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Pipe

About Skyline Steel

About Skyline Steel beyond the salesperson-contractor relationship and steel


delivery— it continues beyond project completion. Our
A premier steel foundation supplier serving the U.S.,
well-connected network of stockyards allows our sales
Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and
team to supply customers with the materials needed to
Colombia markets, Skyline Steel is a wholly-owned
continue working and contractors can feel assured that
subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, the largest producer of
steel will be available as needed, and on schedule.
steel in the United States. Nucor’s backing complements
and synergizes Skyline Steel’s internal strengths and
empowers it to service its customers and the industry. Skyline Steel, your true project partner

We have over twenty sales offices across two continents Skyline Steel’s knowledgeable engineering team works
and a robust infrastructure comprised of manufacturing, with owners, engineers, and contractors long before
coating, and fabrication facilities; dozens of stocking projects are advertised. To ensure seamless project
locations; an efficiently-coordinated supply chain; coordination and completion, engineers propose
and exclusive engineering support. Collectively, these solutions through all aspects of design, material selection,
functions support a dynamic sales team that supplies installation, and construction sequencing. Engineering
hundreds of thousands of tons of steel foundation support is extended even further to include provision of
products to the industry every year. onsite assistance to ensure effective resolution after a
project has started. Our relationship with the industry
Our flagship products include hot rolled and cold extends beyond sales—we are your true project partner.
formed steel sheet piles, h-piles, spiralweld and rolled &
welded pipe piles, threaded bar, micropiles, accessories, Skyline Steel’s manufacturing capabilities include

structural shapes and connectors. This product portfolio spiralweld pipe, rolled and welded pipe, cold form sheet

supports a variety of applications, including bridges, piling, and threaded bar. To customize and protect these

buildings, levees, locks and dams, ports, retaining walls, products, we own and operate fabrication and coating

underground parking garages, environmental barrier facilities throughout the United States.

walls, and wind towers. Of the products we manufacture


and supply, 80% are made from recycled steel and are
100% recyclable.

Customer focus, our core philosophy

A strong customer focus has always been a legacy at


Skyline Steel. In fact, with us, customer service goes
Skyline Steel Pipe

Skyline Steel has been manufacturing quality spiralweld and rolled & welded steel
pipe for more than 20 years. We currently supply over 100,000 tons annually for Customized Production to
foundation piling, waterline pipe and structural applications. Our manufacturing Meet your Needs
facilities offer abundant capacity to meet your project demands. Skyline Steel’s plants are equipped
to meet the following specification
requirements:

Product Highlights Welding

• Wide Range of Diameters, Thicknesses and Lengths AWS D1.1 Full Penetration
Spiralweld: Up to 120" OD; 1" Thickness ASME Section IV Full Penetration
Rolled & Welded: Up to 192" OD; 2.0" Thickness

• Height of Weld
* Outside Diameter (OD): 1/16th of an inch or less
* Inside Diameter (ID): 1/32nd of an inch or less

• Custom Lengths, Thicknesses and Fabrication

• Accepted by DOTs in Seismically Active Areas

• Skyline Steel Spiralweld Pipe is Structurally Equal to American Petroleum


Institute (API) Pipe*

• Destructive and Non-destructive In-house Testing

• Third-party Inspection (Visual and Ultrasonic)

• Hydrostatic Testing Capabilities

*According to full-scale university study conducted in 2009

2 Skyline Steel: Pipe


Spiralweld Pipe

Manufacturing Process
The spiralweld manufacturing process is one of the most cost effective ways to produce
steel pipe. The mill setup offers a varying degree of flexibility, allowing for a wide range of
pipe diameters and wall thicknesses to be produced. As a result, Skyline Steel is able to offer
spiralweld products to many structural and non-structural markets at the most economical cost.

Spiralweld Pipe is manufactured from steel coil.

UNCOILING FLATTENing JOINING OF THE COIL ENDS EDGE MILLING


Upon receipt of the coil, it is placed The strip of coil is introduced into As the coil continues to move The edges of the coil are trimmed
on a horizontal un-coiler mandrel the flattener through a roll stand through the straightener, the in preparation for welding.
and fed into the straightener. and the coil set is removed. leading and trailing edges of the
strip are trimmed in preparation for
butt welding – coil to coil.

PIPE SPIRALING SINGLE & TANDEM PIPE WELDING PIPE CUT-OFF


The strip of coil enters the three The welding system welds the pipe, Once the pipe reaches the desired
roll apparatus composed of lead, both inside and outside, using a length, the cut-off machine is
buttress and mandrel roll sets. At submerged arc welding system. engaged. Traveling with the pipe, a
this stage, the coil starts to form plasma torch provides the cut-off of
the spiral shape that will then the finished pipe.
become pipe.

Skyline Steel: Pipe 3


Spiralweld Pipe

DO

DI

PIPE WEIGHT lbs/ft (kg/m)

Outside Diameter WALL THICKNESS (t) in (mm)


(DO)
in 0.179 0.188 0.203 0.219 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 1.000
(mm) 4.55 4.78 5.16 5.56 6.35 7.92 9.53 12.70 15.88 19.05 25.40

8.625 16.16 16.96 18.28 19.68 22.38


219.1 24.05 25.23 27.20 29.29 33.31

10 18.79 19.72 21.26 22.90 26.06


254.0 27.97 29.35 31.64 34.08 38.78

10.75 20.23 21.23 22.89 24.65 28.06 34.81 40.52 (0.365)


273.1 30.10 31.59 34.06 36.69 41.76 51.81 60.30

12 22.62 23.74 25.60 27.58 31.40 38.98 46.60


304.8 33.66 35.33 38.10 41.04 46.73 58.01 69.35

12.75 24.05 25.25 27.23 29.34 33.41 41.48 49.61


323.9 35.80 37.57 40.52 43.66 49.71 61.74 73.83

14 26.45 27.76 29.94 32.26 36.75 45.65 54.62 72.16


355.6 39.36 41.31 44.56 48.01 54.69 67.94 81.28 107.38

16 30.27 31.78 34.28 36.95 42.09 52.32 62.64 82.85


406.4 45.05 47.29 51.02 54.98 62.64 77.87 93.21 123.29

18 34.10 35.80 38.62 41.63 47.44 58.99 70.65 93.54


457.2 50.75 53.27 57.47 61.95 70.59 87.79 105.15 139.20

20 37.93 39.82 42.96 46.31 52.78 65.66 78.67 104.23 129.45


508.0 56.44 59.25 63.93 68.92 78.55 97.72 117.08 155.11 192.64

24 45.58 47.86 51.64 55.67 63.47 79.01 94.71 125.61 156.17 186.41
609.6 67.83 71.22 76.85 82.85 94.46 117.57 140.94 186.92 232.41 277.40

30 79.51 99.02 118.76 157.68 196.26 234.51 310.01


762.0 118.32 147.36 176.73 234.65 292.07 348.99 461.35

36 95.54 119.03 142.81 189.75 236.35 282.62 374.15


914.4 142.18 177.14 212.53 282.38 351.73 420.58 556.80

42 111.58 139.04 166.86 221.82 276.44 330.72 438.29


1067 116.05 206.92 248.32 330.10 411.38 492.17 652.25

48 127.61 159.05 190.92 253.89 316.52 378.83 502.43


1219 189.91 236.70 284.12 377.83 471.04 563.76 747.70

54 214.97 285.96 356.61 426.93 566.57


1372 319.91 425.55 530.70 635.35 843.15

60 Please inquire about other diameters 239.02 318.03 396.70 475.04 630.71
1524 and thicknesses. 355.70 473.28 590.35 706.93 938.60

72 287.13 382.17 476.87 571.25 758.99


1829 427.29 568.73 709.67 850.11 1129.50
APPROXIMATE VALUES
84 335.23 446.31 557.05 667.46 887.27
2134 Pipe Weight (lbs/ft) = 10.69*t*(d-t) 498.88 664.18 828.98 993.29 1320.41
d (in) - outside diameter
96 t (in) - thickness of pipe 510.45 637.22 763.67 1015.55
2438 759.63 948.30 1136.46 1511.31

108 Pipe Weight (kg/m) = 0.0247*t*(d-t) 574.59 717.40 859.88 1143.83


2743 d (mm) - outside diameter 855.08 1067.61 1279.64 1702.21

120
t (mm) - thickness of pipe 638.73 797.57 958.09 1272.11
3048 950.53 1186.92 1422.82 1893.11

4 Skyline Steel: Pipe


Available Pipe Grades Available Steel Specifications
YIELD STRENGTH YIELD STRENGTH ASTM
ASTM ASTM
(ksi) (MPa) (ksi) (MPa) A 588
A 139 Grade A 30 205 A 252 Grade 1 30 205 A 690
A 139 Grade B 35 240 A 252 Grade 2 35 240 A 572
A 139 Grade C 42 290 A 252 Grade 3 45 310 A 709
A 139 Grade D 46 315 A 252 Grade 3 (Mod)* 50-80 345-555 A 1011
A 139 Grade E 52 360 A 1018
Abrasion Resistant
*Availability is dependent on pipe diameter and thickness.

Easy Weight Calculator (All Dimensions in inches. Density of steel = 0.2836 lbs/in3)

Rectangles and Squares Rings Circular Plates


D
DO

DI

π π
Weight (lbs) = A x B x Thickness x 0.2836 Weight (lbs) = Thickness x (DO2 - DI2) x 0.2836 Weight (lbs) = Thickness x (D2) x 0.2836
4 4
π π 2
Area = (DO2 - DI2) Area = D
4 4

Delivery Conditions & Tolerances**


ASTM

Pipe Piles:
Outside Diameter ± 1%
Weight/Thickness – 5%
Length ± 1 inch
**Tighter specifications may be possible upon request.

Maximum Rolled Lengths***


Spiralweld 130 feet (39.6 m)
*** Longer lengths may be possible upon request.

Skyline Steel: Pipe 5


Rolled & Welded Pipe

Manufacturing Process
Rolled & Welded Pipe is the primary manufacturing process for steel thicknesses that exceed
spiral mill capabilities (greater than 1”).

PLATE CUTTING BEVELING BENDING


The raw material – pieces of flat A single flat sheet of steel plate After the plate is cut, it is After beveling, the plate is
steel plate – is received into our is cut on a burning table, using transferred to the beveling station transferred to the bending rolls.
manufacturing plant. plasma or cutting gases. This plate where different bevel angles are cut Skyline Steel uses a 4-roll system
is cut according to the required into the plate edge for welding. to produce a true cylinder, also
width and length for the cylinder it referred to as a can.
will be rolled into.

WELDING QUALITY CONTROL CIRCUMFERENTIAL WELDING FINISHED PIPE


The can is then staged for Once the welding is complete, the During this last step of the The finished pipe, produced
longitudinal welding (Long Seam). can is visually inspected by Quality manufacturing process, cans according to the customer’s
During this process, the seam Control (QC) and, if required, are fit together and the pipe is specifications, is then removed and
between the two plates is welded Ultrasonic (UT) testing is performed manufactured using the submerged ready for delivery.
on both the inside and outside, to ensure the weld is defect-free. arc process, according to customer
using a tandem wire submerged arc requirements for specific lengths.
welding process.

6 Skyline Steel: Pipe


DO
APPROXIMATE VALUES

DI Pipe Weight (lbs/ft) = 10.69*t*(DO-t)


DO (in) - outside diameter
t t (in) - thickness of pipe
Pipe Weight (kg/m) = 0.0247*t*(DO-t)
DO (mm) - outside diameter
t (mm) - thickness of pipe

PIPE WEIGHT lbs/ft (kg/m)


Outside Wall Thickness (t) in (mm)
Diameter (DO)
in 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.438 0.500 0.562 0.625 0.688 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.250 1.375 1.50 - 2.25
(mm) 6.35 7.92 9.52 11.13 12.70 14.27 15.87 17.48 19.05 22.22 25.40 31.75 34.92 38.10 - 57.15
24 63.47 79.01 94.71 110.32 125.61 141.05 156.17 171.45 186.41
609.6 94.45 117.58 140.94 164.17 186.93 209.91 232.41 255.15 277.41
30 79.51 99.02 118.76 138.42 157.68 176.86 196.26 215.58 234.51 272.43 310.01 384.17
762.0 118.32 147.36 176.73 205.99 234.65 263.20 292.07 320.82 348.99 405.42 461.35 571.71
36 95.54 119.03 142.81 166.51 189.75 212.90 236.35 259.71 282.62 328.55 374.15 464.35 508.94
914.4 142.18 177.14 212.53 247.79 282.38 316.83 351.73 386.49 420.59 488.94 556.80 691.03 757.39
42 111.58 139.04 166.86 194.60 221.82 248.95 276.44 303.84 330.72 384.67 438.29 544.52 597.14
1067 166.05 206.91 248.32 289.60 330.11 370.48 411.39 452.16 492.17 572.45 652.25 810.34 888.64 Max. wall
thickness of
48 127.61 159.05 190.92 222.70 253.89 285.00 316.52 347.97 378.83 440.80 502.43 624.70 685.33 1.50" (38.1mm).
1219 189.90 236.69 284.12 331.41 377.83 424.13 471.03 517.84 563.76 655.98 747.70 929.66 1019.89 Please call
54 143.65 179.06 214.97 250.79 285.96 321.04 356.61 392.09 426.93 496.92 566.57 704.87 773.52 for weight.
1372 213.78 266.47 319.91 373.22 425.56 477.76 530.70 583.50 635.34 739.50 843.15 1048.96 1151.13
60 159.68 199.08 239.02 278.88 318.03 357.09 396.70 436.22 475.04 553.04 630.71 785.05 861.71 Max. wall
1524 237.63 296.26 355.70 415.02 473.28 531.41 590.36 649.17 706.94 823.02 938.60 1168.29 1282.37 thickness of
1.625" (41.3mm).
66 175.72 219.09 263.07 306.98 350.10 393.14 436.79 480.35 523.14 609.16 694.85 865.22 949.91 Please call
1676 261.50 326.04 391.49 456.84 521.01 585.06 650.02 714.84 778.52 906.53 1034.05 1287.59 1413.62 for weight.
72 191.75 239.10 287.13 335.07 382.17 429.18 476.87 524.48 571.25 665.29 758.99 945.40 1038.10
1829 285.36 355.82 427.30 498.64 568.73 638.69 709.66 780.51 850.12 990.06 1129.50 1406.91 1544.87
78 207.79 259.11 311.18 363.16 414.24 465.23 516.96 568.61 619.35 721.41 823.13 1025.57 1126.29 Max. wall
1981 309.23 385.60 463.09 540.44 616.46 692.34 769.32 846.19 921.70 1073.58 1224.95 1526.22 1676.11 thickness of
1.75" (44.4mm).
84 223.82 279.12 335.23 391.26 446.31 501.28 557.05 612.74 667.46 777.53 887.27 1105.75 1214.48 Please call
2134 333.08 415.38 498.88 582.26 664.18 745.99 828.98 911.86 993.29 1157.09 1320.41 1645.54 1807.35 for weight.
90 239.86 299.13 359.28 419.35 478.38 537.32 597.14 656.86 715.56 833.65 951.41 1185.92 1302.68
2286 356.95 445.16 534.67 624.06 711.91 799.62 888.64 977.52 1064.87 1240.61 1415.86 1764.85 1938.61
96 255.89 319.15 383.34 447.44 510.45 573.37 637.22 700.99 763.67 889.78 1015.55 1266.10 1390.87
2438 380.81 474.95 570.47 665.87 759.63 853.27 948.29 1043.19 1136.47 1324.14 1511.31 1884.17 2069.85
102 271.93 339.16 407.39 475.54 542.52 609.42 677.31 745.12 811.77 945.90 1079.69 1346.27 1479.06 Max. wall
2591 404.68 504.73 606.26 707.68 807.36 906.92 1007.95 1108.86 1208.05 1407.66 1606.76 2003.47 2201.09 thickness of
2.00" (50.8mm).
108 287.96 359.17 431.44 503.63 574.59 645.46 717.40 789.25 859.88 1002.02 1143.83 1426.45 1567.25 Please call
2743 428.53 534.50 642.05 749.49 855.09 960.55 1067.61 1174.54 1279.65 1491.17 1702.21 2122.80 2332.33 for weight.
114 304.00 379.18 455.49 531.72 606.66 681.51 757.49 833.38 907.98 1210.48 1207.97 1506.62 1655.45
2896 452.40 564.28 677.85 791.29 902.81 1014.20 1127.27 1240.21 1351.23 1801.40 1797.66 2242.10 2463.59
120 320.03 399.19 479.55 559.82 638.73 717.56 797.57 877.51 956.09 1274.62 1272.11 1586.80 1743.64
3048 476.26 594.06 713.65 833.11 950.54 1067.85 1186.92 1305.88 1422.82 1896.85 1893.11 2361.42 2594.83
126 419.20 503.60 587.91 670.80 753.60 837.66 921.63 1004.19 1338.76 1336.25 1666.97 1831.83
3200 623.84 749.44 874.91 998.26 1121.48 1246.58 1371.54 1494.40 1992.30 1988.56 2480.73 2726.07
132 439.22 527.65 616.00 702.87 789.65 877.75 965.76 1052.30 1402.90 1400.39 1747.15 1920.02
3353 653.63 785.23 916.71 1045.99 1175.13 1306.24 1437.21 1566.00 2087.75 2084.01 2600.05 2857.31
138 551.70 644.10 734.94 825.70 917.84 1009.89 1100.40 1467.07 1464.53 1827.32 2008.22
3505 821.02 958.53 1093.71 1228.78 1365.90 1502.88 1637.58 2183.25 2179.47 2719.36 2988.57
144 575.76 672.19 767.01 861.74 957.92 1054.02 1148.51 1531.18 1528.67 1907.50 2096.41 Max. wall
3657.6 856.83 1000.33 1141.44 1282.41 1425.54 1568.56 1709.17 2278.65 2274.92 2838.68 3119.81 thickness of
2.25" (57.1mm).
150 599.81 700.28 799.08 897.79 998.01 1098.15 1196.61 1595.32 1592.81 1987.67 2184.60 Please call
3810 892.62 1042.13 1189.16 1336.06 1485.21 1634.23 1780.76 2374.10 2370.37 2957.98 3251.05 for weight.
156 623.86 728.38 831.15 933.84 1038.10 1142.28 1244.72 1659.46 1656.95 2067.85 2272.79
3962 928.41 1083.95 1236.89 1389.71 1544.87 1699.90 1852.35 2469.55 2465.82 3077.31 3382.29
162 756.47 863.22 969.88 1078.19 1186.40 1292.82 1723.82 1721.09 2148.02 2360.99
4115 1125.75 1284.62 1443.34 1604.53 1765.56 1923.93 2565.33 2561.27 3196.61 3513.55
168 784.56 895.29 1005.93 1118.27 1230.53 1340.93 1787.74 1785.23 2228.20 2449.18
4267 1167.56 1332.34 1496.99 1664.17 1831.23 1995.53 2660.46 2656.72 3315.93 3644.79
169-204 Please call for weight.
4293 - 5182

Skyline Steel: Pipe 7


Rolled & Welded Pipe

Available Pipe Grades


YIELD STRENGTH YIELD STRENGTH Yield Strength
ASTM ASTM ASTM
(ksi) (MPa) (ksi) (MPa) (ksi) (MPa)

A 36 36 250 A 252 Grade 1 30 205 A 516 Grade 70 38 260


A 139 Grade A 30 205 A 252 Grade 2 35 240 A 572 Grade 42 42 290
A 139 Grade B 35 240 A 252 Grade 3 45 310 A 572 Grade 50 50 345
A 139 Grade C 42 290 A 252 Grade 3 (Mod) 50 345 A 572 Grade 55 55 380
A 139 Grade D 46 315 A 516 Grade 55 30 205 A 572 Grade 60 60 415
A 139 Grade E 52 360 A 516 Grade 60 32 220 A 572 Grade 65 65 450
A 516 Grade 65 35 240 A 588 50 345
Additional grades available upon request.

Additional Capabilities

Installation of:
Bands, Cutting Shoes, End Plates, Carbide Teeth, Rolled Channel and Angle Iron, Twisting Slots, Picking Eyes,
Lifting Lugs, etc.

Fabrication of Segmented Fittings:


Elbows, Wyes, Laterals, Tees, Concentric and Eccentric Reducers.

Manufacturers of concentric tapered pipe from .250" to 2" wall thickness.

Pipe manufactured to American Welding Society. Structural welding code AWS D1.1 or D1.5 is also available.

Delivery Conditions & Tolerances


ASTM

Outside Diameter ± 1%

Weight/Thickness Per Specification

Length ± 1 inch

Maximum Rolled Lengths*


Rolled & Welded 120 feet (36.6 m)
* Longer lengths may be possible upon request.

8 Skyline Steel: Pipe


Delivery Conditions & Standards

Skyline Steel pipe is manufactured according to the following American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)
specifications:

ASTM A252 ASTM A139


Scope Scope
“This specification covers nominal (average) wall steel “This specification covers five grades of electric-fusion (arc)-
pipe piles of cylindrical shape and applies to pipe piles in welded straight-seam or helical-seam steel pipe. Pipe of NPS
which the steel cylinder acts as a permanent load-carrying 4 and larger with nominal (average) wall thickness of 1.0
member, or as a shell to form cast-in-place concrete piles.” in. [25.4mm] and less are covered. Listing of standardized
dimensions are for reference. The grades of steel are pipe
Material & Manufacture mill grades having mechanical properties which differ from
“The piles shall be made by the seamless, electric resistance standard plate grades. The pipe is intended for conveying
weld, flash weld, or fusion welded process. The seams liquid, gas or vapor.”
of welded pipe piles shall be longitudinal, helical-butt, or
helical-lap.”
ASTM A1011
Scope
ASTM A572 “This specification covers hot-rolled, carbon, structural, high-
Scope strength low-alloy, high-strength low-alloy with improved
“This specification covers five grades of high-strength low- formability, and ultra-high strength steel sheet and strip, in
alloy structural steel shapes, plates, sheet piling, and bars. coils and cut lengths.”
Grades 42 [290], 50 [345], and 55 [380] are intended for
riveted, bolted, or welded structures. Grades 60 [415] and
ASTM A1018
65 [450] are intended for riveted or bolted construction of
Scope
bridges, or for riveted, bolted, or welded construction in
other applications.” “This specification covers hot-rolled, heavy-thickness coils
beyond the size limits of Specification A1011/A1011M.”

ASTM A690
Scope AWWA C200*
Scope
“This specification covers high-strength low-alloy nickel,
copper, phosphorus steel H-piles and sheet piling of “This standard describes electrically butt-welded straight-
structural quality for use in the construction of dock walls, seam or spiral-seam pipe and seamless pipe, 6 in. (150mm)
sea walls, bulkheads, excavations, and like applications in in nominal diameter and larger, for the transmission and
marine environments.” distribution of water or for use in other water system
facilities.”

Source: ASTM International


* Source: American Water Works Association (AWWA) Skyline Steel: Pipe 9
Increasing Durability

The durability of steel is a very important part of the design Galvanization is commonly used for atmospheric protection,
process. Although most steel buried in the ground does not but should not be used in the water.
need any protection from corrosion, there are cases where
it is necessary. As a steel section corrodes, it loses strength Protecting the steel through coating or painting is very
and the designer must ensure that the section can carry its common. Coating is relatively inexpensive and works well on
intended loads at the end of the design life. Determining exposed steel, but it can be damaged and once the steel is
the design life of a pipe is a straightforward process using exposed it will corrode at the normal rate. The steel can also
the section properties, corrosion rate and any corrosion be protected using concrete encasement, jackets, or sleeves.
protection measures.
Calculating the Design Life of a Pipe Pile
The corrosion rate of a particular environment is critical
when calculating the design life. Different soils and types of 1 Design Pipe Pile
water will have varying influences on the rate of loss. There 2. Determine Internal and External Corrosion Rates
are tables on the following page which give average values 3. Determine Maximum Allowable Stress
for the loss, in thickness, in soil and water. These values were
4. Calculate Reduced Diameter and Thickness that will
gathered from measurements taken from actual jobsites. If
Result in Maximum Allowable Stress
there is historical information available locally that information
should be used instead. The engineer should determine the 5. Calculate Section Loss
rate for both the inside and outside of the pipe. It should be 6. Calculate the Design Life Using Corrosion Rate and
noted that soil resistivity is sometimes used to determine the Section Loss
corrosiveness of a soil sample. This method for determining 7. If the Design Life is Too Low, Choose from One of the
the corrosion rate does not take into account the level of Methods Below and Re-Calculate the Design Life
oxygen in the soil and should not be used. Without oxygen or
extremely acidic soil the steel will not corrode. Over Design
• Increase Diameter
Once the rate of loss has been determined, the reduced
section properties and design life can be calculated. Increasing • Increase Thickness
the design life of a steel pipe can be done in a variety of ways. • Increase Yield Strength
Most of these will fall under three main categories; over
• Splice Thicker Pipe Section into Pile in Area of High
design, corrosion rate reduction and steel protection.
Stress or High Corrosion

Over design is most often done by increasing the thickness,


Corrosion Reduction
diameter or steel grade. All of these methods will reduce the
stress in the pipe. Although increasing the yield strength will • A690 Steel — Salt Water Splash Zone Resistant Steel
not change the corrosion rate it allows the pipe to carry the • A588 Steel — Atmospheric Corrosion Resistant Steel
same loads with a smaller thickness. • Cathodic Protection
• Galvanization
Reducing the corrosion rate can be done with specialty steels
(A690 and A588) or with cathodic protection. ASTM A690
Barrier
reduces the corrosion rate for steel in the splash zone in
salt water. ASTM A588 is an atmospheric corrosion resistant • Coating
steel. Cathodic protection involves either sacrificial anodes or • Concrete Encasement
an impressed current system. Both systems create a battery • Sleeves or Jackets
cell to prevent the loss of material from the exposed steel.

10 Skyline Steel: Pipe


Loss of Thickness Due to Corrosion for Piles in Soil with or without Groundwater

5 Years 25 Years 50 Years 75 Years 100 Years


Required design working life

in / mm

Undisturbed natural soils (sand, clay, schist, …) 0.000 0.012 0.024 0.035 0.047
0.00 0.30 0.60 0.90 1.20

Polluted natural soils and industrial grounds 0.006 0.030 0.059 0.089 0.118
0.15 0.75 1.50 2.25 3.00

Aggressive natural soils (swamp, marsh, peat, …) 0.008 0.039 0.069 0.098 0.128
0.20 1.00 1.75 2.50 3.25

Non-compacted and non-aggressive fills (clay, schist, sand, silt, …) 0.007 0.028 0.047 0.067 0.087
0.18 0.70 1.20 1.70 2.20

Non-compacted and aggressive fills (ashes, slag, …) 0.020 0.079 0.128 0.177 0.226
0.50 2.00 3.25 4.50 5.75

Notes:
1. Corrosion rates in compacted fills are lower than those in non-compacted ones. In compacted fills, the figures in the table should
be divided by two.
2. The values given are only for guidance. Local conditions should be considered because they may affect the actual corrosion rate,
which can be lower or higher than the average value given in the table.
3. The values given for 5 and 25 years are based on measurements, whereas the other values are extrapolated.

Loss of Thickness Due to Corrosion for Piles in Fresh Water or in Sea Water

5 Years 25 Years 50 Years 75 Years 100 Years


Required design working life

in / mm

Common fresh water (river, ship canal, …) in the zone of high 0.006 0.022 0.035 0.045 0.055
attack (water line) 0.15 0.55 0.90 1.15 1.40

Very polluted fresh water (sewage, industrial effluent, …) in the 0.012 0.051 0.091 0.130 0.169
zone of high attack (water line) 0.30 1.30 2.30 3.30 4.30

Sea water in temperate climate in the zone of high attack 0.022 0.074 0.148 0.220 0.295
(low water and splash zones) 0.55 1.90 3.75 5.60 7.50

Sea water in temperate climate in the zone of permanent 0.010 0.035 0.069 0.102 0.138
immersion or in the intertidal zone 0.25 0.90 1.75 2.60 3.50

Notes:
1. The highest corrosion rate is usually found at the splash zone or at the low water level in tidal waters. However, in most cases, the
highest stresses are in the permanent immersion zone.
2. The values given are only for guidance. Local conditions should be considered because they may affect the actual corrosion rate,
which can be lower or higher than the average value given in the table.
3. The values given for 5 and 25 years are based on measurements, whereas the other values are extrapolated.

Skyline Steel: Pipe 11


Specialty Fabrication Services

Skyline Steel pipe mills are capable of a wide variety of fabrication services. Please do not hesitate to
call for any fabrication needs.

• Belled Ends for Slip Joints • End Plate/Point Attachments • Splicing or Splicers
• Custom Fabrication (Upon Request) • Flanges • Wyes
• Cutting/Splicing to Custom Lengths • Laterals & Reducers • Sheet Pile Interlock Attachment
• Cutting Shoes • Lifting Lugs
• Elbows • Reinforcing Bands

C9 Connector Attachment Rock Crushers Pipe with Slots

Custom Fabrication: Oscillator Casing Custom Fabrication: Oscillator Casing Custom Fabrication

12 Skyline Steel: Pipe


Applications

Applications of Steel Pipe


Steel pipe offers mechanical and physical characteristics that make it one of the most versatile construction
products available. As a structural element, steel pipe remains unrivaled when compared to alternate
materials. The flexibility offered by the manufacturing process, quality control and low production cost
positions spiralweld and rolled and welded pipe to be the new shape of steel in many industries.

Bearing Piles
Driven steel piles are a very efficient way to carry loads from structures and
one of the most tested elements in the construction industry. Pipe piles offer
several advantages over other types of driven piles. The circular shape of the
pipe means there is no weak axis and the interior of the pile can be augered out
to remove an obstruction or socket the pipe into rock. The interior of pipes can
be filled with reinforced concrete to increase the strength of the pile. Pipes can
be manufactured to extremely long lengths and due to the bending strength
to weight ratio and lack of a weak axis are easy to handle. The manufacturing
process of pipe allows millions of different combinations of diameters,
thicknesses and steel grades.

The manufacturing of spiralweld pipe is especially flexible for thicknesses of one


inch or less. The multitude of different diameters, cut to length sections and
speed of production makes spiralweld a very attractive product for bearing piles.

Rolled and welded pipe is ideal in applications requiring larger-sized pipe. The
Woodrow Wilson Bridge in Washington, DC used thousands of tons of 48 inch
to 72 inch diameters with thicknesses as high as 1.5 inches. Pipe piles of this
size have the capability of carrying thousands of tons of axial load and very high
lateral loads.

Several accessories are available to assist the contractor during installation. Inside
and outside cutting shoes or conical points are good for hard driving conditions.
Points are also useful if the interior of the pipe needs to be kept free of soil. Three
different types of splicing mechanisms are also available. Backing rings are used
when the pile needs a full penetration butt weld. Drive on and weld fit splicers
are used for projects where speed is important and the full bending loads do not
need to be carried through the splice.

Skyline Steel: Pipe 13


Applications

Drilled Shaft Casing


Pipe casing, temporary or permanent, is often required during the construction
of drilled shafts. The casing is used to hold the hole open while the reinforcement
cage and concrete are being placed. The ability to inspect the bottom and the
elimination of any variations in the diameter of the finished drilled shaft makes
for a much higher quality finished pile. In the “Standard Guidelines for the Design
and Installation of Pile Foundations” ASCE recommends a factor of safety that is
38% higher on the structural capacity of drilled shafts without casing than those
with casing.

Sign Poles, Towers, & Transmission Lines


Sign poles and towers have to resist large bending loads at the base of the
structure. The availability and wide variety of thicknesses of large diameter pipe
allow designers to pick the exact size needed to handle their particular project.
Pipes can also be supplied in very long lengths, are easy to splice and easy to
drill into hard ground. Reduction collars can facilitate the splicing of different
diameters to make the design as efficient as possible.

Structural Sections
The symmetry of pipe gives it the same bending strength in any direction which
makes it an excellent product for the resistance of buckling. The stress required
to buckle an axial member decreases with length. The radius of gyration has the
opposite effect and increases the ability of a section to resist buckling. The W and
HP sections have different radii of gyration (rx and ry) for the X and Y axes, while
it is constant for a pipe. The end result is that a pipe can take much higher loads
for long unsupported members.

Sample: 40 foot axially loaded section


Section ry(in) Weight (lbs/ft) Buckling Load (k)

W 12 x 53 2.48 53 103.9

HP 12 x 53 2.86 53 138.1

12" x 0.375" 4.11 46.6 252.6

The ability of pipes to resist buckling makes them ideally suited for the bracing of
cofferdams and for large open structures.

14 Skyline Steel: Pipe


Combination Walls
Large diameter pipes have high bending strengths and are often used in
combination sheet pile walls. The combination of large diameter pipe piles and
steel sheet piles, which is often referred to as combi-walls, pipe-z walls or king
pile walls, makes a very efficient system.

Like other combined walls, the king pile takes the majority of the load and the sheet
pile is there to transfer the pressures to the pipe. In most cases the sheet piles are
between 60% and 80% of the length of the pipe pile. The king pile is almost always
spiralweld pipe and the flexibility of the manufacturing process makes it easy
for the designer to pinpoint the most efficient system. The design of the system
assumes that there is no transfer of shear forces across the interlock so the offset of
the neutral axis due to the sheet pile is not taken into account.

Inertiasystem = (Inertiapipe + Inertiasheetpile) / (System Width)


Modulussystem = Inertiasystem / Radiuspipe

Pipe-z walls are most often used for bulkhead walls for container, cruise and bulk
terminals. In addition, they can be used for breakwaters or for high cantilevered
retaining walls. More information on combined wall systems can be found in
Skyline Steel’s High Strength Walls for Port & Harbor Construction.

Mining
Mining operations take place far beneath the surface in hazardous conditions.
Personnel, equipment and air shafts are all integral parts of the mine. Vertical
pipe sections are often used to construct the shafts. The large range of diameters
and thicknesses make steel pipe the material of choice for various shaft
requirements. Some of the shafts are hundreds, if not thousands, of feet long and
pipe can be supplied in sections with the ends pre-prepared for splicing. Bracing
rings are used to keep the pipe thicknesses to a minimum.

Skyline Steel: Pipe 15


Applications

Jacked & Bored


The placement of underground utilities is often done with jacked and bored pipe.
Sections of pipe are pushed through the ground with hydraulic jacks between
excavations or under a hill. The next section of pipe is then spliced onto the first
and the jacking continues. Once the jacking is complete, the pipe is cleaned out
to install the utilities. This allows the placement of utilities without extensive
excavation which can disrupt roads, railroads, homes and businesses.

Line Pipe
Welded steel pipe provides a very effective way to transfer liquids and air.
Steel Pipe is pound per pound stronger than any other type of pipe. Pipe
can be designed to handle both internal and external pressures of most
applications. Welded steel pipe offers many advantages, such as: strength,
economy, lightweight and ease of installation. Skyline Steel is SPFA certified and
manufactures hydrotested pipe for a variety of applications. We produce 10 3/4"
OD - 90" OD hydrotested pipe using a Double Submerged Arc Weld process in
both Spiralweld and Rolled & Welded Pipe. Hydrotested pipe lengths range from
30’-60’, wall thickness from .250" - 2.0" wall and produced per AWWA C200/
ASTM A139/ASTM A134.

Abrasion Resistant Pipe


Skyline Steel can make pipe from abrasion resistant steel. This pipe is excellent for
transporting high solid slurry mixtures. Some examples of this are pipe being used
to move dredge material and mine tailings. The hardness of the abrasion resistant
steel increases the longevity of the steel.

16 Skyline Steel: Pipe


Quality Control

Certifications
All weld systems are qualified and certified to AWS D1.1. Our mills are quality
certified by the Steel Plate Fabricators Association (SPFA) and audited by Lloyd’s Services Available
Registry Quality Assurance. Additionally, each plant is staffed with Certified Weld • Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)
Inspectors to assure a quality weld in every pipe. • Hydrostatic Testing
• In-line and Handheld UT
Qualifications Testing
• American Welding Society (AWS) • AWS Section 4 WPS – Weld • Magnetic Particle
• American Society of Mechanical Procedure Specification
• CWI Inspection
Engineers (ASME) • AWS Section 4 PQR -Procedure
• Pre-qualified Qualification Test Record • Material Test Reports (MTR)
• AWS Section 3 • Weld Quality Control Plan (WQCP) • Weld Quality Control Plan
• Steel Plate Fabricators Association (WQCP)
• Qualified by Test
(SPFA) Quality Program
• AWS Section 4 / ASME Section IX

Quality Assurance
• Non-destructive Testing (NDT) • Tensile Strength Test: Base Metal/
• Visual Inspection (VI) Across the Weld
• Ultrasonic Testing (UT) • Bend Test: Root, Face, Side
• Radiographic Testing / X-ray (RT) • Charpy Impact Test (CVN): Base
Metal, Weld Metal, Heat Affected
• Magnetic Particle Testing
Zone (HAZ)
(Mag. Testing)
• Custom Tests: Hoop Stresses, etc.
• Dye Penetration Testing
• Third-party Inspection
• Macro Etch Testing
• UT, RT, VI, Etch and Weld
• Hydrostatic Testing
Observations
• Destructive Testing
• Procedure QA/QC Review

Manufacturing &
Stocking Locations
Skyline Steel has several manufacturing
locations and dozens of stocking
locations throughout North America
ready to serve you.

Skyline Steel Stocking Locations


Skyline Steel Facilities

Skyline Steel: Pipe 17


www.skylinesteel.com | 888.450.4330

For technical questions and engineering support, please contact us via our technical hotline at:
1-866-875-9546 or email us at: engineering@skylinesteel.com.
01/13 Edition

About Skyline Steel


A premier steel foundation supplier serving the U.S., Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and Colombia, Skyline Steel is a wholly-owned
subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, the largest producer of steel in the United States.