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Edward 1.


Charles Concordia-
1999 IEEE Medal of Honor
C. Concordia’s book Synchronous Ma- Very early in his career, Concordia engineer, C. P. Steinmetz died in 1923.
Lhzna (’Wiley, 195 l),is the most author- was recognized as an authority on power By that same year, R. E. Doherty had es-
itative book on the subject. systems, even before he gained his repu- tablished himself at GE as a protege of
- Loyal V. Bewley (1963) tation as an authority on machine the- Steinmetz. Doherty, C. A. Nickle and A.
ory. This article includes excerpts from R. Stevenson organized the first class of

D t. Charles Concordia is the recipi-

ent of the 1999 IEEE Medal of
Honor, one of the Institute’s most pres-
an unpublished manuscript by L. V.
Bewley on the history of synchronous
machine theory 111. Bewley’s article was
GE’s well-known Advanced Engineering
Program (or simply Advanced Course) in
1923 121.R. H. Park began work on his
tigious awards. Concordia’s name is written in 1963, two years prior to the famous “Park’s Equations” for synchro-
closely associated with the Power Engi- Northeast Blackout of 1965. His article nous machines in 1926. E. L. Harder and
neering Society (PES) of provides interesting insight L. A. Kilgore joined the Westinghouse
the IEEE, more so than into people and events cul- Electric Company, and began careers that
the other constituent soci- minating in Concordia’s somewhat paralleled Concordia’s at GE
eties. Although he may be book. Concordia did not 131. C. E. Kilbourne entered the Testing
more widely recognized then and does not now work Department ofGE in 1927, transferring ,
by members of the PES, in a vacuum, isolated from two years later, to the A-C Engineering
certainly his work has other people. H e influences Department. Thus, Concordia entered
greatly influenced and others and in turn is greatly into professional life at an inflection in
benefited the IAS. In com- influenced by those around history, with one era ending and anocher
ing months you will hear him. beginning.
more about this award and Bewley pays Concordia a Concordia’sdecision to join the Elec-
about Dr. Concordia. The very high compliment when tric Utility Department (EUD) of GE
June issue of Spectrum usu- he states that Concordia’s rather than the Steam Turbine Depart-
ally features an article on book is the most authorita- ment is discussed below (see the para-
the current year’s recipi- tive source on the subject of graph about being both a Mechanical
ent of the Medal of Honor. synchronous machine the- and Electrical Engineer). Concordia
In anticipation of the forthcoming cele- ory. Many authors still cite Concordia’s sometimes uses an anecdote about him-
brations, IAS Mdgazine profile’s this fas- book after all these years, even though it selftomake apoint. H e describes his de-
cinating personality and renowned is no longer in print. These examples cision to join EUD as being a choice
engineer. show the enduring quality of his contri- between applications and technology.
This article is divided into aprologue butions to machine theory. Most IAS members instinctively under-
and three main sections: stand that some distinction exists be-
the award itself, Introduction tween these two facets of engineering
I a biographical sketch of Dr. Con- Concordia began his professional career in work, although precise differences may
cordia-recipient of the medal, 1926. The 1920s were a time of great not be clear. When most people think of
and change. Following World War I, the Concordia, they associate his work with
previous recognition of his work. world entered an economic recession, fol- systems interactions, more so than prod-
Concordia has been awarded the lowed by boom times beginning in 1922, uct design. It is interesting to compare
Medal of Honor not because of his exper- the so-called “Roaring Twenties.” Com- Concordia’s accomplishments to those
tise on synchronous machines (although mercial radio became a reality in 1920, of other engineers, who are known for
that is also very great) but because ofhis when station KDKA began broadcasting their electric machine design work. Ex-
contributions to power system dynam- in Pittsburgh. Radio station W G Y began amples of eminent persons, so recog-
ics. He has been a consultant to various broadcasting in Schenectady about a year nized, include P. L. Alger, L. A.
governing authorities, as they grappled later. In his article, Bewley established Kilgore, and C. E. Kilbourne.
with after-effects following major power 1923 as the beginning ofhis story on syn- Alger is well-known as “Mr. In-
system failures, or “blackouts.” chronous machine theory. GE’s renowned duction Motor” 141. He wrote a

m IEEE Industry Applicotions Mogozine Moy/June I999

world-famous book on the subject
of induction machines. E51 A Charles Concordia
comparison of Alger’s and Con- History of Modern Theory of Synchronous Machines
cordia’s books shows an essential
difference. {b] Alger looks at in- The following passages are excerpted from an unpublished manuscript by Loyal V.
ternal design parameters such as Bewley {I).
current densities, magnetic flux
densities and intensities of me- rior to 1923 many engineers in Europe and America had investigated the
chanical stresses. Concordia’s
book is focused at a slightly
P steady-state and transient behavior of synchronous machines, notably P.
Boucherot(l911),N. S. Diamant(l915), W . Rogowski(l92)C. P. Steinmetz,
higher level, sometimes treating L. Dreyfus (1912, 1916), E. J. Berg, J. Biermans (1915), and A. Blondell
the machine as a component (1913, 1919). All of these investigations were restricted to round rotor ma-
within a larger system. Alger re- chines, and generally to fundamental frequency voltages and currents. By
ceived the Lamme Medal in 1958 1923 the Fourier analysis ofthe armature reaction ofadistributed winding had
(jointly with Sterling Beckwith) been worked out; formulas established for leakage (slot, air-gap, end turns,
“for contributions to the art and field) and synchronous reactances; formulas established for the harmonic re-
science of design and application duction coefficients (pitch, distribution, connection); the effects of saturation
of rotating machines.” presented; and rudimentary conceptions of flux distributions around the field
R Kilgore, another renown design- poles, in the slots, and in the air-gap envisioned. As far as the user was con-
ing engineer, who was associated cerned, a synchronous machine was characterized by its saturation curves
with Westinghouse, received the (open-circuit and zero power factor), short-circuit characteristics, leakage
Lamme medal in 1959 “for meri- reactance and a single synchronous impedance, and in the case of a motor by its
torious achievement in the design V-curves (a set of curves of armature current versus field current at different
of electric machinery ....” West- power factors). The only phasor diagram in use was that for a round-rotor ma-
inghouse engineers reputedly re- chine. No method existed for determining the time harmonics in the
fer to Kilgore as “the designer of short-circuit currents, or even for ascertaining the magnitudes of short-circuit
the Grand Coulee machines - currents with any degree of accuracy. Salient-pole machines were ignored by
with a six-inch slide-rule and on the theorists, except for the two-reaction theory expounded by A. Blondell in a
the back of an envelope.” E. C. classic paper written in 1913. Blondell considered only fundamental fre-
Whitney also contributed greatly quency quantities.
to the design of those Grand The Doherty-Nitkle Era
Coulee machines (Tesla Award, In 1923, R. E. Doherty, then a design engineer in the motor-generator depart-
1 9 8 5 ) . Kilgore received t h e ment ofthe General Electric Company (and destined to become Steinmetz’s as-
Lamme Medal in 1959, 2 years sistant, then consulting engineer, and ultimately president of Carnegie
before Concordia received his Institute of Technology), presented an AIEE paper “A Simplified Method of
Lamme Medal in 1961. E. L. Analyzing Short-circuit Problems,” in which he showed how to determine the
Harder (subject of an earlier IAS initial behavior of the short-circuit currents through an application of what is
article), received the Lamme now know as Doherty’s Theorem of Constant Flux Linkages, 1923. This theo-
Medal in 1962 [3]. rem, together with Blondell’s Two-Reaction Theory of Salient-pole Machines,
R Kilbourne, another contempo- (1913,1919)may be takenas the two basic(straregic)conceptswhichinitiated
rary of Concordia at GE, was an the development of the modern theory of synchronous machines.
eminent synchronous machine In 1925, R. F. Franklin, then a young protCg6 of Doherty’s and an engineer
designer. Although Kilbourne in the D.C. Engineering Department of GE, at Doherty’s instigation pre-
was elected an AIEE Fellow in sented his AIEE paper ’Short-circuit Currents of Synchronous Machines” in
1947, he is less well known out- which he used Doherty’s theorem to solve for the initial short-circuit currents
side of GE than Alger and Kil- of single-, two- and three-phase alternators for line-to-neutral, line-to-line,
gore. Kilbourne’s career bears double line-to-neutral, and three-phase short-circuits. He gave explicit for-
some amazing similarities to that mulas for the armature and field currents, but did not concern himself with
of Kilgore, more than just the torque and power.
fact that they were both “design- In 1924, C. M. Lafoon of the Westinghouse Company, Power Engineering
ing engineers.” This will be dis- Department, explored the same cases as above by means of Doherty’s theorem,
cussed in more depth in a future but restricted himself to arriving at the peak values of the armature short-
article. circuit currents.
W h e n C o n c o r d i a received t h e In 1929 G. W. Penney of the Westinghouse Research Department, in his
Lamme Medal, his recognition was “for AIEE paper “Short-circuit Torque in Synchronous Machines,” made use of
analyses of synchronous machines lead- Franklin’s results to determine the short-circuit torque in terms of the rate of
ing to improved designs.. .” Kilbourne change of the stored magnetic energy-the same principle used previously by
explained the difference between the Steinmetz, Doherty and others.
work of machine designers and system
engineers during an address to a class of

I€€€Industry Applicotions Mogozine = Moy/lune I999

GE synchronous machine design engi-
neers in 1935 [ 7 ] .He said that the role of In 1924 Doherty became a consulting engineer with GE and secured the
the design engineer is to proportion the transfer to his office of C. A. Nickle, who had been adesign engineer at the Erie
volumes of materials used in machines Works of GE. Nickle was a quiet, unassuming and lovable man of many inter-
to meet applicable standards and specifi- ests, and the magnificent depth of his analytical ability was fully matched by
cations. In turn, design engineers pro- his insight into physical phenomena and his talent for building things with his
duce iequivalent circuits and other own hands. Among other talents, he had a photographic memory. Once he
representations used by application en- came into my office, handed me a book of logarithms, and asked me to test his
gineers in their systems work. He fur- memory. H e knew them all, out to seven decimal places! Doherty, Nickle and
ther explained, machine designers select R. H. Park constituted an ideal combination, and together they were the chief
conductor or wire size (volume of cop- founders of the modern theory of synchronous machines. Doherty was the or-
per) and lamination (volume of iron) to ganizer and pusher, Nickle the innovator and Park the rigorous generalizer and
do a job. perfectionist.
When finished with this work, the The distinguished contributions to synchronous machine theory by
machine designer produces speed- Doherty and Nickle and their associates ended in 1933. Their research covered
torq~iecurves or time-current curves a period of nine years and provided a vast wealth of new concepts and ideas.
representing his creation. He forwards They had laid the ground work for the generalizations and refinements that
this data to the application engineer, so would follow. Their procedures have been called “brute force methods” be-
the application engineer can coordinate cause they plowed through to final results without benefit of general differen-
the machine with the rest of the system. tial equations or the transformation of reference frame concepts or operational
An application engineer should under- calculus or symmetrical components. But they got results! And no more ad-
stand the work of a design engineer, and vanced theory has yielded numerical values of much greater accuracy. If the
vice-versa. cardinal principles and underlying philosophy of their work be culled from
Education has always been a matter their output-strategic aspects of their efforts-there are:
of abiding concern to Concordia. Alger 1. Extension of Blondell’s two-reaction theory to include the effect of
tells an interesting story about Con- space-harmonics and transient currents.
cordia and education. [SI Concordia 2. Employment of the theorem of constant flux linkages.
grew up in Schenectady, and joined GE 3. Development of a phasor diagram for both transient and steady-state
as a laboratory assistant after graduation conditions.
from high school in 1926. His education 4. Transient solutions as a succession of steady-states and linked by appro-
beyond high school has been various spe- priate decrement factors, and distinguished by suitable reactances.
cialized courses and self-study. This in- 5 . A relentless appeal to the underlying physics; a profound understanding
cluded some daytime and evening of pertinent assumptions, relationships and interpretations; a professional ap-
courses at Union College. When an an- preciation of the practicality of definitions, methods and results.
nouncement of the Advanced Course
came through, he asked to take the qual- Fixed to Stator
ifying examination. As he had never (U.O>O)

gone to college (perhaps Alger should

have added the word “formally”),the ex-
aminer thought there was no chance that
he could pass, but there was no harm in
letting him try. To the examiner’saston- (f, b, 0 ) 0)
Analytical Free
ishment, Concordia passed easily, and
thereafter he kept up fully with the pro-
gram ( 1 932-34). Following completion
of the third year (C course), he was lec-
turer to the Advanced Course. In 1971 Ku
Union College granted Concordia a
Doctorate (D.Sc.) and in 1993 the Uni-
versity of Iowa conferred an Honorary
(1. 2, 0) 0)
Doctor of Science. Analytical Rotor
Concordia is well known to many of
the graduates of GE’s venerable Power
Systems Engineering Course, taught
since 1949. As Senior Consultant in
EUD, he gave personal attention to most (a, b, c)
Fixed to stator
students i n the PSEC course. One com-
ment regarding Concordia, frequently Fig. 1. Transformationpathsfollmued by different authors, eachpath defined by a n
made by those who are, or were, associ- appropriate transformation tensor. (Source: Bewley ’s article.)
ated wit-h him, is his willingness to take

IFF€ hdustry Applicntions Mngnzine I Mny/lune I999

time from his busy schedule and offer
counsel to those seeking it. He continues In the 127 double column pages contained in their papers, there is a high
to provoke thoughtful discourse on the percentage of repetition and much space could have been saved through better
subject of education 191. organization ofmaterial and a unified presentation. Mathematically, they used
Concordia has demonstrated a tre- little else than trigonometry and algebra. Theirs was a piecemeal physical rea-
mendous range in his technical virtuos- soning and analysis.
ity. He came to know J. R. Whinnery
The Park Era
and S. Ram0 during their tenure at the
Towards the end of the 1920s, a number of engineers began to sense a dis-
Electronics Laboratory at GE. They are
satisfaction with the Doherty-Nickle approach because it was not based on the
well known for their book on Fields and differential equations of a machine and it was too rigidly tied to the physical
Waves [lo]. In 1944 when microwave (d- and q-) axes. O n a number of occasions, Prof. W. V. Lyon of Massachusetts
technology was still in its infancy, Con- Institute of Technology had expressed the hope that salient-pole synchronous
cordia and Whinnery collaborated on a machine theory might be formulated on a more fundamental and rigorous ba-
study of electro-magnetic cavity resona- sis, as had already been done for round rotor machines. In 1927 Bekku in Japan
tors 1111. This study piqued Concordia’s had written a paper, “Sudden Short-circuit of an Alternator,” in which he set
interest in using computers. Few power up the equations in terms of backward and forward rotating fields and used the
engineers have the versatility to contrib- Heavyside operational calculus to solve for the currents.
ute over such a range of technologies. The major breakthrough was made by R. H. Park, who was unquestionably
A native of California, Whinnery the author of the unified and generalized theory of salient-pole synchronous
came to GE in the late 1930s. Recently machines, which has dominated the field ever since it was promulgated. Park
when advised of Concordia’s recogni- was a close associate of Doherty and Nickle throughout the period of their in-
tion, Whinnery commented, “Even in vestigations, working in the same office and participating in their studies. In
the time I knew him, he was recognized 1926 Doherty and Park collaborated in an AIEE paper “Mechanical Forces in
as one of the top analysts of power sys- Electric Circuits,” and in the same year A. R. Stevenson and Park presented
tems, known internationally. I can’t re- their paper “Fundamental Theory of Flux Plotting.” In 1928 Park and B. I.
member when I first met him. It might Robertson published their AIEE paper “The Reactances of Synchronous Ma-
have been through an Advanced Course chines”-a definitive classification of the 15 different reactance coefficients
lecture he gave, or perhaps when I had an which had been disclosed in the Doherty-Nickle papers. Park also contributed
Advanced Course assignment on DC a number of pertinent discussions of the Doherty-Nickle papers, which clari-
power transmission, working with fied some moot points. And, in all of their papers, Doherty and Nickle ac-
Bernie Bedford. We did collaborate on knowledged Park’s critical reviews and contributions. Thus, the fine hand of
the papers concerned with use of the Park in the development of synchronous machine theory is discernible from
powerful network analyzer to demon- 1926 onward.
strate use of Kron’s equivalent circuits What are now known world-wide as Park’s equations were born in a Gen-
for electromagnetic field problems. Si eral Electric Review article, entitled “Definition of an Ideal Synchronous Ma-
Ramo also played a major role in this chine and Formulas for the Armature Flux Linkages,” appearing in the June
project.” Around t h e m i d - l 9 4 0 s , 1928 issue, and an AIEE paper “Two-Reaction Theory of Synchronous Ma-
Whinnery returned to UC Berkeley, chines-A Generalized Method of Analysis-Part I.” In these two papers,
where he eventually became Dean of the comprising 15 pages, Park established his beautiful theory and equations,
College of Engineering. The Ramo / which would have far-reaching consequences.
Whinnery book on Fields and Waves In 1933 Park published a short AIEE paper entitled “Two-reaction Theory
was another in the GE series, inspired by of Synchronous Machines 11” in which he developed an operational method for
Alger and published by Wiley. The calculating damping and synchronizing torques, based on expressing his
book originated as notes for the Ad- torque formula for small oscillations in vector form.
vanced Course which were later used in This ended the signal contributions of R. H. Park to machine theory, which
classes at Union College. (Whinnery is a spanned a period of seven years. On the occasion of the award of the Lamme
well-known educator who received the medal of the AIEE to Park, the citation said: “Park’s equations are to machine
Medal of Honor in 1985 .) Ram0 came to theory what Maxwell’s equations are to electromagnetic theory.’
the Advanced Course with his Ph.D. Many engineers have used Park’s equations for the solution of short-circuit
from Cal Tech already in hand. He left problems, a wide variety of special cases, hunting problems, system stability,
GE after a few years, eventually becom- etc. Some slight changes have been introduced to include the effect of external
ing co-founder of The Ramo-Wooldrige capacitances and impedances in the circuit. But they have stood the test oftime
Corporation and later merging to form with very little change or modification. They rendered obsolete the methods of
Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge (TRW). analysis of Doherty and Nickle, although not all the innovations and forms
In the 1920s, companies like GE and they introduced.
Westinghouse were dissatisfied with the
skills and abilities ofengineering gradu- Alternative Coordinate System Era
ates, recently recruited from colleges Overlapping the Park era, and in fact paralleling it, was the introduction of a
and universities. E. L. Harder discussed number ofpoints ofview and coordinate systems differing from the d,q,o frame
this dissatisfaction during his interview

IEEE Industry Applications Magazine May/June 1999

with the IEEE History Center [12). GE
and Westinghouse organized their own of Doherty and Nickle and Park. Three of these systems proved of practical
training programs for recent graduate value and have survived. Others proved of only temporary interest.
engineers to overcome the perceived de- in 1929, at the same AIEE convention where Park presented his famous pa-
ficiencies. Doherty, Nickles, and per, Y. H. Ku gave a paper entitled “Transient Analysis of A. C. Machinery.”
Stevenson began GE’s Advanced Course The content of this paper had been anticipated to a considerable extent by a
as a 3--year course of study beyond the 1927 paper by S. Bekku entitled “Sudden Short Circuit of an Alternator.”
baccalaureate. Although their Advanced However Ku authored a dozen or so papers which went considerably beyond
Course was recognized by employers as Bekku’s contributions.
being equivalent to (or perhaps in some Fortescue, who developed symmetrical components, was aware that they
ways superior to a Ph.D.), education ob- could be used for instantaneous as well as sinusoidal quantities, but they were
tained through company programs did not so used by him.
not have the same portability as the C. Concordia’s book Synchronom Machines (John Wiley, 195 l), is the most
Ph.D. Later GE taught the Advanced authoritative book on the subject. Essentially, it gives a well-organized deriva-
Course in conjunction with degree pro- tion of Park’s equations and their application to the solution of steady state and
grams at four engineering colleges; transient problems, including three phase, line to ground, line to line short cir-
MIT, Brooklyn Polytechnic, Rensselaer cuits; and a full derivation of formulas for the many reactances and time con-
Polytechnic, and Union College. Suc- stants encountered.
cessful candidates received both a Ph.D.
from the college and graduated from the The Kron Era
Advanced Course. It remained for G. Kron to demonstrate the complete interrelationships be-
The organizational entity of GE, tween the previous and even more general systems. Studying circuit and ma-
called ElJD in this article, originated chine theory from the point of view of tensor analysis over a period of 20 years,
at Thomson-Houston (T-H) in Lynn, he was able to formulate a most complete and general theory of electric ma-
MA as the Power and Mining Depart- chine of all types. His method did not reveal anything essentially new, but i t
ment in 1889. Three years later, GE did present a unified and generalized procedure and analytical process.
was formed from the merger of T - H Many books and articles, particularly in Czechoslovakia, Japan, and Eng-
and Edison General Electric. The old land, have discussed machine theory from Kron’s points of view, but without
Power and Mining Department ofT-H adding anything to synchronous machine theory. Fig. 1 illustrates the trans-
became the new Power and Mining formation paths followed by different authors. Each path is defined by an ap-
Department of General Electric. In propriate transformation tensor.
1894, GE moved their headquarters to
Schenectady, NY, where it remained
until the mid 1950s. In 1921, the in the years that followed, the Medal The 1999 IEEE Medals will be con-
Power and Mining Department was of Honor became the highest award in ferred upon 11 distinguished engineers,
divided into two Departments, Cen- the radio engineering profession, given educators, and corporate executives at
tral Stations Engineering and Indus- only to those who had attained preemi- the IEEE’s Awards Banquet planned for
trial E,ngineering. In 1955, Central nence in the field through outstanding Saturday, June 12, in London, England.
Stations Engineering became the Elec- technical contributions. At the banquet, Concordia will be
tric Utility Department. In 1969, six Following the merger ofthe Institute granted the Medal of Honor.
engineers left GE’s E U D t o form of Radio Engineers and the American The citation reads:
Power Technologies Incorporated. To- Institute of Electrical Engineers in For outstanding contributions in the area
day, Power Systems Energy Con- 1963, the Medal of Honor became the of Pou rr System Dynamics tLbich resulted in
sulting is the successor organization highest award of the IEEE, and its scope substantial iniprouements in planning. oper-
within GE to EUD, where Concordia was correspondingly broadened. ation. andsecurity of extendedpoti ‘ersystems.
spent most of his 47-year career The award consists of a gold medal, Concordia is being recognized for his
bronze replica, certificate, and thirty- work in promoting concepts of power
five thousand dollars. It is sponsored by system stability. Because of his famous
The IEEE Medal of Honor
The following information about the the IEEE Foundation, Inc., and receives book, most people naturally assume any
Medal of Honor is available from the support from the Frank A. Cowan Fund recognition accorded to him would re-
IEEE at the Awards page at <http:ll when awarded in the field of communi- late to the theory of electric machines
www.ieee.orglawards1index.htm > . cations. It is presented only when a can- [bl. However, he was previously recog-
Five years after the formation of the didate is identified as having made a nized for this work in this field when he
Institute of Radio Engineers, the Medal particular contribution which forms a received the Lamme Medal, in 1962.
of Honor was established as its first clearly exceptional addition to the sci- This time he is being recognized for
award to recognize distinguished service ence and technology of concern to the technical contributions much broader
in the then fledging art of radio commu- Institute. Seventy-seven persons have in scope than just the field of machine
nications. Thus, the first Medal of been awarded the Medal of Honor in the theory. Major power system distur-
Honor was bestowed on Major Edwin H. past eighty-one years. (A list of prior re- bances can cause serious economic loss
Armstrong in 1917. cipients is also available at the website.) and social disruption. In 1965 and again

Iu I€€€ lndustry Applications Magazine - May/hne I999

in 1967, Concordia served on the Advi- pany and is now in private consulting- the electrical engineers in the need for,
sory Panel to the Federal Power Com- engineering practice. and interest in, digital computers. So he
mission, in connection with studies of H e has always considered himself a was one of a dozen men who formed the
major power interruptions: the 1965 Mechanical as well as an Electrical Engi- Association for Computing Machinery
Northeast Blackout and the 1967 PJM neer. Indeed, after his taking (and teach- (ACM) in 1947.
Interconnection Blackout. (PJM refers ing) GE’s Advanced Engineering H e is a graduate of GE’s Advanced
to the mid-Atlantic states; Pennsylva- Program in the 1930s,he had the oppor- Engineering Program, and has super-
nia, New Jersey and Maryland.) He also tunity to join either the Electric Utility vised the Elasticity and Dynamics
served as consultant on the 1977 New Department or the Steam Turbine De- Course.
York City Blackout, the 1977 Blackout partment. H e chose Electric Utility En- His work was concerned principally
in San Antonio, the 1984 Blackout in gineering, with some regret, and with the dynamic analysis of intercon-
Hong Kong, the 1989 Blackout in Ice- remained under siege by the Turbine nected electric power systems, electri-
land and the 1995 Blackout in Cyprus. group for about 2 years. In any case, the cal machinery, and automatic control
As most IAS members know, when problems in the Electric Power System systems, including power system volt-
blackouts do occur many industrial area were (and are) as much mechanical age, speed, tie-line power and fre-
plants suffer tremendous economic loss, as electrical. (In fact electrical power en- quency control. In particular, he was
even for a very brief power disruption. It gineering involves practically all active in the application of both analog
can cost a chemical plant millions of dol- branches of engineering.) and digital computers as aids in the so-
lars for a power outage, even though it In his work he made contributions in lution of these and other engineering
lasts only one minute. This loss might practically every aspect of electric power problems.
occur if some resinous material hardens systems, industrial as well as utility, Concordia has authored one book,
or solidifies in a reactor, requiring that ranging from turbine and generator de- Synchronous Machines-Theory and Per-
the resin be “chipped-out” of the reactor sign and performance to load behavior firmanre, published by John Wiley and
before production can resume. It can under normal and disturbance condi- Sons [6]. H e holds six patents that cover
cost a steel mill millions of dollars in tions, and including system control and a wide range of subjects.
damages to their blast furnace, should a protection. During the mid 1950s, he Concordia has published over 130
lapse of wind or cooling water occur, contributed to electric arc furnace appli- technical papers. In general, they can be
even though the lapse might last for only cations [13], 1141. Some ofhis contribu- segregated into nine categories:
a brief minute. It can cost an automotive tions have been recorded in over 130 1. Electric Rotating Machinery,
manufacturing plant hundreds of thou- technical papers (many in the AIEE and 2 . Electrical Self-Excitation and
sands of dollars in broken tools and IEEE), and in a book on Synchronous Ferro-Resonance,
scrapped product for a power outage Machines (1951). However, he himself 3. Centrifugal Compressors,
lasting only a few cycles ofthe power fre- believes his principal contribution has 4. Wind-Tunnel Fan Drives,
quency. These are just a few examples of been to help others to understand better 5. Electric Power System Stability,
how a major power disruption can be the nature ofpower system performance. 6. Speed Governing, and Tie-Line
costly to industrial plants and therefore For a Consulting Engineer, as for any Power and Frequency Control,
how important power system reliabil- teacher, his work is best shown in the 7. Voltage Surges,
ity-stability is to those industrial con- success of his clients. 8. Computing Machines, and
cerns and IAS members. The calculation of the performance of 9. Power System Design and Opera-
large power systems, while simple in tion for Maximum Service Reliability.
Charles Concordia principle, is lengthy and tedious. Thus Much of Concordia’s unpublished
Concordia was born on June 20, 1908 in mechanical aids are practically essential. work has been concerned with the analy-
Schenectady, NY, USA. He started his This was early recognized around 1915 sis of control systems, including gun-
professional career in the General Engi- when “analog network calculators” were fire control, aircraft electrical systems
neering Laboratory of the General Elec- built and used. During and after World voltage regulation, aircraft turbo-super-
tric Company in July 1926. In the War I1 the development of digital com- charger pressure and speed control, and
laboratory, he worked on the calibration puters accelerated. Concordia took on aircraft propeller gas turbine control.
of various types of instrumentation and the job of facilitating the application of He was one of the founders of the As-
the development of many types of mag- these new computers not only to power sociation for Computing Machinery
netic steel. Following his invention of a systems but also for all sorts of engineer- (1947) and has also been National Trea-
new method of detecting cracks in rail- ing problems. As part of this job, he or- surer of the Association. H e was for nine
road rails, he was made a de facto con- ganized and became the first chairman years (1960-69) Chairman of the Inter-
sulting engineer, and (with various, and ofthe first committee on computing de- national Study Committee on Power
numerous, changes in title) remained vices in 1946. This committee (ofAIEE) System Planning and Operation of the
one for the rest ofhis career with General has now grown (with the joining of the International Conference on Large Elec-
Electric. H e retired on July 1, 1971, IRE) into the present IEEE Computer tric Power Systems (CIGRE). In IEEE
from the position of Consulting Engi- Society. At the same time, Concordia he has been Chairman of the Research
neer in the Electric Utility Engineering recognized that persons without engi- and Transfers Committee and a member
Operation of the General Electric Com- neering background far outnumbered of the Publications Board, the Spectrum

I€€€ Industry Applications Mogozine = Moy/lune I999

Editorial Board, and the Power System walking, and languages. Since his retire- Any errors or omissions lie strictly
Engineering Committee. In ASME he ment in 1973, he and his wife Frances with the author
has been Chairman of the Professional have lived in Venice, Florida. He still
Practice Committee and a member of does some consulting and is still active
the Policy Board, Professional Affairs. in IEEE and CIGRE. Frances has also For More Information
In 1965 and 1967, he served on the been active, particularly as Treasurer (for [ I 1 Unpublished manuscript by L. V . Bewley,
Advisory Panel to the Federal Power eight years) of the AAUW (American "Short History of the Development of the
Commission as it dealt with the after- Association of University Women) and iModern Theory of Synchronous Machines,"
effects of two blackouts. of the IFUW (International Federation copy available at Hall of Electrical History,
He has participated in seminars on of University Women). She recently Schenectady Museum Association, 15 N o t t
Terrace Heights, Schenectady, N Y 12308-
various aspects of electric power system wrote a History of the Venice Hospital.
31 14, + 1-5 18-385-1 104. fax: + 1-5 18-185-
performance in several international lo-
cations, including: Brazil, Venezuela, Recent Developments 121 Address by R. E. Doherty, "Reminiscences of
Spain, Nicaragua and Taiwan. During the 1960s and 70s, earlier work the Advance Engineering Program," pre-
Since his retirement (in 1973), he has on machine rheory as chronicled by sented at the Advanced Engineering Banquet,
done independent consulting engineer- Bewley, was extended by P. C. Krause, Schenecrady, N Y , May 22, 1942. Copy avail-
ing for electric utility system planning C. H . Thomas and T . A. Lip0 to include able at Hall of Electrical History (see [ 11).
131 E. L. Owen, "Four Generations of Electrical
and operating problems (in the USA, transformation of machine equations to Engineers," I E E E Itidmtq App/imtions i\lug~-
Canada, South America and Asia). H e an arbitrary reference frame. Thomas ziiie, vol. 4, no. 2 , pp. 6- 15, 1998.
also served as a consultant to several re- was an associate of Concordia at GE dur- 141 P. L. Alger, correspondence, "How I Earned
search projects sponsored by the Electric ing the 1950s. 1141 the Sobriquet of Mr. Induction Motor," Eh<-
Power Research Institute. t n i I ! l d i t i e and ElritmineihurriiJ: uir Intrma-
During his distinguished career, Conclusion tionul Q N N T ~ ~HemisphereYIJ, Publishing
Company, vol. 3, pp. 369-70, 1979.
Concordia has received many awards, in- Dr. Concordia has made major con- [ 5 ] P. L. Alger, "The Nature of Polyphase Induc-
dudin,?: tributions in the fields of power systems tion Machines," John Wiley (General Electric
From AIEE and IEEE: and electric machines, particularly series), New York, 195 1
n Lamme Medal for meritorious power system dynamics and machine (61 C. Concordia, S y c b r o ~ i wAlticbine~:
~ Theor) und
achievement in the development theory. His leadership and counsel has Pe~lnuaizi~e, John Wiley (General Electric se-
of electric machinery - 1962 been sought by governing authorities ries), New York, 195 1
171 C. E. Kilbourne, "Synchronnus Machine De-
n Centennial Medal for distin- following most major power system fail- sign," internal report, General Electric, Sche-
guished contributions to the elec- ures. H e was one of the founders of the nectady, N Y , Sep. I 9 j S .
rric power discipline - 1984 ACM and helped organize the IEEE (81 P. L.Alger, The Himiiin side oj-Eiigiiiwmx. Tu/e
(nominated by both PES and the Computer Society. He has authored over (4.GrwvuIEleitvii UZPI'HO Yeun,IMohawk Devel-
Computer Society) ( Power-Life 130 technical papers in several fields. opment Service, Schenectady, NY, 1972.
.i\ward - 1992 His principal contribution has been to [$)IC. Concordia. "Somr Thoughts on Education,"
I E E E Pourr Engineering Rei,iew, vol. 19, no. I ,
m ,Medal of Honor - 1999 help others to understand better the na- p. .39,Jan. 1999.
From CIGRE: ture of power system performance and [ I O ] S. Ramo, and J. R. Whinnery, Field, on'/
m Philip Sporn Award - 1989 his work is best shown in the success of \V"iz'e~ 111 Alodwii Rcidio, John Wiley (General
From General Electric Company: his clients. Electric series), New York, 1944.
n Coffin Award for contributions to [ I I1 C . Concordia, W . Ridgeway, J. R. Whinnery,
the analysis of wind tunnel elec- Acknowledgment and G . Kron, "Network Analyzer Studies of
Electromagnetic Cavi ty Resonators," Pmc. IRE,
tric drives - 1942 This article would not have been possi-
vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 360-7,June 1944.
il Steinmetz Award - 1973 ble without the full cooperation of Dr. 1121 Oral histnry interview with Dr. E. L. Harder,
He is a Fellow ofIEEE, ASME, AAAS Concordia. It is partially excerpted from J d y 3 0 - 3 I , 199 I , as part the IEEE Oral History
and a rnember of NAE and NSPE. From published accounts and the references Program supported by the IEEE Life Member
1960-69 he was chairman of the CIGRE should be consulted for further details. Fund. Transcript available from IEEE Center for
International Study Committee on The author wishes to acknowledge History of Electrical Engineering, Rutgers Uni-
versity, 39 LJnion Street, New Brunswick, NJ
Power Sysrem Planning and Operations considerable help from many, many per-
08901-8518, IJSA, + 1-7.32-9.32-1066, Fax:
(which has now grown into three study sons, but in particular: P. G. Brown, J. + 1-732-932-1 19.3, histnryCn'ieee.org, hrtp://
committees). In ASME he has been Sec- B. Tice, D. A. Swann, M. L. Crenshaw, www.ieee.org/histo~-center.
tion Chairman and Chairman of the Pro- G. D. Breuer, M. D. Horton, J. R . M. 1 i]C. C h c n r d i a , "Vnltage Dip and Synchro-
fessiond Practice Committee. In ACM he Alger, J. A. Tegopoulos, A. A. Fouad, L. nous-Condenser Swings Caused b y Arc Fur-
has been treasurer and Council Member. Fink, L. Barthold, and F. P. DeMello. nace Loads," AlFE Tnrnr.,vnl. 7 4 , part 111, pp.
His participation in AIEEiIEEE is well Also thanks goes to D. Morton at the 951-6, 1955.
141 C. Concorclia, L. G . Levoy, and C. H .
recorded in the Fellow Directory, so will IEEE History Center and John Ander- Thomas, "Selection of Buffer Rractors and
not bc. repeated here. son a t the Hall of Electrical History for Synchrnnous Cnndenwrs (in Pnwer Systems
His interests outside of engineering helping to locate materials contained in Supplying Arc Furnace Lmads," A l l X T w m . ,
include: mathematics, classical music, their archives. vol. 7 7 , part IT, pp. 123-35, July 1957.

El Iff€Industry Applicofions Mogozine I Moy/lune 1999