÕVr nÕVr

1. {dH«o$Vo _VAmO_mdUr 2. ~mOma Vkm§Mr 3. ì`mnmè`mMr


nÕVr _VAmO_mdUr nÕVr _VAmO_mdUr nÕVr

3.6.1 ~mOma gìh}jU nÕVr (Market Survey Method) :


hr nÕVr _mJUrMo AënH$mbrZ A§XmO dV©{dÊ`mgmR>r dmnabr OmVo. `m_Ü`o dñVy§Mo Oo J«mhH$ AgVmV
Ë`m§Mr nmhUr Ho$br OmVo. `m gìho©jUmV J«mhH$m§Mr _Vo AmO_mdbr OmVmV. Ë`m§À`m àË`jmV _wbmIVr KoVë`m
OmVmV. ~mOma{df`H$ Vkm§Mr _Vo AmO_mdbr OmVmV, VgoM {d{dY ì`mnmè`m§Mr _Vo AmO_mdbr OmVmV.
`m_YyZ gìh}jU nÕVr XmoZ àH$ma nS>VmV Vo åhUOo àË`j _wbImV nÕVr Am{U _VAmO_mdUr gìh}jU
nÕVr `m hmoV.
1. àË`j _wbmIV nÕVr :
~mOmamVrb J«mhH$ Am{U Cn^moŠVo `m§À`m àË`j _wbmIVr KoVë`m OmVmV Ë`mbm àË`j _wbmIV nÕVr
Ago åhUVmV. J«mhH$ dñVyMr IaoXr {H$Vr H$aVmV? {H$Vr qH$_Vr XoÊ`mgmR>r V`ma AgVmV? qH$_VrV ~Xb
Pmbm Va _mJUrV H$gm ~Xb H$aVmV? {H$Vr IaoXr H$aVmV? `mMr _m{hVr KoVbr OmVo Am{U `mAZwf§JmZo

55
_wbmIVr KoVë`m OmVmV d _m{hVr g§H${bV Ho$br OmVo Am{U Ë`mZwgma _mJUrMo AZw_mZ Ho$bo OmVo. qH$_VrV
~Xb Pmbm Va _mJUrda H$m` n[aUm_ hmoVmo `mg§X^m©Vrb _m{hVr J«mhH$m§H$Sy>Z _wbmIVrÛmao g_OyZ KoVbr
OmVo. gd©gmYmaUnUo Aer _m{hVr EH$ dfm©gmR>rMo AZw_mZ H$aVmZm dmnabr OmVo. `m nÕVr_Ü`o Cn^moŠË`mer
d¡`{ŠVH$ nmVirda g§nH©$ gmYbm OmVmo Am{U IaoXr~m~V Ë`mMo YmoaUo d {dMma OmUyZ KoVbo OmVmV. Oo
CËnmXH$ ~mOmamV CËnmXH$mÀ`m dñVy§Mr IaoXr H$aVmV Ë`m§Mr `mXr Ho$br OmVo Am{U Ë`m§À`mer g§nH©$ R>oD$Z
^{dî`mV Vo `m CËnmXZm§Mr IaoXr {H$Vr n«_mUmV H$aVrb `mg§X^m©V Ë`m§Mr _Vo AmO_mdbr OmVmV. Aer _Vo
AmO_mdë`mZ§Va Ë`m§Mr `mXr H$ê$Z Ë`m§À`mer g§nH©$ R>odbm OmVmo. Aem àH$mao `m nÕVrZwgma J«mhH$m§À`m
_wbmIVr KoD$Z dñVy§À`m _mJUrMo AZw_mZ Ho$bo OmVo Am{U Ë`mdê$Z A§XmO dV©{dbo OmVmV. àË`j _wbmIV
nÕVrMo XmoZ CnàH$ma AmhoV.
(A) g§nyU© gìho©jU qH$dm ImZogw_mar nÕVr : O|ìhm dñVy IaoXr H$aUmè`m gd© J«mhH$m§er g§nH©$
gmYyZ Ë`m§À`m _wbmIVr KoVë`m OmVmV V|ìhm Ë`mbm ImZogw_mar åhUVmV. IaoXr H$aUmè`m gd© J«mhH$m§Zm
dñVyg§X^m©V {d{dY _m{hVr {dMmabr OmVo. dñVyMo ñdê$n, AmH$ma, XOm©, JwUdÎmm, a§J `m àmW{_H$ _m{hVr~amo~a
qH$_V {H$Vr Agmdr? Amnë`m Anojm H$m` AmhoV? ^{dî`mV {H$Vr IaoXr H$aUma? `m AZwf§JmZo {d{dY
_m{hVr Jmoim Ho$br OmVo, `m_wio ^{dî`mV J«mhH$ {H$Vr IaoXr H$aob `mMm A§XmO `oVmo. Aer ImZogw_mar
Ho$ë`mZ§Va gd© J«mhH$m§À`m Ano{jV IaoXrg§»`oMr ~oarO Ho$br OmVo. Ë`m_wio AmnmoAmnM _mJUrV {H$Vr dmT>
hmoBb
© ? `mMm A§XmO CËnmXH$mbm `oV AgVmo. g_Om ~mOmamV CËnmXH$mH$S>o 1000 J«mhH$ AmhoV Ë`m§Mr ImZog_w mar
Ho$br d gamgarZo àË`oH$ J«mhH$mZo 10 dñVy OmñV IaoXr H$aUma Agë`mMo Z_yX Ho$bo Va EHy$U _mJUr 10000
dñVy BVH$s _mJUr dmT>ob, Agm A§XmO ~m§YVm `oVmo.
AWm©V, `m nÕVrV H$m§hr Xmof AmhoV hr nÕVr _`m©{XV {d^mJmnwaVr `mo½` R>aVo. EH$m JmdmV ehamV qH$dm
EH$m ~mOmamV Cn^moŠVo qH$dm J«mhH$ `m§À`mer g§nH©$ gmYZo eŠ` hmoVo. na§Vw g§nyU© XoemV _moR>çm {d^mJmV Aer
ImZogw_mar eŠ` hmoV Zmhr Aer _moR>r ImZogw_mar H$am`Mr Pmbr Va doi, eŠVr, n¡gm _moR>çm à_mUmV IM©
H$amdm bmJVmo.
(~) Z_wZm gìh}jU nÕVr : O|ìhm ~mOmamVrb {ZdS>H$ J«mhH$m§er g§nH©$ gmYyZ Ë`m§À`m _wbmIVr
KoVë`m OmVmV V|ìhm Ë`mbm Z_wZm gìh}jU Ago åhUVmV. `m nÕVrV ~mOmamV gd© J«mhH$m§er g§nH©$ gmYbm
OmV Zmhr Va dñVy IaoXr H$aUmao Oo J«mhH$ AgVmV Ë`mVrb {d{eï> J«mhH$m§Mr {ZdS> H$aÊ`mV `oVo. Ë`mZm
dñVyg§X^m©V {d{dY àíZ {dMmabo OmVmV. g§nyU© ImZogw_mar_Ü`o Ogo àíZ AgVmV VgoM ho àíZ AgVmV.
{H$Ë`oH$Xm J«mhH$m§Zm àíZmdbr nmR>dyZ _m{hVr KoVbr OmVo. Aer _m{hVr Jmoim H$ê$Z Amnë`m dñVy§Zm ^{dî`mV
_mJUr {H$Vr dmT>ob `mMm A§XmO CËnmXH$mbm ~m§YVm `oVmo. hr nÕVr gmonr d H$_r I{M©H$ Amho. àm_w»`mZo
AënH$mbrZ AZw_mZmgmR>r `mMm dmna CËnmXH$ H$aV AgVmV. `m nÕVr_Ü`o à_wI Xmof nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
56
1. `mo½` J«mhH$mMr {ZdS> H$aUo H$R>rU AgVo.
2. `m nÕVrV àíZH$Ë`m©Mm à^md H$_r amhVmo H$maU AZoH$Xm àíZmdbr nmR>dyZ _m{hVr KoVbr OmVo.
`mVrb gd©M _m{hVr Iar AgVoM Ago Zmhr.
2. _V AmO_mdUr nÕVr :
`m nÕVrbm gm_wXm{`H$ _V AmO_mdUr nÕVr Agohr åhQ>bo OmVo `m nÕVrZo AënH$mbrZ _mJUr{df`rMo
A§XmO dV©{dVm `oVmV. `m nÕVr_Ü`o dñVwer g§~§{YV AgUmao {dH«o$Vo, ì`mnmar, ~mOmaVk `m§Mr _Vo {dMmamV
KoVbr OmVmV. CÚmoJg§ñWoH$S>o dñVyMr {dH«$s H$aUmè`m {dVaH$m§Mo Omio AgVo. Ë`m§À`mH$Sy>Z CÚmoJg§ñWm
_mJUrg§X^m©V J«mhH$m§À`m à{V{H«$`m g_OyZ KoVo. dñVyMr _mJUr {H$Vr dmT>ob `mMm A§XmO KoÊ`mg gm§{JVbo
OmVo. {d{dY ehao, {d^mJ, CnZJao Aem {R>H$mUr J«mhH$m§er g§nH©$ R>odbm OmVmo d Ë`m§À`mH$Sy>Z _m{hVr Jmoim
H$aÊ`mV `oVo. ì`mnmar dJm©H$Sy>Z Aer _m{hVr A{Ve` H$_r IMm©V {_i{dUo CÚmoJg§ñWobm eŠ` hmoVo. {deof
åhUOo ì`mnmar Am{U ~mOmamVrb VÁk `m§À`mH$S>o _mJUr{df`H$ AÚ`mdV _m{hVr CnbãY AgVo Ë`mMm
\$m`Xm CÚmoJg§ñWobm hmoVmo Am{U _mJUrMo AZw_mZ H$aUo gmo`rMo hmoVo. CÚmoJg§ñWm, J«mhH$, ì`mnmar, ~mOmaVk,
ì`mdgm{`H$Vk `m§À`m _m{hVrMo g§H$bZ H$aV Agë`m_wio Amdí`H$ AmH$S>odmar CnbãY hmoVo. Ë`mÀ`m ghmæ`mZo
_mJUrMm A§XmO H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo. CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`mÑ{ï>Zo hr nÕVr A{Ve` gmonr d H$_r I{M©H$ Amho. ~mOmamVrb
ZdrZ ñnY©H$ dñVy§À`m ~m~VMr _m{hVr {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r `m nÕVrMm \$ma _moR>m Cn`moJ hmoVmo. `m nÕVrMo à_wI
Xmof nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. {dH«o$Vo, ì`mnmar, ~mOmaVk `mo½` d Iar _m{hVr XoVrbM Ago Zmhr.
2. àíZH$Vm© g_moa Zgë`m_wio J«mhH$ `mo½` _m{hVr XoB©bM Ago Zmhr.
3. `mVrb gd© _m{hVr Iar AgobM Ago ZgVo.
4. hr _m{hVr XrK©H$mbrZ AZw_mZmgmR>r \$m`Xoera R>aV Zmhr.
3.6.2 g§»`memór` nÕVr (Statistical Method) :
_mJUrÀ`m AZw_mZmgmR>r g§»`memór` nÕVrMm Adb§~a Ho$bm OmVmo. `m_Ü`o AmboInÕVr, H$mbgmaUr
nÕVr, ghg§~§YnÕVr, à{VnJ_ZnÕVr `m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. `mVrb AmboI nÕVr d H$mbgmaUr nÕVr `m XmoZ
à_wI nÕVtMm Aä`mg AmnU H$aUma AmhmoV.
1. AmboI nÕVr :
`m nÕVr_Ü`o Jmoim Ho$boë`m _m{hVrÀ`m AmYmao doJdoJio AmboI H$mTy>Z Ë`mdê$Z dñVyÀ`m _mJUrMm
H$b AmO_mdVm `oVmo Am{U Ë`mdê$Z A§XmO dV©{dbo OmVmV. AmboI H$mT>Ê`mgmR>r ñV§^mboI, dH«$mboI
H$mTy>Z Ë`m§Mo H$b Aä`mgbo OmVmV. ho AmboI Z\$m, _mJUr, {dH«$s, CËnmXZ dJ¡aog§~§Yr ^{dî`H$mbrZ A§XmO

57
ì`ŠV H$aÊ`mg Cn`wŠV AgVmV. ho AmboI nwT>rb df© qH$dm H$mbmdYrn`ªV dmT>{dë`mg Ë`m H$mimVrb _mJUrMm
A§XmO Ë`mdê$Z `oVmo. Imbr {Xboë`m CXmhaUmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo AmnUmg ho AmboI g_OyZ KoVm `oVmV.

df© _mJUr
2007 10000
2008 15000
2009 20000
2010 25000
2011 30000
2012 35000
2013 40000
2014 ?

g_Om 2007 Vo 2013 Xaå`mZ _mJUrV darbà_mUo dmT> Pmbr Agob Va 2014 _Ü`o _mJUr {H$Vr
Agob ho AmboImV XmI{dVm `oVo. AmboImMo XmoZ àH$ma AmhoV.
(A) ñV§^mboI : Aj Ajmda H$mbmdYr qH$dm df© KoD$Z A` Ajmda ZJg§»`m KoVbr OmVo d
nwT>rbà_mUo ñV§^mboI H$mT>Vm `oVmV.
`
40000

35000

30000

_mJUr 25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 df} j


58
AmH¥$VrV {d{dY dfm©Vrb _mJUrÀ`m ZJg§»`oÀ`mAmYmao ñV§^mboI H$mT>bo AmhoV. àË`oH$ ñV§^mMr C§Mr
dmT>V Joë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo. `mMm AW© Agm hmoVmo H$s, Xadfu _mJUrV dmT> hmoV Jobobr Amho. `m_wio 2014
Z§VagwÕm _mJUrV dmT> hmoB©b Agm A§XmO qH$dm AZw_mZ H$mT>Vm `oVo.
(~) dH«$mboI : darb _m{hVrÀ`m AmYmao aofr` dH«$ H$mT>bo OmVmV d Ë`m§À`m H$bmdê$Z A§XmO
dV©{dbo OmVmV. hm dH«$ COdrH$S>o daVr OmUmam Agob Va _mJUrV dmT> hmoV Amho Agm H$b {ZpíMV hmoVmo.
`mCbA Vmo Imbr gaH$Umam Agob Va _mJUrV KQ> hmoV Agë`mMo AZw_mZ H$mT>Vm `oVo. nwT>rb AmH¥$VrV
Xe©{dë`mà_mUo aofr` dH«$ AgVmV.
`

40000

35000

30000

_mJUr 25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 j


df}

doJdoJù`m dfm©Vrb _m{hVrÀ`m AmYmao AmboIq~Xy H$mT>bo OmVmV ho gd© q~Xy OmoS>ë`mZ§Va S>mdrH$Sy>Z
COdrH$S>o OmUmam dH«$ V`ma hmoVmo. hm dH«$ dmT>Ë`m ñdê$nmMm Amho Vmo darb dfmª_Ü`o _mJUrV dmT> hmoV
Agë`mMo Xe©{dVmo. `mdê$Z 2007 Vo 2013 `mXaå`mZ dñVy§À`m _mJUrV dmT>V hmoV Agë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo
Ago AZw_mZ H$mT>Ê`mV `oVo.
2. H$mbgmaUr nÕVr :
_mJUrMo AZw_mZ dV©{dÊ`mgmR>r {XemXe©H$ nÕVr åhUyZ H$mbgmaUr nÕVrMm {dMma Ho$bm OmVmo.
H$mbgmaUr_Ü`o ^yVH$mimVrb _m{hVr Aä`mgbr OmVo {VMo n[ajU Ho$bo OmVo Am{U Z§Va ^{dî`H$mbrZ _mJUrMo
A§XmO Ho$bo OmVmV. ^yVH$mimVrb Oo KQ>H$ _mJUrÀ`m {ZYm©aUmgmR>r H$maUr^yV AgVmV VoM KQ>H$ ^{dî`H$mbrZ
59
_mJUrgmR>r H$maUr^yV R>aVmV d VoM KQ>H$ _mJUrMm H$b {ZpíMV H$aVmV d _mJUrMr {Xem R>a{dVmV.
H$mbgmaUr_Ü`o _mJUrV ~Xb KS>{dÊ`mgmR>r Mma KQ>H$ n[aUm_H$maH$ R>aVmV, Vo KQ>H$ nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. gd©gmYmaU ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUUmao KQ>H$
2. h§Jm_r ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUUmao KQ>H$
3. M{H«$` ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUUmao KQ>H$
4. AZno{jV qH$dm A{Z`{_V ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUUmao KQ>H$
gd©gmYmaU ~Xb ho {Z`{_V _mJUrV hmoUmar dmT> qH$dm KQ> `m_wio hmoV AgVmV. hr ~Xbm§Mr gd©gmYmaU
àd¥Îmr AgVo. Oa _mJUrV hmoUmao ~Xb ho hdm_mZ dmVmdaUgmVrb ~Xb nmdgmim, {hdmim, CÝhmim BË`mXt_wio
hmoV AgVrb Va Ë`mbm h§Jm_r ~Xb Ago åhUVmV. Am{W©H$ VoOr d _§Xr_wio ~Xb KSy>Z `oV AgVrb Va Ë`m§Zm
MH«$s` ~Xb Ago åhUVmV Am{U _mJUrVrb ~Xb nya, XwîH$mi, ^yH§$n `mgma»`m AZno{jV KQ>Zm§_wio Pmbobo
AgVrb Va Ë`m§Zm AZno{jV ~Xb åhUVmV. Aem arVrZo H$mbgmaUr_Ü`o `m Mma àH$maMo ~Xb {dMmamV
KoVbo OmVmV qH$dm {d{eï> KQ>H$mV ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mg Mma n«H$maMo KQ>H$ O~m~Xma AgVmV, Ago
H$mbgmaUr nÕVrV J¥hrV Yabo OmVo. `mgmR>r `m nÕVrV KQ>H$m§Vrb ~Xb Xe©{dÊ`mgmR>r ~oaOoMo àmê$n d
JwUmH$ma àmê$n _m§S>bo.
~oaOoMo àmê$n :
Y = T+S+C+I

Y = H$mbgmaUr T = gd©gmYmaU ~Xb


S = h§Jm_r ~Xb C = MH«$s` ~Xb
I = A{Z`{_V ~Xb

H$mbgmaUr (Y) hr `m Mma KQ>H$m§Mr ~oarO AgVo. Y `m KQ>H$mVrb ~Xb `m Mma KQ>H$m§À`m ~oaOoEdT>o
AgVmV. åhUOoM darb Mma KQ>H$m§_wioM Y KQ>H$mV ~Xb hmoVmo.
Y = TXSXCXI

ho àmê$n Ago ñnï> H$aVo H$s, H$mbgmaUr hr `m Mma KQ>H$m§À`m JwUmH$mamBVH$s AgVo. A{Z`{_V MH«$s`
d h§Jm_r ~Xbm§Mo A§XmO dV©{dÊ`mgmR>r g§»`mË_H$ nÕVr àMbrV Zgë`m_wio Ho$di {Z`{_V ~Xbm§Mm {dMma
H$ê$Z _mJUrMo A§XmO dV©{dbo OmVmV. `mgmR>r Mma nÕVr AmhoV.
1) AmboI nÕVr, 2) ~XbVr gamgar nÕVr, 3) AY© gamgar nÕVr, 4) {H$_mZ dJ© nÕVr.
1) AmboI nÕVr : `m nÕVrV _mJUrÀ`m dm{f©H$ AmH$S>odmarMm Cn`moJ H$ê$Z AmboI H$mT>bm OmVmo.
j Ajmda df} d ` Ajmda _mJUrMr ZJg§»`m Xe©dyZ Ë`m§À`m ghmæ`mZo n«Ë`oH$ dfm©Mo AmboI q~Xy H$mT>bo
OmVmV. ho gd© q~Xy OmoS>ë`mg _mJUrMr {Xem qH$dm H$b Xe©{dUmam AmboI {_iVmo. hm dH«$ H$adVrÀ`m
60
XmVm§gmaIm qH$dm n[adbZ Agob Va AmboI q~XyÀ`m _YyZ OmUmar EH$ gai aofm H$mT>br OmVo. Ë`mg H$bXe©H$
aofm Ago åhUVmV. `m aofoÀ`m Imbr Am{U daÀ`m ~mOybm AmboI q~Xy nS>bobo AgVmV. ho AmboI q~Xy d
H$bXe©H$ aofm `m_Yrb A§Va H$_rH$_r AgVo. `m H$bXe©H$ aofodê$Z ^{dî`H$mbZr A§XmO dV©{dbo OmVmV.
nwT>rb CXmhaUmdê$Z AmboImÛmao ho A§XmO H$go dV©{dbo OmVmV Vo ñnï> hmoVo.

df© JìhmMr
_mJUr bjQ>Z
2006 50
2007 60
2008 55
2009 70
2010 65
2011 75
2012 65
2013 80
j Ajmda JìhmMr _mJUr d ` Ajmda df} Xe©dyZ nwT>rbà_mUo AmboI `oVmo.
`

40000 ~
35000

30000

JìhmMr 25000
A
_mJUr 20000

15000

10000

5000

0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 j


df}
61
2006 Vo 2013 `m dfm©V Jìhmbm AgUmè`m _mJUrMo {d{dY q~Xy Xe©{dbo AmhoV. ho gd© q~Xy Imbrda
{dIwabobo AmhoV. Vo EH$_oH$m§Zm OmoS>ë`mg _mJUrMm H$b Xe©{dUmam AH$ hm dH«$ {_iVmo. na§Vw Vmo H$adVrÀ`m
XmVm§gmaIm Agë`mZo Ë`m gd© q~Xy_YyZ OmUmar A~ hr gai aofm H$mT>br Amho Vr gd© q~Xy§À`m _YyZ OmVo.
{VÀ`m da d Imbr Ago q~Xy {dIwabobo AmhoV. `m aofonmgyZ gd© q~Xy§Mo A§Va H$_rV H$_r Amho. `m aofobm
H$bXe©H$ aofm Ago åhUVmV hr aofm S>mdrH$Sy>Z COdrH$S>o da OmUmar Amho. `mMm AW© 2006 Vo 2013 n`ªV
JìhmÀ`m _mJUrV gVV dmT> Pmbr Amho. Ë`m_wio 2014 `m dfm©VXoIrb JìhmMr _mJUr dmT>ob Agm {ZîH$f©
H$mT>Vm `oVmo.
AWm©V hr nÕVr gmYr gmonr Agbr Var `mVrb A§XmO \$mago Iao ZgVmV åhUyZ H$mbgmaUr_Ü`o _mJUr
AZw_mZmgmR>r BVa nÕVtMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.
2) ~XbVr gamgar nÕVr : `m nÕVrV {d{eï> dfm©Mr gamgar H$mT>br OmVo d Ë`mdê$Z A§XmO
Xe©{dbo OmVmV. g_Om, gamgar dmT>br Agob Va _mJUrV dmT> hmoB©b d gamgar KQ>Vr Agob Va _mJUr H$_r
hmoB©b, Agm A§XmO H$mT>bm OmVmo. `màH$mao ~XbVr gamgar H$mT>Ê`mgmR>r VrZ Vo Xhm df} qH$dm Ë`mnojm A{YH$
H$mbmdYr KoVbm OmVmo. `m nÕVrZo VrZ, Mma, nmM dfmªZr gamgar H$mTy>Z Ë`mdê$Z A§XmO dV©{dbo OmVmV.
gamgar H$mT>Ê`mgmR>r VrZ, nmM, gmV df} Agm {df_ H$mbmdYr KoVë`mg _Yë`m dfm©À`m g_moa gamgar
_m§S>br OmVo. gamgar H$mT>Ê`mgmR>r KoVbobm H$mbmdYr Mma, ghm, AmR> de} Agm g_ Agob Va Ë`m {d{eï>
dfm©Vrb _mJUrÀ`m ZJg§»`oMr ~oarO H$ê$Z Ë`m§Mr gamgar H$mT>br OmVo d Z§Va XmoZ dfm©Mr H|${ÐV gamgar
H$mTy>Z Vr _Ü`^mJr AgUmè`m dfm©g_moa _m§S>br OmVo.
CXm. g_Om Amnë`mbm VrZ dfu` ~XbVr gamgar H$mT>m`Mr Amho Vr nwT>rbà_mUo _m§S>Vm `oVo.

df© _mJUrMr ZJg§»`m VrZ dfm©À`m _mJUrMr VrZ dfu`


H$mbgmaUr EHy$U ~oarO ~XbVr gamgar
2005 51 - -
2006 53 160 53.33
2007 56 164 54.67
2008 55 169 56.33
2009 58 175 57.33
2010 62 181 60.33
2011 61 186 62.00
2012 63 188 62.66
2013 64 - -
62
`
S>

65 ~
64
63
62
61
_mJUrMo ZJ

60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
H$ A
j
0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
df} (H$mbmdYr)
VrZ dfu` ~XbË`m gamgarMm dmna H$ê$Z H$S> hr H$bXe©H$ aofm H$mT>br Amho. hr aofm S>mdrH$Sy>Z
COdrH$S>o da OmUmar Amho. Ë`m_wio 2014 `m dfm©Vhr dñVyMr _mJUr dmT>Vr amhrb Agm {ZîH$f© H$mT>Vm `oVmo.
3) {H$_mZ dJ© nÕVr : _mJUrVrb ~Xbm§Mo Zo_Ho$ A§XmO dV©{dÊ`mgmR>r `m nÕVrMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.
`m_Ü`o H$bXe©H$ aofVo rb ~Xb Aä`mgÊ`mgmR>r à{VnJ_Z (Regression) nÕVrMm Adb§~ Ho$bm OmVmo. H$bXe©H$
aofM
o m H$b hm J{UVmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo _moObm OmVmo. Ë`mgmR>r {H$_mZ dJ©nÕVr dJu` g_rH$aUo, KmVm§{H$` g_rH$aUo
`m§Mm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo. {H$_mZ dJu` nÕVrV H$bXe©H$ aofm H$mT>br OmVo Vr gaiaofm AgVo, H$adVrÀ`m XmVmgmaIr
qH$dm n[adb` Agy eH$Vo. H$bXe©H$ aofm gai Agob Va {H$_mZdJ© nÕVrMm dmna H$ê$Z ho ~Xb Aä`mgbo
OmVmV. {H$_mZ dJ© nÕVrV aofM o m H$b R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r nwT>rb g_rH$aUo dmnabr OmVmV.
CXm. g°_g§J H§$nZrbm {\«$OÀ`m _mJUrMo AZw_mZ H$mT>m`Mo Amho, Vo nwT>rbà_mUo _m§S>Vm `oB©b.

df© {dH«$s ZJg§»`m


2009 25000
2010 30000
2011 40000
2012 35000
2013 50000

63
`

S>
50000
~
40000

{dH«$s 30000
H$
20000
A
10000

j
0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

df}
H$S> dH«$mdarb gd© q~Xy§er {_iVr OwiVr A~ aofm hr H$bXe©H$ aofm H$mT>br Amho. A~ aofoMo A§Va H$S>
aofodarb gd© q~XynmgyZ {H$_mZ Amho A~ gah aofm AgyZ Vr S>mdrH$Sy>Z COdrH$S>o daVr OmUmar Amho. `mMm AW©
A~ aofm {\«$OÀ`m {dH«$sV Xadfu dmT> hmoV Agë`mMo Xe©{dVo. `mdê$Z Ago ñnï> hmoVo H$s, 2014 _Ü`ohr
{\«$OÀ`m {dH«$sV dmT> hmoB©b. H$bXe©H$ aofm g_rH$aUmV ~gdyZ {dH«$sV {H$Vr dmT> hmoB©b Vo emoYyZ H$mT>bo OmVo
Am{U Ë`mgmR>r {H$_mZdJ© nÕVr dmnabr OmVo.
3.7 gmam§e :
^{dî`mV Amnë`m dñVy§À`m _mJUrV {H$Vr à_mUmV dmT> hmoB©b `mMm A§XmO KoÊ`mMr nÕVr åhUOo
_mJUrMo AZw_mZ hmo`. gmYmaUnUo ^yVH$mimV Amnë`m dñVy§Zm {H$Vr _mJUr hmoVr `mMm AmYma KoD$Z
^{dî`H$mimMm A§XmO ~m§Ybm OmVmo. `mgmR>r {d{dY gìho©jU VgoM g§»`memór` nÕVtMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.
3.8 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX :
_mJUr AZw_mZ : _mJUrg§~§YrMm A§XmO ì`ŠV H$aUo
~mOma gìh}jU : ~mOmamMr nmhUr
AënH$mbrZ AZw_mZ : EH$ Vo VrZ dfmªgmR>rMm A§XmO
XrK©H$mbrZ AZw_mZ : gmYmaUnUo nmM qH$dm Ë`mnojm OmñV dfmªgmR>rMm A§XmO
ImZogw_mar : gd© J«mhH$m§Mr g§nyU© _m{hVr KoUo
Z_wZm gìh}jU : {d{eï> J«mhH$m§Mr {ZdS>
64
3.9 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ :
Imbrb dmŠ`o MyH$ H$s ~amo~a Vo {bhm.
1. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr g§H$ënZm hr J«mhH$m§gmR>r A{YH$ _hÎdmMr Amho.
2. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr g§§H$ënZm hr AënH$mbrZ Am{U XrK©H$mbrZ H$mimV dmnabr OmVo.
3. AmboI nÕVr hr g§»`memór` nÕVr Amho.
4. _V AmO_mdUr nÕVr hr ~mOma gìh}jU nÕVr Amho.
5. _mJUrVrb ~Xbm§Mo {ZpíMV A§XmO dV©{dÊ`mgmR>r {H$_mZ dJ© nÕVrMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.
CÎmao :
1. MyH$ 2. ~amo~a 3. ~amo~a 4. ~amo~a 5. ~amo~a
1.10 gamdmgmR>r ñdmÜ`m` :
(A) XrKm}Îmar àíZ.
1. _mJUr AZw_mZ åhUOo H$m`? _mJUr AZw_mZmMo àH$ma ñnîQ> H$am.
2. _mJUr AZw_mZ åhUOo H$m`? _mJUr AZw_mZmMo _hÎd ñnï> H$am.
3. _mJUr AZw_mZmÀ`m {d{dY nÕVr ñnï> H$am.
4. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr gìh}jU nÕVr {dfX H$am.
5. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr AmboI nÕV ñnï> H$am.
6. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr ~XbVr gamgar nÕV ñnï> H$am.
7. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr {H$_mZ dJ© nÕV ñnï> H$am.
(~) Q>rnm {bhm.
1. _mJUr AZw_mZmrM AmboI nÕVr
2. _mJUr AZw_mZmMo _hÎd
3. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr àË`j _wbmIV nÕVr
4. _mJUr AZw_mZmMr _VAO_mdUr nÕVr
5. AmboI nÕVr
6. {H$_mZ dJ© nÕVr
7. Z_wZm gìh}jU nÕVr
8. ~XbVr gamgar nÕVr
65
3.11 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$ :
1. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo> : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
A{OV npãbHo$eÝg², Bñbm_nya, {O. gm§Jbr
2. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo : "ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó'
_ohVm npãbqeJ hmD$g, nwUo 30
3. àm. am_ Xoe_wI : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
4. H. L. Ahuja : "Modern Economic Theory"
5. M. L. Seth : "Principles of Economics"
6. K. K. Dewtt : "Modern Economic Theory"
7. Dr. M. N. Shinde : "Managerial Economics"
8. D. Gopalkrishana : "Managerial Economics"
9. O. M. Agarwal and : "Business Economics"
R. Narayan

³³³

66
gÌ - 1 : KQ>H$ 4
CËnmXZ \$bZ
(Production Function)

4.1 C{Ôï>ço
4.2 àñVmdZm
4.3 {df` {ddoMZ
4.3.1 (A) CËnmXZ \$bZ
4.3.2 (B) CËnmXZ {gÕm§V
4.4 gmam§e
4.5 {dÚm{nR>r` ñdê$nmMo àíZ
4.6 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX
4.7 {dÚm{nR>r` ñdê$nmMo àíZ
4.8 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ
4.9 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$

3.1 C{Ôï>ço :
`m KQ>H$mÀ`m Aä`mgmZ§Va Amnë`mbm,
1. CËnmXZ \$bZ åhUOo H$m` Vo g_OyZ KoUo.
2. pñWa AmXmZo d ~XbVr AmXmZo `m§Mr _m{hVr Aä`mUo.
3. ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_mMm Aä`mg H$aUo.
4. à_mU \$bmMm {Z`_ Aä`mgUo.
5. A§VJ©V d ~{hJ©V ~MVr~m~V _m{hVr KoUo.
67

~r. H$m°_. ^mJ 1


ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó
1.1 àñVmdZm :
_mZdmÀ`m Ag§»` JaOm§Mr V¥ár H$aÊ`mgmR>r CËnmXZ à{H«$`m _hÎdmMr AgVo. CËnmXZ (Production) hm
XoemÀ`m AW©ì`dñWoMm H$Um AgVmo. CËnmXZ åhUOo dñVy Am{U godm `m§Mr {Z{_©Vr hmo`. S>m°. _me©b `m§À`m
_Vo, ""CËnmXZ åhUOo Cn`mo{JVoMr {Z{_©Vr hmo`.'' (Production means creation of Utility) CËnmXZmdê$Z
XoemÀ`m Am{W©H$ {dH$mgmMr H$ënZm `oVo. CËnmXZ åhUOo _mZdr à`ËZmÛmam {ZgJ©{Z{_©V dñVy d _Zwî` {Z{_©V,
^m§S>dbr gmYZ gm_J«rÀ`m _XVrZo doJdoJù`m Cn`mo{JVoMr {Z{_©Vr H$aUo hmo`. àm. _o`g© `m§À`m _Vo, ""dñVy§À`m
d godm§À`m {d{Z_`mW© H$aÊ`mV Ambobr H$moUVrhr {H«$`m åhUOo CËnmXZ hmo`.'' (Production is an activity
that resulets in goods or servises intended to exchange.)

4.3 {df` {ddoMZ :


4.3.1 (A) CËnmXZ \$bZ (Production Function) :
CËnmXZ \$bZ åhUOo AmXmZ Am{U àXmZ `m Xmohmo_Yrb Vm§{ÌH$ qH$dm H$m`m©Ë_H$ g§~§Y hmo`. AmXmZmMo
(Inputs) àXmZmV (Outputs) ê$nm§Va H$aUo åhUOo CËnmXZ hmo`. EImÚm CÚmoJ g§ñWoZo qH$_VrMm {dMma Z H$aVm
dmnabobr gmYZ gm_J«r Am{U {VÀ`m_wio dñVy qH$dm godm `m§Mo CËnmXZ `m Xmohm|_Yrb g§~Y§ mg CËnmXZ \$bZ Ago
åhUVmV. AmXmZmMo \$bZ åhUOo CËnmXZ qH$dm àXmZ hmo`. CËnmXZ \$bZ Imbrb gyÌmdê$Z ñnï> H$aVm `oV.o
Q = F (L. K.) Š`y = E\$ (Eb.Ho$.)
Q (Š`y) = àXmZmMo n[aUm_ (Quantity of output)
F (E\$) = H$m`m©Ë_H$ g§~§Y (Functional Relationship)
L (Eb) = H$m_JmamMo n[a_mU (Quantity of Labour)
K (Ho$) = ^m§S>dbmMo n[a_mU (Quantity of Capital)

darb g_rH$aU AmXmZmMo n[a_mU d àXmZmMo n[a_mU `m Xmohmo_Yrb g§~§Y ñnï> H$aVo.
ì`m»`m :
Imbrb ì`m»`m§dê$Z CËnmXZ \$bZmMr `mo½` H$ënZm `oB©b.
1. àm. {bßgo : ""CËnmXZmÀ`m {H«$`oV Á`m godm AmXmZ `m ñdê$nmV dmnaë`m OmVmV Am{U Ë`m_wio
CËnmXZ \$bZ (àXmZ) `m ñdê$nmÀ`m Á`m dñVy {_iVmV `m Xmohmo_Yrb nañna g§~§YmMm C„oI CËnmXZ \$bZ
Agm Ho$bm OmVmo.''
(The relation between the factor services used as inputs in the productive process & the
quantity of output obtained... this relation between input and output is usually referred as the
Production Function - Prof. Lipsey.)

2. àm. nr. E. g°å`wAbgZ : ""ApñVËdmV Agboë`m Vm§{ÌH$ kmZmMm {dMma H$aVm CËnmXZmÀ`m
doJdoJù`m g§À`mnmgyZ Or CËnmXZ g§ñWm CËnm{XV H$aUo eŠ` AgVo Ë`m Vm§{ÌH$ nañna g§~§Ymg CËnmXZ \$bZ
Ago åhUVmV.''
68
(The production function is the technical relationship telling the amount of output capable
of being produced by each and every sets of specified inputs or factors production. It is defined
for a given state of technical knowledge. - Prof. P. A. Samuelson)

CËnmXZ \$bZmMr d¡{eï>ço :


1. CËnmXZ \$bZ ho CËnmXZmÀ`m ^m¡{VH$ _mÌm Am{U CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m ^m¡{VH$ _mÌm g§~§Y Xe©{dVo hr
g§H$ënZm AW©emñÌmV _hÎdmMr _mZbr OmVo.
2. CËnmXZ \$bZ ho Vm§{ÌH$ kmZmZwgma ~XbVo. Vm§{ÌH$ kmZàJV Pmë`mg Ë`mVrb g§§~§Y ~XbVmo. H$maU
Vm§{ÌH$ àJVrZo nydunojm OmñV CËnmXZ hmoVo.
3. CËnmXZ \$bZmMm Aä`mg H$aVmZm doi hm KQ>H$ {dMmamV ¿`mdm bmJVmo.
4. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m `mo½` _m{hVr{edm` CËnmXZ \$bZmMm AW© H$iUma Zmhr. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§er n[adV©Z
erbVm d {d^mÁ`Vmhr _m{hV Agmdr bmJVo.
{d{dY g§H$ënZm§Mm AW© (Meaning of Various Concepts) :
H$moUË`mhr CËnmXZ g§ñWobm CËnmXZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r {d{dY CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm (Input) dmna H$amdm bmJVmo.
Ë`mVyZ CËnmXZmMr (Output) {Z{_©Vr hmoVo. åhUOoM AmXmZmMo (Inputs) àXmZmV (Output) ê$nm§Va H$aUo åhUOo
CËnmXZ hmo`. nydu CËnmXZ KQ>H$ (Factors) hm eãX dmnabm OmV hmoVm. na§Vw AmYw{ZH$ AW©emókm§À`m _Vo,
AmXmZ (Inputs) `m eãXmZo ì`mnH$ AW© XmI{dbm OmVmo. åhUyZ Vmo dmnaUo `mo½` R>aVo. `m g§X^m©Vrb {d{dY
g§H$ënZm§Mm AW© nwT>rbà_mUo -
1. AmXmZo (Inputs) : Or CËnmXZmÀ`m à{H«$`ogmR>r dmnabr OmVo. Aem dñVy qH$dm godobm AmXmZ Ago
åhUVmV. åhUOoM AmXmZo åhUOo Aem dñVy d godm AgVmV H$s Á`m§Mm dmna H$ê$Z dñVyMo CËnmXZ (Output)
Ho$bo OmVo. Ë`m_wio AmXmZo åhUOo Aem dñVy H$s, Á`m CËnmXZmgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgVmV. AmXmZo åhUOoo CËnmXZ
KQ>H$ hmoV. Á`m§À`m ghmæ`mZo dñVy§Mo CËnmXZ Ho$bo OmVo. `mMm AW© CÚmoJg§ñWobm CËnmXZmgmR>r Á`m dñVy§Mr
IaoXr H$amdr bmJVo Ë`m§Zm AmXmZo Ago åhUVmV. CXm. H$m_Jma, ^m§S>db, `§Ìgm_J«r, ^y_r, H$ƒm _mb B.
2. àXmZo (Outputs) : àXmZ åhUOo CÚmoJg§ñWm {dH«$sgmR>r CËnmXZ qH$dm à{H«$`m H$arV Agbobr
H$moUVrhr dñVy hmo`. CËnmXZmÀ`m à{H«$`oVyZ {Z_m©U hmoUmè`m H$moUË`mhr dñVy qH$dm godm§Zm àXmZ Ago åhUVmV.
åhUOoM CÚmoJg§ñWm H$arV Agbobo CËnmXZ qH$dm àXmZ åhUOo Aer H$moUVrhr dñVy qH$dm godm, {OMo CËnmXZ
CÚmoJ g§ñWoH$Sy>Z Ho$bo OmVo d Ë`mgmR>r AmXmZm§Mm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo. åhUOoM CËnmXZ à{H«$`oVyZ ~mhoa nS>Umar
dñVy qH$dm godm åhUOo àXmZ (Outputs) hmo`.
AmXmZo d àXmZo `m g§H$ënZm nwT>rb CXmhaUmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo ñnï> H$aVm `oVmV.

69
CXm. gmIa CËnmXZmgmR>r gmIa H$maImÝ`mV Cg, H$m_Jma, `§Ìgm_J«r, drO, ^m§S>db, B_maVr B. dmna
H$ê$Z gmIa hr A§{V_ dñVy V`ma Ho$br OmVo. `m CXmhaUmV Cg, H$m_Jma, `§Ìgm_J«r, drO, ^m§S>db, B_maVr
`m§Zm "AmXmZo' åhUVmV. Va gmIa hr A§{V_ dñVy Agë`mZo gmIa hr àXmZ åhUVmV.
3. pñWa AmXmZo (Fixed Inputs) : AënH$mimV Á`m KQ>H$m§Mm nwadR>m Abd{MH$ AgVmo Ë`mg pñWa
AmXmZo Ago åhUVmV. åhUOo AënH$mimV pñWa AmXmZm§Mm nwadR>m _`m©{XV AgVmo. åhUyZM CËnmXH$m§Zm Vr
_moR>çm à_mUmV dmnamgmR>r CnbãY hmoV ZmhrV. Xwgè`m CËnmXH$mZo Ë`mMm OmñV dmna Ho$ë`mg Xwgè`m CËnmXH$m§Zm
Vr H$_r nS>VmV.
CXm. H$maImÝ`mMr OmJm, B_maVr, `§Ìgm_J«r B.
CËnmXZmÀ`m {ZpíMV Aem nmVirn`ªV pñWa Aem n[a_mUmV dmnaë`m OmUmè`m AmXmZmg pñWa AmXmZo
Ago åhUVmV. åhUOoM àXmZmV ~Xb Pmbm Var AmXmZmÀ`m n[a_mUmV H$moUVmhr ~Xb hmoV Zmhr.
4. ~XbVr AmXmZo (Variable Inputs) : Á`m CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm nwadR>m Aën H$mimV bd{MH$ AgVmo
Aem CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Zm ~XbVr AmXmZo Ago åhUVmV. åhUOo AënH$mimV CËnmXH$m§Zm `m ~XbË`m AmXmZm§Mm
nwadR>m dmT>{dVm `oVmo qH$dm H$_r H$aVm `oVmo. CËnmXZ dmT>rgmR>r CËnmXZ hr AmXmZo _moR>çm à_mUmV dmnaVmV.
CXm. H$m_Jma, H$ƒm _mb B. `m AmXmZm§Mm dmna H$ê$Z CËnmXH$ CËnmXZ dmT>dy eH$VmV.
àXmZmVrb ~Xbm~amo~a Á`m§À`m n[a_mUmV ~Xb H$aVm `oVmo Ë`m§Zm ~XbVr AmXmZo Ago åhUVmV. Aën
H$mimV `m§Mm nwadR>m bd{MH$ AgVmo. CXm. l_, H$ƒm _mb, ^m§S>db B.
WmoS>Š`mV, pñWa AmXmZo åhUOo Oo CËnmXZ KQ>H$ CËnmXZ à{H«$`oV pñWa AgVmV Ago CËnmXZ KQ>H$ hmoV.
Va ~XbVr AmXmZo åhUOo Á`m§Mm dmna CËnmXZm~amo~a ~XbVm `oVmo Ago CËnmXZ KQ>H$ hmoV.
5. EHy$U CËnmXZ (Total Product) : CÚmoJg§ñWm dñVyMo CËnmXZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r H$m_Jma, ^m§S>db B.
KQ>H$m§Mm dmna H$aVo. `m gd© KQ>H$m§À`m g§`moJmZo Oo CËnmXZ Ho$bo OmVo. Ë`mbm EHy$U CËnmXZ Ago åhUVmV.
åhUOoM EHy$U AmXmZm§À`m g§»`obm {VÀ`m gamgar CËnmXZ ZJ g§»`oZo JwUbo AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZ {_iVo.
`mMmM AW© CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m g§»`obm Ë`m§À`m gamgar CËnmXZmZo JwUbo AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZ {_iVo. CXm.
EH$m CÚmoJmV XmoZ H$m_Jma H$m_ H$aV AgVrb d Ë`m§Mo gamgar CËnmXZ 15 ZJ Agob Va EHy$U CËnmXZ (2
X 15 = 13) 30 dñVy§Mo hmoB©b. EHy$U CËnmXZ H$mT>Ê`mgmR>r nwT>rb gyÌmMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.

EHy$U CËnmXZ = AmXmZ g§»`m X gamgar CËnmXZ


(CËnmXZ KQ>H$ g§»`m)
30 = 2 X 15
Oa AënH$mimV CËnmXZmMo H$mhr KQ>H$ pñWa AgVrb Va CËnmXZ g§»`m ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§Mo à_mU
dmT>dyZ CËnmXZ dmT>{dVmV. åhUOoM O|ìhm CÚmoJg§ñWobm EHy$U CËnmXZ dmT>dmd`mMo AgVo V|ìhm Vo H$m_Jma d
70
^m§S>dbr gmYZmV dmT> H$aVo. `oWo CËnmXZ (àXmZ) ^m¡{VH$ EH$H$mV (unit) ì`ŠV Ho$bo OmVo. åhUyZ H$mhr doim
EHy$U CËnmXZmg EHy$U ^m¡{VH$ CËnmXZ (Total Physical Product) Ago åhQ>bo OmVo.
6. gamgar CËnmXZ (Average Product) : CËnmXZ à{H«$`o_Ü`o Oo ~XbVo KQ>H$ dmnabo OmVmV. Ë`m
EH$H$m§À`m g§»`oZo EHy$U CËnmXZmbm ^m{Jbo AgVm gamgar CËnmXZ qH$dm gamgar ^m¡{VH$ (dñVyê$n) CËnmXZ
{_iVo. AënH$mimV BVa KQ>H$ pñWa AgVmV; nU H$mhr ~XbVo KQ>H$ dmT>{dVm `oVmV. åhUOoM gamgar
dñVyê$n CËnmXZ ho \$ŠV ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§er g§~§{YV AgVo.
EHy$U CËnmXZmÀ`m ZJg§»`obm AmXmZm§À`m EHy$U g§»`oZo ^mJbo AgVm gamgar CËnmXZ `oVo. `mMo gyÌ
nwT>rbà_mUo -
EHy$U CËnmXZ
gamgar CËnmXZ =
EHy$U AmXmZm§Mr g§»`m
30
gamgar CËnmXZ =
2
= 15
7. gr_m§V CËnmXZ (Marginal Product) : CËnmXZ g§ñWoZo EImÚm OmXm CËnmXZ KQ>H$mg H$m_mda
KoVbo AgVm Ë`m CÚmoJ g§ñWoÀ`m EHy$U CËnmXZmV dñVyê$nmZo Or ^a nS>Vo Ë`mbm Ë`m KQ>H$mMo gr_m§V CËnmXZ
qH$dm gr_m§V dñVyê$n CËnmXZ (Marginal Physical Product) Ago åhUVmV.
WmoS>Š`mV, AmXmZm§Mr g§»`m EH$mZo dmT>{dbr AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZmV Or dmT> hmoVo Ë`mg gr_m§V CËnmXZ
Ago åhUVmV qH$dm eodQ>À`m CËnmXZ KQ>H$mMr (AmXmZmMr) CËnmXH$Vm qH$dm CËnmXZ åhUOo gr_m§V CËnmXZ hmo`.
EHy$U CËnmXZ, gamgar CËnmXZ d gr_m§V CËnmXZ `m_Yrb g§~§Y nwT>rb VŠË`mdê$Z ñnï> H$aVm `oVmo.

H$m_Jma EHy$U CËnmXZ gamgar CËnmXZ gr_m§V CËnmXZ

1 10 10 10
2 24 12 14
3 45 15 21
4 68 17 23
5 80 16 12
6 90 15 10
7 98 14 08

71
darb VŠË`mdê$Z CËnmXZmMo BVa KQ>H$ pñWa R>odyZ H$m_Jma (l{_H$) `m KQ>H$mV dmT> H$aV Joë`mg
EHy$U gamgar d gr_m§V dñVyê$n CËnmXZmV H$go ~Xb hmoVmV ho XmI{dbo Amho. Mm¡Wm H$m_Jma H$m_mda KoVë`mg
EHy$U CËnmXZ 68 EdT>o hmoVo. Ë`mdoir gr_m§V CËnmXZ 23 BVHo$ Amho. Ë`mZ§Va H$m_Jma g§»`m dmT>dV Zoë`mg
EHy$U CËnmXZ 80% EdT>o hmoVo; nU gamgar CËnmXZ KQy> bmJVo. Vo 16 BVHo$ hmoVo. Va gr_m§V CËnmXZ doJmZo
KQ>Vo. Vo 12 BVHo$ Pmbo Amho. Aem àH$mao H$m_Jma g§»`oV EH$m {d{eï> _`m©XoZ§Va dmT> H$aV Joë`mg EHy$U
CËnmXZ dmT>Vo. na§Vw gamgar CËnmXZ KQ>Vo. Va gr_m§V CËnmXZ Ë`mhrnojm OmñV doJmZo KQ>Vo.
4.3.2 (B) CËnmXZ {gÕm§V (Production Theories) :
àñVmdZm : _mZdmÀ`m Ag§»` JaOm§Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mgmR>r CËnmXZ à{H«$`m _hÎdmMr AgVo. CËnmXZ hm
XoemÀ`m AW©ì`dñWoMm H$Um AgVmo. S>m°. _me©b `m§À`m _Vo, ""CËnmXZ åhUOo Cn`mo{JVoMr {Z{_©Vr qH$dm dmT>
H$aUo hmo`.'' CËnmXZ åhUOo _mZdr à`ËZmÛmam {ZgJ©{Z{_©V dñVy d _Zwî`{Z{_©V ^m§S>dbr gmYZ gm_J«rÀ`m
_XVrZo {d{dY Cn`mo{JVoMr {Z{_©Vr H$aUo hmo`. CËnmXZmdê$Z XoemÀ`m Am{W©H$ {dH$mgmMr H$ënZm `oVo. CËnmXH$
CËnmXZmMo doJdoJio KQ>H$ EH$Ì AmUyZ CËnmXZ H$aV AgVmo. CËnmXZmMo KQ>H$ ~Xbë`mZ§Va CËnmXZmda H$m`
n[aUm_ hmoVmo ho Aä`mgÊ`mgmR>r CËnmXZmMo {d{dY {gÕm§V Aä`mgmdo bmJVmV. CËnmXZmMo Mma KQ>H$ EH$Ì
AmUyZ Ë`m§Mo `mo½` à_mU R>a{dUo _hÎdmMo AgVo. CËnmXZ Cn`wŠV KQ>H$ Am{U Ë`m§À`mnmgyZ {_iUmao \$b `m
Xmohmo_Yrb nañna g§~§Y Xe©{dUmao {gÕm§V åhUOo CËnmXZ {Z`_ (Law's of Production). `mgmR>r XmoZ n`m©`
AgVmV. (1) CËnmXZ KQ>H$mn¡H$s \$ŠV EH$mM KQ>H$mÀ`m à_mUmV ~Xb Ho$ë`mZ§Va CËnmXZmV H$gm d {H$Vr
~Xb hmoVmo ho Aä`mgÊ`mgmR>r ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ Cn`wŠV R>aVmo. Va CËnmXZmÀ`m gd© KQ>H$mV ~Xb
Ho$ë`mZ§Va CËnmXZmV H$gm d {H$Vr ~Xb hmoVmo ho Aä`mgÊ`mgmR>r à_mU \$bmMm {Z`_ Cn`wŠV R>aVmo.
1. ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {gÕm§V ({Z`_) qH$dm AënH$mbrZ CËnmXZ \$bZ :
(Law of Variable Proportion) :
~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ hm Aën H$mimV AZw^dmg `oVmo. AënH$mi åhUOo Agm H$mi H$s, Á`m_Ü`o
H$mhr CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm (AmXmZo) nwadR>m Abd{MH$ (pñWa) AgVmo. åhUOo `m AmXmZm§Mm nwadR>m AënH$mimV
_moR>çm à_mUmV dmT>{dVm `oV Zmhr qH$dm H$_r H$aVm `oV Zmhr. CXm. OmJm, B_maV, `§Ì gm_J«r B. `m CËnmXZ
KQ>H$m§À`m nwadR>çmV dmT> H$ê$Z CËnmXZ dmT>{dVm `oV Zmhr. na§Vw CËnmXH$mbm ~XbË`m CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm nwadR>m
dmT>dyZ Amnë`m CËnmXZm_Ü`o dmT> H$aVm `oVo. H$maU Aën H$mimV ~XbË`m CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm nwadR>m bd{MH$
AgVmo. åhUyZM Ë`m§À`m nwadR>çmV dmT> qH$dm KQ>H$ H$aVm `oVo. CXm. ^m§S>db, H$ƒm _mb, H$m_Jma `m KQ>H$mV
(AmXmZo) dmT> H$ê$Z CËnmXH$mbm dñVyÀ`m CËnmXZmV dmT> H$aVm `oVo. AënH$mi hm H$mhr AmR>dS>o, H$mhr _{hZo
qH$dm àg§Jr EH$ dfm©Mm H$mbmdYr AgVmo. ~XbË`m à_mUmÀ`m {Z`_mbmM AënH$mbrZ CËnmXZ \$bZ Agohr
åhUVmV.
~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ CËnmXZ {df`H$ {díbofUmV AË`§V _hÎdmMm Amho. KQ>Ë`m \$bmÀ`m {gÕm§VmMo
AmYw{ZH$ ê$n åhUOoM ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ hmo`. `m {Z`_m_Ü`o ({gÕm§V) BVa CËnmXZ KQ>H$ H$m`_ R>odyZ
72
EImÚm CËnmXZ KQ>H$mV ~Xb Ho$bm AgVm CËnmXZ \$bmV KSy>Z `oUmè`m ~Xbm§Mo {ddoMZ Ho$bo OmVo. `m
{Z`_mbm ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ åhUÊ`mMo H$maU åhUOo CËnmXZ dmT>Ê`mMr qH$dm KQ>Ê`mMr àd¥Îmr hr
{d{dY KQ>H$m§À`m ~XbË`m à_mUmda Adb§~yZ AgVo. `m {gÕm§VmbmM gZmVZdmXr AW©emókm§Zr KQ>Ë`m
\$bmMm {gÕm§V ({Z`_) Ago åhQ>bo Amho.
CËnmXZ à{H«$`oV CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo dñVwê$n CËnmXZmV ê$nm§Va Ho$bo OmVo. CËnmXZmMo KQ>H$ ho Xw{_©i AgVmV.
B_maV, `§Ìgm_J«r, ^m§S>bd, ì`dñWmnZ `m pñWa CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m _mZmZo _Oya/l{_H$, H$ƒm _mb, drOnwadR>m,
nmUrnwadR>m `m A{ñWa CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm nwadR>m H$_r Xw{_©i AgVmo. AënH$mimV CËnmXZ KQ>H$mV dmT> Ho$ë`mg
gwédmVrbm CËnmXZmV dmT> hmoVo Z§Va H$mhr H$mi pñWa amhVo Am{U eodQ>r CËnmXZmV KQ> hmoV Agë`mMo {XgyZ
`oVo. CËnmXZmVrb `mM àd¥Îmrbm ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ Ago åhQ>bo OmVo. `mbmM Aà_m{UV CËnmXZ \$b
{gÕm§V Agohr åhUVmV. àm. g°å`wAbgZ, àm. ~mopëS>¨J, lr_Vr am°{~ZgZ, àm. pñQ>Jba B. AW©emókm§Zr
gZmVZr {dMmagaUrVrb Xmof XmIdyZ KQ>Ë`m \$bmMr àd¥Îmr \$ŠV eoVrÀ`m joÌmVM Z {XgVm XoemÀ`m gd©M
joÌmV hr àd¥Îmr {XgyZ `oVo ho ñnï> Ho$bo. åhUyZM `m {gÕm§Vmbm AmYw{ZH$ AW©emókm§Zr dmT>Vo CËnmXZ \$b,
pñWa \$b Am{U KQ>Vo \$b `m CËnmXZmÀ`m doJdoJù`m AdñWm Z _mZVm CËnmXZmMm ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_
åhUyZ Ë`mMo {díbofU Ho$bo Amho.
ì`m»`m :
1) àm. g°å`wAbgZ : ""gmnojVoZo pñWa AgUmè`m BVa CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m _mZmZo (AmXmZo) EH$m
CËnmXZ KQ>H$m_Ü`o dmT> Pmbr AgVm CËnmXZ (àXmZ) dmT>ob. VWm{n, EH$m {d{eï> _`m©XoZ§Va Ë`m CËnmXZ
KQ>H$mV hmoUmè`m dmT>rnmgyZ {_iUmao CËnmXZ H$_r-H$_r hmoV OmVo.''
("An increase in same inputs relative to other comparatively fixed inputs cause output to
increase but after a point, the extra output resulting from the same additions of input will became
less & less." - Prof. Samuelson)

2) lr_Vr Om°Z am°{~ÝgZ : ""CËnmXZmMm EH$ KQ>H$ pñWa R>odyZ BVa KQ>H$mV H«$_e: dmT> H$arV Joë`mg
EH$m {d{eï> _`m©XoZ§Va CËnmXZmV KQ>Ë`m XamZo dmT> hmoVo Ë`mbm KQ>Ë`m CËnmXZmMm {Z`_ Ago åhUVmV.''
(The law of diminishing returns, as it is formulated, states with fixed amout of any one fact
or will after a point yield a diminishing increament of the produce. - Mrs. Joan Robinson)

3) àm. ~oZh°_ : ""CËnmXZ KQ>H$ g_wXm`mn¡H$s EImÚm KQ>H$mMo à_mU dmT>{dV Zobo AgVm {d{eï>
q~XyZ§Va Ë`m ~XbË`m CËnmXZ KQ>H$mMo àW_ gr_m§V CËnmXZ d Z§Va gamgar CËnmXZ KQ>V OmVo.''
("As the proporation of one factor in a combination of factor increased, after a point the
marginal and average product of the factor will diministh. - Prof. Benham.")

73
darb ì`m»`m§dê$Z Ago {XgyZ `oVo H$s, BVa CËnmXZ KQ>H$ (AmXmZo) H$m`_ R>odyZ EImÚm CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mr
g§»`m dmT>{dë`mg CËnmXZmda H$gm d H$moUVm n[aUm_ hmoB©b ho ~XbË`m à_mUmÀ`m {Z`_mV ñnï> hmoVo.
~XbË`m à_mUmÀ`m {Z`_mMo {díbofU : ~XbË`m à_mUmÀ`m {Z`_m_Ü`o AÝ` KQ>H$ (AmXmZo)
H$m`_ R>odyZ EImÚm KQ>H$mV ~Xb Ho$ë`mg Ë`mMm CËnmXZmda H$gm d H$moUVm n[aUm_ hmoVmo ho ñnï> Ho$bo OmVo.
CXm. EH$m eoVH$è`mOdi XmoZ EH$a O_rZ AgyZ Vr pñWa Amho. åhUOoM Ë`mV H$mhrhr ~Xb hmoV Zmhr. Va
AmXmZohr H$m`_ AmhoV; nU l{_H$m§Mr g§»`m eoVH$ar dmT>{dVmo. åhUOoM l_ `m AmXmZmV (KQ>H$mV) ~Xb
Pmë`mg Ë`mMm CËnmXZmda H$gm n[aUm_ hmoVmo ho nwT>rb H$moï>H$mdê$Z ñnï> H$aVm `oVo.
H$moï>H$ H«$. 4.1
O{_ZrMo joÌ l_ EHy$U gamgar gr_m§V CËnmXZmVrb Q>ßnm
(pñWa KQ>H$) (~XbVm CËnmXZ CËnmXZ CËnmXZ àd¥Îmr
(EH$a) KQ>H$) (q¹$Q>b) (q¹$Q>b) (q¹$Q>b)
2 EH$a 1 8 8 8
2
2
EH$a
EH$a
2
3
20
36
10
12
12
16 o dmT>Vo
\$b
n{hbm
Q>ßnm

2 EH$a 4 48 12 12

o
2 EH$a 5 55 11 7
KQ>Vo Xwgam
2 EH$a 6 60 10 5 \$b Q>ßnm
2 EH$a 7 63 9 3
2 EH$a 8 64 8 1
2 EH$a 9 64 7.11 0
2 EH$a
2 EH$a
10
11
60
55
6
5
-4
-5
o CUo
\$b
{Vgam
Q>ßnm

darb H$moï>H$mV eoVr joÌmV XmoZ EH$a O{_Zr_Ü`o l_ `m CËnmXZ KQ>H$mV (AmXmZ) H$gm ~Xb hmoV OmVmo
Vo ñnï> Ho$bo Amho. H$m_Jmam§Mr g§»`m 1, 2 d 3 Aer dmT>V Joë`mg EHy$U CËnmXZmV dmT>V hmoVo, Ë`mdoir
gamgar CËnmXZ 8, 10 d 12 Ago dmT>V OmVo, Va gr_m§V CËnmXZ 8, 12 d 16 Ago dmT>V OmVo. åhUOo EHy$U
CËnmXZmV Or dmT> hmoVo Vr CËnmXZ dmT>rMm (gr_m§V CËnmXZ) dmT>Vm Xa (Increasing Rate) Xe©{dVo åhUyZ
Ë`mg dmT>Vo \$b Ago åhUVmV. hr ~XbË`m à_mU {gÕm§VmMr n{hbr AdñWm Xe©{dVo.
Ë`mZ§Va H$m_Jmam§Mr g§»`m 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Aer dmT>V Joë`mg gamgar CËnmXZ 12, 11, 10, 9 d 8

74
Ago KQ>V OmVo, Ë`mdoir gr_m§V CËnmXZ 12, 7, 5, 3 d 1 Ago KQ>V OmVo, `m {R>H$mUr KQ>Ë`m CËnmXZ
\$bmÀ`m {gÕm§V (Decreasing Rate) àË``mbm `oVmo. hr ~XbË`m à_mU {gÕm§VmMr Xwgar AdñWm hmo`.
VgoM H$m_Jmam§Mr g§»`m 9, 10 d 11 Aer dmT>V Joë`mg EHy$U CËnmXZmV KQ> hmoVo åhUyZ EHy$U
CËnmXZ dH«$ Imbr KQ>V OmVmo, `mdoir gamgar CËnmXZ 7.11, 6 d 5 Ago KQ>V OmVo Va gr_m§V CËnmXZ
0, -4 d -5 Ago KQ>V OmVo. `m {R>H$mUr ~XbË`m à_mU {gÕm§VmMr {Vgar AdñWm "CUo \$b' (Negative
Rate of return) àË``mbm `oVo. `m AdñWoV gr_m§V CËnmXZmV hmoUmar KQ> hr gamgar CËnmXZmVrb KQ>rnojm
OmñV AgVo, åhUyZ Ë`m {R>H$mUr gamgar CËnmXZ d gr_m§V CËnmXZ XmoÝhr g_mZ hmoVmV, Ë`mZ§Va gr_m§V CËnmXZ
dH«$ (grC) ImbÀ`m {Xeobm Va gamgar CËnmXZ dH«$ (gC) daÀ`m {Xeobm nS>bobm AgVmo Am{U Xwgè`m
AdñWoZ§Va EHy$U CËnmXZ dH«$ Imbr KgaV OmVmo. ho nwT>rb AmH¥$VrV Xe©{dbo Amho. hr AmH¥$Vr CËnmXZ
\$bmÀ`m VrZ AdñWm Xe©{dVo.
`

100

90

80
EHy$U gamgar /gr_m§V CËnmXZ

70 III
II
60

50
EC
40 I

30

20

10
gC
0 j
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 grC
-10

-20
H$m_Jma (~XbVo KQ>H$)
`

75
{d{dY AdñWm / Q>ßno :
~XbË`m à_mUmÀ`m {Z`_mÀ`m VrZ AdñWm/Q>ßno AmhoV Ë`mMo {díbofU nwT>rbà_mUo -
1) n{hbm Q>ßnm (AdñWm) - dmT>Vo \$c : n{hë`m Q>ßß`m_Ü`o EHy$U CËnmXZ dmT>Ë`m XamZo dmT>Vo
Ë`m_who gr_m§V CËnmXZhr dmT>V OmVo. Va gamgar CËnmXZ dmT>V OmD$Z H$_b (_hÎm_) q~Xybm nmohmoMVo. EHy$U
CËnmXZmV dmT> hmoVo. åhUOoM n{hë`m Q>ßß`mV gamgar CËnmXZ EH$gmaIo dmT>V OmVo. H$maU pñWa AmXmZm§À`m
_mZmZo ~XbË`m AmXmZm§Mr g§»`m A{YH$ dmnaë`mZo pñWa KQ>H$ A{YH$ H$m`©j_ [aVrZo dmnabo OmVmV. EHy$U
CËnmXZ dmT>Vo. VgoM ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§Mr n[a_mUo dmT>ë`mZo l_{d^mJUr d {deofrH$aU eŠ` hmoVo. ~XbË`m
KQ>H$m§Mr CËnmXH$Vm dmT>ë`mZo dmT>Ë`m \$bmMr à{MVr `oVo. gm_mÝ`V: pñWa AmXmZo hr A{d^mÁ` AgVmV.
Ë`mdoir ~XbË`m AmXmZmMr A{YH$m{YH$ n[a_mUo A{d^mÁ` pñWa AmXmZmÀ`m n[a_mUm~amo~a dmnaë`mZo pñWa
AmXmZmÀ`m n[a_mUm~amo~a dmnaë`mZo pñWa CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm àH${f©V dmna Ho$bm OmVmo. åhUZyM CËnmXZ dmT>Vo.
`m CXmhaUmV l_mMr ZJg§»`m dmT>dë`mZo O{_ZrMm dmna H$m`©j_VoZo dmna H$aVm `oVmo. åhUyZ EHy$U CËnmXZmV
dmT> hmoVo. CËnmXZmVrb A§VJ©V d ~mø ~MVr_wio dmT>Ë`m \$bmMm {Z`_ AZw^dmg `oVmo. åhUyZM `m n{hë`m
Q>ßß`mbm dmnaË`m \$bmMm Q>ßnm Ago åhUVmV.
2) Xwgam Q>ßnm (AdñWm) - KQ>Vo \$b : Xwgè`m Q>ßß`mV EHy$U CËnmXZ dmT>V OmVo; nU `m dmT>rMm
doJ H$_r-H$_r hmoV OmVmo. `m Q>ßß`mV ~XbË`m AmXmZmMo gamgar d gr_m§V CËnmXZ KQ>V OmVo. na§Vw Vo KZ
AgVo. `m Q>ßß`mV KQ>Ë`m \$bmMm {Z`_ AZw^dmg `oÊ`mMo _hÎdmMo H$maU åhUOo EH$m CËnmXZ KQ>H$mEodOr
Xwgam CËnmXZ KQ>H$ {H$Vr à_mUmV dmnaVm `oB©b `mbm _`m©Xm AgVo. CËnmXZmMm gdm©{YH$ H$m`©j_ Am{U
n[aUm_H$maH$ q~Xy JmR>ë`mZ§Va ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§À`m dmT>boë`m EH$H$m§À`m VwbZoV pñWa KQ>H$m§Mo EH$H$ H$_r nSy>
bmJVmV åhUyZ CËnmXZ KQ>Vo. VgoM pñWa KQ>H$ A{d^mÁ` Agë`mZo Ë`mMm H$m`©j_VoZo d nyU©nUo dmna hmoV
Agë`mZo ~XbË`m AmXmZmMr g§»`m (_mÌm) dmT>dë`mZo gamgar CËnmXZ KQ>V OmVo. pñWa d ~XbË`m AmXmZm§Mm
g_Ýd` {~KS>Vmo d Ag_Vmob {Z_m©U hmoD$Z ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§Mo CËnmXZ \$b H$_r hmoVo. `m CXmhaUmV Xwgè`m
Q>ßß`mV l_mÀ`m dmT>Ë`m AmXmZmÀ`m _mZmZo O{_ZrMo (eoVr) AmXmZ H$_r nS>Vo. Ë`m_wio A§VJ©V ~MV ~§X hmoVo.
åhUyZ l_mÀ`m A{V[aŠV ZJm§Mr (EH$H$) CËnmXH$Vm H$_r hmoVo. lr_Vr am°{~ÝgÀ`m _Vo, CËnmXH$ KQ>H$m§Mo
n`m©`Vm AnyU© Agë`mZo KQ>Ë`m \$bmMr àd¥Îmr {XgyZ `oVo. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m n`m©`VoMr bd{MH$Vm _`m©{XV
AgVo. àm. M|~a{bZ `m§À`m _Vo, H$mbm§VamZo l_{d^mJUr d {deofrH$aU H${R>U hmoVo. Ë`m_wio AH$m`©j_Vm
{Z_m©U hmoVo. KQ>Ë`m \$bmMm hm Xwgam Q>ßnm _hÎdmMm _mZbm OmVmo. CËnmXH$ KQ>H$ EH$_oH$mg nyU© n`m©` AgVo
Va hm {Z`_ AZw^dmg Ambm ZgVm.
3) {Vgam Q>ßnm (AdñWm) - CUo/F$U \$b : {Vgè`m Q>ßß`m_Ü`o EHy$U CËnmXZmV KQ> hmoVo. ~XbË`m
AmXmZm§Mo gr_m§V CËnmXZ ho eodQ>r CUo hmoVo. H$maU pñWa AmXmZm§À`m _mZmZo ~XbË`m AmXmZm§Mr g§»`m A{V[aŠV

76
hmoD$Z CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m H$m`m©V AS>Wim {Z_m©U hmoVmo. Ë`m_wio CËnmXZ dmT>Ê`mEodOr H$_r hmoVo. `m A{V[aŠV
ZJ g§»`o_wio pñWa KQ>H$m§À`m H$m`©j_Voda A{Zï> n[aUm_ hmoVmo. `m Q>ßß`mV ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§À`m {dnwbVoZo Ë`m§Mr
gr_m§V CËnmXH$Vm F$U/CUo (Negative) hmoVo. gr_m§V CËnmXZmMm dH«$ "Aj' AjmImbr OmVmo. åhUyZ `m
Q>ßß`mbm CUo/F$U qH$dm ZH$mamË_H$ \$bmMm Q>ßnm åhUVmV. `m Q>ßß`mV ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§Mr g§»`m A{V[aŠV
Pmë`mZo CËnmXZmVrb VmoQ>o qH$dm ~o~MVr dmT>V OmVmV. WmoS>Š`mV, CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mr A{d^mÁ`Vm d Xw{_©iVm
hr ~XbË`m à_mUmÀ`m {Z`_mMr H$maUo AmhoV.
WmoS>Š`mV, ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ åhUOo dmT>Vo \$b, KQ>Vo \$b Am{U CUo \$b `m§Mm g§`moJ Amho.
~XbË`m à_mUmÀ`m {Z`_mV VrZ Q>ßß`mV VrZ \$bo {XgyZ `oVmV.
J¥hrVo qH$dm _`m©Xm :
hm {Z`_ nwT>rb J¥hrVmda Adb§~yZ Agë`mZo Ë`mda {d{dY _`m©Xm nS>VmV.
1. {d{dY CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m à_mUmV ~Xb H$aVm Ambm nm{hOo.
2. ~XbË`m AmXmZm§À`m gd© KQ>H$m§Mr H$m`©j_Vm g_mZ AgVo d Ë`m§Mr qH$_V pñWa AgVo.
3. ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§Mo à_mU H$_rOmñV H$ê$Z Ë`m§À`m AmYmao pñWa KQ>H$m§Mm nyU© dmna H$aVm `oVmo.
4. hm {Z`_ Ho$di AënH$mimVM AZw^dmg `oVmo, XrK© H$mimV Zmhr.
5. CËnmXZmÀ`m à{H«$`oV H$mhr KQ>H$ pñWa Agbo nm{hOoV Va H$mhr KQ>H$ ~XbVo Agbo nm{hOo.
6. CËnmXZ V§Ì, CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mr JwUdÎmm, ì`dñWmnZ nÕVr, `§Ìgm_J«r d CÚmoJ {dÚm `m Jmoï>rV ~Xb
hmoV Zmhr.
7. n¡emVrb _yë`m~m~VrV hm {gÕm§V bmJy nS>V Zmhr.
8. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo AË`wËH¥$ï> à_mU KodyZ CËnmXZ H$aUmè`m CËnmXZ g§ñWoÀ`m ~m~VrV hm {gÕm§V Iam
R>aVmo.
9. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo doJdoJio ZJ gmaIoM AgVmV Am{U CËnmXZ KQ>H$ nyU©nUo {d^mÁ` H$aVmV.
{Z`_mMo _hÎd/Cn`mo{JVm :
`m {Z`_mÀ`m darb _`m©Xm Agë`m Var hm {Z`_ ({gÕm§V) gd© àH$maÀ`m CËnmXZ joÌm§Zm bmJy nCVmo.
åhUyZM Ë`mMo AmOhr _hÎd Amho.
1. `m {Z`_m_wio H$maImÝ`mVrb ~XbË`m KQ>H$m§Mo ZJ {H$Vr dmT>{dVm `oVrb `mMr H$ënZm `oVo.
2. A{dH${gV d {dH${gV amï´>mV CËnmXZmMo V§Ì {ZdS>VmZm `m {Z`_mMm Cn`moJ hmoVmo.

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3. `m {Z`_m_wio nwadR>çmÀ`m bd{MH$VoMr H$ënZm `oVo.
4. hm {Z`_ {d^mOZ H$m`m©_Ü`o CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Zm `mo½` _mo~Xbm XoÊ`mgmR>r Cn`wŠV R>aVmo.
5. `m {Z`_m_wio n`m©á CËnmXZmMo Ü`o` gmÜ` H$aVm `oVo.
6. hm {Z`_ gaH$mabm H$a AmH$maVmZm Cn`wŠV R>aVmo.
7. `m {Z`_mZo eoVr ì`dgm`mVrb gImob d {dñV¥V eoVr nÕVrVrb \$aH$ ñnï> hmoVmo.
gmam§e : àm. g°å`wAëgZ `m§À`m _Vo, hm {gÕm§V Amnë`m Zoh_rÀ`m nmhÊ`mVrb d AZw^dmg `oUmar EH$
Vm§{ÌH$ d Am{W©H$ ñdê$nmMr dñVwpñWVr Amho. CËnmXZmVrb _hÎdmÀ`m ~m~r `m {gÕm§VmZo g_OVmV. åhUyZM
ì`dmdhm[aH$ Ñï>çm Vmo Cn`wŠV d _hÎdmMm Amho.
2. CËnmXZ à_mU \$bmMm {Z`_ (Law of Returns to Scale) :
àñVmdZm : XrK© H$mimV CËnmXZmÀ`m gd© KQ>H$m_Ü`o ~Xb KS>dyZ AmUUo eŠ` AgVo. gd© AmXmZo
~XbVm `oVmV. `mgmR>r CËnmXZ g§ñWobm {d{dY KQ>H$mVrb AmXmZmMo à_mU àñWm{nV H$aUo JaOoMo AgVo.
CËnmXZmÀ`m gd© KQ>H$m§À`m à_mUmV ~Xb Ho$ë`mZ§Va EHy$U CËnmXZmV H$gm ~Xb hmoVmo `mMo {díbofU
CËnmXZ à_mU \$bmMo \$b `mÀ`m ghmæ`mZo H$aVm `oVo. XrK©H$mi åhUOo Agm H$mi H$s Á`m_Ü`o gd©
CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m (AmXmZ) nwadR>m bd{MH$V AgVmo. XrK©H$mimV pñWa d ~XbË`m XmoÝhr àH$maÀ`m CËnmXZ
KQ>H$m§Mm (AmXmZm§Mm) nwadR>m dmT>{dVm `oVmo qH$dm H$_r H$aVm `oVmo. åhUyZM XrK© H$mimV dñVyMo CËnmXZ
pñèa Am{U ~XbË`m CËnmXZ KQ>H$mV dmT> H$ê$Z CËnmXZ dmT>{dVm `oVo. AmYw{ZH$ H$mimV CÚmoJmMo AmH$ma_mZ
IynM _moR>o AgVo. àË`oH$ CÚmoJ gmVË`mZo Amnbo AmH$ma_mZ dmT>{dV AgVmo. `m Ñï>rZo à_mU \$bmÀ`m
{Z`_mMm Aä`mg Ho$bm OmVmo.
CËnmXZ à_mU \$bmMm {Z`_ (Law of Returns to Scale) :
CËnmXZmMr gd©M AmXmZo ~Xbbr åhUOoM gd©M KQ>H$ gma»`mM à_mUmV dmT>dbo Va Ë`mMm
CËnmXZmda H$m` n[aUm_ hmoVmo `mMo {ddoMZ CËnmXZ à_mU \$bmÀ`m {Z`_mV Ho$bo OmVo. VWm{n, gd©M
CËnmXZ KQ>H$mV gmaIrM dmT> H$aÊ`mMr JaO ZgVo. CËnmXZmÀ`m gd© AmXmZmV Ë`m§Mo AmnmngmVrb
à_mU R>abobo AgVo. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo EH$_oH$m§er Agbobo JwUmoÎma H$m`_ R>odyZ gd© CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m
n[a_mUmV gmaIrM dmT> Ho$br AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZ H$em àH$mao dmT>Vo. `mMr H$ënZm `m {Z`_mZo `oVo.
CXm. 10,000 é. ^m§S>db d 1 _Oya Ago à_mU CËnmXZmgmR>r dmnabo OmV Agob Va ^m§S>db nmM
nQ>rZo dmT>{dbo åhUOo é. 50,000 Ho$bo Va _Oyam§Mo g§»`m nmM nQ> åhUOo nmM H$amdr bmJob. `mMm
AW© ^m§S>db _Oya à_mU 10,000:1 ho H$m`_ amhVo. nwT>rb H$mën{ZH$ CXmhaUmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo hr
g§H$ënZm A{YH$ ñnï> H$aVm `oVo.

78
H$moï>H$ H«$. 4.2

CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo à_mU EHy$U CËnmXZ gr_m§V CËnmXZ àd¥Îmr


(q¹$Q>b Jhÿ) (q¹$Q>b Jhÿ)

1 _Oya + 1 EH$a O_rZ 8 8 dmT>Ë`m


2 _Oya + 2 EH$a O_rZ 17 9 \$bmMr àd¥Îmr
3 _Oya + 3 EH$a O_rZ 27 10 (n{hbr AdñWm)
4 _Oya + 4 EH$a O_rZ 38 11 pñWa \$bmMr
5 _Oya + 5 EH$a O_rZ 49 11 AdñWm
(Xwgar AdñWm)
6 _Oya + 6 EH$a O_rZ 59 10 KQ>Ë`m \$bmMr
7 _Oya + 7 EH$a O_rZ 68 09 n«d¥Îmr
8 _Oya + 8 EH$a O_rZ 75 07 ({Vgar AdñWm)

`m H$moï>H$mdê$Z ho ñnï> hmoVo H$s, AmXmZm§À`m g§»`oV à_mUera dmT> Ho$br AgVm àW_ dmT>Vo \$b Z§Va
pñWa \$b Am{U eodQ>r KQ>Vo \$b Ago à_mU \$b AZw^dmg `oVo. `m {VÝhr àd¥Îmr åhUOo EH$M {gÕm§V ({Z`_)
hmo`. `m CXmhaUmVrb eoVH$ar JìhmMo CËnmXZ H$aVmo, Ago J¥hrV Yabo Amho. CËnmXZmVrb AmXmZmMo à_mU
1 _Oya = 1 EH$a O_rZ Ago Yabo Amho. Vo eodQ>n`ªV ~XbV Zmhr. CXm. 8 _Oya + 8 EH$a O_rZ. åhUOo
1 _Oya + 1 EH$a O_rZ ho à_mU H$m`_ amhVo. àma§^r 1 EH$a eoVrgmR>r 1 _Oya Cn`moJmV AmUë`mZo 8 q¹$Q>b
JìhmMo CËnmXZ hmoVo. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo n«_mU XwßnQ> åhUOo 2 _Oya + 2 EH$a eoVr Ho$ë`mg JìhmMo CËnmXZ 17
q¹$Q>b åhUOo XwnQ>rnojm OmñV hmoVo. Va CËnmXZ AmXmZmMo à_mU {VßnQ> åhUOo 3 EH$a + 3 EH$a eoVr Ho$ë`mg
JìhmMo CËnmXZ 27 q¹$Q>b åhUOo {VnQ>rnojm OmñV hmoVo. `oWo CËnmXZ \$bmMr dmT>Vr àd¥Îmr {XgyZ `oVo. H$maU
CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§_Ü`o (AmXmZo) Ho$boë`m dmT>rnojm CËnmXZmV A{YH$ ^a nS>Vo. hr n{hbr AdñWm (Q>ßnm) hmo`.
`mZ§Va 4 _Oya + 4 EH$a O_rZ d 5 _Oya + 5 EH$a O_rZ Ago CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo à_mU à_mU~Õ
dmT>{dë`mg EHy$U CËnmXZ dmT>Vo; nU gr_m§V CËnmXZ pñWa amhVo. åhUyZ `m Xwgè`m AdñWog (Q>ßnm) pñWa
\$bmMr àd¥Îmr Ago åhUVmV. `mZ§Vahr 6 _Oya + 6 EH$a O_rZ, 7 _Oya + 7 EH$a O_rZ Am{U 8 _Oya + 8
EH$a O_rZ Ago à_mU~Õ CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo n¦_mU odmMT>dë`mg EHy$U CËnmXZmV dmT> hmoVo. na§Vw gr_m§V CËnmXZ
_mÌ KQ>V OmVo. åhUyZ `m {Vgè`m AdñWobm (Q>ßnm) KQ>Ë`m \$bmMr àd¥Îmr Ago åhUVmV. ho nwT>rb AmH¥$VrÀ`m
(4.2) ghmæ`mZo A{YH$ ñnï> H$aVm `oVo.
79
` AmH¥$Vr H«$. 4.2

pñWa \$b
12 H$ S>
o \$b KQ>V
10 dmT>V o \$b
gr_m§V CËnmXZ

8
~ B
6

j
A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo à_mU


~mOyÀ`m AmH¥$VrV (4.2) "Aj' Ajmda CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mo ~XbVo à_mU Am{U "A`' Ajmda gr_m§V
CËnmXZ XmI{dbo Amho. AmH¥$VrV "~H$' hr aofm dmT>Vo \$b XmI{dVo Va "H$S>' hr aofm pñWa \$b XmI{dVo Am{U
"S>B' hr aofm KQ>Vo \$b XmI{dVo.
{gÕm§VmMr J¥hrVo : ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ nwT>rb J¥{hVmda AmYmabobm Amho.
1. AW©ì`dñWoV nyU© ñnYm© {XgyZ `oVo.
2. CËnmXZ g§ñWoV _moOVm `oVo.
3. CËnmXZmV H$moUË`mhr àH$maMo Vm§{ÌH$ ~Xb hmoV ZmhrV.
4. H$m_Jma àM{bV AdOmao d hË`mao `m§À`m ghmæ`mZo H$m_ H$aVmV.
5. CËnmXZmMo gd© YQ>H$ ~XbVm `oVmV _mÌ g§`moOH$ hm KQ>H$ pñWa AgVmo. hm KQ>H$ ~XbVm `oV Zmhr.
CËnmXZ à_mU \$bmÀ`m AdñWm (Q>ßno) :
CËnmXZ à_mU\$bmÀ`m {d{dY AdñWm H$m {XgyZ `oVmV `mMo {díbofU nwT>rbà_mUo -
1) dmT>Vo à_mU \$b (Increasing Returns to Scale) : CËnmXZmV dmnaë`m OmUmè`m gd© KQ>H$m§À`m
à_mUmV dmT> Ho$br AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZmV O|ìhm CËnmXZ AmXmZm§À`m dmT>rnojm A{YH$ à_mUV hmoVo V|ìhm
CËnmXZ à_mUmMo dmT>Vo \$b AZw^mg `oVo. g_Om, gd© KQ>H$ 20% Zr dmT>{dbo AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZmV 50%

80
dmT> Pmbr Va hr CËnmXZ à_mUmÀ`m dmT>Ë`m \$bmMr àd¥Îmr hmo`. hr àd¥Îmr {Z_m©U hmoÊ`mMo H$maU XrK© H$mimV
gamgar IM© KQ>V OmVmo. A§VJ©V d ~{hJ©V bm^ àmá hmoVmV. {deofrH$aU d l_{d^mJUrMo \$m`Xo {_iVmV.
àm. M|~abrZÀ`m _Vo, l{_H$m§À`m d `§Ìgm_J«rÀ`m {deofrH$aUmZo dmT>Vo \$b àmá hmoVo. A§VJ©V d ~{hJ©V ~MVr
dmT>Ë`m \$bmg H$maUr^yV R>aVmV.
2) pñWa à_mU \$b (Constant Returns to Scale) : CËnmXZ KQ>H$ Á`m à_mUmV dmT>{dbo OmVmV
Ë`m KQ>H$m§À`m dmT>rÀ`m à_mUmV EHy$U CËnmXZmV dmT> hmoVo V|ìhm pñWa \$bmMo à_mU Ago g§~moYVmV. CXm.
CËnmXZmÀ`m gd© KQ>H$m§_Ü`o 20% dmT> Ho$br AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZmV 20% M dmT> hmoV Agob Va pñWa
à_mU\$bmMr àd¥Îmr AmT>iVo. àm. M|~abrZÀ`m _Vo, CËnmXZ H$m`m©_Ü`o {d{dY àH$maMo \$m`Xo Am{U VmoQ>o
gmaIoM hmoVmV. V|ìhm pñWa à_mU \$bmMm AZw^d `oVmo. lr_Vr am°{~ÝgZ `m§À`m _Vo, CËnmXZmMo KQ>H$ nyU©
{d^mOZr` Agë`mZo hr àd¥Îmr {XgyZ `oVo. `m pñWVrV ~MVr d ~o~MVr `m§Mm g_Vmob hmVmo. J{UVr joÌmV
Am{U CËnmXZ \$bZ {df`H$ {ddoMZmV hr g§H$ënZm _hÎdmMr _mZbr OmVo.
3) KQ>Vo à_mU \$b : gd© CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m (AmXmZo) ZJg§»`oV Á`m à_mUmV dmT> Ho$br OmVo
Ë`mnojm EHy$U CËnmXZmV H$_r à_mUmV dmT> hmoVo V|ìhm KQ>Ë`m à_mU \$bmMm AZwd^ `oVmo. CXm. gd© CËnmXZ
KQ>H$m§V (AmXmZo) 10% dmT> Ho$br AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZmÀ`m 5% dmT> Pmë`mg `m à_mU \$bmMm AZw^d
`oVmo. H$maU CËnmXZmÀ`m BVa AmXmZmà_mUo g§`moOH$ `m AmXmZmV (KQ>H$) dmT> H$aVm `oV Zmhr. g§`moOZ
H$m`m©V AH$m`©j_Vm {Z_m©U hmoVo. dmT>Ë`m CËnmXZmMo ì`dñWmnZ H$aUo H$R>rU OmVo. Ë`m_wio KQ>Ë`m \$bmMr
àd¥Îmr {XgyZ `oVo. pñWa KQ>H$ Am{U ~XbVo KQ>H$ `m§Mo JwUmoÎma ~XbVo ì`dñWmnZ, {Z`§ÌU, {Z`_Z, gwgy{ÌH$aU
`m~m~V AZoH$ AS>MUr {Z_m©U hmoVmV. VgoM CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m qH$_Vr (_Oyar, \§$S> B.) dmT>ë`mZo CËnmXZ
IM©hr dmT>Vmo. `m gd© H$maUm§_wio pñWa \$bmZ§Va KQ>Ë`m \$bmMr àd¥Îmr {Z_m©U hmoVo.
_yë`_mnZ/{Q>H$mË_H$ n[ajU :
1. H$mhr CËnmXZ KQ>H$ A{d^mÁ` AgVmV. _moR>çm à_mUmda CËnmXZ Ho$ë`mdaM Ago KQ>H$ dmnaVm
`oVmV. Ë`m_wio CËnmXZmMo à_mU bhmZ Agë`mg Ago KQ>H$ A§eV: dmnaVm `oV ZmhrV.
2. {d{eï> n[apñWVrV gd©M KQ>H$ XwßnQ> H$aUo eŠ` hmoV Zmhr. CXm. H$m_Jmam§Mr g§»`m dmT>dbr Va
Am¡Úmo{JH$ {eñV {~KS>Vo.
3. H$mhr CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm nwadR>m _`m©{XV AgVmo. CXm. g§`moOH$ hm KQ>H$ _`m©{XV Agë`mZo hr H$ënZm
Aì`dhm`© Amho.
4. M|~abrZ `m§À`m _Vo, ì`dhmamV dmT>Vo \$b AZw^dmg `oUo A{YH$ eŠ` AgVo. H$maU `§ÌmMo d l_mMo
{deofrH$aU eŠ` AgVo.
gmam§e : `m {Z`_mda darbà_mUo Q>rH$m Pmë`m Agë`m Am{U H$mhr J¥hrVo A_mÝ` H$aÊ`mV Ambr
81
Agbr Var AmYw{ZH$ AW©emñÌm_Ü`o `m {gÕm§Vmbm _hÎdmMo ñWmZ Amho. H$mhr CËnmXZ KQ>H$ A{d^mÁ` d
_`m©{XV Agbo Var `m {gÕUm§VmÀ`m ghmæ`mZo CËnmXH$mbm (g§`moOH$) CËnmXZ {df`H$ `mo½` {ZU©` KoVm
`oVmV. CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§À`m à_mUmV ~Xb Ho$ë`mg Vo H$moUË`m _`m©Xon`ªV {H$\$m`Vera R>aob ho `m {Z`_mÀ`m
AmYmao H$iVo. XrK©H$mimV CËnmXZ{df`H$ {ZU©` KoÊ`mgmR>r hm {Z`_ Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
3. à_mUmVrb ~MVr (Economics of Scale) :
CÚmoJ g§ñWoÀ`m gd© CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§V dmT> Ho$ë`mg CÚmoJ g§ñWoMo AmH$ma_mZ dmT>Vo. dmT>Ë`m AmH$ma_mZmZo
CËnmXZ g§ñWm§Zm doJdoJio bm^ hmoVmV. VgoM CËnmXZ à_mUmMm CËnmXZ IMm©da n[aUm_ hmoVmo. CËnmXZ à_mU
EH$m {d{eï> _`m©Xon`ñ§V dmT>V Joë`mg CËnmXZmMm gamgar IM© KQ>V OmVmo. Z\$m dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r CËnmXZmMo
à_mU dmT>{dbo OmVo. AmYw{ZH$ H$mimV CËnmXZ _moR>çm à_mUmV H$aÊ`mMr d¥Îmr dmT>V Amho.
EImXm {d{eï> CÚmoJ {d{eï> {R>H$msU dmT>bm H$s EH$mM dñVyMo CËnmXZ H$aUmè`m AZoH$ CÚmoJ g§ñWm§Mm
g_yh {Z_m©U hmoVmo. CÚmoJg§ñWm§À`m {d{eï> {R>H$mUr Pmboë`m H|$ÐrH$aUm_wio Oo bm^ {_iVmV. Ë`m§Zm ~{hJ©V
~MVr/bm^ Ago åhUVmV. Aem àH$mao CÚmoJg§ñWm§À`m dmT>r_wio d H|$ÐrH$aUm_wio hmoUmè`m bm^m§Mo dJuH$aU
S>m°. _me©b `m§Zr A§VJ©V ~MVr (bm^) d ~{hJ©V ~MVr Ago Ho$bo Amho. Ë`mMo {díbofU nwT>rbà_mUo -
(A) A§VJ©V ~MVr (Interenal Economics) :
CÚmoJ g§ñWoMo AmH$ma_mZ dmT>ë`m_wio CÚmoJ g§ñWobm ñdV:bm Oo bm^ (\$m`Xo) {_iVmV Ë`m§Zm A§VJ©V
~MVr åhUVmV. `m ~MVr CÚmoJ g§ñWobm CËnmXZ dmT> Ho$ë`m_wio {_iVmV. CÚmoJg§ñWm Á`m CËnmXZ nÕVr
ñdrH$maVo Ë`m_wio Ë`m CËnmXZ g§ñWobm Ë`m ~MVr {_iVmV. `m nÕVr bhmZ CËnmXZ CÚmoJ g§ñWm§Zm dmnaVm `oV
Zgë`mZo Ë`m§Zm A§VJ©V ~MVr {_iV ZmhrV. A§VJ©V ~MVr nwT>rbà_mUo -
1) Vm§{ÌH$ ~MVr (Technical Economics) : Vm§{ÌH$ ~MVr `m _moR>çm `§Ì gm_J«rÀ`m dmnam_wio
{_iVmV. CÚmoJ g§ñWoMo AmH$ma_mZ _moR>o Pmë`mg AZoH$ Vm§{ÌH$ ~MVr {_iVmV. ^m§S>dbr gmYZ gm_J«r
_moR>çm à_mUmV dmnaë`mZo g§~§{YV CÚmoJg§ñWoMr H$m`©j_Vm dmT>Vo. `m_Ü`o nwT>rb bm^m§Mm (~MVr) g_mdoe
hmoVmo.
(A) _moR>r `§Ìo - AË`mYw{ZH$ d _moR>r `§Ìo dmnê$Z CËnmXZ àM§S> à_mUmda H$aVm `oVo. `m `§ÌmMr qH$_V
OmñV Agë`mZo hr `§Ì gm_J«r bhmZ CÚmoJm§Zm dmnaUo eŠ` ZgVo. CXm. Xw_Obr ~g MmbdÊ`mg EH$ S´>m`ìha
MmbVmo. Ë`mMm nJma XwßnQ> hmoV Zmhr.
(~) AË`mYw{ZH$ V§Ì - CÚmoJ g§ñWoMm AmH$ma_mZ _moR>m Agë`mZo AmYw{ZH$ d {deofrH¥$V _moR>r `§Ìo
dmnê$Z Vm§{ÌH$ bm^ {_i{dVm `oVmo. Ë`m_wio IM© Am{U doioMr ~MV hmoVo. CXm. dV©_mZnÌo N>nmB©gmR>r amoQ>ar
_erZ, JUH$`§Ìo B. Mm dmna.
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(H$) à{H«$`m§Mr gbJVm - _moR>çm CÚmoJm§Zm doJdoJøm à{H«$`m§Mr gmo` EH$Ì H$aVm `oVo. CXm. _moR>çm
CÚmoJ g§ñWm§Zm ñdV:Mo drO H|$Ð C^maVm `oVo.
(S>) l_{d^mJUr Am{U {deofrH$aU - _moR>çm à_mUmV CËnmXZ Ho$ë`mda gyú_ l_{d^mJUr Am{U
{deofrH$aU H$aVm `oVo. àË`oH$ H$m_mgmR>r Vk d Hw$eb H$m_Jmam§Mr Zo_UyH$ H$aVm `oVo. A{YH$ doJmZo CËnmXZ
H$m`© hmoVo.
(B) Cn\$b CËnmXZ - _moR>çm AmH$mamÀ`m CËnmXZ g§ñWm§Zm dm`m OmUmè`m Q>mH$mdy dñVy§nmgyZ Xwæ`_
dñVy§Mo CËnmXZ H$aVm `oVo. CXm. gmIa H$maImÝ`mV _irnmgyZ AëH$mohmob d {MnmS>mnmgyZ H$mJX V`ma hmoVmo.
(\$) g§emoYZ - _moR>çm CËnmXZ g§ñWm§Zm g§emoYZmgmR>r à`moJ emim C^maUo eŠ` hmoVo. H$maU Ë`mMm
IM© gd© CËnmXZmda {d^mJbm OmdyZ Vmo H$_r hmoVmo.
2) ì`dñWmnH$s` ~MVr / bm^ : ì`dñWmnH$s` ~MVr `m {deofrH$aUmVyZ {_iVmV. CÚmoJ g§ñWoMo
AmH$ma_mZ dmT>ë`mg {VÀ`m H$m`m©Mr ì`már dmT>Vo. hr AZoH$ H$m`} nma nmS>Ê`mgmR>r doJdoJho {d^kJ H$ê$Z
{d{dY Vk ì`dñWmnH$m§Mr Zo_UyH$ Ho$br OmVo d ì`dñWmnH$s` ~MVr {_iVmV. bhmZ CÚmoJ g§ñWm§Zm Ë`m
{_iV Zmhr.
3) IaoXr-{dH«$s {df`H$ ~MVr : _moR>çm à_mUmda bmJUmè`m {d{dY àH$maÀ`m H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr
KmD$H$ ^mdmZo IaoXr {dH«$s H$aUo \$ŠV _moR>çm eŠ` hmoVo. _moR>çm CÚmoJ g§ñWm§Zm _moR>çm à_mUmV H$ƒm _mb
bmJVmo. Ë`mMr gm¡XmeŠVr _moR>r Agë`mZo Ë`m ñdñVmV H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr IaoXr H$aVmV. VgoM Amnë`m dñVy§Mr
{dH«$s H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m _moR>çm à_mUmV {dH«o$Ë`m§Mr Zo_UyH$ H$aVmV d AemàH$mao dñVy§Mr IaoXr-{dH«$s XmoÝhrhr
\$m`Xoera ~Z{dVmV.
4) {dÎmr` bm^ (~MVr) : _moR>çm CÚmoJ bm^ g§ñWm§Mm H$ma^ma d Zmdbm¡{H$H$ _moR>m Agë`mZo Ë`m§Zm
{d{dY ~±H$m d {dÎmr` g§ñWm§H$Sy>Z _moR>çm à_mUmV d H$_r ì`mO XamZo H$O} {_iVmV. ho Aem àH$maMo {dÎmr`
bm^ _moR>çm g§ñWm§Zm {_iVmV. Vo bhmZ g§ñWm§Zm eŠ` ZgVo.
5) YmoH$m nËH$aÊ`mVrb bm^ (~MVr) : Am{W©H$ _§Xr, bmoH$m§À`m AmdS>r{ZdS>rVrb ~Xb, ñnYm©
\°$eZ ~Xb B. _wio CÚmoJ g§ñWobm AZoH$ YmoHo$ d Omo{I_ nËH$amdr bmJVo. CÚmoJg§ñWm _moR>r Agob Va `m
àH$maMr YmoHo$ nËH$aÊ`mMr {VMr eŠVr _moR>r AgVo. _moR>çm CÚmoJg§ñWm AZoH$ dñVy§Mo CËnmXZ H$aVmV. Ë`m_wio
EH$m dñVyMr _mJUr H$_r Umbr Var Xwgè`m dñVyMr {dH«$s hmoV Agë`mZo {VMo ZwH$gmZ hmoV Zmhr. {d{dY
~mOmanoR>m, CËnmXZmVrb {d{dYVm, H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr CnbãYVm, dmhVyH$sMr {d{dYVm Am{U ñdV:Mr eŠVrgmYZo
`m_wio _moR>çm CÚmoJ g§ñWm§Zm AZoH$ YmoHo$ nËH$aVm `oVmV d bm^ {_iVmV.

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(~) ~{hJ©V ~MVr/bm^ (External Economics) :
EH$mM àH$maÀ`m dñVy CËnmXZ H$aUmè`m AZoH$ CËnmXZ g§ñWm EH$mM {R>H$mUr {ZKmë`m åhUOo Ë`m
CÚmoJmVrb gd©M CËnmXZ g§ñWm§Zm Oo bm^ gm_w{hH$[aË`m {_iVmV Ë`m§Zm ~{hJ©V ~MVr åhUVmV. `m ~MVr
gd©M CËnmXZ g§ñWm§Zm {_iVmV. CXm. _w§~B©Vrb H$mnS> ì`dgm`, H$moëhmnya d Ah_XZJa {OëømVrb gmIa
H$maImZo B. ~{hJ©V ~MVr ({_Vì``Vm) CÚmoJ g§ñWoMm AmH$ma _moR>m qH$dm bhmZ Agë`mg gdmªZmM bm^
hmoVmo. ~{hJ©V ~MVr nwT>rbà_mUo -
1) H|$ÐrH$aUmVrb ~MVr : CËnmXZ g§ñWm§À`m H|$ÐrH$aUm_wio XiUdiUmÀ`m {d{dY gmo`r ~±H$m d
{d_m H§$nÝ`m, nmoñQ> Am{U Q>o{b\$moZ godm, Hw$eb, AZw^dr d H$m`©j_ H$ma^ma, AZw^dm§Mr XodmU-KodmU,
gm_wXm{`H$ Om{hamVr B. gd© àH$maÀ`m gmoB©-gw{dYm H|$ÐraUm_wio {_iVmV.
2) _m{hVr{df`H$ ~MVr : CÚmoJg§ñWm§À`m H|$ÐrH$aUm_wio {d{dY àH$maMr _m{hVr {_iVo.
Am¡Úmo{JH$_m{gHo$, dV©_mZnÌo, gaH$mar YmoaU, dñVy§Mm _mJUr nwadR>m, _m{hVrnÌHo$ B. Jmoï>tMr _m{hVr {_iVo.
gdmªÀ`m AZw^dmMm \$m`Xm gdmªZm {_iVmo. CËnmXZ IM© H$_r hmoVmo. VgoM g§KQ>ZoÀ`m ~imda AZoH$ àíZ
gmoS>{dVm `oVmV.
3) {deofrH$aUmVrb ~MVr : CÚmoJ g§ñWm§À`m H|$X«rH$aUm_wio {deofrH$aUmMo bm^ {_iVmV. Ë`m_wio
dm`m OmUmè`m nXmWm©nmgyZ Xwæ`_ dñVy ~Z{dVm `oVmV. CXm. 3, 4 gmIa H$maImÝ`mZo g§`wŠVnUo dm`m OmUmè`m
_irnmgyZ AëH$mohmob Am{U {MnmS>mnmgyZ H$mJX V`ma Ho$ë`m_wio Ë`mMm bm^ `m gd© gmIa H$maImÝ`m§Zm
{_iVmo. VgoM Hw$eb, H$m`©j_ H$m_Jma CnbãY hmoD$Z Am¡Úmo{JH$ CËnmXZ dmT>Vo. Vkm§Mo _mJ©Xe©Z {_iVo.
Aem àH$mao {deofrH$aUmÀ`m {d{dY ~MVr {_iVmV.
4) {dKQ>ZmVrb ~MVr/bm^ : CËnmXZ g§ñWoÀ`m H|$ÐraUm_wio H$mhr CËnmXZ à{H«$`m ñdV§Ì g§ñWoH$Sy>Z
H$ê$Z KoVm `oVmV. CXm. _moQ>ma H$maImÝ`m§Zm ñnmH©$ ßb½O, ZQ>~moëQ> B. {H$aH$moi H$m_o BVa g§ñWm§H$S>o XoVm `oVmV.
Ë`m_wio gwQ>o ^mJ ñdñVmV {_iVmV. doioMr ~MV hmoVo. doioda gwQ>o ^mJ {_imë`m_wio CËnmXZmMm doJ dmT>Vmo.
4.4 gmam§e :
H$moUË`mhr CËnmXZ g§ñWobm CËnmXZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r AmXmZm§Mm dmna H$amdm bmJVmo. CËnmXZ \$bZ åhUOo
AmXmZ d àXmZ `m Xmohm|_Yrb Vm§{ÌH$ d H$m`m©Ë_H$ g§~§Y hmo`. pñWa AmXmZm§Mm nwadR>m AënH$mimV Abd{MH$
AgVmo Va ~XbË`m AmXmZm§Mm nwadR>m AënH$mimV bd{MH$ AgVmo. AmXmZmÀ`m g§»`obm gamgar CËnmXZmZo
JwUbo AgVm EHy$U CËnmXZ {_iVo. EHy$U CËnmXZmbm AmXmZm§À`m g§»`oZo ^mJbo AgVm gamgar CËnmXZ
{_iVo. Va CËnmXZ g§ñWoZo EH$ OmXm CËnmXZ KQ>H$ H$m_mda KoVë`mg EHy$U CËnmXZmV Or ^a nS>Vo Ë`mbm
gr_m§V CËnmXZ Ago åhUVmV.
84
4.5 _hÎdmMo {dÚm{nR>r` ñdê$nmMo àíZ :
1. CËnmXZ \$bZ åhUOo H$m`? pñWa d ~XbVr AmXmZo åhUOo H$m` Vo ñnï> H$am.
2. EHy$U CËnmXZ, gamgar CËnmXZ d gr_m§V CËnmXZ `m g§H$ënZm ñnï> H$am.
3. Q>rnm {bhm.
(1) CËnmXZ \$bZ
(2) pñWa AmXmZo d ~XbVr AmXmZo
(3) EHy$U CËnmXZ d gr_m§V CËnmXZ
4.6 nm[a^m{fH$ eãX :
CËnmXZ \$bZ = ^m¡{VH$ AmXmZo d àXmZo `m_Yrb g§~§Y
AmXmZo = CËnmXZmgmR>r bmJUmao Amdí`H$ KQ>H$
àXmZo = CËnmXZ
pñWa AmXmZo = ~XbË`m CËnmXZm~amo~a Z ~Xbbo OmUmao CËnmXZ KQ>H$
~XbVr AmXmZo = ~XbË`m CËnmXZm~amo~a ~XbV OmUmao CËnmXZ KQ>H$
AënH$mbrZ CËnmXZ \$bZ = ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_
XrK©H$mbrZ CËnmXZ \$bZ = CËnmXZ à_mU \$b {gÕm§V
A§VJ©V ~MVr = _moR>çm CËnmXZm_wio CËnmXZ g§ñWobm {_iUmao A§VJ©V bm^
~{hJ©V ~MVr = _moR>çm CËnmXZm_wio CËnmXZ g§ñWobm {_iUmao ~mø bm^
4.7 (A) {dÚm{nR>r` ñdê$nmMo àíZ :
1. ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_ ñnï> H$am.
2. CËnmXZ n«_mU \$bmÀ`m {gÕm§VmMr MMm© H$am.
3. A§VJ©V ~MVr d ~{hJ©V ~MVr `m§Mo g{dñVa {díbofU H$am.
(~) Q>rnm {bhm.
(A) CËnmXZ \$bZ
(~) ~XbË`m à_mUmMm {Z`_
(H$) à_mU \$bmMm {Z`_
(S>) A§VJ©V ~MVr d ~{hJ©V ~MVr
85
4.8 ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ :
Imbrb dmŠ`o MyH$ H$s ~amo~a Vo {bhm.
1) ^m¡{VH$ AmXmZo d àXmZo `m_Yrb g§~§Ymg CËnmXZ \$bZ Ago åhUVmV.
2) ~XbË`m à_mU {gÕm§Vmbm XrK©H$mbrZ CËnmXZ \$bZ Ago åhUVmV.
3) CËnmXZ à_mU \$b {gÕm§VmÀ`m Mma AdñWm hmoV.
4) CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZmV dmT> Pmë`m_wio ({dñVma) {Vbm ~mø bm^ {_iVmV.
5) CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZmV KQ> Pmë`m_wio {Vbm A§VJ©V bm^ {_iVmV.
CÎmao : 1) ~amo~a 2) MyH$ 3) MyH$ 4) ~amo~a 5) MyH$
4.9 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r nwñVHo$ :
1. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo> : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
A{OV npãbHo$eÝg², Bñbm_nya, {O. gm§Jbr
2. S>m°. E_. EZ. qeXo : "ì`mdgm{`H$ AW©emó'
_ohVm npãbqeJ hmD$g, nwUo 30
3. àm. am_ Xoe_wI : "gyú_bjr AW©emó'
4. H. L. Ahuja : "Modern Economic Theory"
5. M. L. Seth : "Principles of Economics"
6. K. K. Dewtt : "Modern Economic Theory"
7. Dr. M. N. Shinde : "Managerial Economics"
8. D. Gopalkrishana : "Managerial Economics"
9. O. M. Agarwal and : "Business Economics"
R. Narayan

³³³

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