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“CEMENT”

In the field of engineering there are lot to know and familiarized in order to have a safe and
good environment. One of the components of constructing ant structure is a cement. It has a
major contribution in construction film because it gives image and strong foundation yo any
structure.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to
other materials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind
sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Cement is used with fine aggregate to produce mortar for
masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete. Cements used in
construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate based, and can be
characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the
cement to set in the presence of water (see hydraulic and non-hydraulic lime plaster). The word
"cement" can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry
resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The
volcanic ash and pulverized brick supplements that were added to the burnt lime, to obtain a
hydraulic binder, were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment, and cement. In
modern times, organic polymers are sometimes used as cements in concrete.Cement
manufacture causes environmental impacts at all stages of the process. These include
emissions of airborne pollution in the form of dust, gases, noise and vibration when operating
machinery and during blasting in quarries, and damage to countryside from quarrying.
Equipment to reduce dust emissions during quarrying and manufacture of cement is widely
used, and equipment to trap and separate exhaust gases are coming into increased use.
Environmental protection also includes the re-integration of quarries into the countryside after
they have been closed down by returning them to nature or re-cultivating them. Portland cement
consists essentially of compounds of lime (calcium oxide, CaO) mixed with silica (silicon
dioxide, SiO2) and alumina (aluminum oxide, Al2O3). The lime is obtained from a calcareous
(lime-containing) raw material, and the other oxides are derived from an argillaceous (clayey)
material. Additional raw materials such as silica sand, iron oxide (Fe2O3), and bauxite—
containing hydrated aluminum, Al(OH)3—may be used in smaller quantities to get the desired
composition. The commonest calcareous raw materials are limestone and chalk, but others,
such as coral or shell deposits, also are used. Clays, shales, slates, and estuarine muds are the
common argillaceous raw materials. Marl, a compact calcareous clay, and cement rock contain
both the calcareous and argillaceous components in proportions that sometimes approximate
cement compositions. Another raw material is blast-furnace slag, which consists mainly of lime,
silica, and alumina and is mixed with a calcareous material of high lime content. Kaolin, a white
clay that contains little iron oxide, is used as the argillaceous component for white portland
cement. Industrial wastes, such as fly ash and calcium carbonate from chemical manufacture,
are other possible raw materials, but their use is small compared with that of the natural
materials. Another essential raw material is gypsum, some 5 percent of which is added to the
burned cement clinker during grinding to control the setting time of the cement. Portland cement
also can be made in a combined process with sulfuric acid using calcium sulfate or anhydrite in
place of calcium carbonate. The sulfur dioxide produced in the flue gases on burning is
converted to sulfuric acid by normal processes.
In making a cement its just like we're cooking in order to have a good and nice output.