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Cost Estimating Маnпаl for

. Pipellnes and Маме


Structures
JО ин s. р А GЕ

Gulf Publishing Company


Houston, Техав

- . :. -: :: ... ... --:.::.:... : ". . " .


~ '"
TWs edition reviewed
Ьу the author and

reprinted February 2000.

Cost Estimating Маnпal for


Pipelines and Маме S.tructures

Copyright © 1977 Ьу John S. Page. АН rights reserved. Тhis


book, or ршts thereof, тау not Ье reproduced in anу fопn
Without express written релnissiоn of the publisher.

109 8 7 6 5

Gulf Publishing Сотрanу


Бооk Division
р.о. Бох 2608 О Houston, Texas 77252-2608

ISBN 0-87201-157-7

Library of Congress Catalog Card Nо. 76-40868

Printed оп acid-free paper (00).


Printed in the United States of АтеЛса.

:-;'---,~

iv
DEDICATION
То all those engaged in
estimating оп projects for the
production and transportation
of oil and gas for energy.

v
1·l:· -
!:. ;~._-
"- .. :" .

j.
Contents
"Preface " "................................................. xiii
Тhe Нuman Factor in Estirnating xili
rntroduction xiv
1Albor Productivity" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. xvi

Section One-CROSS-COUNTRY PIPELINES


Section Introduction 1
AveragePipelay ТаЫе-Underground 2
Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Оп Supports 3
Productivity andPercentage Efficiency Factors.. . 4
Example-Application ofFactors 8
Clearing and Grading Right-of-Way-General Notes 10
Clearing and Grading Right-of-Way- Labor Crew ' . . .. 11
Clearing and Grading Right-of-Way-Equipment Spread 12
Pipeline Lay-Out-Labor Crew, Equipment and Tool Spread '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 13
Unload, Handle, Haul and String Pipe-General Notes ~ '. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14
Unload, Нandle, Haul and String Pipe-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 15
Ditching and Тrenching-GeneralNotes 16
Ditching and Тrепсhiпg-LаЬоrСrеw....•.............................................. 17
Ditching and Тrenching-Equipment Spread ,........ 18
Bending Operations-General Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19
Bending Operations-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20
Aligning and Welding Operation&-General Notes . . . .. .. 21
Aligning and Welding Operations-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22
Aligning and Welding Operations-Equipment Spread 23
Cleaning, Priming, Corting and Wrapping---General Notes 24
Cleaning, Priming, Coating and Wrapping-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
Cleaning, Priming, Coatingand Wrapping-Equipment Spread 26
Cleaning, Priming, Coating and Wrapping-Joints Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 27
Sandblast and Paint Pipe-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 28
Lowering Pipe in Тrench-GeneralNotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 29
Lowering Pipe in ТrепсЬ-Labor Crew 30
Lowering Pipe in Тrench-EquipmentSpread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 31
Valve Installation-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 32
Valve Installation-Тiтe Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33
Cleaning and Testing Pipelines-General Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. з4
Cleaning aild Testing Pipelines-Labor Crew ,.. 35
Cleaning and Testing Pipelines-Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 36
BackfiIling-GeпеrаINotes ... ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .• . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37
BackfiIling-LаЬоrCrew and Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 38
Clean Up Operations-Genera1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . .. 39
Clean Up Operations-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 40
Utility Operations-GeпеraINotes 41'
Utllity Operations-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 42
Utility Operations-Equipment Spread 4з

vii
Section Тwо-МARSИLANDPIPELINES
Section Introduction ". . . . . . . . . . . . .. 45
Average Pipelay ТаЫе . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46
Productivity and Percentage Efficiency Factors _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 47
Example-Application ofFactors 50
Aligning and Welding-General Notes . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 00
Aligning and Welding-Labor Crew 53
Aligning and Welding-Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 54
Aligning and Welding Land Shove Method-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55
"Aligning and Welding Land Shove Method-Equipment Spread 56
Aligning and Welding River Crossing Tie-In-Labor Crew 57
Aligning and Welding River Crossing Тie-In-Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 58
Tug-LаЬогandЕquiрmепtSргеаd " ~ 59
Ное Ditch Operation-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 60
Valve Installation-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 61 о,";

Valve Installation- Тime Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 62


Cleaning and Testing Pipelines-General Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 63
Cleanirig and Testing Pipelines-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 64
Cleaning and Testing Pipelines-Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 65

Secti~n Тhrее-ОNSИОRE AND OF~SHORESURF-ZONE PIPELINES

Section Introduction ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67


Average Pipelay ТаЫе-ОпLand Underground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 68
Average Pipelay ТаЫе-ОпLand, Оп Supports :................................. 69
А verage Pipelay Table-Offshore, Surf-Zone, Land Fabricate Barge Pull 70
Average Pipelay Table-Offshore, Surf-Zone, Barge Fabricate Land Pull 71
Productivity and Percentage Efficiency Factors . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 72
Example-Application ofFactors 77
Onshore Clearing and Grading Right-оfWау-GепегаlNotes 81
Onshore Clearing and Grading Right-of-Way-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 82
Onshore Clearing and Grading Right-of-Way-Equipment Spread 83
Onshore Pipeline Lay-Out-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 84
Onshore Unload, Handle, Haul and String Pipe-General Notes ~ . . . . . .. . . . . .. 85
Onshore Unload, Handle, Haul and String Pipe-Labor Crew and Equipment Spr~ad .... . . .. 86
Onshore and Offshore Ditching and Тrenching-General Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 87
Qnshore Ditching and Trenching-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 89
Onshore Ditching arld Trenching -ЕquiрщепtSpread .. "................................... 90
Offshore Ditching and Тrenching-LaborCrew and Equipment Spread . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 91
Onshore Bending Operations-General Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 92
Onshore Bending Operations-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 93
Onshore Aligning and Welding-General Notes . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 94
Onshore Aligning and Welding-Labor Crew 95
Onshore Aligning and Welding-Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 96
Onshore Aligning, Welding and Shoving-Labor Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 97
Onshore Aligning, Welding, and Shoving-Equipment Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 98
Onshore Aligning and Pulling-Labor Crew 99
Onshore Aligning and Pulling-Equipment Spread 100
Onshore Cleaning, Priming, Coating and Wrapping-General Notes 101
Onshore Cleaning, Priming, Coating and Wrapping-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 102
Onshore Cleaning, Priming, Coating and Wrappiilg-Joints Only 103
Onshore Sandblast and Paint-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread ". 104
Onshore Lowering Pipe in Тrench-GeneralNotes 105
Onshore Lowering Pipe in Тrench-LaborCrew and Equipment Spread 106
Onshore Valve Installation- Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 107
Onshore Valve Instal1ation-Time Requirements 108
Onshore Cleaning and Testing Pipelines-General Notes 109
O.nshore Cleaning and Testing Pipelines-Labor Crew· ~ 110

viii
Onshore Cleaning and Testing Pipelines-Equipment Spread оо о ••••••••• оо о ••••• 111 оо •

Onshore Backfilling-General Notes о ••••••••••••••••••• о ••••••• о о • 112 •• о •

Onshore Тrench Backfilling-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread о ••••• о •• о •••• о 113
••• о •

Onshore Clean-Up ОрегаtiGпs-GепегаlNotes ооо о о ооооо • • ••••• • о •• оо •• о о • •••••••• 114


.Onshore Clean-Up Operations-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread о •••••••••••• 115
Onshore UtilitуОрегаtiоns-GeпегalNotes о о ••••••••••••••• •••••••••••• о •••• о ••• о 0..... 116
Onshore Utility Operations-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread . о •••••••••• о •••••••• о о 117 • ••

Section Four-OCEAN AND SЕЛ PIPELINES

Section Introduction .. о оо
••••••••••••••• о о
. '• • • • • • • • • • • • о •••••• о. ~
•••• о 119
•••••••••• ••••• ••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 50 Feet ... о to оо о •••• оо •••• •••••• о о о 120 •••••••••• •• •••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth to 50 Feet . о о оо


•••• о
••••••• о ~
••• ' •• 1?1 '.' ••••••• 0 •••••••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth to 50 Feet ... о о о о •••• о оо


••••• о о
••• о о: 122
••••• •••• •• ••• •

Average PiPelayTable-WаteгDepth. 50 to 75 Feet .. о о о ••••••••• ~. о' о


••••••••••••••••о' 123 ••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 50 to 75 Feet .. о ~ о о


•••••• оо •••• о • о о ••••• 124 •••• ••• ' •• • ••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 50 to 75 Feet о оо о о • о о••••••• о 125 •• ••• • ••••••• •

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth. 75 to 100 Feet о о о О


••••••••• о 126 ••••• • •••• ••••••

Average PipelayTable-WаteгDepth 75 to 100 Feet~- оо оо о ••• о ••••0 127


••••••• ••••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 75 to 100 Feet о о о ОО


••• о
••••••• о •••• 128 ••••••• ••••••••••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 100 to 125 Feet оо о о о •••• о • о 129


•••• ••••• ••••••• ••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 100 to 125 Feet о оо о 130 • • •" . •••••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 100 to 125 Feet о о о о •••••• о о о 131


••••• ••••••• ••••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 125 to .150 Feet о о •••••••••о о о •• о 132 •••••••• • .••••

Average Pipelay Table-Water Depth 125 to 150 Feet о о о о' О о"' • • • • о о о о • 133 • • • • • •••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 125 to 150 Feet о. о о о о


•••••••• о •••• о 134 •• •• ••••••••••• •

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 150 to 200 Feet о ~ о о,


••• о •••• •• о о 135
•• ••••••••••••••• • •

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 150 to 200 Feet о. о о • о


•••••••••••••••• о о 136 •••••••• ••• •

Average PiPelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 150 to 200 Feet о о •••••••• 137


•••••••••••••••••••••••

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 200 to 250 Feet о о о о ••• о •••••••• о о 138 • •••• •••••• • ••

Аverage Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 200 to 250 Feet о о о о о о• •• о о 139


••• ••••• •••••• • •

Average Pipelay ТаЫе-Water Depth 200 to 250 Feet о ~ о ОО


•••••••••••• 140 •••••• • •••••••••

Pipeline to Platform Riser-Water Depth to 150 Feet о о 0.141


•••••••••••••••••••••••••

Pipeline to Platform Riser-Water Depth to 150 Feet· о оо о •••• о ••••••• 142 ••• ',0 0 •••••••••••

Pipeline to Platform Riser-Water Depth to 150 to 200 Feet о о о •• 143


••••••••• •••• " ••••••

Pipeline to Platform Riser-Water Depth 150 to 200 Feet о 144


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •' • • • • • •

Pipeline to Platform Riser-Water Depth 200 to 250 Feet о о 145 ••• ••••••

Pipeline to Platform Riser-Water Depth 200 to 250 Feet о о 146 ••• ••••

Productivity and Percentage Efficiency Factors о о ••• о 147 •

Example-Application ofFactors о •••••••••••••••••••••••• о о 150 •••••••••• •

Lay Barge-Labor and Equipment Spreads-General Notes ... о о о о ••• ••••• о 152 ••• ••••••••••••

Aligning, Welding and InstalIing Pipe-Labor Crew о о о


•••••••• о ••••••• о 153 •• ••••

Lay Barge Equipment Spread о о •• о о


•••••••••••• о •• ••••• о
•••••••••••••••• о 154 •••••••••••••• •

Lay ог Derrick Barge Maintenance Operation-Labor Crew о о о 155 ••••••• ••• •••

Quartering and Catering-Labor Crew .... о о "0 • о ••• •• •••••••••••••••••••••••• о о о о 155 ••••• • •

Crew Boat-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread о о•••••••••••• о о о


••••••••••••••• 156 •• • •••••••

Diving---"Labor Crew and Equipment Spread о о о о о


•••••• о о • •• • оо ••• 157 • •••• ',' ••••• •••

Work ог Supply Boat-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread ... о о ~ о о •••• • 158
•••••• • ••••••••••••

Survey Spread-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread .. о о о о


•••••• • ••••• 159
••••••••••••••••••••

Тug-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread .. о оо •••••••••• о о о


••••••••• оо оо ••••• 160 • •• ••• ••••••

Pipe Cleaning and Testing--"-Labor Crew о ••••••••••••••••••••••••• о оо оо о о 161 • ••••

PiPe Cleaning and Testing-Equipment Spread· о о о ••••• ••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 162


Sandblast and Paint-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread о О • о о 163
••••••••••••••••••• •• •

...
~.

Section Five-DREDGING, BLASТlNGAND JEТТnVG


.&

Section Introduction о о ••• о •••••••••••••• о ••••••••••••••••• ••••••••• о •••••••• о •••••••••• 165


Dredging-Excavating and Backfill-Cubic Уards рег hour . о ••••••••••••••••••••••• о ••••• 166
Jetting-Linear Feet per hour о о о о
•••••••••••• •••• ••••••• ••••• оо о • ••• о ••••••••••••••••• о 166

ix
Dredging-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 167
Тrenching Ву Blasting-Average Time Required 168
Тrench Blasting-Labor Crew 169
Тrench Blasting-Equipment Spread '0' • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 170
Тrench Blasting- Material Requirements 171
Jetting Pipe-Labor Crews and Equipment Spreads 172

Section Six-OFFSHORE SТRUCTURES

Section Introduction 173


Pick and SetJackets-WаtегDepth to 150 Feet 175
Pick and Set J ackets-Water Depth to 250 Feet 176
Pick and Set J ackets~Water Depth to 350 Feet '177 о
.Launch and Set Jackets-Water Depth to 150 Feet '~ .. т • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 178 ,
Launch and Set J ackets-Water Depth to 250 Feet 179
\
:
I
...
! -. ~ о." •

Launch and SetJackets-WаteгDepth to 350 Feet 180 {" '.~': ..


Drive ТubularРПев and Conductors (Time Required) 181
Cutting and Beveling-РПев and Conductors (Тiтe Required) 182
Pre-Heating for Butt Welds-Piles and Conductors (Time Required) -182
Butt Welding Piling and Conductors (Time Required) 183
Radiographic Inspection ofButt Welds (Time Required) 183
Drilling and Grouting (Time Required) 184
Pick and Set Decks (Time Required) 185
Set Shim Plates-Erect Boat Landings (Time Required) 186
Set Platform Miscellaneous SOOel lOOms (Time Required) 187
Set Platform, Jetties and WharfMiscellaneous lOOms (Time Required) 188
Driving SOOel Sheet and ((Н" ог ((1" Веат Piling (Time Required) 189
Structural and Miscellaneous SOOel for Wharfs and Jetties (Time Required) 190
Single Point Mooring, Terminal-General Notes 0• • • • • • • • • • • • • • '0 191
Single Point Mooring Terminal-Spread Time Required 193
Platform ог Structure Installation-Labor Crew 194
Platform ог Structure Installation-Equipment Spread 195
Single-Point Mooring Terminal Installation- Labor Crew 196
Derrick Barge Maintenance-Labor Crew 197
Quartering and СаООгiпg-LаЬогCrew 0•••••••••••••••••••••••• 197
Тug-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread ~,' 198
Crew Boat-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread ',' ' 199
Diving-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 200
Work ог Supply Boat-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 201
Survey Spread-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 202
Sandblast and Paint-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 203
Drilling Operation-Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 204
Grout Installation- Labor Crew and Equipment Spread 205
Productivity and Percentage Efficiency Factors 206
Example-Application ofFactors 209
Тhгee-, Four-, Six-, Nine- and Теп- РПе Structures-Actual Labor Crew 211
Тhгee-, Four-, Six-, Nine- and Теп- РПе Structures-Actual Equipment Spread 212
Тwelve- Well Drilling Platform-Actual Тiтe Frames 213
Four-Well Drilling Platform-Actual Time Frames 214
Four-Pile Production Platform-Actual Time Frames 215
Six-Pile Gathering and Production Platform-Actual Time Frames 216
Nine-Pile Power and Pump Platform-АсtuаITime Frames 217
Three-Pile High-Pressure Flare Structures-Actual Тime Frames 218
Four-Pile Low-Pressure Flare Structuге-АсtuаITimeFrames 219
Ten-Pile Main Breasting Dolphin-Actual Time Frames 220
Ten-Pile Secondary Breasting Dolpbln-Actual Time Frames 221
Ten-Pile Auxiliary Breasting Dolphin-Actual Time Frames О 222
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Six-Pile Loading Platform-Actual Тiтe Frames 223


Bridges-Actual Time Frames 224

х
Section Sеvеп-ОFFSИОREINSTALLAТlONOF EQUlPМENТ
AND APPURТENANCES
Section Introduction 225
Setting Skid Mounted Package Units 226
Setting Tanks, Vessels and Heat Exchangers 227
Setting Pumps and Compressors о'. о о о о о оО О ооО
•••••••• • о•• •••• ••••••••••••••• 228
.Setting Diesel Generators о о О О •••о • оО
••••• •••• о •••••••• ~•••••• о •••о •••••••• ••••••••••••• 229
Setting Miscellaneous Equipment ·and ltems о о оО О •• • о••••••••• ••••••••••••••• 230
Marine Loading Arms-General Notes ... о о. О о о
•••••••••• о
•••••••• •••••••••••••••••• 0 ••• 231
Assembling Marine Loading Arms . о о О
•••••••••• о о
•••• ••• о
••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••• 232
Erecting Мarinе Loading Arms . о •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• о •••••••••••••••••••••• 233
Install Fire Protection and Life-Saving Equipment ' о ••••••••••••••••••••• 234
Installing Zink Bracelet Anodes .. о о
•••••••••••• 235
Installing Galvalum Anodes, о о
• • ,; • • • • • • • • • • ••••.•••••••••••.•••• 236
Handling and Erecting Prefabricated SPOOled I5ping ,; 237
Piping-Making-Up Screwed Fittingg and Valves ~ 238
Handle and Position Valves о ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 239
Flanged Bolt-Ups .... о о ••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••• о,, о ••••••• •••••••••••••••••••• 240
Pipe Welding-General Notes .... о о. О о •••••••••••••••••••••• о оо •• •••••••••••••• : ••••••• 241
Manual Carbon Steel Pipe Butt Welds о О О • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• о •••• 242
90°Carbon Steel Pipe Nozzle Welds 243
45 о Carboi1 Steel Pipe Nozzle Welds .. о о ••••• о
••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 244
90 о Coupling and Socket Welds о оо о
•••••• ••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 245
Plain End Flame Cutting Pipe о о
••••••••••• о
••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••• 246
Flame Beveling Pipe For Welding оо о •••••••• о
•••••• о о •• •• •••••••••••••••••••••• 247
Cutting and Threading Pipe .. о о ••• о
••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••• о ••••••••••••••• 248
Preheating Butt and Flange Welds о о
••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••• 249
Preheating Nozzle Welds о ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 250
Stress Relieving Butt, Flange and Nozzle Welds о о•••••• о
•••••••• ••••••••••••••••••••• 251
X-Ray Pipe Welds о ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 252
Hydrostatic Testing Piping Systems о о ••• 253
Electrical Boxes and Covers о о ••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• о 254,
Electrical Gang Boxes and Covers ~ 255
Sheet Metal Boxes For Branch Rough-In ' ,256
шstalling Conduit . о о
•••••••••••••••• о •••• о ••••••• о
•••••••••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ';- ••••• 257
Cutting, Reaming and Threading Conduit and Make-on ofJoint .. о о о ••• •••••••••••••••••••• 258
Conduit Bending .. о о •••••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• о 259
Wire Pulling-Simple Lay-out .. о о о ••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 260
Wire Pulling-Complex Lay-out .. о ••••••••••••••••••••• о о • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 261
Flexible Metallic Armored СаЫе Installation о оо •• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 262
СаЫе' Connectors, Lugs and Vertical Riser Supports о о ••••• о •••••• ••••••••••••••••• 263
Install Switches and Plates о о о
•••••••••о о ••• •• о
•••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• о 264
Install Receptacles and Plates о О о •••••••• о ооОО
••••••••• о О ••••• оо о • •••• •• • '• • • , ••••••• 265
Install Standard Panels and Cabinets оо о о •• •• о
••••••• оо
•••••••• ••••••••••••••••••• 266
,Insta1l250- and 600-Volt Panels and Cabinets о о о
••••••••• о •••• о
••••••••••• ••••••••••••••• 267
Insta1l250- and 600-Volt Safety Switches .... о о о О
••••• ••••• • о
•••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••• 268
Hangers and Fasteners о оО О о ••. • •• о
•••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 269
Miscellaneous Hangers and Fasteners 270
Motor Starting Switches, Speed Regu1ating Rheostats and Magnetic Switches 271
Starting Compensators о о •••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 272
Motor Rheostats and Switches о о ••••••••• о ооо
••••••••••••• • • • • • • • ,; • • • • • • • • • • • о •••••• о 273
Mounting Motors-AC, 60-Cycle, 2- and 3-Phase о •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 274
Mounting Motors-Variable Speeds-AC, 60-Cycle, 2- and 3-Phase 275
Mounting Motors-Constant and Variable Speeds, АС, 25-Cycle, 2- and 3-Phase 276
Mounting Motors-DC, 115-230 Volts ,' 277
Fire Alarm Systems о ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 278
Intercommunication and Public Address Systems 279
Light Fixtures (Fluorescent and Mercury Vapor) 280
Incandescent Lighting Units о • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .' 281

xi
Lam.p Installation 282
Outd.oor Flood· Lighting 283
Installing СаЫе Тray and Fittings 284
Large Case Pneumatic Instruments 285
Circu1ar Саве Pneumatic Recorders 286
Pneumatic Local Indicators-Transmitters 287
J;>neumatic Тransmitters-D/P туре 288
Large Case Electronic Instruments 289
Electronic Magnetic Flow Тransmitters 290
Electronic Local Тransmitters and Indicators 291
Miscellaneous Level and Flow Instruments 292
Miscellaneous In-Line Instruments 293
Miscellaneous Temperature, Pressure and Other Instruments 294
Installing Mu1ti-ТubeBundles and Fittings ~ ~95
Installing Single Тubing, Fittings and Valves 296
Equipment and Appurtenances Installation, Derrick Barge Labor Crew 297
Equipment
.
and Appurtenances Insta11ation, Derrick Ba:rge Equipment Spread .
~ 298
Section Eight-MISCELLANEOUS CONSTRUCTION IТEMS
Section Introduction 299
Mobilization and Demobilization ofPersonnel 300
Mobilization and Demobilization ofEquipment 300
Load-Out, Тie-Down and Material Handling 301
Тransportation and Freight 301
Cam.p, Family Quarters, Field отсе and Storage Facilities 302
Rest and Recreation 302
Lay or Derrick Barge Riding Crew 303
Load-out and Tie-Down Crew 303

Section Nine-МISCELLANEOUSESТIМAТINGINFORМAТION
Section Introduction 305
Pipe Wall Тhickness and Weights 306·
Pipe Wall Тhicknessand Weights 307
Тubular Size, Wall Thicknesses and Weights 308
Тubular Size, Wall Thicknesses and Weights 309
Welding Rod Requirements 310
Welding Rod Requirements 311
Surface Area and Circumferences of Pipe 312
Coating and Wrapping Materials 313
Useful Conversion Factors 314
Mensuration Units 315
Minutes to Decimal Hours Conversion ТаЫе 316

хй
Preface

Тhis manual Ьав Ьеец compiled to provide time frames, labor crews and equip-
ment spreads to assist the estimator in capsulizing an estimate for the iristallation
of cross-country pipelines, marsbland pipelines, nearshore and surf zone pipeIines, ~ 10 ••

submerged pipelines, wharfs, jettles, dock facilities, single-point тооrin~. tenni- . ' .
..
nals, offshore drilling and production platforms and equipment anд appurtenances
f:'1
1,:, :
~ ;
installed thereon.
[.'
1: Тhe time frames and labor and equipment spreads wblch аррезr throughout tbls
manual зrе the result of тanу time and method studies conducted under ущеd
I
:,,: conditfons and at locations throughout the world; these time frames and labor and
[
.- i
.-.. " -~i
f
equipment spreads reflect а complete, unbiased view of all operations involved.
When one is engaged inJ;~oЦlPiling an ~stimate from anу infолnаtiоп furnished
Ьу others, as is the case with this manual, Ье should view it in an objective light,

[;." giving due consideration to the nature of the project at hand and evaluating all
items that mау affect the productivity of labor and aIl other elements involved.
) :
f'
~ I
т 1Ъе Human Factor in Estlmating
Li ;,
In tbls high-tech world of sophisticated software packages, including severalfor
labor and cost estjmating, youmight wonder what а collection of estimating tables
offers that а computer program does not. Тhe answer is the human factor. In
preparing а complete estimate for а heavy industrial project one often confronts
12-18 major accounts, and eachaccount Ьзs 5-100 or more sub-accounts, depend-
ing оп the project and its engineering design. While it would seem that such numer-
ous variables provide the perfect opportunity for computerized algorithmic solu-
tion, accurate, cost-effective, realistic estimating is stil1largely а function of Ьитан
insight and expertise. Each project has unique aspects that still require the sea-
soned consideration of an experienced professional, such as general economy, pro-
jects supervision, labor relations, job conditions, construction equipment, and
weather, .to пате а few.
Computers зrе wonderful tools. Тhey сan solve problems as по Ьшnan сan, but
1 do not believe construction estimating is their forte. 1 have reviewed several con-
struction estimating software packages and have yet to find one that 1would сот­
pletely rely оп. Construction estimating is an зrt, а science, and а сrзft, and 1 rec-
ommend that it Ье done Ьу those who understand and appreciate all three of these
facets. тhis manual is intended for those individuals.

JohnS. Page

хШ
i\ .
i
j..
Introduction }'

Any logical system used in the preparation of an estimate for land and sea !
pipelines and offshore facilities must Ье based оп, and confined to, certain pre- ; i .
i

determined parameters. Тherefore, your particular аttеп~jQ;ц.is directed to the !


following:'-'-

No consideration has been given to the dollar value of labor, mate-


rials or construction equipment. Тhe dollar cost oflabor and material ..... :.'./.
will vary, depending оп location and tiше or schedule of the particu-
lar project. Outside or third party rental/purchase of construction
.equipment will vary, depending оп location, availability and the 1"

market value at the time the equipment is needed. Ifthe equipment is .i


contractor-owned, its costs will vary depending оп its depreciated
value, cost of repairs and maintenance, insurance, desired return оп 1-
investment, etc.
It is ofthe utmost importance that the correct labor crews and equip-
ment spreads Ье established and used. No piece ofequipment can
function properly without its complement of skilled labor to operate
and maintain it, and labor cannot produce efficiently without the
proper tools and equipment to accomplish the job intended. I
Where size or capacity is listed with а piece of equipment in the
I
equipment spreads, it is intended solely as а guide and should not ье 1

construed as the only size or capacity that can Ье used. In actual


practice, the project scope and conditions will dictate the size, type l'
and capacity of the equipment to Ье used. The time frame tables in
this manual аге based оп employing the number and type of units
listed in the spread tables. J
In keeping with the many time fгаше tables wblch appear through-
out this manual, the labor crew and equipment spread tables are '1·
I

intended to provide ample labor and equipment for the installation of


аll items listed. In addition to the General Notes and the notes that
appear with the individual tables, consideration should ье given to l'
the following when forming and applying these crews and spreads.
···:·1····
..
1) Alllabor and equipment spreads сап ье adjusted upward ог
downward, depending оп project type, size and scope.
2) АН equipment should Ье of the size and type suitable for the
work intended.
3) Various crews and equipment spreads, such as derrick barge~
tug, crewboat, etc., must Ье combined to obtain а total work-
ing spread. The type and scope ofthe project will determine
the spreads that are to Ье combined.
4) Offshore construction material and/or cargo barg~s, in the
number and size needed, must Ье added tothe spread attheir
daily rates for the time they аге actually involved, atthe
construction site. .."
,
. . ~ -

Alllabor crews liste.din this manual аге based оп open shop operations. Ifunion
ог closed shop operations аге the case, general foremen, various craft foremen,
stewards and other craft classifications will have to Ье given consideration and
added to 'the crews as necessary.

ТЬе following items are listed and defined in Section 8, "Miscellaneous Construc-
tion Items," and, therefore, по consideration has been given them in the other
sections of this book:
1) Mobilization and demobilization of personnel
2) Mobilization and demobilization of equipment
3) Load-out, tie-down and material handling
4) Тransportation and freight
5) Сатр, family quarters, field office and storage facilities
:.'.:1'" 6) Rest and recreation
'f'
( :i'
Small tools, consumable supplies, fuel, оН and grease have not been considered.
,:, ( ,',:,' Т.hese are аН items that vary widely with particular projects and should ье
EJ added to the various spreads asapplicable.

I Purchase of right-of-way, сгор or structure damage ог repair ог replacement


,\~ cost:s. cost ofother d~agedite~. т~eB. ?e~its.licenses.fees of аll types and
(1'~ dutles have not been gIven conslderatlon ln thlS manual. These сап and do vary
! . 80 greatly that they must ье given individual consideration for each location and
'1" project and added to the e8timate accordingly.
"' ~~~
..1
с,
.
Where work is to Ье performed in а foreign country, consideration should ье
,

given to the forming and use of а mixed crew comprised of at least а portion of
',;I,[L. f craftв, men from that country. Usually thi8 fosters а better relationsblp with the
~ j country, and it is often less expensive than а completely expatriate crew. It
4 8hould ье recognized an expatriate craftsman is any craftsman who is not а

,L" citizen ofthe country in wblch the project is being constructed.

t",з
1,
~J ,', xv


1,:,:1 '
ТаЫев have not been included for overall project management, field manage- II
ment or supervision. The всоре ofthe individual project will govern the need for
these personnel, and they must Ье added to the estimate for а project requiring
their services.

Labor Productivity

Before one thinks in terms oflabor dollars for anestimate, many things must Ье consid-
ered, the most important of which are called productivity efficiency and production ele-
ments. Consideration ofthese two factors is essential ifthe many labor time frames that
follow are to ье correctly applieq..

Mter extensive comparison ofmany projects, we have found that production percentages
сап Ье classified into five categories and that production elements can Ье grouped inOO six 1·

different listings or classifications: !


Production Elements
1. "General Economy
2. Project Supervision
3. Labor Relations
4. Job Conditions
5. Equipment
6. Weather
1.
Productivity Efficiency Percentages i

Туре Percentage Range :I


1. Very Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10 Through 40 !
2. Low.............................. 41 Through 60
3. Average 61 Through 80
4. Very Good . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 81 Through 90
5. Excellent 91 Through 100
From the above paragraph уои тау agree that this is true but that the' percentage
productivity range is 000 wide to accommodate accuracy. Ву evaluating еасЬ ofthe six
elements and illustrating with an example of еасЬ, уои сап see just how simple it is to
arrive at а productivity efficiency percentage. I
.)-

1. GENERAL ECONOMY
This is simply the state of the nation or the area in which your project is 00 ье I
developed. Тhings that should ье looked at and evaluated under this category are:
(а) Business Тrends and Outlooks .[:,
(Ь) Construction Volume
(с) Тhe Empl0yment Situation (. .... . . ": '1:
. .

Let us say that after giving due consideration 00 these items you find them 00 Ье very
good or excellent. This sounds good but actually it means that your productivity range
I .-
will ье very low. This is due to the fact that with business Ьeing excellent the type of
[.

xvi
.. 1
n··'
1
supervision and craftsmen that you will have to draw from will Ье very poor. Because
of this it will tend to create bad labor relations between your сотрапу and supervi-
j; . .:.
sion, thus making very unfavorable job conditions. From this it would seem that the
general economy of the nation or area sets off а chain reactionto the other five
elements. This we have found to Ье true. Оп the other hand, let us say that we have
evaluated this element and find the general economy to Ье of а fairly good average.
Here we find that the productivity efficiency tends to rise. Тhis isdue to the fact that
under normal conditions there are enough good supervisors and craftsmen to go
around, they are satisfied, thus creating goodjob conditions.

For our ехатрlе, to show how а final productivity efficiency percentage'can.be arrived
at, let us say thatwe are estimatlng а project in,a given' areaand .aftet cateful
consideration of this element, we find it to Ье of а ·high average. Since it is ofa high . . ..
.. '.
average, but Ьу по lneans excellent, we estimate our 'productivity percentage at
seventy-five (75) per cent.

~
~}e.
•... ~f
.•"
i :
I
1,.. ". 2. PROJECT SUPERVISION
What is the caliber of your supervision? What experience have they had? What сап
уои afford to рау them? What have уои to draw from? Things that should Ье 100ked at
and evaluated under this element are:
(а) Experience
(Ь) Supply
(с) Рау

Like general есопоту this too must Ье carefully analyzed. Ifbusiness is excellent, the
chances are that уои will have а poor lot to draw from. Ifbusiness is normal, уои тll
have а fair chance of obtaining good supervision. ТЬе contractor who tries to cut
overhead Ьу using сЬеар supervision usually winds ир doing а very poor job. This
usually results in а dissatisfied client, а 10ss of profit and а 10ss of future work.
However, the estimator has по control over this. It must Ье left to management. Аll
the estimator сап do is estimate his projects accordingly.

То follow through with our ехатрlе, after careful analysis of the three items listed
under this element, we find that our supervision will Ье normal for this type ofwork
and we arrive at an estimated productivity rate ofseventy (70) per cent.

3. LABOR CONDITIONS
Have you а good labor relations man in your organization? Are the craftsmen in the
area experienced and satisfied? Are there adequate first class craftsmen in the area?
Like project supervision things that should Ье analyzed under this elementare:

(а) Experience
(ь) Supply
(с) Рау

Тhe area where yourproject is to Ье constructed should Ье checked to see ifthe proper
experienced craftsmen are available locally or will you have to rely оп travelers to fI11
. your needs. Сап and will your organization рау the prevailing wage rates?

хvп
For our example let us say that for а project in а given area we have found our labor
relations to Ье fair but feel that they could Ье а little better. Since th~s is the case, we
arrive at an efficiency rating ofsixty-five (65) per cent for this element.

, 1", ,
4. JOB CONDITIONS
What is the scope ofwork andjust what is involved in the project? Is the schedule tight
or do уои Ьауе ample time to complete the work? What is the condition ofthe site? Is it
оп land or at sea? If оп land is it high and dry or is it low and muddy? If at sea are 'the
waters relatively ca1m or are they occasioned Ьу storms? What type ofoperations are
involved? What kind ofmaterialproc~r~mentwi11you have? There are manyitems
that could Ье considered here, dependent оп the project; however, we feel thatthemost
important ofthese items are as fo11ows:
(а) Scope ofWork
(Ь) Site Conditions
(с) Material Procurement
(d) Ease ofOperations
Ву c~reful study and analysis of the plans, specifications and other project informa- I '
!
tion coupled with а site or area visitation уои' should ье аЫе to correctly estimate а l' ~
!',
productivity effi.ciency for this item.

For our example, let us say that the project we are estimating allows ample time to
complete the project, that the site location is low and muddy, material procurement
will Ье а bit slow and the ease ofoperation wi11 ье normal for the type ofwork involved.
Therefore, after evaluation we estimate а productivity rating of only sixty (60)
percent.
I
I
5. EQUIPMENT
Do уои have ample equipment to do your job? What kind of shape is it in? Wi11 уои
have good maintenance and repair help? ТЬе main items to study under this element
are:
(а) Usability
I~
(Ь) Condition
(с) Maintenance and Repair
I
This should Ье the simplest of а11 elements to analyze. Every estimator should know :1
what type and kind of equipment his company has as well as what kind ofmechanical
shape it is in.
I
Let us assume, for our example, that our company equipment is in very good shape,
that we Ьауе an ample supply to draw from and that we have average mechanics.
Since this is the case we estimate а productivity percentage ofseventy (70). I

6. WEATНER I
I
1-
Check the past weather conditions for the area in which your project is to ье located.
During the months that уои мll Ье constructing what are the weather predictions
based оп these past reports? ТЬе main items to check and analyze here are as follows: 1.':.

I
xviii I
1,

1-
С_=-
~

.1 \
!:Т-­
. i
t I
~;-" ,~";.,.

SectionOne

CROSS-COUNTRY
PIPELINES

It is the intent and express purpose ofthis section to cover


as nearly as possible аН erection operations, in the form of
labor crews and equipment spreads, that тау Ье necessary
for the complete installation of several hundred mHes of
[~;\:.
\:,.,. .. .'-.v.:..
cross-country pipeline.
The following crew and equipment tables do not take into
account the fabrication and instaHation of compressor or
1I ритр stations. These are iteIns such as structures, equip-
L.-,~ ment foundations, equipment installations, inner connect-
ing piping, electrical and instrumentation simi1ar in
.,1< nature to а small process type plant and as such should

~
..•. о- . : .\ :.. ~ .. ." .
"

..: ":~ Ье separately evaluated.


. j;

\
The manpower listed in the following crew tables is·for а
single ten (1 О) hour shift, and the equipment listed in the
· •.· ··'' .' spread tables is for а single spread. More than one crew and
1·"l.
. ;'
•••
~

spread тау Ье required, depending оп project scope and


-"
.,.,."
schedule.
11L,'.~;:~ .. ~

,l:
L
j
-.-~*, '<:

J
1["
Section Two

Ь·. :.. MARSHLAND PIPELINES


i -
ГJ, "
ТЬе following labor crews and equipment spreads are intended to suffice only for those
Ь, direct erection operations that тау Ье necessary for the installation of pipelines in
marshland or swampy areas.
r-"'c:
t -

~! Labor forces and equipment for operations such as bending, cleaning, priming, coating
t;. ;
and wrapping, sandblasting and painting, etc., can Ье obtained from the tables iricluded
r' under Section One ofthis manual and added to the spreads in this sectionifnecessary.
f
[ . ТЬе following labor crews are for а single twelve (12) hour shift and the equipment
' ;

listings are for а single spread. More than one crew and spread тау Ье requir;ed, depend-
ing оп project scope and schedule.

АН spreads are to Ье equipped with short-wave radio communication devices сараЫе of


maintaining contact with аll required отсе and storage facilities as well as with the -
individual spreads.

Normal weather conditions are usuaHy considered and included in the base price.
Downtime for аН marine equipment due to severe weather, stand-by due to nofault ofthe
contractor, and major breakdown time are usually quoted to the client as а reduced
non-working day rate or are covered in the price Ьу an allowance ofan estimated number
of days at the reduced non-working day rate.

То determine the daily cost of а spread for а non-working day simply reduce the working
day spread rate Ьу the cost of the productive operating fuel, оН and grease, the consum-
аЫе supplies, and аnу indirect cost and fee that you feel is justifiable.

45
~.' ..':"~

Section Three
~'_.,,,::':'~

i··.,.
ONSHORE
AND
OFFSHORE
SURF-ZONE
,
PIPELINES
I
Г 7
'.
[ , :~
This section provides labor crew and equipment spread tables for the installation of
onshore pipelines running а short distance from storage or blending facilities and con-
tinuing through the offshore surf-zone area only.
f" ,х.

t
No consideration has been given to the installation ofstorage and blending facilities ог
l pumping stations. Construction methods, labor, materials and equipment for these
facilities vary.greatly from those required forpipeline installation and ther~fore should
Ье evaluated for the particular project and estimated accordingly.

Landlay pipeline crews normally work а single shift often (10) hours per day. Because of
l'
i " the high cost of marine equipment, the vagaries of the weather, etc., offshore pipelay
гi
crews usually work two (2) shifts oftwelve (12) hours each for а twenty-four (24) hour day
t ,:,
111" '''',
total. '
i
!.
The manpower listed in the tables is for one crew, working а single shift only. Should а
land crew Ье assisted Ьу ог support an offshore spread, the land crews and equipment
spreads shouldbe adjusted in cost to equal the time frame of the offshore spread.

It is assumed that at least one pick-up truck in each spread will Ье equipped with
"~'
~! short-wave radio equipment сараЫе of communicating with аll required office, storage
and individual spread facilities and that each spread will Ье equipped with walkie-talkie
radios for communicating between the various spreads.
'1",',,'
~. j.
( :\;,
.~

J',
I~,./~
:1...
. . . :;.
67
1-

'"

Section Four

OCEAN AND SEA


PIPELINES
The purpose of this section is to assist in the estimation of time- frames" labor crews and
equipment spreads required for the installation of offshore submerged concrete weight
coated pipelines. -
А wide range of variables affect the installation of submerged pipelihes; if the proper
crews and equipment spreads are utilized, these varia1;>les сап Ье reduced to those oflabor
productivity and wind, wave and current conditions.
Based оп оде 11undred percent productivity, we have included average pipelay and riser
t.,I· - instaHation tables. Also included are percentage efficiency factors to beapplied against
! -
the pipelay and riser tables, giving due consideration to labor, wind, wave and current
lj" conditions. Labor crews and equipment spreads are given for the various operatiol1s in
the installations of submerged pipelines and for application against the estimated time
frames. Тhe labor 1isted in the following crew tables is for а double shift working а

[1' twenty-four (24) hour day, usingthe equipment spreads full time.
It is assumed that any available deck space оп the lay barge will Ье used for hauling and
storing as much ofthe pipe as possible and that material or cargo barges in the proper size
and capacity will Ье added to the spread as needed.
То find the total direct daily cost of any labor and equipment spread:

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1) Determine the daily rate, including аН fringes, of each craft or position and
multiply each rate Ьу the number ofmen required for that position.
2) Determine the daily rate of each rigged-up piece of equipment, including аН its
1-
components.
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3) Determine the daily cost of fuel, оП and grease required to run the spread and

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LI~ add this cost to the spread.
4) Determine the cost of small tools and consumable supplies required to support
the spread for the project, prorate оп а daily basis and add the prorated cost to
, the daily spread cost.
5) If quartering and catering ofpersonnel are required, estimate the cost-per man
:·.o...- -'о!·:
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day, multiply Ьу the number ofmen in the crew, and add daily rate for the total
;
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crew to the spread.
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6) Estimate the totalcosts of(l) through (5) above to arrive at the totaI direct cost
ofthe spread per working day.

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-,."--:..:. То determine the daily direct cost of а spread for а non-working or stand-by day, simply
reduce the working day spread cost Ьу the cost ofthe fuel, оН and grease and the consum-
аЫе supplies that would normally Ье used when working.
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119

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Section Five
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DREDGING, BLASTING AND JETTING


Before an estimate is made оп dredged, blasted orjetted excavation, it is well to
know the kind of soH that тау Ье encountered. Soils vary greatly in character,
and по two are exactly alike. For this reason, we have classified· soil into the
following four groups according to the difficulty experienced in excavating it:
Light Soil-Soil, such as sand, which is easily removed with drag bucket
and requires по loosening.
Medium Soil-Soil easily removed but which requires pre1iminary loosen-
ing with bucket prior to гещоvаl. This type ofearth is иеиаllу classified
as ordinary soil and1oam.
Неаиу Soil-This type ofsoil сап Ье loosened with the drag bucket, but this
is sometimes difficult. Hard and compact loam containing gravel, small
stones and boulders (stiff clay or compact gravel are good examples of
this type).
Rock-Requires blasting before removal. Мау Ье divided into different
grades such as hard, soft or medium.

Backfillingis simply the replii:cement of excavations' with pre-excavated mate-


rials or select materials that have been hauled in.

The time frames in the tables in this section are based оп the following
conditions:
1) The time frames listed are for quantities.of compact measurement.
2) The equipment is working in the optimum depth of cut for maximum
efficienc~
3) There are по delays-the equipment is working а fuH 60 minutes еасЬ
hour.
4) The dragline is making а 90° swing before unloading.
5) ТЬе proper type bucket is being used for the job.
6) The dragline is beil1g used within the working radius recommended Ьу
the manufacturer for machine stabilit~

We have attempted to simplify requirements and data pertaining to the use of


explosives in trenching. We cannot put together а complete requirement and
time fr~e data system for аН conditions that might arise, since there are too
many unknowns involved. We feel that the information in this section will Ье
useful for estimating the majority of projects one might encounter.

Onshore magazine storage facilities for storage of explosives are not included
and must Ье added to the estimate for blasting.

ТЬе cost ofalllocal explosive fees, licenses and permits also must Ье added.

165
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[1'; SectionSix
OFFSHORESTRUCTURES
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ТЬе purpose of this section is to outline various operations involved-and to list the time
frames, labor crews and equipment spreads that тау Ье required-in the installation of
shoreline wharfs andjetties, offshore drilling and production platforms, offshore berth-
ing and docking facilities and single-point mooring terminals.
r"-? Many items affect the cost and time required in the installation of offshore structures.
tj Assuming that the proper skiПеd craftsmen and adequate equipment spreads are used to
their best advantage, the major items that must Ье considered, evaluated and applied
against the time frames which fоПоw in this section are those oflabor productivity and

[I~ wind, wave and current conditions.

Based оп one hundred percent productivity; we have included time frames for the various
operations involved in the iпstаПаtiоп of offshore structures. Ву applying the included
(1 i productivity factors for labor, wind, wave and current conditions against thesetime
frames, it becomes а simple matter to arrive at а total installation time requirement.

,IJ When installing offshore structures with а fuП crew and equipment spread, certain
ореrаtiоцsсап Ье performed simultaneously. When preparing the estimate, ап itemized

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time requirement list should Ье made, segregating the major items of work to Ье per-
formed from those supplemental operations that сап Ье accomplished concommitantly
with the major items. The totallabor and equipment spreads should Ье assessed against
(.~; the project only for the time required to perform the major items ofwork.
I~_~~~ ТЬе following crew tables represent а double shift working а 24-hour day, utilizing the
equipment spreads fuП time~

Any available deck spaceon the derrick barge should Ье used for hau1ing and storing as
тисЬ of the structures as possible; material or cargo barges, of the proper sizes and
capacities, should Ье added to the spread as needed.

173

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Section Seven
OFFSHORE INSTALLATION OF
EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES
Time frames, in manhours required for the installation of equipment, pre-fabricated
piping spool tie-ins, electrical installations, and instrumentation installations оп
offshore structures, are included under this section. We have also included labor crew and
equipment spread tables which we feel will meet maximum requirements for' these
installations.

ТЬеlabor listed·in the tables is for а double crew, еасЬ working а 12-hour shift, comple-
menting а 24-hour day, utilizing the equipment spreads fuП time.

In applying the hours included in the following time frame tables, consideration must Ье
given to items that will affect the overall productivity that one might expect to obtain оп
а project of thisnature. Once the derrick barge is anchored and secure<Iln 'its position,
ocean currents will have little or по effect оп productivity. However, wind, waves and
labor will have а decided effect and should Ье given consideration in obtaining an overall
productivity factor to apply against the hours.

When performing work at sea, it is usuаПу wise to complement the project with the fuП
labor crew and equipment spread that will Ье required for the work involved. Once the
work is underway тапу operations сап Ье performed concurrently and по time need Ье
".
assessed for these operations. For example, опсе certain pieces of equipment are in-
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stalled, tie-in of piping, electrical and instrumentation installations сап Ье performed
while other pieces of equipment are being set.

ТЬе estimator should prepare а step-by-step time requirement table, segregating the
major items that will require the spread from those that сап Ье performed concurrently,
and assess the crew and spread only for the time required to perform the major opera-
tions. For examples of these "time frames, see Section Six, ttOffshore Structures," pages
213 tb..rough 224. I
For effi.ciency percentages to apply against labor, wind and waves and an example of
their application, вее Section Six, ttOffshore Structures," pages 206 through 210.

225
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Section Eight
-ИISСЕLLАNЕОUS

CONSTRUCTION
ITEMS
In preparing an estimate for pipelines and offshore struc-
tures, а variety of direct cost items must Ье considered and
added to the estimate if necessary.

This section presents these items as а descriptive checklist.


Any or allof the items тау Ье needed, depending оп the
requirements of the project being considered.

299

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