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A Second Course

in Linear Algebra
A Second Course
in Linear Algebra

WILLIAM C. BROWN
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan

A Wiley-lnterscience Publication
JOHN WILEY & SONS
New York • Chichester • Brisbane • Toronto • Singapore
To Linda

Copyright © 1988 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada.

Reproduction or translation of any part of this work


beyond that permitted by Section 107 or 108 of the
1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission
of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for
permission or further information should be addressed to
the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Brown, William C. (William Clough), 1943-
A second course in linear algebra.
"A Wiley-Interscience publication."
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Algebras, Linear. I. Title.
QA184.B765 1987 512'.5 87-23117
ISBN 0-471-62602-3
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Preface

For the past two years, I have been teaching a first-year graduate-level course in
linear algebra and analysis. My basic aim in this course has been to prepare
students for graduate-level work. This book consists mainly of the linear algebra
in my lectures. The topics presented here are those that I feel are most important
for students intending to do advanced work in such areas as algebra, analysis,
topology, and applied mathematics.
Normally, a student interested in mathematics, engineering, or the physical
sciences will take a one-term course in linear algebra, usually at the junior level.
In such a course, a student will first be exposed to the theory of matrices, vector
spaces, determinants, and linear transformations. Often, this is the first place
where a student is required to do a mathematical proof. It has been my
experience that students who have had only one such linear algebra course in
their undergraduate training are ill prepared to do advanced-level work. I have
written this book specifically for those students who will need more linear
algebra than is normally covered in a one-term junior-level course.
This text is aimed at seniors and beginning iiraduate students who have had
at least one course in linear algebra. The text has been designed for a one-
quarter or semester course at the senior or first-year graduate level. It is assumed
that the reader is familiar with such animals as functions, matrices, determi-
nants, and elementary set theory. The presentation of the material in this text is
deliberately formal, consisting mainly of theorems and proofs, very much in the
spirit of a graduate-level course.
The reader will nQte that many familiar ideas are discussed in Chapter I.
I urge the reader not to skip this chapter. The topics are familiar, but my
approach, as well as the notation I use; is more sophisticated than a junior-level
vii
viii PREFACE

treatment. The material discussed in Chapters II-V is usually only touched


upon (if at all) in a one-term course. I urge the reader to study these chapters
carefully.
Having written five chapters for this book, I obviously feel that the reader
should study all five parts of the text. However, time considerations often
demand that a student or instructor do less. A shorter but adequate course could
consist of Chapter I, Sections 1-6, Chapter II, Sections 1 and 2, and Chapters III
and V. If the reader is willing to accept a few facts about extending scalars, then
Chapters III, IV, and V can be read with no reference to Chapter II. Hence, a
still shorter course could consist of Chapter I, Sections 1-6 and Chapters III
and V.
It is my firm belief that any second course in linear algebra ought to contain
material on tensor products and their functorial properties. For this reason, I
urge the reader to follow the first version of a short course if time does not
permit a complete reading of the text. It is also my firm belief that the basic
linear algebra needed to understand normed linear vector spaces and real inner Contents
product spaces should not be divorced from the intrinsic topology and analysis
involved. I have therefore presented the material in Chapter IV and the first half
of Chapter V in the same spirit as many analysis texts on the subject. My
original lecture notes on normed linear vector spaces and (real) inner product
Chapter I. Linear Algebra 1
spaces were based on Loomis and Sternberg's classic text Advanced Calculus.
Although I have made many changes in my notes for this book, I would still like 1. Definitions and Examples of Vector Spaces 1
to take this opportunity to acknowledge my debt to these authors and their fine 2. ·Bases and Dimension 8
text for my current presentation of this material. 3. Linear Transformations 17
One final word about notation is in order here. All important definitions are
4. Products and Direct Sums 30
clearly displayed in the text with a number. Notation for specific ideas (e.g., 1\1
for the set of natural numbers) is introduced in the main body of the text as 5. Quotient Spaces and the Isomorphism Theorems 38
needed. Once a particular notation is introduced, it will be used (with only a few 6. Duals and Adjoints 46
exceptions) with the same meaning throughout the rest of the text. A glossary of 7. Symmetric Bilinear Forms 53
notation has been provided at the back of the book for the reader's convenience.
Chapter II. Multilinear Algebra 59
WILLIAM C. BROWN
1. Multilinear Maps and Tensor Products 59
East Lansing, Michigan
September 1987 2. Functorial Properties of Tensor Products 68
3. Alternating Maps and Exterior Powers 83
4. Symmetric Maps and Symmetric Powers 94

Chapter Ill. Canonical Forms of Matrices 98


1. Preliminaries on Fields 98
2. Minimal and Characteristic Polynomials 105
3. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 117
4. The Jordan Canonical Form 132
5. The Real Jordan Canonical Form 141
6. The Rational Canonical Form 159
hr
X CONTENTS

Chapter IV. Normed Linear Vector Spaces 171


1. Basic Definitions and Examples 171
2. Product Norms and Equivalence 180
3. Sequential Compactness and the Equivalence of
Norms 186
4. Banach Spaces 200

Chapter V. Inner Product Spaces 206


1. Real Inner Product Spaces 206 A Second Course
2. Self-adjoint Transformations 221
3. Complex Inner Product Spaces 236 in Linear Algebra
4. Normal Operators 243

Glossary of Notation 254

References 259

Subject Index 261


Chapter I

Linear Algebra

1. DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES OF VECTOR SPACES

In this book, the symbol F will denote an arbitrary field. A field is defined as
follows:

Definition 1.1: A nonempty set F together with two functions (x, y)-+ x + y and
(x, y) -+ xy from F x F to F is called a field if the following nine axioms are
satisfied:

Fl. X + y = y + X for all X, y E F.


F2. x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z for all x, y, z e F.
F3. There exists a unique· element 0 e F such that x + 0 = x for all x e F.
F4. For every xeF, there exists a unique element -xeF such that
x + (-x) = 0.
FS. xy = yx for all x, yeF.
F6. x(yz) = (xy)z for all x, y, z e F.
F7. There exists a unique element 1 :/= 0 in F such that xl = x for all xeF.
F8. For every x :/= 0 in F, there exists a unique yeF such that xy = 1.
F9. x(y + z) = xy + xz for all x, y, zeF.

Strictly speaking a field is an ordered triple (F, (x, y) -+ x + y, (x, y)-+ xy)
satisfying axioms Fl-F9 above. The map from F x F-+ F given by
(x, y) -+ x + y is called addition, and the map (x, y) -+ xy is called multiplication.
When referring to some field (F, (x, y)-+ x + y, (x, y)-+ xy), references to addition
and multiplication are dropped from the notation, and the letter F is used to
2 LINEAR ALGEBRA
DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES OF VECTOR SPACES 3
denote both the set and the two maps satisfying axioms F1-F9. Although this structure of a vector space over F. Nevertheless, we shall drop any reference to
procedure is somewhat ambiguous, it causes no confusion in concrete situations. addition and scalar multiplication when no confusion can arise and just use the
In our first example below, we introduce some notation that we shall use notation V to indicate a given vector space over F.
throughout the rest of this book. IfV is a vector space over F, then the elements ofV will be called vectors and
the elements ofF scalars. We assume the reader is familiar with the elementary
Example 1.2: We shall let iQ denote the set of rational numbers, IR, the set of real arithmetic in V, and, thus, we shall use freely such expressions as -a:, a: - p, and
numbers, and C, the set of complex numbers. With the usual addition and a 1 + · · · + 1X0 when dealing with vectors in V. Let us review some well-known
multiplication, iQ, IR, and C are all fields with iQ ~ IR ~ C. 0 examples of vector spaces.
The fields in Example 1.1 are all infinite in the sense that the cardinal number
Example 1.5: Let N = {1, 2, 3, ...} denote the set of natural numbers. For each
attached to the underlying set in question is infinite. Finite fields are very
n eN, we have the vector space F 0 = {(x1 , ... , x.J I x1e F} consisting of all n-
important in linear algebra as well. Much of coding theory is done over finite
tuples of elements from F. Vector addition and scalar multiplication are defined
algebraic extensions of the field IFP described in Example 1.3 below.
componentwise by (x 1 , ... ,x.J + (Yt•· .. ,y.J = (xl + Yt>· .. ,xn + y.J and
x(x 1 , ••. , x.J = (xx 1 , .•• , xx.J. In particular, when n = 1, we see F itself is a
Example 1.3: Let 7L denote the set of integers with the usual addition x + y and
vector space over F. 0
multiplication xy inherited from iQ. Let p be a positive prime in 7L and set
IFP = {0,1, ... , p -1}. IFP becomes a (finite) field if we define additi?n E9 .and
If A and B are two sets, let us denote the set of functions from A to B by BA.
multiplication · modulo p. Thus, for elements x, y e IF P' there extst umque
Thus, BA = {f: A-+ B 1f is a function}. In Example 1.5, P can be viewed as the
integers k, z e 7L such that x + y = kp + z with z e IF p· We define x E9 y to be z.
set of functions from {1, 2, ... , n} to F. Thus, IX= (x 1 , ... , x.JeFn is identified
Similarly, x·y = w where xy = k'p +wand 0 ~ w < p. .
with the function g.. e F 1 • .. •• nl given by g..(i) = x1 fori = 1, ... , n. These remarks
The reader can easily check that (IFP, Ee, ·)satisfies axioms Fl-F9. Thus,IFP ts
suggest the following generalization of Example 1.5.
a finite field of cardinality p. 0

Except for some results in Section 7, the definitions and theorems in Chapter Example 1.6: Let V be a vector space over F and A an arbitrary set. Then the set
I are completely independent of the field F. Hence, we shall assume that F is an yA consisting of all functions from A to V becomes a vector space over F when
arbitrary field and study vector spaces over F. we define addition and scalar multiplication pointwise. Thus, iff,geVA, f + g is
the function from A to V defined by(f + g)(a) = f(a) + g(a) for all a eA. For xeF
Definition 1.4: A vector space V over F is a nonempty set together with two and feVA, xf is de.fined by (xf)(a) = x(f(a)). 0
functions, (IX, p)-+ a:+ p from V x V to V (called addition) and (x, IX)-+ xa: from
F x V to V (called scalar multiplication), which satisfy the following axioms: If A is a finite set of cardinality n in Example 1.6, then we shall shorten our
notation for the vector space yA and simply write vn. In particular, if V = F,
Vl. a.+ p = p +a for all a., pev. then yn = F 0 and we recover the example in 1.5.
V2. a:+ (p + y) =(IX+ p) + y for all a., p, yeV.
V3. There exists an element 0 e V such that 0 + a. = a. for all a e V. Example 1.7: We shall denote the set of m x n matrices (a11 ) with coefficients
V4. For every IXEV, there exists a peV such that a+ P= 0. aiJeF by Mmxn(F). The usual addition of matrices (a1J)+ (b1J) = (aiJ + biJ) and
scalar multiplication x(aiJ) = (xa1J make Mm x0 (F) a vector space over F. 0
V5. (xy)a: = x(ya.) for all x, y e F, and IX e V.
V6. x(IX + p) = xa. + xP for all xeF, and IX, PeV. Note that our choice of notation implies that Fn and M 1 x 0 (F) are the same
V7. (x + y)IX = xa. + y(l. for all x, y e F, and IX e V. vector space. Although we now have two different notations for the same vector
V8. 1a: = a: for all a: e V. space, this redundancy is useful and will cause no confusion in the sequel.

As with fields, we should make the comment that a vector space over F is Example 1.8: We shall let F[X] denote the set of all polynomials in an
really a triple (V, (a, p) -+a: + p, (x, a:) -+ xa.) consisting of a no?en;tpty s~t V indeterminate X over F. Thus, a typical element in F[X] is a finite sum of the
together with two functions from V x V to V and F x V to .v satisfymg ~xtoms form a 0 X0 +a0 _ 1xn-l+ .. ·+a0 • Here neNu{O}, and a 0 , ... ,a0 EF. The
Vl-V8. There may be many different ways to endow a gtven set V Wtth the usual notions of adding two polynomials and multiplying a polynomial by a
4 LINEAR ALGEBRA DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES OF VECTOR SPACES 5

constant, which the reader is familiar with from the elementary calculus, make If we have a collection f/' = {W11ieA} ofsubspaces ofV, then there are some
sense over any field F. These operations give F[X] the structure of a vector obvious ways offorming new subspaces from f/'. We gather these constructions
space over F. D together in. the following example:

Many interesting examples of vector spaces come from analysis. Here are Example 1.13: Let f/' = {Wd ieA} be an indexed collection of subspaces of V.
some typical examples. In what follows, the indexing set A of f/' can be finite or infinite. Certainly the
intersection, nleA WI> Of the SUbspaceS in f/' is a SUbspace Of V. The set of all
Example 1.9: Let I be an interval (closed, open, or half open) in IR. We shall let :finite sums of vectors from UteA W 1 is also a subspace ofV. We shall denote this
C(I) denote the set of all continuous, real valued functions on I. If keN, we shall subspace by LteA W 1• Thus, LteAW, = {LteAa:tla:,eW, for all ieA}. Here and
let Ck(I) denote those f e C(I) that are k-times differentiable on the interior of I. throughout the rest of this book, if A is infinite, then the notation LteA a:1 means
Then C(I) 2 C 1 (I) 2 C 2 (I) 2 · · ·. These sets are all vector spaces over IR when that all a:1 are zero except possibly for finitely many i eA. If A is finite, then
endowed with the usual pointwise addition (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x), x e I, and without any loss of generality, we can assume A = {1, ... , n} for some n e ~1. (If
scalar multiplication (yf)(x) = y(f(x)). D Ve<1 w,
A= </J, then = (0).) We shall then write LieA w, wl
= + ... + Wn.'
If f/' has the property that for every i, j e !J. there exists a k e !J. such that
Example 1.10: Let A = [a 1 , b 1] x · · · x [~. bJ s;;; IR0 be a closed rectangle. We w, wj w
u s;;; k• then clearly UteA w,
is a subspace of v. D
shall let Bl(A) denote the set of all real valued functions on A that are Riemann
integrable. Clearly Bl(A) is a vector space over IR when addition and scalar In general, the union of two subspaces of V is not a subspace of V. In fact, if
multiplication are defined as in Example 1.9. D W 1 and W 2 are subspaces of V, then W 1 u W 2 is a subspace if and only if
W 1 s;;; W 2 or W 2 s;;; W 1 • This fact is easy to prove and is left as an exercise. In our
We conclude our list of examples with a vector space, which we shall study first theorem, we discuss one more important fact about unions.
carefully in Chapter III.
Theorem 1.14: Let V be a vector space over an infinite field F. Then V cannot be
Example 1.11: Consider the following system of linear differential equations:
the union of a finite number of proper subspaces.

Proof Suppose W 1 , ••• , W n are proper subspaces of V such that


V = W 1 u · · · u Wn·. We shall show that this equation is impossible. We remind
the reader that a subspace W of V is proper if W =F V. Thus, V - W =F cf> for a
proper subspace W of V.
Here f1 , ••. , fn e C 1(I), where I is some open interval in IR. fj denotes the We may assume without loss of generality that W 1 ¢ W 2 u · · · u W n· Let
derivative off1, and the au are scalars in IR. Set A= (a1J)e M 0 xn(IR). A is called the .· a.eW 1 - Ui= 2 W 1• Let PeV- W 1 • Since F is infinite, and neither a: nor Pis
matrix of the system. If B is any matrix, we shall let Bt denote the transpose of B. zero, !J. = {a: + xp 1x e F} is an infinite subset of V. Since there are only finitely
Set f = (f1 , ••• , f0 )l, We may think off as a function from {1, ... , n} to C 1(I), that many subspaces W" there exists a j e {1, ... , n} such that !J. n W J is infinite.
is, f e C 1(I)n. With this notation, our system of differential equations becomes Suppose j e {2, ... , n}. Then there exist two nonzero scalars x, x' e F
f' = Af. The set of solutions to our system is V = {f e C 1(1) 0 If' = Af}. Clearly, V such that x =F x', and a:+ xp, a.+ x'PeWJ. Since WJ is a subspace,
is a vector space over IR if we define addition and scalar multiplication (x'- x)a: = x'(a: + xp)- x(a: + x'P)eWJ. Since x'- x:).!: 0, we conclude a:eWJ.
componentwise as in Example 1.9. D But this is contrary to our choice of a:¢ W 2 u · · · u W n. Thus, j = 1.
Now if j = 1, then again there exist two nonzero scalars x, x' e F such that
Now suppose Vis a vector space over F. One rich source of vector spaces x =F x', and a.+ xp, a:+ x'PeW 1 • Then (x- x1P =(a:+ xp)- (a:+ x'p)eW 1 •
associated with V is the set of subspaces of V. Recall the following definition: Since x - x' =F 0, peW 1 • This is impossible since Pwas chosen in V - W 1 • We
conclude that Y cannot be equal to the union of W 1 , ••• , W n· This completes the
Definition 1.12: A nonempty subset W of V is a subspace of V if W is a vector proof of Theorem 1.14. D
space under the same vector addition and scalar multiplication as for V.
IfF is finite, then·Theorem 1.14 is false in general. For example, let V = (IF 2 ) 2 •
Thus, a subset W of V is a subspace if W is closed under the operations of V. Then V = W 1 uW 2 uW 3 , where W 1 = {(0,0), (1, 1)}, W 2 = {(0, 0),(0, 1)}, and
For example, C([a, b]), Ck([a, b]), IR[X], and Bl([a, b]) are all subspaces of IJlla,bJ. w 3 = {(0, 0), (1, 0)}.
6 LINEAR ALGEBRA
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1 7
Any subset S of a vector space V determines a subspace L(S) = n{W I W a (3) Set F ={a+ bj='Sja, beQ}. Show that F is a subfield of C, that is,
subspace ofV, W 2 S}. We shall call L(S) the linear span of S. Clearly, L(S) is the F is a field under complex addition and multiplication. Show that
smallest subspace of V containing S. Thus, in Example 1.13, for instance,
{a + bJ=S"I a, b integers} is not a subfield of C.
L(UieA WJ = Lie4 WI.
Let &l(V) denote the set of all subsets of V. If 9'(V) denotes the set of all (4) Let I be an open interval in !fit Let a E I. Let Va = {f e IR11f has a derivative
subspaces of V, then 9'(V) £ &'(V), and we have a natural function at a}. Show that Ya is a subspace of IR1•
L: &'(V) _.. 9'(V), which sends a subset S e &'(V) to its linear span L(S) e 9'(V).
(5) The vector space IRN is just the set of all sequences {a 1} = (at> a 2, a 3, ••• )
Clearly, L is a surjective map whose restriction to .9'(V) is the identity. We
with a 1E IR. What are vector addition and scalar multiplication here?
conclude this section with a list of the more important properties of the function
L(·). (6) Show that the following sets are subspaces of IRN:
(a) W 1 = {{a1} E IRN llimi .... co a1 = 0}.
Theorem 1.15: The function L: &'(V) -+ 9'(V) satisfies the following poperties: (b) W 2 = {{a1}e1RNI{a1} is a bounded sequence}.
(c) W 3 = {{a 1 }e!RNIL~ 1 a~ < oo}.
(a) For S e&'(V), L(S) is the subspace of V consisting of all finite linear
combinations of vectors from S. Thus, (7) Let (a 1 , ••• , aJeFn- (0). Show that {(x 1 , ••• , xJePILi'= 1 a1x1 = 0} is a
proper subspace of P.
(8) Identify all subspaces of IR 2. Find two subspaces W 1 and W 2 of IR 2 such
that W 1 u W 2 is not a subspace.

(b) If S 1 £ S2, then L(S 1) £ L(S2). (9) Let V be a vector space over F. Suppose W 1 and W 2 are subspaces of V.
Show that W 1 u W 2 is a subspace of V if and only if W 1 £ W 2 or
(c) If ex e L(S), then there exists a finite subset S' £ S such that ex e L(S').
W2 £W1.
(d) S £ L(S) for all S E &'(V).
(10) Consider the following subsets of IR[X]:
(e) For every Se&'(V), L(L(S)) = L(S).
(a) W 1 = {fe!R[X] lf(O) = 0}.
(f) If fJ e L(S u {ex}) and fJ ¢ L(S), then ex E L(S u { fJ} ). Here IX, fJ E V and
Se&'(V). (b) W 2 = {fe IR[X] 12f(O) = f(1)}.
(c) W 3 = {fe IR[X] I the degree off~ n}.
Proof: Properties (a)-(e) follow directly from the definition of the linear span. (d) w4 = {fe!R[X] lf(t) = f(1- t) for all te!R}.
We prove (f). If fJ e L(S u { o:}) - L(S), then fJ is a finite linear combination of In which of these cases is W 1 a subspace of IR[X]?
vectors from S u {ex}. Furthermore, ex must occur with a nonzero coefficie~t
in any such linear combination. Otherwise, fJ e L(S). Thus, there extst (11) Let K, L, and M be subspaces of a vector space V. Suppose K ~ L. Prove
vectors cx 1 , ••• , cxn E S and nonzero scalars x 1, ... , Xn, Xn +1 E F such that Dedekind's modular law: K n (L + M) = L + (K n M).
fJ = x 1IX 1 + .. · + XnOCn + Xn + 1a. Since Xn + 1 =f: 0, we can writ~ ~ as a linear o
(12) Let V = IR 3 • Show that 1 = (1, 0, 0) is not in the linear span of a, {J, andy
· ·
combmat10n of fJ and oc 1, ... , ocn. N arneIy, IX= Xn+l - t fJ - Xn+1X11X1-
-1 where ex = (1, 1, 1), fJ = (0, 1, -1), and y = (1, 0, 2).
.. · - x,;; 1 xnocn. Thus, cxeL(S u {fJ}). D ·
(13) If S 1 and S 2 are subsets of a vector space V, show that
L(S1 u S 2) = L(S 1 ) + L(Sa).

EXERCISES FOR SECTION 1 (14) Let S be any subset of IR[X] £ !Rill. Show that e'" ¢ L(S).
{15) Let tX1 = (a11 'llt 2)eF2 fori= 1, 2. Show that F 2 = L({cx 1 , cx 2}) if and only if
(1) Complete the details in Example 1.3 and argue (IF P' Ea, ·) is a field. the determinant of the 2 x 2 matrix M = (a1J) is nonzero. Generalize this
(2) Let IR(X) = {f(x)fg(x)jf, ge!R[X] and g =f: 0} denote the set of ~a.tional result to Fn.
functions on !fit Show that IR(X) is a field under the usual defimtton of (16) Generalize Example 1.8 to n + 1 variables X 0 , ••• , Xn. The resulting vector
addition f/g + hfk = (kf + gh)/gk and multiplication (f/g)(hfk) = th/gk space over F is called the ring of polynomials in n + 1 variables (over F). It
IR(X) is called the field of rational functions over IR. Does F(X) make sense is denoted F[X0 , ••• , XJ. Show that this vector space is spanned by all
for any field F? monomials Xg'0 , ••• , X:• as (m 0 , ••• , mJe(N u {O})n+ 1 •
8 LINEAR ALGEBRA BASES AND DIMENSION 9

(17) A polynomial f e F[X0 , ... , XJ is said to be homogeneous ofdegree d iff is a We say a partially ordered set (A, ""') is inductive if every totally ordered
finite linear combination of monomials Xg'O, ... , X:'" of degree d (i.e., subset of A has an upper bound in A. The crucial point about inductive sets is
m 0 + · · · + mn = d). Show that the set of homogeneous polynomials of the following result, which is called Zorn's lemma:
degree d is a subspace of F[X0 , ••• , Xn]. Show that any polynomial f can be
written uniquely as a finite sum of homogeneous polynomials. 2.2: If a partially ordered set (A, "') is inductive, then a maximal element of A
exists.
(18) Let V = {AeMnxn(F)IA =A'}. Show that Vis a subspace of Mnxn(F). V
is the subspace of symmetric matrices of Mn x n(F).
We shall not give a proof of Zorn's lemma here. The interested reader may
(19) Let W = {A e Mn,. 0 (F) I A' = -A}. Show that W is a subspace of Mn x 0 (F). consult (3, p. 33] for more details. ·
W is the subspace of all skew-symmetric matrices in Mn x n(F). Now suppose Vis an arbitrary vector space over a field F. LetS be a subset of
(20) Let W be a subspace of V, and let a, pe V. Set A = a: + Wand B = P+ W.
v.
Show that A= B or AnB = 0. Definition 2.3: S is linearly dependent over F if there exists a finite subset
{a:1, ... ,a:n} £;;;; S and nonzero scalars x 1, ... ,xneF such that x 1a: 1 +
· · · + XnCXn = 0. S is linearly independent (over F) if S is not linearly
2. BASES AND DIMENSION dependent.

Before proceeding with the main results of this section, let us recall a few facts Thus, if S is linearly independent, then whenever Lf= 1 x1a:1 = 0 with
from set theory. If A is any set, we shall denote the cardinality of A by !AI. Thus, {a:t> · .. , a:n} £;;;; S and {x1, ... , xn} £;;;; F, then x 1 = .. · Xn = 0. Note that our
A is a finite set if and only if !AI < oo. If A is not finite, we shall write !AI = oo. definition implies the empty set cp is fuiearly independent over F. When
The only fact from cardinal arithmetic that we shall need in this section is the considering questions of dependence, we shall drop the words "over F"
following: whenever F is clear from the context. It should be obvious, however, that if more
than one field is involved, a given set S could be dependent over one field and
2.1: Let A and B be sets, and suppose IAI = oo. If for each x e A, we have some independent over another. The following example makes this clear.
finite set Ax!;;;;; B, then !AI~ IUxeAAxl·
Example 2.4: Suppose V = IR, the field of real numbers. Let F 1 = Q, and
A proof of 2.1 can be found in any standard text in set theory (e.g., [1]), and, F2 =A~. Then V is a vector space over both F 1 and F 2. Let S = {a: 1 = 1,
consequently, we omit it. !X2 = ,J2}. Sis a set of two vectors in V. Using the fact that every integer factors
A relation R on a set A is any subset of the. crossed product A x A. Suppose R uniquely into a product of primes, one sees easily that S is independent over F 1.
is a relation on a set A. lfx, yeA and (x, y) e R, then we shall say x relates toy and But, clearly S is dependent over F 2 since (.j2)cx 1 + (-1)cx 2 = 0. D
write x ""' y. Thus, x ""' y <=> (x, y) e R We shall use the notation (A, ""') to indicate
the composite notion of a set A and a relation R £;;;; A x A. This notation is a bit Definition 2.5: A subset S of V is called a basis of V if S is linearly independent
ambiguous since the symbol "' has no reference to R in it. However, the use of over F and L(S) = V.
""' will always be clear from the context. In fact, the only relation R we shall
systematically exploit in this section is the inclusion relation £;;;; among subsets of If S is a basis Of a vector space V, then every nonzero Vector a: E V can be
BI'(V) [V some vector space over a field F]. Written uniquely in the form CX = X1 0:1 + ·· · + Xn!Xn, where { a 1 ~ ... , a:n} !;;;;; S and
. A set A is said to be partially ordered if A has a relation R £;;;; A x A such that x~, · .. , Xn are nonzero scalars in F. Every vector space h.as a basis. In fact, any
(1) x ""'x for all xeA, (2) if x""' y, andy"' x, then x = y, and (3) if x""' y, and gJ.Ven linearly independent subset S of V can be expanded to a basis.
y ""' z, then x ""' z. A typical example of a partially ordered set is BI'(V) together
with the relation A ""' B if and only if A £;;;; B. If (A, "') is a partially ordered set, !Jteorem 2.6: Let V be a vector space over F, and suppose S is a linearly
and A 1 £;;;; A, then we say A 1 is totally ordered if for any two elements x, y eAt> Independent subset of V. Then there exists a basis B of V such that B ;;2 s.
\
we have at least one of the relations x - y or y ""' x. If (A, ""') is a partially
ordered set, and A1 £;;;; A, then an element x e A is called an upper bound for A 1 if Proof: Let f/ denote .the set of all independent subsets of V that contain s. Thus,
y ""'x for all yeA 1. Finally, an element xe(A, -)is a maximal element of A if 9' = {A e BI'(V) I A ;;2 S and A is linearly independent over F}. We note that
x - y implies x = y. 9' ::P cp since Se9'. We partially order f/ by inclusion Thus for A A e9'
• ' h 2 '
10 LINEAR ALGEBRA BASES AND DIMENSION 11

At - A2 if and only if At s;;; A2. The fact that (9', s;;;) is a partially ordered set is Theorem 2.11: Let V be a vector space over F, and suppose V = L(S). Then S
clear. contains a basis of V.
Suppose f!r = {A1 1i e !:J.} is an indexed collection of elements from 9' that
form a totally ordered subset of 9'. We show f!r has an upper bound. Set Proof: IfS =¢or {0}, then V = (0). In this case,¢ is a basis ofV contained inS.
A= UteAA,. aearly, Ae~(V). s s;;; A, and A, s;;; A for all ie!:J.. If A fails to be So, we can sume S contains a nonzero vector a:. Let 9' = {A s;;; S 1A linearly
linearly independent, then there exists a finite subset {IX 1, .•• , 1X0 } s;;; A and independent over F}. Clearly, {a:} e9'. Partially order [I' by inclusion. If
nonzero scalars x1 , ••• , X0 e F such that Xt1X 1 + · · · + X 0 1Xn = 0. Since f!r is totally ff ={Ad ie!:J.} is a totally ordered subset of 9', then U 1s4A1 is an upper bound
ordered, there exists an index i0 e !:J. such that {IX!> ••• , 1X0 } s;;; A10• But then A,o is for f!r in 9'. Thus, (tl', s;;;) is inductive. Applying 2.2, we see that 9' has a
dependent, which is impossible since A~ae9'. We conclude that A is linearly maximal element B.
independent, and, consequently, Ae9'. Thus, f!r has an upper bound A in 9'. We claim B is a basis for V. Since Betl', B s;;; Sand B is linearly independent
Since f!r was arbitrary, we can now conclude that (9', s;;;) is an inductive set. over F. If L(B) = V, then B is a basis of V, and the proof is complete. Suppose
Applying 2.2, we see that 9' has a maximal element B. Since Be 9', B ;;;! S and B L(B) -:/: V. Then S ¢ L(B), for otherwise V = L(S) s;;; L(L(B)) = L(B). Hence there
is linearly independent. We claim that B is in fact a basis of V. To prove this exists a vector PeS - L(B). Oearly, B u { P} is linearly independent ovet F.
assertion, we need only argue L(B) = V. Suppose L(B)-:/: V. Then there exists a Thus, B u {P} etl'. But P¢L(B) implies P¢B. Hence, B u {P} is strictly larger
vector IX e V - L(B). Since a:¢ L(B), the set B u {a:} is clearly linearly independ- than B in 9'. Since B is maximal, this is a contradiction. Therefore, L(B) = V and
ent. But then B u {a:} e 9', and B u {IX} is strictly larger than B. This is contrary our proof is complete. 0
to the maximality of Bin 9'. Thus, L(B) = V, and B is a basis of V containing
s. 0 A given vector space V has many different bases. For example,
~ = {(0, ... , x, ... , 0) +t5tli = 1, ... , n} is clearly a basis for P for any x-:/: -1
Let us ·look at a few concrete examples of bases before continuing. in F. What all bases ofV have in common is their cardinality. We prove this fact
in our next theorem.
Example 2.7: The empty set ¢ is a basis for the zero subspace (0) of any vector
space V. If we regard a field F as a vector space over itself, then any nonzero
element a: ofF forms a basis of F. 0 Theorem 2.12: Let V be a vector space over F, and suppose B1 and B2 are two
bases of V. Then IB 1 1 = IB2I·
Example 2.8: Suppose V = F 0 , n eN. For each i = 1, ... , n, let Dt =
(0, ... , 1, ... , 0). Thus, 15 1 is then-tuple whose entries are all zero except for a 1 Proof: We divide this proof into two cases.
in the ith position. Set §={D 1 , ••• ,D0 }. Since (xl, ... ,xJ=xtDl+···+
xn t5 D' we see t5- is a basis of P. We shall call t5_ the canonical (standard) basis of CASE 1: Suppose V has a basis B that is finite.
F0 • 0 In this case, we shall argue IB 1 1 = IBI = IB2I· Suppose B = {at, ... , a:n}· It
clearly suffices to show !Btl= n. We suppose IB 1 1-:/: nand derive a contra-
Example 2.9: Let V = Mm x u(F). For any i = 1, ... , m, and j = 1, ... , n, let e1J diction. There are two possibilities to consider here. Either IB 1 1 = m < n or
denote the m x n matrix whose entries are all zero except for a 1 in the (i j)th IB 1 1 > n. Let us first suppose B1 = {Pt, ... , Pm} with m < n. Since Pte L(B),
position. Since (a 1J) = Lt,J 9-tJeiJ, we see B = {e1j 11 ~ i ~ m, 1 ~ j ~ n} is a basis /1 1 = x 1a: 1 + · · · + X 0 CX0 • At least one x1 here is nonzero since /11 -:/: 0. Relabel-
for V. The elements e1J in B are called the matrix units of Mm x n(F). 0 ing the a:1 if need be, we can assume x 1 -:/: 0. Since B is linearly independent
over F, we conclude that /1 1 eL({a:2, ... , a:n} u {1Xl})- L({a:2, ... ,an}). It now
Example 2.10: Let V = F[X]. Let B denote the set of all monic monomials in X. follows from Theorem 1.15(f) that a: 1 e L({/1 1 , a: 2, ... , CX0 }). Since {a:l, ... , a:n}
Thus, B = {1 = X 0 , X, X 2, ...}. Clearly, B is a basis of F[X]. 0 is linearly independent over F, and PI¢L({a:2, ... ,a:0 }), we see that
{Pt> a: 2, ... , a:0 } is linearly independent over F. Since a: 1 e L({P 1, a: 2, ... , 1X0 }),
A specific basis for the vector space Ck(l) in Example 1.9 is hard to write V = L({/1 1 , a: 2, ... , CX0 })." Thus, {/11 , a:2, ... , a:n} is a basis of V.
down. However, since IR[X] s;;; Ck(I), Theorem 2.6 guarantees that one basis of Now we ·can repeat this argument m times. We get after possibly some
Ck(l) contains the monomials 1, X, X2, .... permutation of the a:1 that {P 1 , ... ,pm,a:m+t•· .. ,a:0 } is a basis of V. But
Theorem 2.6 says that any linearly independent subset of V can be expanded {p 1 , ... ,/1m} is ~lready a basis of V. Thus, a:m+ 1 eL({/1 1 , ... ,pm}). This
to a basis of V. There is a companion result, which we shall need in Section 3. implies { p1 , •.. , Pmo a:m + 1 , •.• , a:0 } is linearly dependent which is a contra-
Namely, if some subset S of V spans V, then S contains a basis of V. diction. Thus, IB 1 I cannot be less than n.

L
12' LINEAR ALGEBRA
BASES AND DIMENSION 13
Now suppose !Btl > n (!Btl could be infinite here). By an argument similar proof: It follows from Theorem 2.6 that any basis of a subspace W of V can be
to that given above, we can exchange n vectors ofBt with ext, ... , exn. Thus, we enlarged to a basis of V. This immediately proves (a) and (b). Suppose W is a
construct a basis of V of the form B u S, where S is some nonempty subset of subspace of V. Let B be a basis of W. By Theorem 2.6, there exists a basis C of V
Bt. But B is already a basis of V. Since S :F t/J, BuS must then be linearly such that B s;;; C. Let W' = L(C - B). Since C = B u (C - B),
dependent. This is impossible. Thus, if V has a basis consisting of n vectors, y:::: L(C) = L(B) + L(C- B)= W + W'. Since Cis linearly independent and
then any basis of V has cardinality n, and the proof of the theorem is complete B n (C - B) = t/J, L(B) n L(C - B) = (0). Thus, W n W' = (0), and the proof of
in case 1. (c) is complete.
To prove (d), let B0 ={ext, ... , exn} be a basis ofW 1 n W 2 • IfW 1 n W 2 = (0),
CASE 2: Suppose no basis of V is finite. then we take B0 to be the empty set t/J. We can enlarge B0 to a basis
In this case, both B 1 and B2 are infinite sets. Let exeB 1 • Since B2 is a basis B1 = {cx1, ... , ex0 , Pt> ... , Pm} of W t· We can also enlarge B0 to a basis
of V there exists a unique, finite subset A~~. s;;; B2 such that ex e L(AJ and B2 = {cxl,. .. , exn, 1'1>'"' ')lp} ofW2. Thus, dim wt n w2 = n, dim wt = n + m,
a¢ r.{A1for any proper subset A' of All.' Thus, we have a well-defined function and dim w2 = n + p. We claim that B ={ext, ... ' exn, Pt .... ' Pm. 'Yt· ... ' 1'p} is a
l{J: B1 ~ &J(B 2 ) given by lfJ(cx) = A~~.. Since B1 is infinite, we may apply .2.1 and basis of W 1 + W 2. Oearly L(B) = W 1 + W 2 • We need only argue B is lineatly
conclude that IB 11;:a: IU~~.eB, A~~.l· Since ex e L(AJ for all ex e B1, Y_ = independent. Suppose Ir=t x,a, + Ll"=t y,p, + Lf=t Zj')l, = 0 for some x1, y1,
L(Ufi.EB, AJ. Thus U~~.eB, A~~. is a subset of B2 tha~ spans all of V. Since B2 ~s a z1e F. Then Lf= t Zj')l1e W t n W 2 = L({ ex1, ... , exn}). Thus, Lf= t Zj')l, = Ir= 1 w,ex,
basis of V, we conclude UII.GB, A~~. = B2. In particular, !Btl ;:a: IB2I· Reversmg for some w1e F. Since B2 is a basis of W 2, we conclude that Zt = · · · = Zp = 0.
the roles ofB 1 and B2 gives IB 2 1 ;:a: !Btl· This completes the proof of Theorem Since B1 is a basis ofW1o x 1 = ··· = X 0 = y1 = .. :Ym = 0. In particular, B is
2.12. 0 linearly independent. Thus, dim(W 1 + W 2) = IBI = n + m + p, and the proof of
We shall call the common cardinality of any basis ofV the dimension ofV. We (d) follows. 0
shall write dim V for the dimension of V. If we want to stress what field we are
over, then we shall use the notation dimF V for the dimension of the F-vect~r A few comments about Theorem 2.13 are in order here. Part (d) is true
space V. Thus, dim V = IBI, where B is any basis of V when the base field F IS whether V is finite dimesional or not. The proof is the same as that given above
understood. when dim(W t + W 2) < oo. If dim(W 1 + W 2) = oo, then either W 1 or W 2 is an
Let us check the dimensions of some of our previous examples. In Example infinite-dimensional subspace with the same dimension as W t + W 2. Thus, the
result is still true but rather uninteresting.
2•4J dim Fz y = 1' and dimF I (V) = 1~1. the cardinality of R• In Example(F)
2.7,
dim~O) = 0. In Example 2.8, dim F 0 = n. In Example 2.9, dtm Mm" n = mn. If Vis not finite dimensional, then (b) is false in general. A simple example
In Example 2.10, dim V = IN I, the cardinality of N. illustrates this point.
If the dimension of a vector space Vis infinite, as in Examples 2.4 and 2.10, we
shall usually make no attempt to distinguish which cardin.al nun;tber gives dim Example 2.14: Let V = F[X], and let W be the subspace of V consisting of all
V. Instead, we shall merely write dim V = oo. IfV has a firut~ bas~s {ext, ... , exn}, even polynomials. Thus, W = {L a 1X 21 1~ e F}. A basis of W is clearly all even
we shall call V a finite-dimensional vector space and wnte dtm V < oo, or, powers of X. Thus, dim V = dim W, but W :F V. 0
more precisely, dim V = n < oo. Thus, for example, dimR Ck(l) = oo, wherea.:s
dimR ~n = n < oo. In our next theorem, we gather together some of the mor~ The subspace W' of V constructed in part (c) of Theorem 2.0 is called a
elementary facts about dim V. complement ofW. Note that W' is not in general unique. For ~xample, ifV = ~ 2
and W = L((1, 0)), then any subspace of the form L((a, b)) with b :F 0 is a
Theorem 2.13: Let V be a vector space over F. complement of W.
Finally, part (d) of Theorem 2.13 has a simple extension to finitely many
(a) If W is a subspace of V, then dim W ~ dim V. subspaces W h ••• , W k of V. We record this extension as a corollary.
(b) If y is finite dimensional ~nd W is a subspace of V such that
Corollary 2.15~ Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space of dimension n.
dim W = dim V, then W = V.
Suppose W 1 ,.~ .• Wk are subspaces of V. For each i= 1, ... ,k, set
(c) If w is a subspace of V, then there exists a subspace W' of V such that f1 = n- dimW1• Then
W + W' = V and W n W' = (0).
(d) If y is finite dimensional and W t ~nd W 2 a~e subspaces of V, then (a) dim(W 1 n · · · ~ WJ = n- }J=t f, + "'J;;;f
dim(W 1 + W 2) + dim(W t n W 2) = dtm W t + dtm W 2· {n- dim((Wt n · .. n Wj) + WJ+t)}.
14 LINEAR ALGEBRA
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2 15
(b) dim(W 1 n · · · n Wk) ~ n -!J= 1 f1• following commutative diagram:
(c) dim(W 1 n···nWJ=n-}:J= 1 f1 if and only if for all i=1, ... ,k,
W; + <nJ'fl WJ) = V. 2.19:
Proof: Part (a) follows from Theorem 2.13 (d) by induction. Parts (b) and (c) are
easy consequences of(a). We leave the technical details for an exercise at the end
of this section. D

Before closing this section, let us develop some useful notation concerning
bases. Suppose V is a finite-dimensional·vector space over F. If~ = {IX1, ••• , cxn}
is a basis of V, then we have a natural function [·]!! V-+ Mnx 1(F) defined as By a diagram, we shall mean a collection of vector spaces and maps (represented
follows. by arrows) between these spaces. A diagram is said to be commutative if any two
sequences of maps (i.e., composites of functions in the diagram) that originate at
Definition 2.16: If ~ = { cx 1, ... , cxn} is a basis of V, then [PJf! = the same space and end at the same space are equal. Thus, 2.19 is commutative if
(x 1 , ••• , xJ'e Mn x 1(F) if and only if L:r=t X;IX; = p. and only if the two paths from V to Mn x 1(F), clockwise and counterclockwise,
are the same maps. This is precisely what Theorem 2.18 says.
Since ~ is a basis of V, the representation of a given vector P as a linear Most of the maps or functions that we shall encounter in the diagrams in this
combination of cx 1 , ••• , 1X0 is unique. Thus, Definition 2.16 is unambiguous. The book will be linear transformations. We take up the formal study of linear
function [·Ja:: V-+ Mnx 1(F) is clearly bijective and preserves vector addition and transformations in Section 3.
scalar multiplication. Consequently, [xp + yo]!!= x[PJf! + y[o]f! for all x, Ye F
and p, (j e V. The column vector [PJa: is often called the ~ skeleton of p.
Suppose ~ = {a 1 , ••• , 1X0 } and ~ = { o1, ... , 00 } are two bases of V. Then there EXERCISES FOR SECTION 2
is a simple relationship between the ~ and ~ skeletons of a given vector p. Let
M(~, ~) denote the n x n matrix whose columns are defined by the following (1) Let Vn = {f(X)eF[X] I degree f ~ n}. Show that each Vn is a finite-
equation: dimensional subspace of F[X] of dimension n + 1. Since F[X] =
U:"= 1 Vn, observe that Theorem 1.14 is false when the word "finite"
2.17: M(~, ~) = ([o1Ja: I·· ·I [c5J~ is taken out of the theorem.

·In equation 2.17, the ith column of M(~, ~) is the n x 1 matrix [oJf!. (2) Let Vn be as in Exercise 1 with F = IF 2 • Find a basis of V 5 containing 1 + x
Multiplication by M(~, ~) induces a map from Mnx 1(F) to Mnx 1 (F) that and x 2 + x + 1.
connects the ~ and ~ skeletons. Namely: (3) Show that any set of nonzero polynomials in F[X], no two of which have
the same degree, is linearly independent over F.
Theorem 2.18: M(~, ~)[p]~ = [PJf! for all Pe V. (4) Let V ={(at> a 2 , •••)e ~1\ill a 1 = 0 for all i sufficiently large}. Show that Vis
an infinite-dimensional subspace of ~N. Find a basis for V.
Proof: Let us denote the ith column of any matrix M by Col;(M). Then
for each i = 1, ... , n, we have M(~, ~)[ 01].4 = M(~, ~)(0, ... , 0, 1, 0, ... , 0)' (5) Prove Theorem 2.13(d) when dim(W 1 + W 2 ) = oo.
= Col1 (M(~, ~)) = [oJa:· Thus, the theorem is correct for Pe~. (6) Prove Corollary 2.15.
Now we have already noted that [·]~and [·]f! preserve vector addition and
scalar multiplication. So does multiplication by M(~, ~) as a map on Mn x 1(F). (7) Find the dimension of the subspace V = L({1X, p, y, c5}) s;; ~4, where
Since any pe V is a linear combination of the vectors in ~. we conclude that a= (1, 2, 1, 0), p = ( -1, 1, -4, 3), y = (2, 3, 3, -1), and o = (0, 1, -1, 1).
M(~, ~)[p]~ = [PJf! for every Pe V. D (8) Compute the following dimensions:
(a) dimR(C).
The matrix M(~, ~) defined in 2.17 is called the change of basis matrix (b) dimo(~).
(between~ and~). It is often convenient to think of Theorem 2.18 in terms ofthe
{c) dim0 (F), where F is the field given in Exercise 3 of Section 1.
16 LINEAR ALGEBRA
LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 17

(9) Suppose V is an n-dimensional vector space over the finite field IFp· Argue 3. LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS
that V is a finite set and find lVI.
(10) Suppose V is a vector space over a field F for which lVI > 2. Show that V Let V and W be vector spaces over a field F.
has more than one basis.
Definition 3.1: A function T: V -+ W is called a linear transformation (linear map,
(11) Let F be a subfield of the field F'. This means that the operations of homomorphism) ifT(xa+ yfJ) = xT(a) + yT{/J) for all x, yeF and a, PeV.
addition and multiplication on F' when restricted to F make F a field.
(a) Show that F' is a vector space over F. Before we state any general theorems about linear transformations, let us
(b) Suppose dim~F1 = n. Let V be an m-dimensional vector space over F'. consider a few examples.
Show that V is an ron-dimensional vector space over F.
Example 3.2: The map that sends every vector in V to 0 e W is clearly a linear
(12) Show that dim(V") = n dim(V). map. We shall call this map the zero map and denote it by 0. If T: V-+ W and
S: W -+ Z are linear trap.sformations, then clearly the composite map ST: V -+ Z
(13) Return to the space v n in Exercise 1. Let pt(X) = LJ~O ajlxj fori = 1' ... ' r.
is a linear transformation. 0
Set A= (a1JeM<n+l)x.(F). Show that the dimension of L({p 1 , ••• , Pr}) is
precisely the rank of A.
Example 3.3: If V is finite dimensional with basis ~ = {a 1 , ... , a 0 }, then [ ·],.:
(14) Show that the dimension of the subspace of homogeneous polynomials of V -+ M 0 x 1 (F) is a linear transformation that is bijective. 0 -
degree din F[X0 , ••• , XJ is the binomial coefficient (n~d).
Example 3.4: Taking the transpose, A-+ A', is clearly a linear map from
(15) Find the dimensions of the vector spaces in Exercises 18 and19 of Section 1.
Mm xo(F} -+ Mo x m(F}. 0
(16) Let AeMmxn(F). Set CS(A) = {AXIXeMnxl(F)}. CS(A) is called the
column space of A. Set NS(A) = {X e Mn x 1(F) IAX = 0}. NS(A) is called the Example 3.5: Suppose V = Mm xn(F) and A E Mm xm(F). Then multiplication by
null space of A. Show that CS(A) is a subspace ofMmx 1(F}, and NS(A) is a A (necessarily on the left) induces a linear transformation T A: V-+ V given by
subspace of M 0 x 1 (F). Show that dim(CS(A)) + dim(NS(A)) = n. TA(B) = AB for all BeY. 0
(17) With the same notation as in Exercise 16, show the linear system AX= B
Example 3.3 and 3.5 show that the commutative diagram in 2.19 consists of
has a solution if and only if dim(CS(A)) = dim(CS(A I B)). Here
linear transformations.
BeMmx 1(F}, and (AlB) is the m x (n + 1) augmented matrix obtained
from A by adjoining the column B.
Example 3,6: Suppose V = Ck(I) with k ~ 2. Then ordinary differentiation f-+ f'
(18) Suppose V and W are two vector spaces over a field F such that lVI = IWI. is a linear transformation from Ck(I) to ck- 1(!). 0
Is dim V = dim W?
Example 3.7: Suppose V = F[X]. We can formally define a derivative f-+ f' on
(19) Consider the set W of 2 x 2 matrices of the form
V as follows: If f(X) = Lf=0 BjXi, then f'(X) = Lf=1 ia1X1- 1 • The reader can easily
check that this map, which is called the canonical derivative on F[X], is a linear
transformation. 0

Example 3.8: Suppose V =~(A) as in Example 1.10. Then T(f) ~ JAfisa linear
and the set Y of 2 x 2 matrir..es of the form transformation from V to IR. D

We shall encounter many more examples of linear transformations as we


proceed. At this point, let us introduce a name for the collection of all linear
transformations from V toW.

Show that Wand Yare subspaces of M 2 xiF) and compute the numbers Definition 3.9: Let V and W be vector spaces over F. The set of all linear
dim(W), dim(Y), dim(W + Y), and dim(W n Y). transformations from V toW will be denoted by Hom~V, W).
18 LINEAR ALGEBRA LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 19

When the base field F is clear from the context, we shall often Definition 3.14: Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over F. If a is a basis
write Hom(V, W) instead of Homp(V, W). Thus, Hom(V, W) is the subset of ofV, then(·)!: V- Pis the linear transformation defined by (P).. = ([PJJ1 for all
the vector space wv (Example 1.6) consisting of all linear transformations peV. - -
from V to W. If T, S e Hom(V, W) and x, y e F, then the function xT + yS e wv
is in fact a linear transformation. For if a, be F and a, pe V, then Thus, (p)! = T(~)(p) for all PeV. We can now state the following theorem,
(xT + yS)(aa + bp) = xT(aa + bp) + yS(aa + bp) = xaT(a) + xbT(p) + yaS(a) + whose proof is given in Example 3.13:
ybS(p) = a(xT(a) + yS(a)) + b(xT(p) + yS(p)) = a(xT + yS)(a) + b(xT + yS)(p).
Therefore, xT + ySeHom(V, W). We have proved the following theorem: Theorem 3.15: Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over F and suppose
dim V = n. Then every basis~ ofV determines an isomorphism(·)!: V-+ F 0 • 0
Theorem 3.10: Hom(V, W) is a subspace of wv. 0
We now have two isomorphisms [·Ji V- Mnx 1(F) and(·).,: V- F 0 for every
choice of basis ~ of a (finite-dimensional) vector space V. We-shall be careful to
Since any T e Hom(V, W) has the property that T(O) = 0, we see that
distinguish between these two maps although they only differ by an isomorph-
Hom(V, W) is always a proper subspace of wv whenever W :f. (0).
ism from Mnx 1(F) to M 1 x0 (F). Notationally, Fn is easier to write than Mnx 1(F),
At this point, it is convenient to introduce the following terminology.
and so most of our subsequent theorems will be written using the map(·).,. With
this in mind, let us reinterpret the commutative diagram given in 2.19.-
Definition 3.11: Let T e Hom(V, W). Then, If A is any n x n matrix with coefficients in F, then A induces a linear
transformation SA: pn- P given by the following equation:
(a) ker T = {aeVIT(a) = 0}.
(b) lm T = {T(a)eWI aeV}. 3.16:
(c) Tis injective (monomorphism, 1 - 1) if ker T =(0).
(d) Tis surjective (epimorphism, onto) if Im T = W.
(e) Tis bijective (isomorphism) if Tis both injective and surjective.
Using the notation in Example 3.5, we see SA is the linear transformation that
(f) We say V and W are isomorphic and write V ~ W if there exists an
makes the following diagram commutative:
isomorphism T e Hom(V, W).
3.17:
The set ker T is called the kernel ofT and is clearly a subspace of V. Im T is
called the image ofT and is a subspace of W. Before proceeding further, let us
give a couple of important examples of isomorphisms between vector spaces. M;.x 1(Ij~') ]Mnx l(F)
(·)' (·)'
Example 3.12: Mnx 1 (F)~ M 1 xn(F) via the transpose A- A'. We have already
mentioned that F:n = M 1 xn(F). Thus, all three of the vector spaces Mnx 1(F), Fn ___.::,SA~-~Fn
M 1 xiF), and Pare isomorphic to each other. 0

Example 3.13: Suppose V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F. Then The vertical arrows in 3.17 are isomorphisms. Clearly, TA is an isomorphism if
every basis ~ = {a 1 , ••• , a 0 } of V deterinines a linear transformation T(!!): ~nd only if A is invertible. Thus, SA is an isomorphism if and only if A is
V- P given by T(~)(p) = (x 1 , •.. , xJ ifand only iQJ= 1 xiai = p. T(~) is just the mvertible.
composite of the coordinate map [·] .. : V- Mn x 1(F) and the transpose We shall replace the notation SA (or TJ with A1 (or A) and simply write
Mnx 1(F)- M 1 xn(F) = P. Since both of-these maps are isomorphisms, we see
T(~) is an isomorphism. 0 A'
Fn·_--~fR or

It is often notationally convenient to switch back and forth from column i .


vectors to row vectors. For this reason, we give a formal name to the I dirrNow_ suppose ~ and Qa~e tw~ bases of a finite-dimensional vector space v of
isomorphism T(~) introduced in Example 3.13. mellSlon n. Ir we combtne diagrams 2.19 and 3.17, we have the following

1 _ _j
20 LINEAR ALGEBRA LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 21

commutative diagram: Suppose A is any finite set with IAI = n. We can without any loss of generality
assume A= {1, ... , n}. Then VA= vn. There is a natural isomorphism
3.18: T:V x ··· x V- yn given by T((cx 1, ... ,cxJ) = fevn, where f(i) = cx1 for all
i == 1, ... , n. The fact that T is an isomorphism is an easy exercise, which we
leave to the reader. 0

Henceforth, we shall identify the vector spaces V x · · · x V (n times), yn and


yA with !AI = nand write just yn to represent any one of these spaces. Using this
notation, we have the following theorem:

Theorem 3.22: Let V and W be vector spaces over F, and suppose Vis finite
dimensional. Let dim V = n.

(a) If~= {ext> ... , CX0 } is a basis of V, then for every ({J 1, ... , fJn)E Wn, there
Since (·)! = ([·Jl and (·)g =([·]g)\ we get the following corollary to Theorem exists a unique T e Hom(V, W) such that T(cx1) = {1 1 for i = 1, ... , n.
3.15: (b) Every basis ~ of V determines an isomorphism 'P(g): Hom(V, W'r-, wn.

Corollary 3.19: Suppose V is a finite-dimensional vector space of dimension n Proof: (a). Let ~={cx 1 , ... ,an} be a basis for V. Then (·).. eHom(V,Fn)
over F. If~ and ~ are two bases of V, then is an isomorphism. Let {J = ({Jl, ... , {J,) E Wn. The n=-tuple {J deter-
mines a linear transformation L 11 eHom(F", W) given by
3.20: L 11((x 1 , ••• , xJ) = Lf=t x1{J1• The fact that L 11 is a linear trans-
formation is obvious. Set T = L11(·)!. Then TeHom(V, W) and
T(aJ = {J1 for all i = 1, ... , n. The fact that T is the only linear
('l«/Fjn
transformation from V to W for which T(cx1) = {11 fori = 1, ... , n is an
y/ M(~,g)'
easy exercise left to the reader.
~yn (b) Fix a basis g = {cx 1, ... , an} of V. Define 'P(g): Hom(V, W) - wn by
'P(~)(T) = (T(a 1), ... , T(aJ). The fact that 'P(~) is a linear trans-

is a commutative diagram of isomorphisms. formation is obvious. We can define an inverse map x:


WU- Hom(V, W) by x((fJ 1 , ... , fJJ) = Lp(·)cz. Here fJ = (fJ 1 , ... ,fJJ.
Proof: We have already noted from 3.18 that 3.20 is commutative. Both(·)! and Hence, 'P(g) is an isomorphism. 0 -
(')., are isomorphisms from Theorem 3.15. We need only argue M(§, ~) is an
invertible matrix. Then the map M(~, ~) 1 = SM@,!J: Fn - P is an isomorphism. Theorem 3.22(a) implies that a given linear transformation T e Hom(V, W) is
Now change of basis matrices M(§, ~)are always invertible. This follows from completely determined by its values on a basis ~ of V. This remark is true
Theorem 2.18. For any {JeV, we have M(~. §)M(§, ~)({J]~ = M(~ §)[fJJ! = [fJ]~. whether V is finite dimensional or infinite dimensional. To define a linear
This equation easily implies M(~ ~)M(§, ~) = In, the n x n identity matrix. 0 transformation T from V to W, we need only define t · on some basis
B = {a1lieA} ofVand then extend the definition ofT linearly to all ofL(B) = V.
In our next theorem, we shall need an isomorphic description of the vector Thus, ifT(aJ = {J1 for all ieA, then T(L1e4 x1cxJ is defined to be Lte4 x1{J1• These
space yn introduced in Example 1.6. remarks provide a proof of the following generalization of Theorem 3.22(a):

Example 3.21: In this example, we construct a vector space isomorphic to vn. 3.23: Let V and W be vector spaces over F and suppose B = {a1 1i e A} is a basis
Let V be a vector space over F, and let n e 1'1. Consider the Cartesian product of V. If {fJ 11i e A} is any subset of W, then there exists a unique T e Hom(V, W)
V x ... x V (n times)= {(cx 1 , ... ,cxJia1 eV}. Clearly, V x ... x Vis a vector . such that T(aJ = fJ1 for all i eA. 0

du:;~w suppose
space over F when we define vector addition and scalar multiplication
by (cx 1, ... , cxJ + ({1 1 , • .. , fJJ = (a 1 + {1 1 , ... , an+ fJJ, and x(cx1, ... , an)= I V and W are both finite-<timensional vector spaces over F. Let
(xcx 1, ... , x!XJ. L _ =n and dimW=m. If ~={a 1 , •••
,cxn} is a basis of V and
22 LINEAR ALGEBRA
LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 23
~ = {P 1, ... , Pm} is a basis of W, then the pair (g, ~) determines a linear
same notation as in 3.17, we have the following diagram:
transformation r(g, ~): Hom(V, W) -+ Mm X n(F) defined by the following
equation:
3:Z7:
3.24:

r(g, ~)(T) = ([T(a1)J~ I·· ·I [T(aJJp)

In equation 3.24, T e Hom{V, W), and r(g, ~)(T) is the m x n matrix whose ith
column is the m x 1 matrix [T(aJ]f!. If T 1, T 2 e Hom(V, W) and x, y e F, then

r(g, ~)(xT 1 + yT 2) = ([{xT 1 + yT 2)(a 1)]p I·· ·I [{xT 1 + yT2)(aJJ2)


= (x[T1(a1)]f! + y[T2(al)]l!l···lx[T1(aJ]l! + y[T2(aJ]l!)
= x([T 1(a1)J2 I·· ·I [T t(aJJl!) + y([T 2(at)]t! I·· ·I [T2(ao)]l!)
= xr(g, ~)(T1) + yr(g, ~)(T 2)
Since all the maps in 3.27 are linear and the bottom square commutes, we
Thus r(g, ~ is indeed a linear transformation from Hom(V, W) to Mm X n(F). need only check [·]f!T = r(g, ~[·]!!on a basis of V. Then the top square of
Suppose T e ker r(g, p). Then r(g, p)(T) = 0. In particular, [T(aJ]p = 0 for all 3.27 is commutative, and the commutativity of 3.26 follows. For any a 1 e g, we
i = 1, ... , n. But then- 0 = [T(aJ]~- = (T(a1))f!, and Theorem ns
implies have ([·]pT)(aJ = [T(cxJ]f! = Col1(r(g, ~) = r(g, ~0, ... , 1, ... , 0)' =
T(aJ = 0. Thus, T = 0, and we conclude that r(g, ~ is an injective linear n~~[aa!. o
transformation.
r(g, p) is surjective as well. To see this, let A = (x11) e Mm x0 (F). Let r(g, p)(T) is called the matrix representation of the linear transformation T
')11 = 2;: 1 XJ 1P1 for i = 1, ... , n. Then {Y 1, ... , Yn} £;; W, and [/'Jp = with res{>ect to the bases g and p. Since the vertical arrows in 3.26 and r(g, p) are
(x 11 , ••• , xmil' = Col1(A) for all i = 1, ... , n. It follows from Theorem 3.22 fhat isomorphisms, V, W, Hom(V;W), and T are often identified with P~ P,
there exists a (necessarily unique) TeHom(V, W) such that T(aJ = y1 for Mm x0 {F), and A = r(g, ~(T). Thus, the distinction between a linear trans-
i = 1, ... , n. Thus, r(g, p)(T) = A and r(g, p) is surjective. We have, now proved formation and a matrix is often blurred in the literature.
the first statement in the following theorem: The matrix representation r(g, p)(T) ofT of course depends on the particular
bases g and pchosen. It is an easy matter to keep track of how r(g, p)(T) changes
Theorem 3.25: Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F of with g and ~· -
dimensions nand m, respectively. Let g be a basis ofV and p a basis ofW. Then
the map r(g, ~: Hom{V, W)-+ Mmxn(F) defined by equation 3.24 is an isomor-
Theorem 3.28: Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F of
phism. For every T e Hom(V, W), the following diagram is commutative:
dimensions nand m, respectively. Suppose g and g' are two bases ofV and Pand
~~ two bases of W. Then for every T e Hom{V, W), we have . . -
3.26:
3.29:
T
v w
~')(T) = M{~, ~1r(g, ~M(g, gr 1
(•\ 1 1,.• i

I
r(g',

Proof: Before proving equation 3.29, we note that M{~, ~1 (and M(~ g1) is the
pn r(g,f!.'(f)'
Fm I x m (and n x n) change of basis matrix given in equation 2.17. We have
Ill
1 already noted that change of bases matrices are invertible and consequently all
I th\terms in equation. 3.29 make sense.
Proof: We need only argue that the diagram in 3.26 is commutative. Using the
L o see that 3.29 is in fact a valid equation, we merely combine the

_j
24 LINEAR ALGEBRA LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 26

commutative diagrams 2.19 and 3.27. Consider the following diagram: If we apply these remarks to our situation in Theorem 3.28, we get the
following corollary:
3.30:
Corollary 3.31: Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F of
r<g,l_)(T) dimensions n and m, respectively. Let 1!: and ~ be bases of V and W. Let
Mnx1(F)
/ •• ,(F) T e IIom(V, W), and set A = r(~ ~)(T). If rk(A) = s, then there exist bases g' and

~
Q)

( /(v
~' of V and W, respectively, such that
[·J, )
M(~ g')
T
w (?) M(~, ~')
@) \[·]~: 3.32:

Mnx 1(F)
rc~·. ()(f)
Mmx 1(F)
r(g'. ~')(T) = ( ~ I+) D

The diagram 3.30 is made up offour parts, which we have labeled CD,
@, Q) , There is another representation problem that naturally arises when consider-
and @). By Theorem 2.18, diagrams CD
and (?) are commutative. By ing Theorem 3.28. Suppose V = W. If g is a basis ofV, then any T e Hom(V, V) is
Theorem 3.25, diagrams Q) and @) are commutative. It follows that the entire represented in terms of g by an n x n matrix A = r(f!:, g)(T). If we change 1!: to a
diagram 3.30 is commutative. In particular, M(p, P')r(f!:, P)(T) = r(f!:',P')(T)M(f!:, new basis g' of V, then the representation ofT changes to B = r(g', g1(T).
1!:1· Solving this equation for r(f!:', ~m gives 3.29. 0 - - Equation 3.29 implies that B = PAP - 1, where P = M(g, 1!:1· Recall that two
n x n matrices A and B are similar if there exists an invertible n x n matrix P
Recall that two m x n matrices A, Be Mm x nCF) are said to be equivalent if such that B = PAP- 1. Thus, different representations of the same
there exist invertible matrices P e Mm xm(F) and Q e Mn xo(F) such that T e Hom(V, V) with respect to different bases of V are similar matrices.
A = PBQ. Equation 3.29 says that a given matrix representation r(f!:, P)(T) ofT Now we can ask, What is the simplest representation ofT? If we choose any
relative to a pair of bases (f!:, P) changes to an equivalent matrix when we replace basis g of V and set A = r(f!:, g)(T), then our question becomes, What is the
(f!:, ~ by new bases (g', ~l This leads to the following question: What is the simplest matrix B similar to A? That question is not so easy to answer as the
simplest representation of a given linear transformation T? If we set previous equivalence problem. We shall present some solutions to this question
A = r(~ P)(T), then we are asking, What is the simplest matrix B equivalent to in Chapter III of this book.
A? -
Theorem 3.25 implies that dim Hom(V, W) =(dim V)(dim W) when V and W
Recalling a few facts from elementary matrix theory gives us an easy answer are finite dimensional. In our next theorem, we gather together some miscella-
to that question. Any invertible matrix P is a product, P = E, · · · Eto of neous facts about linear transformations and the dim(·) function.
elementary matrices E 1, ... , E,. PA = E,(· .. (E 1A)·") is them x n matrix
obtained from .A by preforming the elementary row operations on A represented Theorem 3.33: Let V and W be vector spaces over F and suppose
by E 1, ... , E,. Similarly (PA)Q is the m x n matrix obtained from PA by TeHom(V, W). Then
preforming a finite number of elementary column operations on PA. Let us
denote the rank of any m x n matrix A (i.e., the number of linearly independent
(a) If T is surjective, dim V ;;;: dim W.
rows or columns of A) by rk(A). If rk(A) = s, then we can clearly find invertible
matrices P and Q such that (b) If dim V = dim W < oo, then Tis an isomorphism if and only if either Tis
injective or T is surjective.
(c) dim(Im T) + dim(ker T) = dim V.
PAQ=(+I ~)
Here our notation Proof: (a) follows immediately from Theorem 2.11. In (b), if T is an isomorph-
ism, then T is. both injective and surjective. Suppose T is injective, and
n ==dim V =dim W. Let g = {a1, ... , an} be a basis of V. Since T. is injective,
(~I~) Tg == {T(a 1), ... , T(aJ} is a linearly independent set in W. Then dim W = n
implies Tf!: is a basis ofW. In particular, W = L(Tg) = T(L(g)) = T(V). Thus, Tis
means PAQ will have the s x s identity matrix, I., in its upper left-hand corner surjective, and hence, an isomorphism.
and zeros everywhere else. Suppose T is surjective. If g = {a 1 , ... , an} is a basis of V, then
26 LINEAR ALGEBRA
LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 27

W = TM = T(L(~)) = L(T~). By Theorem 2.11, T~ contains a basis ofW. Since is said to be exact if 1m d 1+ 1 = ker d 1 for every i e Z.
dim W = n, Tg is a basis of W. Now let aeker T. Write ct = x1ct1• Then L
0 = L x1T(ctJ. Since Tg is a basis of W, x1 = ·· · = x.. = 0. Thus, ct = 0 and T is Let us consider an important example.
injective. This competes the proof of (b).
We prove (c) in the case that dim V = n < oo. The infinite-dimensional case is Example 3.38: Let V and W be vector space over F, and let T e Hom(V, W).
left as an exercise at the end of this section. Let g = {ct 1 , ... , tXr} be a basis of Then
ker T. We take r = 0, and g = ¢ if T is injective. By Theorem 2.6, we can expand
g to a basis 4 = {a1 , ... , a., P 1 , •.. , P.} ofV. Here r + s = n. We complete the C: 0--+ ker T --~ V __T---) 1m T --~ 0
proof of (c) by arguing that TP = {T(P 1), .•• , T(P.)} is a basis of Im T.
Suppose be 1m T. Then - {J = T(y) for some y e V. Since V = L(4),
y = X1 tX1 + ··· + XrtXr + Y1 P 1 + ··· + YsPs for some X~o y1 eF. Applying T to this is an exact chain complex. Here i denotes the inclusion of ker T into V. 0
equation, gives fJ E L(Tp). Thus, TP spans Im T.
Suppose L:=lYIT(PJ = 0 for some y,eF. Then L:=1YIPtekerT. Thus, We can generalize Example 3.38 slightly as follows:
L:= 1 y1p, = Lf= 1 x1ct 1 for some x1 e F. Since 4 is a basis of V, we conclude that Definition 3.39: By a short exact sequence, we shall mean an exact chain
x 1 = ··· = Xr = y 1 = · · · = Ys = 0. In particular, {T(P 1), ••• , T(p.)} is linearly complex C of the following form:
independent. Thus, TP is a basis of 1m T, and the proof of (c) is complete. 0
We finish this section with a generalization of Theorem 3.33(c). We shall need
3.40:
the following definition.

Definition 3.34: By a chain complex C = {(V~o dJ Ii E Z} of vector spaces over F,


we shall mean an infinite sequence {V1} of vector spaces Vi> one for each integer
i E Z, together with a sequence {d 1} of linear transformations, d 1e Hom(V1, V1_ tl Thus, the example in 3.38 is a short exact sequence with V 2 = ker T, d 2 = i,
for each i E Z, such that d 1+ 1 d 1 = 0 for all i e Z. V1 = V, etc. Oearly, a chain complex C of the form depicted in 3.40 is a short
exact sequence if and only if d 2 is injective, d 1 is surjective, and Im d2 = ker d1.
We usually draw a chain complex as an infinite sequence of spaces and maps Theorem 3.33(c) implies that if C is a short exact sequence, then
as follows: dim V2 - dim V 1 + dim V0 = 0. We can now prove the following generaliza-
tion of this result:
3.35:
Theorem 3.41: Suppose

H a chain complex C has only finitely many nonzero terms, then we can
change notation and write C as
is an exact chain complex. Then Lf=o ( -1)1 dim V1 = 0.
3.36: Proof: The chain complex C can be decomposed into the following short exact
sequences

It is understood here that all other vector spaces and maps not explicitly
appearing in 3.36 are zero.

Definition 3.37: A chain complex

c: · ·· ..... vl+l

J
28 LINEAR ALGEBRA EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3 29

If we now apply Theorem 3.33(c) to each C 1 and add the results, we get (10) Let Te Hom(V, V) be an involution, that is, T 2 = Iv. Show that there exists
Lf=o( -1)1 dim V1 = 0. D · two subspaces M and N of V such that
(a) M + N= V.
(b) M n N = (0).
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 3 (c) T(a) = a for every a eM.
(d) T(a) = -a for every aeN.
(1) Let V and W be vector spaces over F. In Exercise 10,we assume 2 :1= 0 in F. IfF= IF 2 , are there subspaces M and
(a) Show that the Cartesian product V x W = {(a, p) Ia e V, PeW} is a N satisfying (a)-(d)? ·
vector space under componentwise addition and scalar multiplication. (11) Let T E Homp(V, V). If f(X) = RaXn + ' .. + a 1X + a 0 E F[X], tllen
(b) Compute dim(V x W) when V and W are finite dimensional. f(T) =RaT"+ ... + a 1T + a 0 IveHom(V, V). Show that dimF V = m < oo
(c) Suppose T: V-+ W is a function. Show that T eHom(V, W) if and only implies there exists a nonzero polynomial f(X) e F[X] such that f(T) = .,0.
if the graph GT = {(a, T(a)) e V x WI a e V} of T is a subspace of
(12) If S, T e Homp(V, F) such that S(a) = 0 implies T(a) = 0, prove that T =· xS
VxW. for some xeF.
(2) Let TeHom(V, W) and SeHom(W, V). Prove the following statements:
(13) Let W be a subspace of V with m =dim W ~dim V = n < oo. Let
(a) If ST is surjective, then Sis surjective. Z = {T e Hom(V, V) I T(a) = 0 for all a e W}. Show that Z is a subspace of
(b) If ST is injective, then Tis injective. Hom(V, V) and compute its dimension.
(c) If ST = Iv (the identity map on V) and TS = Iw, then T is an
(14) Suppose V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F, and .let
isomorphism.
S, T e Homp(V, V). If ST = Iv, show there exists a polynomial f(X) e F[X]
(d) IfV and W have the same finite dimension n, then ST = Iv implies Tis such that S = f(T).
an isomorphism. Similarly, TS = lw implies T is an isomorphism.
(15) Use two appropriate diagrams as in 3.27 to prove the following theorem:
(3) Show that Exercise 2(d) is false in general. (Hint: Let V = W be the vector Let V, W, Z be finite-dimensional vector spaces of dimensions n, m, and p,
space in Exercise 4 of Section 2.) respectively. Let g, f}, and 1 be bases of V, W, and Z. If T e Hom(V, W) and
(4) Show that P~ F~n = m. s E Hom(W, Z), then r(g, ¥XST) = r(f}, ¥)(S)r(g, f})(T).
(5) Let T e Hom(V, V). If T is not injective, show there exists a nonzero (16) Suppose
SeHom(V, V) with TS = 0. If T is not surjective, show there exists a
~+1 d,
nonzero S e Hom(V, V) such that ST = 0. c: ... ~ vl+ 1 vi "'-+ Yt
dt
V 0 -+0

(6) In the proof of Corollary 3.19, we claimed that M(g, §)M(§, g)[PJ., = [PJ,
for all pe V implies M(g, §)M(§, g) = In. Give a proof of this facf - and

(7) When considering diagram 3.17 we claimed T A is an isomorphism if and dl di


only if A is an invertible matrix. Give a proof of this fact.
C': ... -+ Vi+t di+t
v; ... -+ V't V0-+0

(8) Show that Theorem 3.33(c) is correct for any vector spaces V and W. Some
are chain complexes with C exact. Let T 0 e HomF(V 0 , V0). Show that there
knowledge of cardinal arithmetic is needed for this exercise.
exists T 1 eHomp(Vb V;) such that T 1_ 1 d 1 = diT1 for all i = 1, .... The
(9) Let T e Hom(V, V). Show that T 2 = 0 if and only if there exist two collection of linear transformations {T1} is called a chain map from C to
subspaces M and N of V such that C'.
(a) M + N = V. (17) Suppose C= {(V.. dJ 1i e Z} and C' = {(VI, d;) 1i e Z} are two chain
(b) M n N = (0). complexes. LetT = {T1hez be a chain map from C to C'. Thus, T 1: V1 -+ v;,
(c) T(N) = 0. and T 1_ 1d 1 = djT1 for all ieZ. For each ieZ, set VI=
(d) T(M) ~ N. vi-1 Xv; = {(cx,fl)laeVI-1• peV;}. Define a map df': VI-+ V'f.-t by
J
30 LINEAR ALGEBRA
PRODUCTS AND DIRECT SUMS 31
dl'(cx, fJ) = ( -d1- 1 (cx), T1- 1(cx) + di(P).) Show that C" = {(Vi', di11 ieZ} is a
notation V 1 X • . • X Vn instead of nleA Vi. Thus, the examples given in 1.5,
chain complex. The complex C" is called the mapping cone ofT.
3.21, and Exercise 1 of Section 3 are all special cases of finite products. Example
(18) Use The~rem 3.33(c) to give another proof of Exercise 16 in Section 2. 1.5 is a product in which every Vi is the same vector space V.
If V = TiieA Vb then for every pair of indices (p, q) e A x A, there exist linear
(19) Find a T e HomR(C, C) that is not C-linear.
transformations n:PeHom(V, VP), and OqeHom(Vq, V) defined as follows:
(20) Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over F. Suppose T e HomF(V, V)
such that dim(lm(T 2)) = dim(Im(T)). Show that Im(T) n ker(T) = {0}. Definition 4.2:

(21) The special case of equation 3.29 where V = W, ~ = ~. and g' = ~~ is very (a) n:P: V- VP is given by n:p(f) = f(p) for all feY.
important. Write out all the matrices and verify equation 3.29 in the (b) Oq: Vq - V is given by
following example: T: IR 3 - IR 3 is the linear transformation given by
T(l5 1) = 215 1 + 215 2 + 153, T(l5 2) = 151 + 3152 - 153, and T(153) = - .5t + 2152.
Let ~ = {cx 1, cx 2, cx 3}, where cx 1 = (1, 2, 1), cx 2 = (1, 0, -1) and cx 3 =
Oq(cx)(i) = {~ if i = q
if i¥=q
(0, 1, -1 ). Compute r(~, ~)(T), r(g, g)(T), and the change of bases matrices
in 3.29. In Definition 4.2(b), cxeVq. Oq(cx) is that function in V whose only nonzero
(22) Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over F. Suppose TS = ST for value is ex taken on at i = q. The fact that n:P and Oq are linear transformations is
obvious. Our next theorem lists some of the interesting properties these two sets
every SeHorn~, V). Show that T = xlv for some xeF.
of maps have.
(23) Let A, Be Mn x n(F) with at least one of these matrices nonsingular. Show
that AB and BA are similar. Does this remain true if both A and Bare Theorem 4.3: Let v= n.eA v •. Then
singular?
(a) nPOP = Iv•• the identity map on VP, for all peA.
(b) npOq = 0 for.all p ¥= q in A.
4. PRODUCTS AND DIRECT SUMS (c) If A is finite, LpeA OPn:P = Iv, the identity map on V.
(d) 7tp is surjective and op is injective for all peA.
Let {VilieA} be a collection of vector spaces over a common field F. bur
(e) Let W be a second vector space over F. A function T: W- Vis a linear
indexing set A may be finite or infinite. We define the product nleA vi of the vi as
transformation if and only if n:P T e Hom(W, Vp) for all peA.
follows:
(f) The vector space V together with the set {nP IpeA} of linear trans-
formations satisfies the following universal mapping property: Suppose
Definition 4.1: n.eA v. = {f: A- UieA Vilfis a function with f(i)eVi for all ieA}.
W is any vector space over F and {TPeHom(W, VP)I peA} a set of linear
transformations. Then there exists a unique T e Hom(W, V) such that for
We can give the set nleA VI the structure of a vector space (over F) by defining
every peA the following diagram is commutative:
addition and scalar multiplication pointwise. Thus, iff, g e nleA V., then f + g is
defined by (f + g)(i) = f(i) + g(i). If f e OleA VI and X e F, then xf is defined by
4.4:
(xf)(i) = x(f(i)). The fact that nleA v. is a vector space with these operations is
straightforward. Henceforth, the symbol TiieA V1 will denote the vector space
whose underlying set is given in 4.1 and whose vector operations are pointwise
addition and scalar multiplication.
fl
Suppose V = 1eA V1 is a product. It is sometimes convenient to identify a
given vector fe V with its set of values {f(i) IieA}. f(i) is called the ith coordinate
off, and we think off as the "A-tuple" (f(i))1eA· Addition and scalar multiplication vp
in V are given in temis of A-tuples as follows: (f(i))1e4 + (g(i))ieA = (f(i) + g(i))ieA>

l.
and x(f(i))1eA = (xf(i))1eA. This particular viewpoint is especially fruitful. when i Proof: (a), (b), and (c) follow immediately from the definitions. n:P is surjective
IAI = n < oo. In this case, we can assume A= {1, 2, ... , n}. Each feV ts then I and OP is injective sinee n:POP = Iv•. Thus, (d) is clear. As for (e), we need only
identified with the n-tuple (f(l), ... , f(n)). When IAI = n, we shall use the argue that Tis linear provided ..Tis linear for all peA. Let a, peW and x, y e F.
I
i

32 LINEAR ALGEBRA PRODUCTS AND DIRECT SUMS 33

Then for every peL\, we have 7tp{T(xa + yP)) = 7tpT(xcx + yP) = X7tpT(cx) Suppose V = V 1 x · · · x Vn is a finite product of vector spaces over F. Let B1
+ y1tPT(P) = 7tp(xT(cx) + yT(P)). Now it is clear from our definitions that two be a basis of Vb i = 1, ... , n. We can think of the vectors in V as n-tuples
functions f, g e V are equal if and only if 7tp(f) = 1tP(g) for all peL.\. Consequently, (er: , ••• , aJ with cx1eV1. For any i and aeV~o 81(cx) = (0, ... , a, 0, ... , 0). Thus,
1
T(xa + yp) = xT(cx) + yT(P), and T is linear. 8 (er:) is the n-tuple of V that is zero everywhere except for an a in the ith slot.
Finally, we come to the proof of (f). We shall have no. use for this fact in this since (}I is injective, (JI: VI~ (}I(V J. In particular, (JI(BJ is a basis of the subspace
text. We mention this result only because in general category theory products (J.(V J. Since Ot(BJ n L(U J1'I OJ(BJ)) = (0), B = UleA 81(BJ is a linearly independ-
are defined as the unique object satisfying the universal mapping property given e~t set. Clearly, V = Li= 1 81(VJ. Consequently, B is a basis ofV. We have now
in (f). The map T: W-+ V making 4.4 commute is given byT(a) = (T1(cx))164 . We proved the following theorem:
leave the details for an exercise at the end of this section. D
Theorem 4.9: Let V ·= V 1 x · · · x Vn be a finite product of vector spaces. If B1is
The map 1tP:V-+ VP in Definition 4.2(a) is called the pth projection or pth a basis of V1, i = 1, ... , n, then B = Ui= 1 81(BJ is a basis of V. In particular, if
coordinate map of V. the map Oq: Vq -+Vis often called the qth injection of Vq each V1 is finite dimensional, then so is V. In this case, we have
into V. These maps can be used to analyze linear transformations to and from dim v = Li=l dim VI. D
products. We begin first with the case where IL.\1 < oo.
At this point, let us say a few words about our last three theorems when
Theorem 4.5: Suppose V = V 1 x · · · x Vn is a. finite product of vector spaces, IL.\1 = oo. Corollary 4.6 is true for any indexing set L\. The map 'P(T) = (1t1T) 164 is
and let W be another vector space. IfT1e Hom(W, VJ fori = 1, ... , n, then there an injective, linear transformation as before. We cannot use Theorem 4.5 to
exists a unique T e Hom(W, V1 x · · · x VJ such that 1t1T = T 1 for all conclude 'Pis surjective, since L164 81T 1makes no sense when IL.\1 = oo. However,
i=1, ... ,n. we can argue directly that 'P is surjective. Let (TJ 164 e U 1e4 Hom(W, V J. Define
TeHom(W,Uie4 VJ by T(oc} = (T1(cx})164 . Clearly 'P(T) = (TJ154. Thus, we have
Proof: Set T = Lf= 1 81T 1 and apply Theorem 4.3. D the following generalization of 4.6:

As an immediate corollary to Theorem 4.5, we get the following result: 4.10: For any indexing set L.\, Hom(W, UteA VJ~ Ute4 Hom(W, VJ.

Corollary 4.6: If IL.\1 = n < oo, then Hom(W,nie4 VI)~ nle4Hom(W, VJ. In general, Corollary 48 is false when IL.\1 = oo. For example, if W = F
and V1= F for all i e L\, then the reader can easily see that
Proof: Define a map 'P: Hom(W, V1 x .. · x VJ-+ Hom(W, V 1) x .. · 1HomF(Uie4 F, F)l > 1n164 Fl when L\ is infinite. Since HomF(F, F)~ F, we see
x Hom(W, VJ by 'P(T) = (1t 1T, ... , 1tnT). One easily checks that 'P is an that Hom(U164 F, F) cannot be isomorphic to U 164 Hom(F,F).
injective, linear transformation. Theorem 4.5 implies 'P is surjective. D v
If = nle4 vi with IL.\1 = 00 and Bt is a basis of VI> then Ute4 (JI(BJ is a
linearly independent subset of V. But in general, V :1: }2164 Ot(V J. For a concrete
We have a similar result for products in the first slot of Hom. example, consider V = IRF\1 in Exercise 5 of Section 1. Thus, U 1e4 91(BJ is not in
general a basis for V. In particular, Theorem 4.9 is false when IL.\1 = oo.
Theorem 4.7: Suppose v = v1 X ••• X vn is a finite product of vector spaces, Let us again suppose v = nle4 VI with L\ an arbitrary set. There is an
and let W be another vector space. IfT1e Hom(Vb W) fori = 1, ... , n, then there important subspace of V that we wish to study.
exists a unique T e Hom(V 1 x · · · x Vn• W) such that T81 = T 1 for all
i = 1, ... ,n. Definition 4.11: Let EBie4 VI= {feUie4 Vdf(i) = 0 exCept possibly for finitely
many iei.\}.
Proof· Set T = :Li=1 T 1t1 and apply Theorem 4.3.
1 D
Clearly EB 164 V1 is a subspace of V under pointwise addition and scalar
Corollary 4.8: If IL.\1 = n < oo, then Hom(U164 Vt> W) ~ U 1e4 Hom(V~o W).
multiplication. In terms of !\-tuples, the vector f = (cxJ1e4 lies in EB leA V1 if and
only if there exists some finite subset L.\0 (possibly empty) of L\ such that ext = 0
Proof: Define a map 'P: Hom(U1e4 Vb W)-+ U1e4 Hom(Vt> W) by 'P(T) =
for all iei.\- L\0 • Ifli.\1 < oo, then E9 1e 4 V1 =UreA V1. Ifli.\1 = oo, then EB1eA V1 is
(T8 1, ... , TOJ. Again the reader can easily check that 'P is an injective, linear
usually a proper suospace of V. Consider the following example:
transformation. Theorem 4. 7 implies that 'P is surjective. D
34 UN EAR ALGEBRA
PRODUCTS AND DIRECT SUMS 35
Example 4.12: Let F = IR, t1 = N, and V1 = IR for all i eA. Then the N-tuple
Theorem 4.16: Let {V,Iieli} be a collection of subspaces of V. Then the
(l),.,N, that is, the function f: N -+ U
ieN IR given by f(i) = 1 for all i e N, is a vector following statements are equivalent:
in v = nieN IR but not a vector in EBleN R D
(a) The VI> i e A are independent.
The vector space EeleA V1 is called the direct sum of the V1• It is also called the
subdirect product of the V1 and written UleA V1• In this text, we shall consistently (b) Every vector ae LieA V1 can be written uniquely in the form a= Li a1
with a 1eV1 for all ieA. eA
use the notation EE) 1eA V1 to indicate the direct sum of the V1• If llil = n < oo,
then we can assume t1 = {1, 2, ... , n}. In this case we shall write V 1 EJ) • • • EJ) V (b') If LieA a, = 0 with a1e VI> then a1 = 0 for all i e tl.
or EB~=1 v, instead of EBieA v,. Thus, v1 Ei) •.• Ei) Vn, E9~=1 vi, v.l X ••• X vn: (c) For every j e t1, V1 n (L
11 J VJ = (0).
nleA VI> and EeieA VI are all the same space when llil = n < 00.
Since EeleA v; = LieA O,(VJ, our comments after 4.10 imply the following Proof: In statements (b) and (b'), LiEA a1 means a1 = 0 for all but possibly finitely
theorem: many ieA. It is obvious that (b) and (b') are equivalent. So, we argue
oo-~-~
Suppose the V1 are independent. If LtaA a1 = 0 with a1e V1 for all i e tl, then
.
Theorem 4.13: Suppose V = EB leA V1 is the direct sum of vector spaces V1• Let B1
be a basis of VI. Then B = uleA O,(BJ is a basis of v. D S((aJ1eJ = LiEA a1 = 0. Since S is injective, we conclude that a1 = 0 for all i e tl.
Thus, (a) implies (b'). Similarly, (b') implies (a).
The subspace EB teA V1 constructed in Definition 4.11 is sometimes called the Suppose we assume (b'). Fix j eA. Let a e V1 n (L11 J V J. Then a = a1 for some
external direct sum of the V1because the vector spaces {V11i e t1} a priori have no a1eV1, and a= LieA-{j}at for some a 1eV1• As usual, all the cx1 here are zero
relationship to each other. We finish this section with a construction that is often except possibly for finitely many indices i ':/: j. Thus, 0 = LteA-{j} a1 + (-l)a1•
called an internal direct sum. (b') then implies a1 = a1 = 0 for all ietl- {j}. In particular, a= 0, and (c) is
Suppose Vis a vector space over F. Let {V1 1ieA} be a collection ofsubspaces established.
of V. Here our indexing set t1 may be finite or infinite. We can construct the Suppose we assume (c). Let LieAa1 = 0 with a 1eV1• If every a1 = 0,
(external) direct sum E9teA V1 of the V1 as in Definition 4.11 and consider the there is nothing to prove. Suppose some al> sa:¥ a1, is not zero. Then
natural linear transformation S: EB teA V1 -+ V given by S((aJ1eJ = LteA a1• Since a1 = - Lt'f' J a1 e V1 n (L11 1VJ implies V1 n (L 11 1 VJ ':/: 0. This is contrary to our
(aJ1eA e E9teA Vi> only finitely many of the a1 are nonzero. Therefore, LieA a1 is a assumption. Thus, (c) implies (b'), and our proof is complete. 0
well defined finite sum in V. Thus, S is well defined and clearly linear.
If {V1lieA} is a .collection of independent subspaces of V such that
Definition 4.14: Let {Vd ietl} be a collection of subspaces of V. We say these LieA V1 = V, then we say V is the internal direct sum of the V1• In this case,
subspaces are independent if the linear transformation S: E9taA V1 -+ V defined V ~ EB leA V1 viaS, and we often just identify V with EB leA V1• If llil = n < oo, we
above is injective. shall simply write V = V 1 EJ) • • • EJ) V n when V is an internal direct sum of
subspaces v 1> ... ' v n•
The reader will note that there is no difference in notation between an
Note Im S = LieA V,. Thus, the subspaces VI> i e tl, are indepedent if and only if
external direct sum and an internal direct sum. This deliberate ambiguity will
E&.aA V1~ LiaA V1 viaS. A simple example of independent subspaces is provided
cause no real confusion in the future.
by Theorem 2.13(c).
Finally, suppose V = V 1 EJ) • • • EJ) V n is an internal direct sum of independent
su~spaces V1> ... , Vn. Then by Theorem 4.16(b), eyery vector aeV can be
Example 4.15: Let V be a vector space over F and W a subspace of V. Let W' be wntten uniquely in the form a= a 1 +···+!Xu with cx1eV1• Thus, the map
any complement ofW. Then W, W' are independent. The direct sum W EJ) W' is ~~: v.-+ V, which sends a to !XJ, is a well-defined function. Theorem 4.16(b)
just the product W x W', and S: W x W' -+ W + W' is given by unpbes that each P 1 is a linear transformation such that 1m P1 = V1. We give
S((a, /3)) = a + fl. If (a, f3) e ker S, then a + f3 = 0. But W n W' = 0. Therefore, formal names to these maps P1, ... , Pn.
a = - f3 e W n W' implies a = f3 = 0. Thus, S is injective, and W, W' are
independent. D
Definition 4.17: Let V = V 1 E9 · · · E9 Vn be the internal direct sum of independent
subspaces V 1 , ... , VI!-. For each i = 1, ... , n, the linear transformation P 1
In our next theorem, we collect a few simple facts about independent defined above is called the ith projection map of V relative to the decomposition
subspaces. v1 ffi · ·· E9 vn.
36 LINEAR ALGEBRA EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4 37

Our next theorem is an immediate consequence of Theorem 4.16(b). Proof: We must show V = V1 + ... + v.. and VJ n (LI'f'J V1) = 0. Let cxeV
and set ex1 = P 1(cx). Then ex = l(cx) = (P 1 + .. · + P nXex) = P 1(a.) + ·.. + P ..(a.) =
Theorem 4.18: Let V = V 1 EB · · · EB Vn be an internal direct sum of the independ- al + '"O:n. Since a.lelmPI =VI> we conclude v £; vl + ... + v... Thus,
ent subspaces V 1 , ••• , Vn. Suppose P 1 , .•• , P n e Hom(V, V) are the associated
V=V1+"·+V...
projection maps. Then
Fix J, and suppose .<5eyJn(L17'JVJ. Then <5=PJ(fJ)=2:17'JP1({J1) for
(a) P 1PJ = 0 if i =I: j. o
some {JeV and fJ1eV (1 =I:J). Then = P1({J) = P1P1(fJ) = PJ(L17' 1P 1({J1)) =
LI7'JPJPI(PJ = 0. Thus, VJ n (LI'f'J VJ = (0), and the proof is complete. 0
(b) P1P1 = P1.
(c) 2:f= 1 P 1 = Iv. the identity map on V. 0
Theorem 4.18 says that every internal direct sum decomposition EXERCISES FOR SECTION 4
V = V 1 EB · · · EB Vn determines a set {P t> ••• , P .. } of pairwise orthogonal
[4.18(a)] idempotents [4.18(b)] whose sum is lv [4.18(c)] in the algebra of (1) Let B = {<51 1i e d} be a basis ofV. Show that Vis the internal direct sum of
endomorphisms G(V) = Homp(V, V). Let us take this opportunity to define {Fo1 lied}.
some of the words in our last sentence.
(2) Show Hom~E91eA VI, W)~ nleAHomp(VIt W).
Definition 4.19: By an associative algebra A over F, we shall mean a vector space
(3) Give a careful proof of Theorem 4.3(f).
(A, (ex, fJ) -+ex + p, (x, ex)-+ xa) over F together with a second function (ex, fJ) -+ a.fJ
from A x A to A satisfying the following axioms: (4) Let V = V 1 x · · · x V"' and for each i = 1, ... , n, set T 1 = 8111:1• Show that
{T1 ,. .. , T ..} is a set of pairwise orthogonal idempotents in 8(V) whose
Al. a.({Jy) = (exp)y for all ex, p, yeA. sum is 1.
A2. ex(p + y) = a.p + a.y for all a., p, yEA.
(5) Let V = V 1 x · · · x Vn. Show that V has a collection of subspaces
A3. (fJ + y)a. = fJa + ya for all ex, p, yeA.
A4. x(a.fJ) = (xa.)fJ = a.(xfJ) for all ex, peA, x e F.
{W~> .. ·• W~} such that V1 ~ W 1 fori= l, ... ,n
and V = E9f= 1 W1•

AS. There exists an element 1 e A such that lex = ttl = a. for all a eA. (6) Give a combined version of Corollaries 4.6 and 4.8 by showing directly that
I/I:Homp(V1 X ... X v.,, wl X ... X W.J-+ nr=1Thm=l Hom(Vh Wj)
We have seen several examples of (associative) algebras in this book already. given by J/!(T) = (xJTOJ1=1 , ... ,n,J= 1 , ... ,m is an isomorphism.
Any field F is an associative alebra over F. Mnxn(F) and F[X] with the usual (7) Suppose V = V 1 EB · · · EB V.,. Let T e Hom(V, V) such that T(V J £; V1 for
multiplication of matrices or polynomials is an algebra over F. IfV is any vector all i = 1, ... , n. Find a basis g of V such that
space over F, then Hom~V, V) becomes an (associative) algebra over F when we
define the product of two linear transformations T 1 and T 2 to be their composite M1
T 1T 2 • Clearly axioms Al-AS are satisfied. Here 1 is the identity map from V to r (g. g)(T) = ( o . . ..
V. Linear transformations from V to V are called endomorphisms of V. The
algebra G(V) = Homp(V, V) is called the algebra of endomorphisms of V. where M 1 describes the action ofT on V1·
Suppose A is any algebra over F. An element ex e A is idempotent if excx = a.. In
F or F[X], for example, the only idempotents are 0 and 1. In M., x.,(F),
(8) If X, Y, Z are subspaces of V such that X EB Y = X EB Z = V, is Y = Z? Is
y~ Z? ·.
e 11 , •.• , e.... are all idempotents different from 0 or 1. Idempotents {a. 1 , •.• , ex..} in
an algebra A are said to be pairwise orthogonal if cx1exJ = 0 whenever i =1: j. Thus, (9) Find three subspaces V 1> V 2 , V 3 of V = F[X] such that V =
{e11 , ••• , e...,} is a set of pairwise orthogonal idempotents in M .. x.,(F). V1 EB V2 EB V 3·
Theorem 4.18 says that every internal direct sum decomposition
(10) If V = V1 + V 2 , show that there exists a subspace W of V such that
V = V1 EB · · · EB Vn determines a set of pairwise orthogonal idempotents whose
W £; V2 'and V = V 1 EB W.
sum is 1 in G(V). Our last theorem of this section is the converse of this result.
(11) Let A be an algebra over F. A linear transformation T e Hom~A, A) is
Theorem 4.20: Let V be a vector space over F, and suppose {P 1 , ••• , P ..} is a set called an algebra homomorphism if T(cxfJ) = T(a.)T(/1) for all ex, {JeA. Ex-
of pairwise orthogonal idempotents in H(V) such that P 1 + · · · + P" = 1. Let hibit a nontrivial algebra homomorphism on the algebras F[X] and
VI= ImPI. Then v = vl EB"·EBV... Mnxn(F).
r
I

38 LINEAR ALGEBRA QUOTIENT SPACES AND THE ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS 39

(12) Suppose V is a vector space over F. Let S: V~ V be an isomorphism of V. The equivalence relation introduced in Example 5.2 is called a congruence,
Show that the map T ~ S - 1TS is an algebra homomorphism of G(V) and we shall borrow the symbol = to indicate a general equivalence relation.
which is one to one and onto. Thus, if R s;;; A x A is an equivalence relation on A and (x, y) e R, then we shall
write x = y. We shall be careful in the rest of this text to use the symbol s only
(13) Let F be a field. Show that the vector space V = F (over F) is not the direct when dealing with an equivalence relation.
sum of any two proper subspaces. Now suppose = is an equivalence relation on a set A. For each x e A, we set
a., peA.
(14) An algebra A over F is said to be commutative if rx{J = {Jrx for all x = {yeAiy = x}. xis a subset of A containing x. xis called the equivalence
Suppose V is a vector space over F such that dim~ > 1. Show that G(V) class of x. The function from A to f?l'(A) given by x --+ x satisfies the following
is not commutative. properties:

(15) Suppose V is a vector space over F. Let TeG(V) be idempotent. Show 5.3: (a) xex.
V = ker(T) Ee Im(T). =
(b) x = y if and only if x y.
3
(16) Let V be a vector space over F, and let TeG(V). If T = T, show that (c) For any x, yeA, either x = y or iny = rjJ.
V = V0 Ee V 1 Ee V2 where the V1 are subspaces of V with the following (d) A = UxeA i.
properties: rx e V0 => T(a.) = 0, a. e V 1 => T(rx) = ex, and ex e V 2 => T(ex) = -ex.
In this exercise, assume 2 =/:: 0 in F. The proofs of the statements in 5.3 are all easy consequences of the
(17) Suppose V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F. If T eG(V) is definitions. If we examine Example 5.2 again, we see 7L is the disjoint union of the
nonzero, show there exists an S e G(V) such that ST is a nonzero p equivalence classes 0, I, ... , p- 1. It follows from 5.3(c) and 5.3(d) that any
idempotent of G(V). equivalence relation on a set A divides A into a disjoint union of equivalence
(18) Suppose T e G(V) is not zero and not an isomorphism of V. Prove there is ~asses. The reader probably has noted that the equivalence classes {0,
an S e G(V) such that ST = 0, but TS =/:: 0. 1, ... , p - 1} of 7L inherit an addition and multiplication from 7L and form the
field IFP discussed in Example 1.3. This is a common phenomenon in algebra. The
(19) Suppose V is a finite-dimensional vector space over F with subspaces set of equivalence classes on a set A often inherits some algebraic operations
W 1 , ... , W". Suppose V=W 1 +···+Wk, and dim(V)=L~= 1 dim(WJ. from A itself. This type of inheritance of algebraic structure is particularly
Show that V = W 1 Ee · .. Ee Wk. fruitful in the study of vector spaces.
Let V be a vector space over a field F, and suppose W is a subspace ofV. The
5. QUOTIENT SPACES AND THE ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS subspace W determines an equivalence relation =
on V defined as follows:

In this section, we develop the notion of a quotient space of V. In order to do 5.4:


that, we need to consider equivalence relations. Suppose A is a nonempty set
and R s;;; A x A is a relation on A. The reader will recall from Section 2 that we rx=P if rx-{JeW
used the notation x "'"' y to mean (x, y) e R The relation "'"' is called an
equivalence relation if the following conditions are satisfied: Let ~s. check that the relation = defined in 5.4 is reflexive, symmetric, and
transttive. Clearly, ex = ex. If ex = p, then ex - peW.. Since W is a subspace,
5.1: (a) x"'"' x for all xeA. = = =
f1 -.a. e ~· Therefore, P a.. Suppose ex p and p y. Then ex - p, p - yeW.
~gam, smce W is a subspace, ex- y = (ex- p) + (p- y) e W, and, thus ex = y. So,
(b) If x"'"' y, then y"'"' x for all x, yeA.
(c) Ifx"'"' y andy"'"' z, then x "'"'z for all x, y, zeA. Indeed = is an equivalence relation on V. The reader should realize that the
A relation satisfying 5.1(a) is called reflexive. If 5.1(b) is satisfied, the relation is
equivalence relation = depends on the subspace W. We have deliberately
suppressed any reference to W in the symbol = to simplify notation. This will
said to be symmetric. A relation satisfying 5.1(c) is said to be transitive. Thus, an cause no confusion in the sequel. ·
equivalence relation is a reflexive, symmetric relation that is transitive.
Example 5.2: Let A = 71.., and suppose p is a positive prime. Define a
De6ni.. tion 5.5: Let '?I be a subspace of V, and let = denote the equivalence
= =
relation (congruence mod p) on A by x y if and only if pIx - y. The reader :elation defined in 5.4. If ex e V, then the equivalence class of ex will be denoted by
IX. The set of all equivalence classes {~I a e V} will be denoted by VfW.
can easily check that = is an equivalence relation on 71... 0
40 UN EAR ALGEBRA
QUOTIENT SPACES AND THE ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS 41

Thus, ii = {PeVIP =a} and VjW = {iilaeV}. Note that the elements in nieA(p + WJ, so let IXE nle4(p +WI). Then, for i 'I= j, IX= p +~I= p + ~j
VjW are subsets of V. Hence VfW consists of a collection of elements from t?PM. with ~1 eW1 and ~1 eW1 • But then ~~=~1 and aeP+(W1 nW1). Thus,
nieA(p + WJ £ p + <nleA WJ. Therefore, n 1e4(p + WJ = p + (n 1e4 WJ.
Definition 5.6: If W is a subspace of V and a e V, then the subset Since P+ (n 1e4 W J e dM, the proof of (a) is complete. 0
a + W = {a + 1 I1 e W} is called a coset of W.
We can generalize Theorem 5.8(d)' one step further by introducing the
Clearly, pea + W if and only if a - peW. Thus, the coset a + W is the same concept of an affine map between two vector spaces. If a e V, then by translation
set as the equivalence class ii of a under =. So, VfW is the set of all cosets of W. through tX, we shall mean the function s ..: V --+ V given by S..(p) = a + p. Any
In particular, the equivalence class ii of a has a nice geometric interpretation. coset a + W is just S..(W) for the translations... Note that when a 'I= 0, s .. is not a
ii = a + W is the translate of the subspace W through the vector a. linear transformation.
Let us pause for a second and discuss the other names that some of these
objects have. A coset a+ W is also called an affine subspace or flat ofV. We shall Definition 5.9: Let V and V' be two vector spaces over a field F. A function
not use the word "fiat" again in this text, but we want to introduce formally the f: V--+ V' is called an affine transformation iff= s ..T for some Te HomF{V, V')
set of affine subspaces of V. and some aeV'. The set of all affine transformations from V to V' will be
denoted AffFfV, V').
Definition 5.7: The set of an affine subspaces of v will be denoted dM.
Oearly, HomFfV, V') £ Aft'F(V, V') £ (V')v. Theorem 5.8(d) can be restated as
Thus, A e dM if and only if A = a + W for some subspace W £ V and some follows:
a e V. Note that an affine subspace A = a + W is not a subspace of V unless
a = 0. Thus, we must be careful to use the word "affine" when considering Theorem 5.10: If AedM and feAffFfV, V'), then f(A)ed(V'). 0
elements in dM. Since dM consists of all cosets of all subspaces of V,
VfW £ dM £ t?PM and these inclusions are usually strict. Let us now return to the special subset V/W of dM. The cosets of W can be
The set VfW is called the quotient of V by W and is read "V mod W". We shall given the structure of a vector space. We first define a binary operation -i- on
see shortly that VfW inherits a vector space structure from V. Before discussing VjW by the following formula:
this point, we gather together some of the more useful properties of affine
subspaces in general. 5.11:

Theorem 5.8: Let V be a vector space over F, and let dM denote the set of all
affine subspaces of V. ·
In equation 5.11, a and p are vectors in V and ii and 7J are their corresponding
(a) If {AdieA} is an indexed collection of affine subspaces in dM, then equivalence classes. ii -i- fJ is defined to be the equivalence class that contains
a + p. We note that our definition of ii -i- fJ depends only on the equivalence
either nie4 AI = 4> or nie4 Ate dM.
classes ii and 7J and not on the particular elements aeii and PeP (used to form
(b) If A, BedM, then A+ BedM.
the right-hand side of 5.11). To see this, suppose a 1 eii and.p 1 e]J. Then tXt- a
(c) If AedM and xeF, then xAedM.
and P1 - Pare in W. Therefore, (at·+ P1) - (a+ p)eW and a 1 + P1 =a+ p.
(d) If AedM and TeHom(V, V'), then T(A)ed(V').
Thus, -i-: VfW x VfW --+ VfW is a well-defined function .. The reader can easily
(e) If A' e d(V') and T e Hom(V, V'), then T- 1(A') is either empty or an affine check that (VjW, -i-) satisfies axioms Vl-V4 of Definition 1.4. 0 is the zero
subspace of V. element of V/W, and -a is the inverse of ii under -i-. The function -i- is called
addition on V/W, and, henceforth, we shall simply write + for this operation.
Proof: The proofs of (b)-(e) are ·an straightforward. In (e), T- 1 (A') = Thus, ii + 7J = a + p defines the operation of vector addition on VfW.
{aeVIT(a)eA'}. We give a proof of (a) only. Suppose. A1 = tX1 + W1 We can define scalar multiplication on VfW by the following formula:
for each i eA. Here W 1 is a subspace of V and a 1 a vector m V. Suppose
nle4Ai 'I= <f>. Let pe nie4AI. Then for each ie.6., p =IX!+ 'YI with f'IEWI. But 5.12:
then p + WI = IX! + w" and nieA AI = nleA (p + wJ.
We claim that n 1e4(P + W J = p + (nlsA W J. Clearly, p + (nie4 W J £ ·
Xii =XIX
QUOTIENT SPACES AND THE ISOMORPHISM THEOREMS 43
42 LINEAR ALGEBRA

see TeHom(VjW, V1. TIT(a) = T(a) = T(a) and so 5.16 commutes. Only the
~equation 5.12, xeF~nd aeVfW. Again we observe that if a 1 ea., then
uniqueness of T remains to be proved.
XIX 1 = XIX. Thus (x, a) -+ XIX is a well-defined function from F x VfW to VfW. The If T' e Hom(VjW, V') is another map for which T'IT = T, then T = T' on Im
reader can easily check that scalar multiplication satisfies axioms V5-VS in n. But IT is surjective. Therefore, T = T'. 0
Definition 1.4. Thus, (V/W, (a, lJ) -+a + lJ, (x, a) -+ xa) is a vector space over F.
We shall refer to this vector space in the future as simply VfW. Corollary 5.17: Suppose TeHomp(V, V'). Then ImT~ Vjker T.
Equations 5.11 and 5.12 imply that the natural map IT:V-+ VfW given by
IT(IX) = a. is a linear transformation. Clearly, IT is surjective and has kernel W. Proof We can view T as a surjective, linear transformation from V to 1m T.
Thus, if i: W-+ V denotes the inclusion of W into V, then we have the following Applying Theorem 5.15, we get a unique linear transformation
short exact sequence: T: Vjker T -+ Im T for which the following diagram is commutative:

5.13: 5.18:

V T 1m T
0-+ W--'--~ v-.::.::n~ VfW-+ 0

ln particular, Theorem 3.33 implies the following theorem:

Theorem 5.14: Suppose Vis a finite-dimensional vector space over F and W a


~/ Vjker T

subspace of V. Then dim V = dim W + dim V/W. 0 In 5.18, IT is the natural map from V to Vjker T. We claim Tis an isomorphism.
Since TIT = T and T: V-+ 1m T is surjective, T is surjective. Suppose iX e ker T.
We shall finish this section on quotients with three theorems that are Then_T(a) = Trr(1X) = T(a) = 0. Thus, aekerT. But, then IT{1X) = 0. Thus, a= 0,
collectively known as the isomorphism theorems. These theorems appear in and T is injective. 0
various forms all over mathematics and are very useful.
The second isomophism theorem deals with multiple quotients. Suppose W is
Theorem 5.15 (First Isomorphism Theorem): Let T E Homp(V, V'), and suppose a subspace of V and consider the natural projection IT: V-+ VfW. If W' is a
W is a subspace of V for which T(W) = 0. Let IT: V -+ V/W be the natural map. subspace of V containing W, then IT{W1 is a subspace of V[W. Hence, we can
Then there exists a unique T E Homp(VfW, V1 such that the following diagram form the quotient space (V/W)(fi(W'). By Corollary 5.17, IT{W1 is isomorphic to
commutes: W'/W. Thus we may rewrite (V/W)(fi(W1 as (V/W)/{W'/W).

5.16: Theorem 5.19 (Second Isomorphism Theorem): Suppose W !;;;; W' are sub-
spaces ofV. Then (V/W)/{W'/W)~ V/W'.
T

v~~·
!'ro?f Let IT: V-+ V/W and IT': VfW-+ (V/W)(fi(W') be the natural pro-
Jec~tons.
Set T = IT'll: V -+ (V/W)(fi(W'). Since IT and IT'. are both surjective,
T ts a surjective, linear transformation. Clearly, W' !;;;; ker T. Let a e ker T.
Then 0 = IT'IT(1X). Thus, a= IT(1X)eiT(W'). Let [:JeW' such that IT([:J) = IT(a).
Then IT([:J- a)= 0. Thus, [:J- IXEkeriT = W!;;;; W'. In particular, IXEW'.
V/W
We have now proved that kerT = W'. Applying Corollary 5.17, we have
Proof We define T by T(a) = T(IX). Again, we remaind the reader that a is a {V!W)(fi(W') =1m T~ VjkerT = VjW'. 0
subset of V containing IX. To ensure that our definition of T makes sense, we
must argue that T(1X 1) = T(IX) for any IX 1 e iX. If 1X 1 E iX, then IX 1 - IX E W. Since T The third isomorphism theorem deals with sums and quotients.
is zero on W, we get T(1X 1 ) = T(a). Thus, our definition of T(iX) depends only
on the coset iX and not on any particular representative of iX. Since Theorem 5.20 (Third Isomorphism Theorem): Suppose W and W' are sub-
spaces ofV. Then (W + W')/W~ W'/{W n W1.
T(xiX + ylJ) = T(xa + y[:J) = T(xa + y[:J) = xT(a) + yT({J) = xT(iX) + y'f{lJ), we
44 LINEAR ALGEBRA EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5 45

Proof: Let IT: W + W' -+ (W + W')/W be the natural projection. The inclusion (8) ~t V be ~ finite-dimensional vector space. If W is a subspace with
map ofW' into W + W' when composed with I1 gives us a linear transformation dim W = d.Im V- 1, then the cosets of W are called hyperplanes in v.
T: W' -+ (W + W1/W· Since the kernel of I1 is W, ker T = W n W'. We claim T Sup.P_ose SIS an affine subspace of V and H = ex + W is a hyperplane. Show
is surjective. To see this, consider a typical element ye(W + W1/W· y is a coset that if H n S = 0, then S ~ p + W for some pe V.
ofW of the form y = t5 + W with fJeW + W'. Thus, {J =ex+ f3 with exeW and
(9) ~ S = .a + We d(V), we define dim S = dim W. Suppose y is finite
peW'. But ex + W = W. So, y = t5 + W = (/3 + ex) + W = f3 + W. In particular,
dimens.Ional, H a hyperplane in V, and S e d(V). Show that s n H =1=
T(p) = p + W = y, and T is surjective. By Corollary 5.17,
0 => dim(S n H) = dim S - 1. Assume S ¢. H.
(W + W')/W = 1m T~ W'fker T = W'/W n W'. 0
(10) tiLet S e d(V) .with dimS = m - 1. Show that S = {Ll"= 1 x,ad Ll"= 1 x1 = 1}
We close this section with a typical application of the isomorphism theorems. or some choice of m vectors a 1 , ... , am e V.
Suppose V is an internal direct sum of subspaces V 1 , ••• , Vn. Thus, (11) Suppose C = {(V" dJiieZ} is a chain complex. For each ieZ, set
V = V 1 Ea · .. Ea Vn· Since v, n (LJ1'' VJ) = (0), Theorem 5.20 implies H1(C) = ker dJim d1+ 1 • H 1(C) is called the ith homology of C.
V(V 1 = (V1 + LHt V1)(V1~ (LJor 1V1)/(V1 n (LJr 1VJ)) = (L; 71 Vj)/(0) = V 1 E9 · .. (a) Show that C is exact if and only if H 1(C) = 0 for all i e z.
E9 V1E9 · •• E9 Vn· Here the little hat(~) above V1 means V1 is not present in this
(b) Let C = {(V" dJiieZ} and C' = {(Vj, d~lieZ} be two chain
sum. complexes. Show that any chain map T = {T1}iez: C -+ C induces a
linear transformation 'f1:Ht(C)-+ H 1(C1 such that 'f1(a+Imd1+ 1 )=
T1(a) + Imdi+1·
EXERCISES FOR SECTION 5 (c) Suppose
C: 0 -+ Vn d. ~
Vn-1~··· dl V 1-+ 0
(1) Suppose f e HomF(V, F). Iff =I= 0, show Vfker f~ F.
is a ~te chain complex. Show that L(- 1)1 dim H,(C) =
(2) Let T e Hom(V, V) and suppose T(ex) = ex for all ex e W, a subspace of V.
L( -1)' dim V,. Here each V1 is assumed finite dimensional.
(a) Show that T induces a map S e Hom(V/W, V/W).
(12) Suppose V is an n-dimensonal vector space over F ' and W 1, ... , Wk are
(b) If Sis the identity map on V/W, show that R = T - Iv has the property
that R 2 = 0.
~ub spaces of codimension e1 = n - dim(WJ. Let S1 = a1 + forw,
2 I= 1, ... , k. IfS 1 n ... nSk = </J, show dim(W 1 n ... n WJ > n- L~= 1 e1•
(c) Conversely, suppose T = Iv + R with ReHom(V, V) and R = 0.
Show that there exists a subspace W ofV such that Tis the identity on (13) Use Exercise 12 to' prove the following assertion: Let S 1 = a 1 + w 1 and
W and the induced map S is the identity on VfW. S2 = ex2 + W 2 be two cosets of dimension k [i.e., dim(W J = k]. Show that
~ 1 and S2 are parallel (i.e., W 1 = W 2) if and only if S 1 and S are contained
(3) A subspace W of V is said to have finite codimension n if dim V/W = n. If m a coset of dimension k + 1, and have empty intersectio~.
W has finite codimension, we write codim W < oo. Show that if W 1 and
W 2 have finite codimension in V, then so does W 1 n W 2. Show U4) I~ IR 3 , ~how ~at ~he ~ntersection of two nonparallel planes (i.e., cosets of
codim(W 1 n W 2) ~ codim W 1 + codim W 2 • dimen~Ion 2) IS a line (I.e., a coset of dimension 1). The same problem makes
sense many three-dimensional vector space V.
(4) In Exercise 3, suppose Vis finite dimensional and codim W 1 = codim W 2·
Show that dim(W 1/W 1 n W 2) = dim(W ~ 1 n W 2). (15) Let S1o S2, and S3 be planes in IR 3 such that S1 n S2 n S 3 = <jJ, but no two S1
are parallel. Show that the lines S 1 n S2, S1 n S3 and S 2 n S3 are parallel.
(5) LetT e Hom(V, V'), and suppose Tis surjective. Set K = ker T. Show there 1
exists a one-to-one, inclusion-preserving correspondence between the ( 6) Let f(X). = xn + au-lxn-l+···+aoEIR[X]. Let w = {pflpe!R[X]}. Show
subspaces of V' and the subspaces of V containing K. Yf
t~a~ IS a subspace of IR[X]. Show that dim(IR[X]/W) = n. (Hint: Use the
diVISion alg~rithm in IR[X].)
(6) LetT EHom(V, V1, and let K = ker T. Show that all vectors ofV t_hat have
(17) In
. Thearem 5. 15, I'fT IS · · and W = kerT, then
· suiJective · Tis
- an isomorph-
the same image under T belong to the same coset of VjK.
Ism [prove!]. In .Particular, S = (f) -l is a well-defined map from V' to
(7) Suppose W is a finite-dimensional subspace of V such that V/W is finite V/W. Show that the process of indefinite integration is an example of such
dimensional. Show V must be finite dimensional. a mapS.
46 LINEAR ALGEBRA DUALS AND ADJOINTS 47

6. DUALS AND ADJOINTS Definition 6.5: Let V, V', and W be vector spaces over F, and let ro: V x V'-+ W
be a function. We call ro a bilinear map if for all aeV, ro{a, ·)eHomF(V', W) and
Let V be a vector space over F. for all PeV', ro(·, P)eHom~, W).

Definition 6.1: V* = Hom~V, F) is called the dual of V. Thus, a function ro: V x V' -+ W is a bilinear map if and only if
w(xa 1 + ya2, P) = xro(al> p) + yro(a2, p), and ro{oc, xP 1 + yp~ = xro(a, {3 1 ) +
lfV is a finite-dimensional vector space over F, then it follows fro~ Theor:~ yw(a, {32) for all x, y e F, a, oct> a2 e V and p, P1, P2 e V'. If V is any vector space
3.25 that V* is finite dimensional with dim V* =dim V. We record th1s fact Wtt over F, there is a natural bilinear map ro: V x V* -+ F given by
a different proof in 6.2.
6.6:
fieorem 6.2: Let V be finite dimensional. Then dim V* =dim V.

_ { } be a basis of V. For each i = 1, ... , n, define an w(a, T) = T(a)


Proof tLe! ~V-;. bayl ::; :..:_ann(·)
Here (·) . V -+ p is the isomorphism determined
elemen !Xi e "'I - I "'' "'' • h d' t f In equation 6.6, a e V and T e V*. The fact that ro is a bilinear map is ob-
· a a nd 1t1·• Fn -+ F-is the natural projection
by t he b asts * . . onto b the tt coor ma e o vious.. ro determines a natural, injective, linear transformation 1/1: V -+ V**
Fn. Thus, if;= x 1 a 1 + ... + x0 a 0 EV, then aJ IS gtven Y
in the following way. If aeV, set 1/!(a) = w(a, ·). Thus, for any TeV*,
1/l(a)(T) = w(a, T) = T(a). If x, yeF, a, PeV and TeV*, then
6.3: 1/!(xa + yp)(T) = ro(xa + yp, T) = xro(a, T) + yro(p, T) = (xl/l(a) + yl/l(p))(T).
Consequently, 1/1 e Hom~, V**). To see that 1/1 is injective, we need to
af(x 1oc 1 + .. · + XnaJ = Xt generalize equation 6.3. Suppose g = { a11i e ~} is a basis of V (finite or infinite).
Then for every i e ~ we can define a dual transformation ~Xt* e V* as follows: For
We claim that~·= {aT, ... , a!'} is a basis ofV*. Suppose L~=l Y1ai = 0.:_Let each nonzero vector a e V, there exists a unique finite subset
· e {1, ... , n}. Then equation 6.3 implies?= <l:r=t Y1a;}{aJ) = Ll=
1 Ytal(ocJ- Y1·
~(a) = {jit ... 'jn uk E ~} of~ such that a = xhah + ... + xJ.aj.. Here XJI' ... ' xi.
J _. .. = 0 and oc* is linearly mdependent over F. . . are all nonzer<~ scalars in F. We then define ~Xt*(oc) = x1k if i = jk for some
Thus, Yt V* th~n = rr:l T(ocJar. This last equation follows tmme~ately
T k = 1' ... ' n. If 1¢ ~(a), we set ar(a) = 0. If a = 0, we of course define tXt*(a)= 0.
fro~ T6~3 . Thus, L(~*)
= V*, and g* is a basis of V*. In particular, Clearly arE V*, and
dimV* = 1~*1 = n = dimV. 0
if i = j
· * - {N*
The b astsa ""*} constructed in 6.3 is called the dual basis of ~·
- ""t•·"•""n d'
!Xt*(aJ = {~ if i=Fj
Thus every b~is a of a finite-dimensional vector space V has a corre~pon t~g
dual basis a* ofV*. Furthermore, V ~ V* under the linear map T, which sen s No.wifaekerl/1, then T(a) = Ofor all TeV*. In particular, af(a) = Ofor all ie~.
every a eoc-to the corresponding
. !Xi* E~ *· . . . d'fti t This clearly implies a = 0, and, thus, 1/1 is injective.
If y \s -not finite dimensional over F, then the situation 1s .qu1te t ~re;·
We note in passing that the set ~· = {~Xt* 1ie~} £:;; V*, wJ:rich we have just
Theorem 6.2 is false when dim V = oo. If dim V = oo, t~en dtm V* > dtm · ~onstructed above, is clearly linearly independent over F. If dim V < oo, this is
Instead of proving that fact, we shall content ourselves Wtth an example. ~ust the dual basis ofV* coming from g. If dim V = oo, then~· does not span V*,
~d, therefore, cannot be called a dual basis. At any rate, we have proved the
t V - ffi «> F that is V is the direct sum of the vector spaces st Part of the following theorem:
ExampIe 6•4: Le - Wt=l ' ' f s t' n 4 that V*""'
{V - Flie N} It follows from Exercise 2 o ec to
""noo H 0 (F F)~ n~lF. From Theorem 4.13, we
!~~orern 6.7:
I- •
HomF(ffii'=t.F, F) = ,... 1A=l . ~: c~unti~g e~ercise will convince the reader Let V be a vector space over F and suppose ro: V x V* -+ F is the
know that dtm V = 1•~ 1· strop
t/JIInear map given in· equation 6.6. Then the map 1/1: V-+ V** given by
t h at d tm t=l F) is strictly larger than 1~'~1· 0
. V* = dtm'(fl""
(o:) == co(a, ·) is an injective linear transformation. If dim V < oo, then 1/1 is a
natural isomorphism.
. our next result' we need the following definition:
Before stating
48 UN EAR ALGEBRA DUALS AND ADJOINTS 49
Proof Only the last sentence in Theorem 6. 7 remains to be proved. If 0 = p(a~ = (Lf=1 c,cxt)(a1) = 2J= 1 c 1cxt(a~ = c1• Thus,
dim V < oo, then Theorem 6.2 implies dim V =dim V** < oo. Since 1/1 is L({oc!+l•····cx:}). D
injective, our result follows from Theorem 3.33(b). 0
If T e HomF<V, W), then T determines a linear transformation
The word "natural" in Theorem 6.7 has a precise meaning in category theory, T*eHomp{W*, V*), which we call the adjoint ofT.
but here we mean only that the isomorphism l/f: V ~ V** is independ~nt of any
choice of bases in V and V**. The word "natural" when applied to. an Definition 6.11: Let TeHomF<V, W). Then T*eHom~W*, V*) is the linear
isomorphism l/f: V-+ V** also means ce~ain diagrams mu~t be commutative. transformation defined by T*(f) = IT for all feW*.
See Exercise 4 at the end of this section for more det~s. We h~d ~oted
Since the composite V -+TW -+rF of the linear transformations f and Tis
previously that when dim V < oo, then~~. V*. Th~ type of Isomorphism IS pot
again a linear map from V to F, we see T*(f)eV*. Ifx, yeF and f1of2eW*, then
natural, since it is constructed by first pickmg a basis (! = {cx1, ... , cxn} of V and
T*(xft + yf2) = (xf1 + yf2)T = x(f1 T) + y(f2T) = xT*(f1) + yT*(f2). Thus, T* is a
then mapping cx1 to ext in V*. . linear transformation from W* to V*.
The bilinear map w: V x V* -+ F can also be used to set up certain
correspondences between &i'(V) and &i'(V*). Theorem 6.12: Let V and W be vector spaces over F. The map T-+ T* from
HomF<V,W)-+ Homp{W*,V*) is an injective transformation. If V and W are
Definition 6.8: If A is any subset of V, let A.L = { PE V* I w(ex, P) = 0 for all ex E A}. finite dimensional, then this map is an isomorphism.

Thus A.L is precisely the set of all vectors in V* that vanish on A. It is easy to Proof Let x: Hom(V, W)-+ Hom(W*, V*) be defined by x(T) = T*. Our
A
see that .Lis in fact a subspace of V*. We have a similar definition for subsets of comments above imply x is a well-defined function. Suppose x,y e F,
V*. T 1, T 2 eHom(V, W), and feW*. Then x(xT 1 + yT 2)(f) = (xT1 + yT2)*(f) =
f(xT 1 + yT2) = x(IT 1) + y(IT 2) = xTf(f) + yT~(f) = (xTf + yT~)(f) =
Definition 6.9: If A is a subset of V*, Let A.L = {ex E V I ro(ex, p) = 0 for all PE A}· ' (xx(T 1) + yx(T2))(f). Thus, x(xT 1 + yT 2) = xx(T 1) + yx(T 2), and x is ~ linear
transformation.
Thus, if A £;; V*, then A.L is the set of all vectors in V that are zero under the Suppose Teker X· Then for every feW*, 0 = x(T)(f) = T*(f) =IT. Now if we
maps in A. Oearly, A.L is a subspace of V for any A£;; V*. follow the same argument given in the proof of Theorem 6. 7, we know that if pis
a nonzero vector in W, then there exists an feW* such that f(p) =1: 0. Thus,
Theorem 6.10: Let A and B be subsets of V (or V*). IT = 0 for all feW* implies Im T = (0). Therefore, T = 0, and x is injective.
Now suppose V and Ware finite dimensional. Then Theorems 6.2 and 3.25
(a) A£;; B implies A.L 2 B.L. imply dim{HomF<V, W)} = dim{Homp(W*, V*)}. Since x is injective, Theorem
(b) L(Al = A.L. 3.33(b) implies xis an isomorphism. 0
(c) (Au B).L = A.L n B.L.
We note in passing that forming the adjoint of a product is the product of
(d) A £;; Au. the adjoints in the opposite order. More specifically, suppose T e HomF<V, W)
(e) If W is a subspace of a finite-dimensional vector space V, then and SeHomp{W, Z). Then STeHomF<V, Z). If feZ*, .. then (ST)*(f) =
dimV = dimW + dimW.L. f(ST) = (fS)T = T*(fS) = T*(S*(f)) = T*S*(f). Thus, we get equation 6.13:

Proof (a)-(d) are straightforward, and we leave their proofs .as exercises. w_e 6.13:
prove (e). Let {ex 1 , ••• , cxm} be a basis of W. We extend this set to a basts
(ST)* = T*S*
g = {CXt' •. • 'CXm, exm+ 1> • .. ' exn} 0 f V• Thus ' dim W = m and dim V = n. Let .
g* ={ex!, ... , ex:} be a dual basis of g. We complete the proof of (e) by argmng , The connection between adjoints and Theorem 6.10 is easily described.
that {ex!+ 1' •.• ' ex:} is a basis of w.L. .
If m + 1 ~ j ~ n, then cxf(exJ = 0 for i = 1, ... , m. In. parti~ular, Theorem 6.14: Let T e HomF<V, W). Then
a*+ 1 , ••• , ex: E w.L. Since {a!+ 1 , ••• , ex:} £;; ~·. {ex!+ 1 , ... , ex:} is linearly mde-
;ndent over F. We must show L({oc!+ 1 , ••• ,cx:})=W.L. Let P.ew ·Then (a) (Im T*).L = ker·T.
p = Lf= 1 c,cx;. Since cx 1 , ••• , am E W, we have for any J = 1, ... , Ill, (b) ker T* = (Im T).L.
50 LINEAR ALGEBRA EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6 61

Proof (a) Let cxe(lm T*)1., and suppose ro:V x V*-+ F is the bilinear map r(f}*, I!*)(T*) is the n x m matrix that makes the following diagram
defined in equation 6.6. Then ro(cx, 1m T*) = 0. Thus, for all feW*, commute:
0 = ro(~X. T*(f)) = ro(IX, fT) = IT(ex) = f(T(1X)). But we have seen that
f(T(cx)) = 0 for all feW* implies T(cx) = 0. Thus, ex e kerT. Conversely,
if cxekerT, then 0 = f(T(cx)) = ro(cx, T*(f)) and cxe(lm T*)l..
(b) Suppose fekerT*. Then 0 = T*(f) =fT. In particular, f(T(cx)) =
0 for all cxeV. Therefore, 0 = ro(T(cx), f) and fe(lm T).L. Thus,
kerT* s;;; (1m T).L. The steps in this proof are easily reversed and so
(1m T).L s;;; ker T*. 0
The transpose of A is the n x m matrix A' = (bpq), where bpq = aqp for all
Theorem 6.14 has an interesting corollary. IfTeHom~, W), let us define p=l, ... ,n, and q=l, ... ,m.lt follows from 3.24 that r(~*,g*)(T*)=A'
the rank ofT, rk{T}, to be dim(lm T). Thus, rk{T} = dim(Im T). Then we have provided that the following equation is true:
the following:
6.18:
Corollary 6.15: Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F, and let
TeHomp{V, W). Then rk{T} = rk{T*}. for all q = 1, ... , m

Proof The following integers are all equal: Fix q = 1, ... , m. To show that T*(P:) and L:= 1 bpqa: are the same vector in
V*, it suffices to show that these two maps agree on the basis g of V. For any
rk {T} = dim(lm T) = dim V - dim(ker T) [Theorem 3.33(c)] r = 1, ... , n, (T*(&))(cxr) = P:(T(cx,)) = P:<LF= 1 auPJ = LF= 1 8-j,P:<PJ = aqr· On
the other hand, (L..:= 1 bpqCX:)(a,) = L:= 1 bpqCX:(a:,) = brq = aqr· Thus, equation
=dim V- dim{(Im T*).L} [Theorem 6.14] 6.18 is established, and the proof of Theorem 6.16 is complete. 0
=dim V*- dim{(Im T*).L} [Theorem 6.2]
= dim(lmT*) [Theorem 6.10(e)] EXERCISES FOR SECTION 6

= rk{T*} 0 (1) Prove (a)-(d) in Theorem 6.10.

Corollary 6.15 has a familiar interpretation when we switch to matrices. If (2) Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F with bases g and f},
I! is any basis of V and !} any basis of W, then Theorem 3.25 implies respectively. Suppose T Hom~, W). Show that rk{T} = rk(r(l!. /})(T)).
rk{T} = rk(r(l!, P)(T)). Let A = r{l!, p)(T). In Theorem 6.16 below, we shall show (3) Let 0 :f:: pev and feV*- (0). Define T: V-+ V by T(cx) = f(cx)p. A func-
that the matrix representation ofT*: W* -+ V* with respect toP* and I!* is given tion defined in this way is called a dyad.
by the transpose of A. Thus, r(p*, I!*)(T*) = N. In particular,-Corollary 6.15 is
(a) Show T e Hom(V, V) such that dim(lm T) = 1.
the familiar statement that a matrix A and its transpose A' have the same rank.
(b) If S e Hom(V, V) such that dim(lm S) = 1, show that S is a dyad.
Theorem 6.16: Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F. Suppose (c) If Tis a dyad on V, show that T* is a dyad on V*.- ·
I! and Pare bases of V and W, respectively. Let g* and P* be the corresponding
dual bases in V* and W*. Then for all T e Homp{V, w), we have (4) Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F. Let 1/Jv: V-+ V**
and 1/Jw: W-+ W** be the isomorphisms given in Theorem 6.7. Show that
6.17: for every T e Hom(V, W) the following diagram is commutative:

r(~*, g*)(T*) = (r(g, !})(T))' T


I

Proof Suppose g = {IX 1 , ... , 1Xn} and ~ = { P1 , .•• , Pm}. Set A = r(g, p)(T). Then i
I
1/Jvvj Wj1/Jw
A = (aiJ) e Mm xu(F), and from 3.24, we have T(cxJ) = LF= 1 a,Jp, for all T**
j = 1, ... , n. V** _ ____::. _ _-+ W**
I
i
1....
r
62 LINEAR ALGEBRA
SYMMETRIC BILINEAR FORMS 53
(5) Let A= {f1o ... ,fn} s;;; V*. Show A.t = nf= 1 ker f1• . (c) T(p} = JA X 2p(X} dX.
(6) Let A = {f1 , •.• , fn} s;;; V* and suppose g e V* such that g vanishes on A.L. (d) T(p) = dp/dX.
Show geL(A). [Hint: First assume dim(V) < oo; then use Exercise 3 of (e) T(p) = dp/dXIx=o·
Section 5 for the general case.]
(16) Suppose F is a finite field (e.g., IFp). Let V be a vector space over F of
(7) Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces over F, and let dimension n. For every m ~ n, show the number of subspaces of V of
co: V x W --. F be an arbitrary bilinear map. Let T: V --. W* and dimension m is precisely the same as the number of subspaces of V of
S: W--. V* be defined from co as follows: T(ex)(/1) =co(ex, /1) and dimension n - m. ·
s(p)(ex} = co(ex, p). Show that S = T* if we identify W with W** via 1/Jw.
(17) An important linear functional on Mnxn(F) is the trace map
(8) Show that (VfW)*;:;. W .L. Tr: Mnxn(F) - t F defined by Tr(A) = Lf= 1au where A= (a1J).
Show that
(9) Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over F. Let W = V Ei3 V*. Show Tr() e(Mn xn(F))*.
that the map (ex, /1) --. (p, ex) is an isomorphism between W and W*. (18) In Exercise 17, show Tr(AB) = Tr(BA) for all A, BeMnxn(F).
(10) If (19) Let m, ne ~. Let f1o ... .fm e(F")*. Define T: F" -.Fm by T(a) =
S T
o-. v--=--~w--~z-.o (f1(ex), ... , fm(ex)). Show that T e Homp(F", Fm). Show that every
TeHomp(P, Fm) is given in this way for some f1 , ••. , fm.

is a short exact sequence of vector spaces over F, show that (20) Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over C. Suppose ex 1, ... , exn are
distinct, nonzero vectors in V. Show there exists a T e V* such that
T• s• T(exJ #: 0 for all k = 1, ... , n.
0--. Z*----+ W*--~ V*--. 0

7. SYMMETRIC BILINEAR FORMS


is exact.
(11) Let {Wd i e Z} be a sequence of vector spaces over F. Suppose for each In this last section of Chapter I, we discuss symmetric bilinear forms on a vector
ieZ, we have a linear transformation e1 eHomp(Wb W1+1). Then space V. Unlike the first six sections, the nature of the base field F is important
D = {(WbeJjieZ} is called a cochain complex ifel+ 1 e1 = 0 for all ieZ. D here. In our main theorems, we shall assume Vis a finite-dimensional vector
is said to be exact if Im e1 = ker ei+ 1 for all i e Z. space over the reals R ·
Let V be a vector space over an arbitrary field F.
(a) If C = {(C~o d 1)1ieZ} is a chain complex, show that C* =
{(C~, e1 = dt+ 1)jieZ} is a cochain complex. Definition 7.1: By a bilinear form co on V, we shall mean any bilinear map
(b) If Cis exact, show that C* is also exact. w: V x V--. F. We say co is symmetric if co(ex, P) = co(p, a) for all ex, pe V.
(12) Prove that(V 1 Ei3 ••• Ei3 VJ* ':!:. Vf EB · · · Ei3 v:. Example 7.2: The standard example to keep in mind here is the form
(13) Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over F with basis ~ = w((xlt0 · · ·, xJ, (y1, ... , yJ) = Lf=- 1 XtYt· Clearly, co is a symmetric, bilinear form
on F • 0
{exl> ... ,ex0 }. Define T:P-.V by T(:x 1 , ••• ,xJ=~)= 1 x1 ex 1 • Show that
T*(f) = (f)«* for all f e V*. Here you will need to identify (P}* with Fn in a
Suppose co is a bilinear form on a finite-dimensional vect~r space V. Then for
natural way. everyb· aSis ~ = {ex1, ... , an} of V, we can define an ·n x n matrix
(14) Let {z1 }~ 0 be a sequence of complex numbers. Define a map T: C[X] - t C ~(co, ~)e Mnxn(F).whose (i,j)th entry is given by {M(co, ~)h,J = co(exb aJ). In terms
by T(L,:=oakXk} = L~=oakzk. Show that Te(C[X])*. Show that every fthe.usual coordmate map[·]!!: V - t Mnx 1(F), co is then given by the following
T e (C[X]}* is given by such a sequence. equatton:

(15) Let V = IR[X]. Which of the following functions on V are elements in y•: 7.3:
(a) T(p) = JA p(X)dX.
(b) T(p) = JA p(X) 2 dX.
r
54 LINEAR ALGEBRA SYMMETRIC BILINEAR FORMS 56

Clearly, ru is symmetric if and only if M(ru, ~)is a symmetric matrix. In equation 7.7, q is the quadratic form associated with ru. Now if
OJ(a, a) = q(a) = 0 for all a E Y, then 7. 7 implies ru is identically zero. In this case,
Definition 7.4: Suppose ru is a bilinear form on Y. The function q: Y-+ F defined any basis of Y is an ru-orthonormal basis. Thus, we can assume there exists a
by q(e) = ru<e. e) is called the quadratic form associated with ru. nonzero vector {3 E Y such that ru({J, {3) :1= 0. As in the case n = 1, we can then
adjust {3 by a scalar multiple if need be and find an an =F 0 in Y such that
If Y is finite dimensional with basis ~ = {a 1, ... , an}, then equation 7.3 m(an, aJ E { -1, 1}.
implies q@ = [eJ~M(ru, ~)[e),.= L~J=l aux1xJ. Here (x 1 , ••• , xJ = [eJ~ and
1
Next define a linear transformation fEY* by f(e) = ru(an,e). Since
(aiJ) = M(ru, ~). Thus, q(e> is -a quadratic homogeneous polynomial in the f(aJ = ru(an, aJ :1= 0, f is a nonzero map. Set N =kerf. Since f :1= 0, and
e.
coordinates x 1, ... , Xn of That fact explains why q is called a quadratic form dimR IR = 1, f is surjective. Thus, Corollary 5.17 implies YfN ~ IR. In particular,
on Y. In Example 7.2, for instance, q((xt, ... , xJ) = Lf=1 x~. Theorem 5.14 implies dim N = dim Y - 1. ru when restricted to N is clearly a
At this point, a natural question arises. Suppose ru is a symmetric, bilinear symmetric bilinear form. Hence our induction hypothesis implies N has an ru-
form on a finite-dimensional vector space Y. Can we choose a basis ~ of Y so orthonormal basis {at> ... ,an- 1}.
that the representation of ruin equation 7.3 is as simple as possible? What would We claim ~={at> ... , an_ 1, an} is an ru-orthonormal basis of Y. Since
the corresponding quadratic form q look like in this representation? We shall f(aJ :1= 0, Cln ¢ N. In particular, ~ is linearly independent over IR. · Since
give answers to both of these questions when F = R For a more general dimR (V) = n, ~ is a basis of Y. Conditions (a) and (b) of Definitions 7.5 are
treatment, we refer the reader to [2]. satisfied for {a 1 , ••• , an _ 1} since this set is an (I)-Orthonormal basis of N. Since
For the rest of this section, we assume Y is a finite-dimensional vector space N = kerf, ru(a~o aJ = 0 for i = 1, ... , n - 1. Thus, ~ is an (I)-Orthonormal basis
over R Let ru be a symmetric, bilinear form on Y. of V and the proof of Theorem 7.6 is complete. D

Definition 7.5: A basis ~ = {a 1, ... , an} of Y is said to be ru-orthonormal if The existence of ru-orthonormal bases of Y answers our first question about
representing ru. Suppose~= {at> ... , an} is an ru-orthonormal basis ofY. Then
(a) ru(at> aJ) = 0 whenever i :1= j, and the matrix M{ru, ~) is just an n x n diagonal matrix, diag(q(a 1),: .. , q(an)),
(b) ru(ai> aJ E { -1, 0, 1} for all i = 1, ... , n. with q(aJ=ru(abaJE{-1,0,1}. If e. r[EY with [eJ .. =(xl, ... ,Xn)1 and
['7] .. = (y 1, ... , Yn)\ then equation 7.3 implies ru(e, rt)~ Lf= 1 x1y1q(aJ. By
In Example 7.2, for instance, the canonical basis ~ = {c5, = (0,. ·., reordering the elements of ~ if need be, we can assume ~ = {a 1 ,
1, ... , 0) 1i = 1, ... , n} is an ru-orthonormal basis of !Rn. Our first ... , ap} u {ap+ 1, ... , ap+m} u {ap+m+ 1, ... , ap+m+r}, where
theorem in this section guarantees ru-orthonormal bases exist.
7.8:
Theorem 7.6: Let Y be a finite-dimensional vector space over 1R and suppose
is a symmetric, bilinear form on Y. Then Y has an (I)-Orthonormal basis.

Proof: We proceed via induction on n =dim Y. If Y = (0), then the result is


trivial. So, suppose n = 1. Then any nonzero vector of Y is a basis of Y. If
OJ

q(aJ= H for
for
for
i = 1, ... , p
i = p + 1, ... , p + m
i = p + m + 1, ... , p +m +r
ru(a, a)= 0 for every aE Y, then any nonzero vector of Y is an ru-orthonormal The vector spaceY then decomposes into the direct sum Y = Y _ 1 EB Y0 EB Y 1,
basis. Suppose there exists a {3 E Y such that ru({J, {3) :1= 0. Then c == Where y_1=L({ap+l•···•IXp+m}), Yo=L({ap+m+l•···•ap+~+r}), and Y1=
lru({J, {3)1- 112 is a positive scalar in IR, and {c{J} is an ru-orthonormal. basis. of V. L({ IX1, ... , ap}). · · ;
Thus, we have established the result for all vector spaces of dtmensiOn 1 Our quadratic form q is positive on Y 1 - (0), zero on Y0, and negative on
over IR. V -1- (0). For example, suppose {JEY _ 1 - (0). Then {3 = x 1o:p+l + ...
Suppose n > 1, and we have proved the theorem for any vector space over IR ' ~xm~+m for some x 1 , ... ,XmEF. Thus, q({J)=ru({J,{J)=l:'f= 1 ~q(ap+J·
of dimension less than n. Since ru is symmetric, we have Since {3 :1= 0, some x1 is nonzero. Since q(aP +1) = - 1 for all i = 1 , ... , m, we see
~{J)<Q .
7.7: The subspaces Y -1> Y 0 , and Y 1 are pairwise ru-orthogonal in the sense that
w(V" V1) = 0 whenever i,j E { -1, 0, 1} and i :1= j. Thus, any ru-orthonormal basis
~ of V decomposes Y 'into a direct sum Y = V _ 1 EB Y 0 EB Y 1 of pairwise ru-
for all e, r[EY orthogonal subspaces Y1. The sign of the associated quadratic form q is constant
56 LINEAR ALGEBRA
r EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7 57

on each V1 - (0). An important fact here is that the dimensions of these three Note in our definition that we do not require that V be finite dimensional. We
subspaces, p, m, and r, depend only on ro and not on the particular ro- finish this section with a few examples of inner products.
orthonormal basis ~ chosen.
Example 7.13: Let V = ~n, and define ro as in Example 7.2. D
Lemma 7.9: Suppose P= {P11 ••• , Po} is a second ro-orthonormal basis of V,
and let V = W _ 1 Ea W~ Ea W 1 be the corresponding decomposition of V. Then Example 7.14: Let V = E9'f=1 ~ and define ro by ro((xh x 2 , ••• ),
dim wj =dim vj for j = -1,0, 1. (y 1, y 2 , •••)) = L~ 1 x1y1. Since both sequences {x1} and {y1} are eventually zero,
w is well defined and is clearly an inner product on V. · D
Proof: W _ 1 is the subspace of V spanned by those P1 for which q(pJ = -1. Let
cxeW - 1 r'\(V0 + V 1). If cx =I= 0, then q(cx) < 0 since cxeW _ 1 • But cxeV0 +V 1
implies q(cx) ;;::: 0, which is impossible. Thus, ex = 0. So, W _ 1 r'\ (V 0 + V 1) = (0).
Example 7.15: Let V = C([a, b]). Define ro(f, g) = J: f(x)g(x) dx. Clearly, ro is an
inner product on V. D
By expanding the basis of W _ 1 if need be, we can then construct a subspace P of
V such that W _ 1 £;; P, and PEa (V 0 + V 1) = V. Thus, from Theorem 4.9, we
We shall come back to the study of inner products in Chapter V.
have dim(W _ 1 ) ~ dim P = dim V - dim V 0 - dim V 1 = dim(V _ 1). Therefore,
dim(W _ 1) ~dim V _ 1 • Reversing the roles of the W 1 and V1 in this proof gives
dim(V _ 1) ~ dim(W _ 1). Thus, dim(W _ 1) = dim(V _ 1). A similar proof shows
dim(W 1) = dim(V 1 ). Then dim(W 0 ) = dim(V 0 ) by Theorem 4.9. This completes EXERCISES FOR SECTION 7
the proof of Lemma 7.9. D
(1) In our proof of Lemma 7.9, we used the following fact: If Wand W' are
Let us agree when discussing ro-orthonormal bases ~ of V always to order the subspaces of V such that W r'\ W' = (0), then there exists a complement of
basis elements cx1eg according to equation 7.8. Then Lemma 7.9 implies that the W' that contains W. Give a proof of this fact.
integers p, m, and r do not depend on g but only on ro. In particular, the (2) Let V = Mm x0 {F), and let C e Mm xm(F). Define a map ro: V x V -+ F by the
following definition makes sense. formula ro(A, B) = Tr(A'CB). Show that ro is a bilinear form. Is ro
symmetric?
Definition 7.10: p- miscalled the signature of q. p +miscalled the rank of q.
(3) Let V = M 0 x 0 {F). Define a map ro: V x V -+ F by ro(A, B~ = n Tr(AB)
We have now proved the following theorem: - Tr(A) Tr(B). Show that ro is a bilinear form. Is ro symmetnc?
(4) Exhibit a bilinear form on ~n that is not symmetric.
Theorem 7.11: Let ro be a symmetric, bilinear form on a finite-dimensional
vector space V over R Then there exists integers m and p such that if (5) Find a symmetric bilinear form on en whose associated quadratic form is
g = {a 1 , ... , ex,} is any ro-orthonormal basis ofV and [eJ.. = (x 11 ••• , X 0 ) 1, then positive definite.
q(e> = :Lr=l x~- rr~.:"+1 x~. o - (6) Describe explicitly all symmetric bilinear forms on ~ •
3

3
A quadratic form q, associated with some symmetric bilinear form ro on V, is (7) Describe explicitly all skew-symmetric bilinear froms on ~ • A bilinear
e
said to be definite if q@ = 0 implies = 0. For instance, in Example 7.2, form ro is skew-symmetric if ro(a, p) = -ro(P, cx).
q((x 1 , ••• , xJ) = Lf= 1 Xf is definite when F =RIfF= C, then q is not definite (8) Let ro: V x V -+ F be a bilinear form on a finite dimensional vector space V.
since, for example, q((l, ~. 0, ... , 0)) = 0. Show that the following conditions are equivalent:
If q is a definite quadratic form on a finite-dimensional vector space V over IR, (a) {aeVjro(a, p) = 0 for all peV} = (0).
e
then Theorem 7.11 implies q(e) > 0 for all E V - (0) or q@ < 0 for all
(b) {aeVjro(p, a)= 0 for all PeV} = (0).
e e V - (0). In general, we say a quadratic form q is positive definite if q(e) > 0 for
g)
(c) ~(m, is nonsingular for any basis ~ of V.
all eev- (0). We say q is negative definite if q(e) < 0 for all eev- (0).
We say ro is nondegenerate if ro satisfies the conditions listed above.
Definition 7.12: Let V be a vector space over R A symmetric, bilinear form ro on (9) Suppose ca: V x V -+ F is a nondegenerate, bilinear form on a finite-
V whose associated quadratic form is positive definite is called an inner product dimensional. vector space V. Let W be a subspace of V. Set
on V. wl. = {aeVI ro(cx, p) = 0 for all PeW}. Show that v = w Ea wl..
L
68 LINEAR ALGEBRA

(10) With the same hypotheses as in Exercise 9, suppose f e V*. Prove that there
exists an rxeV such that f({f) = w(cx,p) for all pev. Chapter II
(11) Suppose co: V x V--+ F is a bilinear form on V. Let W 1 and W 2 be
subspaces of V. Show that (W1 + W 2).L = Wf n wt. If co is nondegen-
erate, prove that (W 1 n W2).L = Wf + Wf.
(12) Let co be a nondegenerate, bilinear form on a finite-dimensional vector
space V. Let co' be any bilinear form on V. Show there exists a unique
T e HomF"fV, V) such that co'(a, {f) = w(T(rx), {f) for all rx, pe V. Show that co'
is nondegenerate if and only if T is bijective.
(13) With the same hypotheses as in Exercise 12, show that for every
T e HomFfV, V) there exists a unique T' e HomFfV, V) such that
w(T(rx), {f) = w(rx, T'(P)) for all rx, p e V.
(14) Let Bil(V) denote the set of all bilinear forms on the vector space V. Define
addition in Bil(V) by (co + co')(rx, P) = co(rx, p) + co'(cx, p), and scalar mult- Multilinear Algebra
iplication by (xco)(cx, {f) = xco(cx, {f). Prove that Bil(V) is a vector space over
F with these definitions. What is the dimension of Bil(V) when Vis finite
dimensional?
(15) Find an co-orthonormal basis for !R2 when co is given by w((xh y1),
(x2,Y2)) = X1Y2 + X2Y1· 1. MULTILINEAR MAPS AND TENSOR PRODUCTS

(16) Argue that w(f, g)= J:f(x)g(x)dx is an inner product on C([a, b]). In Chapter I, we dealt mainly with functions of one variable between vector
(17) Let V = {p(X)e!R[X] ldeg(p) ~ 5}. Suppose co:V x V--+ !R is given by spaces. Those functions were linear in that variable and were called linear
J5
co(f, g) = f(x)g(x) dx. Find an co-orthonormal basis of V. · transformations. In this chapter, we examine functions of several variables
between vector spaces. If such a function is linear in each of its variables, then
(18) Let V be the subspace of C([ -n, n]) spanned by the functions 1, sin(x), the function is called a multilinear mapping. Along with any theory of multilinear
cos(x), sin(2x), cos(2x), ..• , sin(nx), cos(nx). Find an co-orthonormal basis of maps comes a sequence of universal mapping problems whose solutions are the
V where co is the inner product given in Exercise 16. fundamental ideas in multilinear algebra. In this and the next few sections, we
shall give a careful explanation of the principal constructions of the subject
matter. Applications of the ideas discussed here will abound throughout the rest
of the book.
Let us first give a careful definition of a multilinear mapping. As usual, F will
denote an arbitrary field. SuppOse V 1 , ••• , Vn and V are vector spaces over F.
Let ¢: V1 X • • • X Vn --+ V be a function from the finite product V 1 X • • • X Vn to
V. We had seen in Section 4 of Chapter I that a typical vector in V 1 x · · · x Vn is
ann-tuple (rx 1 , ••• , rxJ with rx1 e V1• Thus, we can think of¢ as a function of then
Variable vectors rx 1 , ••• , rxu.

~efinition 1.1: A function ¢: V 1 x · · · x Vn --+ V is called a multilinear mapping


tf for each i = 1, ... , n, we have ·

(a) ¢(rxt> ... ,.rx1 + rxj, ... , rxJ = ¢(rx1, ... , rxh .. ·• rxJ + ¢(rx1 , ... , rxj, ... , rxJ,
and
(b) ¢(rxl> ... , xrx~o ... , rxJ = x¢(rx 1 , ... , rx~o ... , rxJ.