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Context: Through the unit, students’ understanding towards individual and cultural identity has been

promoted by exploring and analysing contextual meaning construction. Having examined and reflected on a
series of texts as well as the prescribed The China Coin, students shape and convey information in varied
contexts where meaning is influenced by purposes and audiences. Detailed analysis of language feature,
behaviour representation, individual value and social standard allows students to reshape their critical
thinking system and imaginative understanding, which paves way for this task.

Task number: 1 Weighting: 25% Date Due: Term 2, Week 8

Outcomes assessed

EAL12-1A responds to, composes and evaluates a range of complex and sustained texts for
understanding, interpretation, critical analysis, imaginative expression and pleasure

EAL12-1B communicates information, ideas and opinions in a range of familiar and unfamiliar personal,
social and academic contexts

EAL12-2 uses, evaluates and justifies processes, skills and knowledge necessary for responding to and
composing a wide range of texts in different media and technologies

EAL12-3 identifies, selects and uses language forms, features and structures of texts appropriate to a
range of purposes, audiences and contexts, and analyses and evaluates their effects on meaning

EAL12-5 thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically to respond to, represent and evaluate
complex ideas, information and arguments in a wide range of texts

EAL12-7 integrates understanding of the diverse ways texts can represent personal and public worlds
Task number: 1 Weighting: 25% Date Due: Term 2, Week 8

Nature of the task

You will be conducting a presentation in the class about root of identity and the role culture and
language in shaping it. The length of the presentation should be around 3 to 5 minutes.

The emphasis of your presentation should be presenting the comprehensive degree of exploration The
China Coin rendered towards cultural identity and its influence on people’s understanding of the intricate
link between the root (history of the culture) and the destination (future of the culture).

In preparation of the task you will need to incorporate interpretation, analysis and evaluation about:

• Background information of the author and his writing style


• Social acceptance and cultural influence of the book
• Story of the book and the way it presents
• The protagonists and their characteristics
• Topic and theme

The presentation should be no more than 6 minutes and no less than 3 minutes, with clear engagement of
multimedia such as slides and hard copies. Hand notes can be used for keeping the flow of presentation
but will not be counted for marks.

Marking is based on evidence of specific analysis and evaluation that support individual and social
realization of identity, culture and language.

Organize the key points of oral presentation and structure them into a written script for submission.

Tips

 While writing the review attention should be on present and past tense for expression of personal
opinion and story description. Academic formal structured language should apply. On the other hand,
colloquial representation is reasonable as long as detailed analysis and evaluation are expressed
clearly.
 Consideration should be taken for those who have visual and hearing impairment.
Scaffold
 Guiding questions will be given to the class for them to formulate their own.
 Teacher will work with them on one to show how responses to questions can be rendered from
different perspectives.
Marking criteria

You will be assessed on your ability to:

 demonstrate, explain and evaluate reasonably how language, culture and identity are intertwined
and expressed in the text.
 manipulate syntactic and semantic elements that are appropriate to contexts.
 maintain sound style, genre and linguistic representation with concern of targeted readers,
audiences and contexts.
 deliver a presentation in proper pace and intonation.
Feedback provided

 discussion with the class


 written comments on marking guidelines about strengths and areas for improvement.
Marking guidelines

A student: Mark range


● Display thorough and comprehensive understanding of connections and interactions 21–25
between identity, culture and language
● Formulate highly organized explanation and evaluation of the style and characteristic
The China Coin presents in incorporating identity, culture and language
● Deliver highly fluent and cohesive oral presentation with logical structure, linguistic
diversity, insightful association and attractive performance
● Present great control of voice and audience needs
● Display good understanding of connections and interactions between identity, culture 16–20
and language
● Formulate considered explanation and evaluation of the style and characteristic The
China Coin presents in incorporating identity, culture and language
● Deliver fluent and cohesive oral presentation with logical structure, linguistic diversity,
insightful association and attractive performance
● Present fine control of voice and audience needs
● Display an understanding of the connections and interactions between identity, culture 10–15
and language
● Formulate sound explanation and evaluation of the style and characteristic The China
Coin presents in incorporating identity, culture and language
● Deliver reasonably fluent and cohesive presentation with logical structure, linguistic
diversity, insightful association and attractive performance
● Present control of voice and audience needs
● Display some understanding of the connections and interactions between identity, 5–9
culture and language
● Formulate limited explanation and evaluation of the style and characteristic The China
Coin presents in incorporating identity, culture and language
● Deliver an understandable presentation with a certain degree of logic, linguistic choices
and association
● Present inconsistent control of voice and audience needs
● Display very limited understanding of the connections and interactions between identity, 1–4
culture and language
● Formulate very limited explanation and evaluation of the style and characteristic The
China Coin presents in incorporating identity, culture and language
● Deliver inadequate information in the presentation that has logic, linguistic choices and
association
● Present hardly any attention to voice and audience needs
Scaffold guiding questions:

 When Leah returns to Chatswood to tell her class her trip, how does she represent a culture in
a different context?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 What has happened that makes her perceive her background in a different way?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 How is the coin used as a token that strings different pieces of the story together?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 What roles do different symbols play in reflecting connections between cultural and personal
presence such as secret, treasure, keystone, accident and China?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 How is a spent by two people in the village?


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 What customs is it associated to the value of ancestral worship? How different is that from
Australia?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 What reasons would you give for lying about Leah’s background?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 What does the coin mean to the lost family?


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

 What would you say to the next generation when talking about cultural identity and generation
value?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
EALD Assessment and Feedback, Additional Care?

As a crucial part of teaching and learning activity, assessment is the core element that measures
student growth against standards with consideration of their past status and future aim (Brookhart,
2018). It checks the accountability of education and reveals directions of further improvements.
Jimerson, Stein, Haddock and Shahroozi (2016) state that accurate assessment to what have
been taught and learned is the key to open the next door and contributes to sustainable education
environment. According to NESA (2017), assessment is a combination of collecting and
evaluating evidence as well as progress of learning, with many purposes including increasing
engagement and motivation and incorporating interactions. It should be in line with syllabus
outcomes and bias free so that knowledge and skills are accurately represented. Timperley (2011)
believes that even though on different levels, knowledge and skills of students and knowledge of
skills of teachers mutual facilitate. In order to refine the skills and deepen professional knowledge,
both teachers and students need ongoing monitor of how things are going.

Widely received as both formal and informal evaluation of achievements and needs, assessment
is to make a conclusion for the past and establish foundation for the future. It serves as a
conjunction between what had happened and what is going to happen. In designing a reliable
assessment, a wide range of activities are employed to make sure accurate information is
available from every aspect for all students. According to NESA (2017), assessment is further
categorized into: assessment for learning, assessment as learning and assessment of learning.
The first two are taken as formative assessment and the third summative. Assessment for learning
involves activities of both formal and informal and aims for better planning for future. It focuses
more on helping students learn better than simple mark pursuing. With clear goals and effective
feedback, assessment for learning drives learners to render active self-evaluation and peer
assessment, which enlarges the scope of collaboration (Gobby & Walker, 2017). It is inclusive so
that learners of all kinds can find a way to improve.

Teachers have significant responsibility to help their students get prepared for not only English
but also other subjects such as science and history. Thus, assessment for EALD students should
be designed with specific consideration to the gap of their language and knowledge. Backward
designing in this sense is very valuable because the knowledge to be assessed can be interpreted
in a way to avoid language barrier (Tools to Enhance Assessment Literacy, 2018). Key words that
are useful in problem solving can be scaffolded during teaching activities and strengthened with
feedback.

Contributions from all stakeholders are incorporated to ensure inclusive and effective evaluations
occur and endure. For EALD students, English learning and other subjects should be seamlessly
integrated so language application in various contexts will be considered (Government of South
Australia Department of Education and Child Development, 2014). Therefore, regarding
assessment for learning, students’ language level, literacy development and other learning
objectives are always programmed with the same consideration so that one’s language need will
not impede their subject performance and vice versa. When given a clear goal, specific standard
and approachable strategy students are motivated, so the inner natural drive will put them on a
scale to assess themselves against their past self and present peers.

Often applied in the same context with assessment for learning, assessment as learning
emphasizes the importance of students’ role in their own studying. It is a systemic composition of
asking questions, creating learning goals, personal reflecting and analysing that centre around
individual characteristics. By self-monitoring and self-questioning, students are developing
strategies of sustainability and adopting individualized pace and rhythm (Boekaerts, 2011). The
incorporation of assessment for learning and assessment as learning allows students to have a
clear understanding of how knowledge is organized and what their roles are during the entire
process of learning. Their parts might change on different stages, but the main theme is to
facilitate teaching and learning in the scope of formative evaluation.

As formative assessment takes place throughout the learning process, it should be facilitating
students with language learning needs across subjects if assistance from teachers and peers is
always available. For instance, informal on-the-spot questions can be coupled with key terms that
are hard for students to understand. Correct answers from native students can be translated or
elaborated to help EALD students consolidate their understanding (Australian Curriculum,
Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2014).

At the same time, summative assessment is widely applied to rank students and promote
standards. By the end of each learning period, assessment of learning will apply to keep students
informed of their progress and teachers known of their teaching efficiency. Although mainly used
to design future goals and to provide evidence of performance, assessment of learning is highly
valued, and it is possible to add formative flavour in summative assessment to increase its
accountability (Broadbent et al., 2018)

Both formative and summative assessments are beneficial to students in monitoring and
evaluating their growth. They serve to nourish education from different perspectives and should
be applied with consideration of contexts. For students learning English as second language,
assessment is even more valuable as an index of both linguistic development and knowledge
growth (Australian Council of TESOL Associations, 2017). Therefore, it should be high regarded
and insightfully treated so that syllabus outcome can be efficiently achieved. Parts of assessment
should be specially taken as an approach of tracking EALD students’ journey of overall growth in
both language and subject content. It will be valuable for the whole class if other students learn
from their peers’ experience.

Feedback has long been considered as one of the most significant components of education
which not only gives students a conclusive statement of their strengths and areas for further
improvement, but also provides them with reasonable and applicable strategies (Voerman, Meijer,
Korthagen & Simons, 2012). Timely feedback relating to learning intention gives students
opportunities to review their learning process and understand what adjustments are needed. Its
accuracy not only reflects relationship between syllabus outcome and acquired knowledge but
also set a bridge to connect them. Formative feedback is of great value and in the research of
feedback corpus Shute (2008) referred it as timely and supportive information that helps learners
modify their thinking and develop their understanding. Such variables like individual
characteristics and time should always be taken into consideration when examining the features
of qualitative feedback which involves a wide range of factors including accuracy of response and
analysis of examples.

Conversational feedback is a major approach that happens with high frequency whose emphasis
is to remove emotional obstacles and forge comfortable contexts (Tekian, Watling, Roberts,
Steinert & Norcini, 2017). It is crucial to align feedback with recipient’s affordability so that students
can make improvements with reasonable challenge rather than frustration. Students of different
learning abilities should also be considered with care and individualized strategies must be
available. For example, students with hearing impairment might find it too difficult if the feedback
is suggesting the whole class to listen multiple times and pick out key words. This type of feedback
can be feasible for those who struggle with listening skills.

To promote the overall efficiency of feedback, there should be multiple instances and analysis
which involves different approaches and contexts. Frequent appearances of feedback reinforce
memory and grant student opportunities to monitor useful contents. For information to be
authentically received and taken in, Higgins, Hartley and Skelton (2001) argued that multiple
applications of different forms of feedbacks are needed. For instance, multiple-choice questions
of listening comprehension can be used as an auxiliary for reading comprehension. Writing tasks
with key words from reading and listening are also helpful to stimulate students’ information
processing system. EALD students will considerably benefit from it. Some students are already
equipped with the knowledge assessed and what they need is the assistance to help them avoid
language obstacles. Under such conditions, emphasis should be on specific linguistic applications
in certain fields and further analysis should focus on contrast between their original use and
contextual variation.

In many cases, feedbacks convey judgement about current performance against intended
learning outcomes and are received with emotions and attitudes. Such feelings as fear and
anxiety are frequently attached to assessments and feedbacks (Eva et al., 2012). Therefore, it is
important to manipulate language and strategy in dealing with feedbacks.

Written feedback, on the other hand, is often employed to give students comprehensive and
specific advices. Despite the fact that it is possible to demoralize students, authentic, relevant and
purposefully tailored feedbacks are beneficial to them in the long run (Dowden, Pittaway, Yost &
McCarthy, 2013).

Firstly, it is important to clarify learning goals and keep students informed of what effort is needed
to reach the aim (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). This serves as providing detailed information to
answer: where am I going? Secondly, the essence of written feedback is to give students
specifically tailored evaluation of performance against the bar, so a crucial question should be
answered: how am I going? Lastly, intentional design of learning is often composed of a range of
tasks and expectation. Thus, it is essential to know: where to next?
Encompassing such macro-skills as listening, reading speaking and writing, language learning
requires specially designed assessment and feedback so as to align with syllabus outcomes.
Zane (2009) pointed out that high quality assessments comprise solid foundation of principles
and reasonable development process. Insightful examination of learning should be included so
that practical experiments have reliable ground. Without concerning students’ learning need,
constructive program of evaluation will be unrealistic. With guidance of Behaviourism theory,
learning activities can be objectively observed, evaluated and analysed (Budiman, 2017).
Stimulus and response are highly regarded in shaping students’ learning habit. Tasks can always
be further categorized. There should be careful incorporation of stimulus selection and inter-task
relationship determination while designing assessment tasks. At this point, listening and reading
are the main areas that behaviourism theory applies.

In learning a second language, it is important to design integral activities, assessments and


feedbacks incorporate regular stimuli and specific explanations. Sociocultural theory endeavours
to check on speaking and writing for the exchange of information (Barak, 2017). Students’
performance and relevant environment contribute to the process of cognitive development.
Motivation and production play an efficient role in nurturing learning where students take
responsibility of their own behaviour. Therefore, in assessment design and feedback program,
group activities are important due to their collaborative representation that allows more
opportunities for interaction, self-reflection and peer evaluation.

For English learning as an additional language, behaviourism theory and sociocultural theory
should be employed together with consideration of contexts. Learning objectives and outcomes
of NSW syllabus have to be referred to as a guidance. Mixing formative flavour and summative
taste appropriately (Broadbent et al., 2018), assessment and feedback collaborate to work in
different fields and concepts. It is a subtle task not only about assessment for students but also
for teachers. They should have a clear understanding of their students including their strength
and weakness in both language and other subjects. Only this can give them a thorough control of
the situation where volatile factors are treated appropriately. If systemic application of assessment
and feedback is applied and revised to make sure all elements are adjustable for individual needs,
the four macro-skills of students will be considerably facilitated and the whole education process
will be more inclusive.
Reference

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2014). English as an Additional Language or
Dialect Teacher Resource. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from
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ar_10_09052014_file_2.pdf

Australian Council of TESOL Associations, (2017). Submission of the Review to Achieve Educational
Excellence in Australian Schools, retrieved May 4, 2018, from
http://www.tesol.org.au/Advocacy/Media-Room

Barak, M. (2017). Science teacher education in the twenty-first century: a pedagogical framework for
technology-integrated social constructivism. Research in Science Education, 47(2), 283-303.

Boekaerts, M. (2011). Emotions, emotion regulation, and self-regulation of learning. Handbook of self-
regulation of learning and performance, 408-425.

Broadbent, J., Panadero, E., & Boud, D. (2018). Implementing summative assessment with a formative
flavour: a case study in a large class. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(2), 307-322.

Brookhart, S. M. (2018). Learning is the primary source of coherence in assessment. Educational


Measurement: Issues and Practice, 37(1), 35-38.

Dowden, T., Pittaway, S., Yost, H., & McCarthy, R. (2013). Students’ perceptions of written feedback in
teacher education: Ideally feedback is a continuing two-way communication that encourages
progress. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 38(3), 349-362.

Budiman, A. (2017). Behaviorism and Foreign Language Teaching Methodology. ENGLISH FRANCA:
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Eva, K. W., Armson, H., Holmboe, E., Lockyer, J., Loney, E., Mann, K., & Sargeant, J. (2012). Factors
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Gobby, B., & Walker, R. (Eds.). (2017). Powers of Curriculum: Sociological Perspectives on Education.
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Government of South Australia Department of Education and Child Development, 2014. Retrieved May 4,
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Timperley, H. (2011) Using Student Assessment for Professional Learning: focusing on students’ outcomes
to identify teachers’ needs, State of Victoria Department of Education and Early Childhood
Development

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interventions in classroom interaction in secondary education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8),
1107-1115.

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