Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No.

3, June, 185±193
Relacja eps_crack przy zginaniu i rozciaganiu:
eps_cr_direct = 0.7 eps_cr_flexural
Punkt 4.3 Cracking strain w Nguyen et al.
zrodlo: Wee et al. -> Table 4. dla OPC, ostatnia kolumna – ok. 70%

Tensile strain capacity of concrete under various


states of stress
T. H. Wee, H. R. Lu and S. Swaddiwudhipong

National University of Singapore

The direct-tension-test method and the mechanical properties of concrete in compression, flexure and tension have
been investigated. The mould used for preparing the specimens in the direct tension test has been modified to
overcome the difficulties in centralizing and aligning the two embedded bars in the specimens. The method adopted
improves the weak bond strength between the embedded bar and concrete and reduces the stress concentration at
the end of the embedded bar. Concrete is most brittle under tension. The state of stress affects the failure
characteristics of concrete. The tensile strain capacity, which is used to evaluate cracking in concrete, should be
chosen judiciously depending on the state of stress in the concrete. The tensile strain capacity obtained from the
flexure test has a higher standard deviation, indicating wider variability of the results. Relationships between
tensile strength and flexural strength and between compressive strength and tensile or flexural strength are also
presented in this paper. The modulus of elasticity from the tension test is similar to that obtained from the
compression test for low-grade concrete, but the values obtained from the tension test are lower than those from
the compression test for concrete of high grade. The values of Poisson's ratio in tension and flexure decrease when
the tensile or flexural stress in the concrete is raised. The values of Poisson's ratio in compression vary
insignificantly before reaching the discontinuity point, and increase sharply afterwards.

Introduction The tensile strain capacity is defined as the maxi-


mum tensile strain that the concrete can withstand a
The limiting tensile strain serves as a good indicator continuous crack forming. Most researchers have at-
1±3
of concrete strength under static loading and can be tempted to use either the direct tension test or the
used as a measure for failure of concrete materials. The flexural-strength test to study the properties of concrete
7 8
failure criterion of the limiting tensile strain is supported in tension. Hughes and Chapman, Dunstan, and Xie
4 5 9
by an analysis advanced by Lower. Newman and Car- and Liu determined the tensile strain capacity by the
6 10 11
ino and Slate have proposed that the discontinuity point direct tension test. Houghton, Houk et al. and Tho-
12
should be used as a definition of failure of concrete. The mas et al. used the flexural-strength test to study the
13
discontinuity point represents the point at which con- tensile strain capacity of concrete. Hunt measured the
crete can no longer be treated as a continuum. The stress tensile strain capacity from fully restrained concrete
transfer ceases to be continuous at this point. For con- prisms in which temperature differentials were induced
crete under static uniaxial compression, the discontinu- to make the prisms crack.
ity point is the point at which the volumetric strain stops For the direct tension test, depending on the method
decreasing and Poisson's ratio starts to increase sharply. adopted for clamping the specimen ends to the test
Under static uniaxial tension, the discontinuity point is machine, there are four main categories of test meth-
14
defined as the point at which the stress±strain curve ods. They are as follows:
begins to deviate from a straight line. 9
(a) tensile testing by means of embedded steel bars
15,16
(b) tensile testing by lateral gripping
17
(c) tensile testing by gluing
 Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, (d) tensile testing by means of wings or truncated
10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260. 18
cones.
(MCR 786) Paper received 20 May 1999 The above methods of testing suffer several major
185

0024-9831 # 2000 Thomas Telford Ltd

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Wee et al.

drawbacks, such as load eccentricity and non-uniformity BS 12,19 ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBFS)
20
of stress or strain in the tensile specimen for methods complying with BS 6699 and pulverized fuel ash
21
(a)±(d), poor adherence between steel plates and moist (PFA) complying with BS 3892. The chemical com-
concrete for method (c), lack of adequate guidelines to positions and physical properties are given in Table 1.
ensure good bond and central location of the bars for The fine aggregate used in this study was silica with
method (a) and stress concentration at the ends, causing a specific gravity of 2´60 and fineness modulus of
end fracture of the specimens for methods (a), (b) and 2´59. The coarse aggregate (maximum size 20 mm)
(d). In view of the above drawbacks associated with the consisted of solid crushed granite, which had a specific
direct tension tests, the tensile strain capacity is often gravity of 2´65 and fineness modulus of 6´67. The
more conveniently assessed from the tensile fibres in the coarse aggregate was properly washed and separated
constant-moment section of the prism in the flexural- into two categories, i.e. 5±10 mm and 10±20 mm.
strength test. The Corps of Engineers employed a flexur- These categories of aggregate were then proportionally
al-strength test as a measure of the capability of mass mixed (5±10 mm : 10±20 mm ˆ 1 : 3) and maintained
10,11
concrete to resist tensile strains. The non-reinforced, in a saturated surface-dry (SSD) condition prior to mix-
12 3 12 3 64 in (300 3 300 3 1600 mm) beams used ing of the concrete. The fine and coarse aggregates
22
in this case were tested to failure under third-point load- complied with ASTM C33-97.
ing. Strains in tension were measured directly at the Ten mixes were designed for the present study. The
extreme fibre of each test specimen. mix proportions are presented in Table 2. Three speci-
The tensile strain capacity can also be estimated mens were cast of each of the following types: 100 mm
from the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. cubes for compressive-strength tests, standard cylinders
10
Houghton indicated that the estimated tensile strain of size 100 3 200 mm for modulus-of-elasticity tests,
capacity (åtics ) could be evaluated from the flexural 100 3 100 3 400 mm prisms for flexural-strength tests
strength ( f r ) divided by the modulus of elasticity of and 100 3 100 3 500 mm prisms for direct tension
concrete in compression (Ec ): tests. The ambient temperature during mixing and cast-
fr ing was 27  38C. After demoulding (24 h after casting),
åtsc ˆ (1) all specimens were cured in a moisture-curing room at a
Ec
temperature of 27  28 and a relative humidity of not
23
Concrete shows different fracture mechanism under less than 90%, and tested at the age of 28 days.
various states of stress. Different flaws and crack pat-
terns induce different values of the limiting tensile strain
under different loading conditions. This paper describes
an improvement and simplification that can be intro- Experimental investigation
duced in the direct-tension-test method. The improved
Compression and modulus-of-elasticity tests
procedure of preparing specimens and testing makes the
direct tension test of concrete more appealing and pro- Cube compressive-strength tests complying with BS
25
vides results that are more accurate, rational and reli- 1881: Part 116 were carried out using a compressive
able. The paper also presents mechanical properties of testing machine of 2000 kN capacity. Modulus-of-elas-
26
concrete, mortar and cement paste under the conditions ticity tests complying with BS 1881: Part 121 were
of the compression, tension and flexural-strength tests. carried out using an Instron Dynamic Materials Testing
The tensile strain capacities obtained in direct tension System. The compressive strain in the latter test was
and flexural-strength tests are presented and compared. measured by four transducers. The transducers were
mounted in the middle 100 mm section of the cylinder.
The lateral strains were measured by electrical-
resistance strain gauges of 60 mm length and gauge
factor 2:09  1%. All strains and load data in this test
Materials and mix proportions
and the other tests described below were acquired
The cementitious materials used in the present study through a portable data logger, which was connected to
were ordinary Portland cement (OPC) complying with a computer.

Table 1. Chemical compositions and physical properties of OPC, GGBFS and PFA
Material CaO: % SiO2 : % Al2 O3 : % Fe2 O3 : % MgO: % SO3 : % Na2 O: % K2O: % Fineness: Specific gravity
cm2 =g
OPC 63´80 21´20 5´50 3´00 2´00 2´00 ± ± 3150 3´15
GGBFS 42´90 32´50 13´80 0´20 5´80 ± ± ± 4500 2´90
PFA 3´37 49´30 28´30 13´01 ± ± 0´21 0´76 91´6%y 2´41
 Using Blaine method.
y
Percentage passing a 45 ìm sieve.

186 Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Tensile strain capacity of concrete

Table 2. Mix proportions: kg=m3


Mix w/c Water OPC PFA or GGBFS Sand Coarse aggregate Slump: mm
OPC1 0´30 165 550 0 755 920 40y
OPC2 0´40 180 450 0 775 950 35
OPC3 0´50 180 360 0 810 990 35
OPC4 0´60 180 300 0 835 1020 30
PFA 0´50 180 250 110 795 975 30
GGBFS 0´50 180 110 250 800 985 25
M1 0´50 275 550 0 1370 0 ±
M2 0´70 245 350 0 1615 0 ±
P1 0´26 440 1700 0 0 0 ±
P2 0´35 515 1470 0 0 0 ±
 The slump test complied with BS 1881: Part 102. 24
y
The ASTM type F superplasticizer (powder) was used in OPC1 with a dosage of 0´5% of cement content.

Flexural test tensile loads. To ease the alignment of the em-


Flexural tests complying with BS 1881: Part 118
27 bedded bars, a two-piece-mould (Fig. 1) was pro-
were carried out using the Instron testing system. Two posed in lieu of a five-piece or three-piece mould.
strain gauges with a length of 60 mm each were used in One lateral piece of a three-piece mould was
the flexural test. These were glued on the tensile sur- welded to the bottom plate to make it a two-piece
faces in the constant-moment section of the flexural mould. The lower number of pieces introduces a
specimen. The strain rate of the tensile fibre was con- lower number of degrees of freedom and hence
trolled to be 5 ìå=min during the linear portion of the makes the specimen easier to fabricate. With this
stress±strain curve. modification, it is convenient to adjust the two-
piece mould to align and centralize two embedded
bars by means of the standard rod and plate. The
Direct tension test
two holes on the end plates of the two-piece mould
Improved test method. As mentioned above, it is were carefully drilled to ensure that their centres
very difficult to align and centralize the two bars lay exactly on the geometric centre of the plate.
used for pulling at the two ends from outside the Both holes in the mould can be easily aligned
specimen, such as those adopted in the gripping and before fixing the embedded bars using the standard
gluing methods. Besides, a stress concentration near rod and plate. Fig. 1(a) shows the two-piece mould,
the ends of the specimen is unavoidable if the speci- Fig. 1(b) the mould adjustment and Fig. 1(c) the
men is gripped laterally or enlarged at its ends. The mould fixed with embedded bars after adjustment.
success rate is low when the gluing method is used, (b) The bond strength between the embedded bars
especially for high-strength concrete. In the present and the concrete must be large enough to prevent
study the embedded-bar method was chosen and im- the steel bars from being pulled out of the speci-
proved. A special testing technique was proposed to men during the test. In the present study, the bars
overcome the existing problems. were embedded with sufficient depth (125 mm)
The problems associated with the embedded-bar into the concrete specimen and four additional
method for the direction tension test are (a) the diffi- bars were welded evenly on the main bars to
culties in aligning and centralizing the two steel bars enhance the bond strength. These small subsidi-
embedded in the specimen, (b) the weaker mechanical ary bars also help in stress distribution along the
bond between the steel bar surface and the concrete, embedded bar and hence eliminate fracture in the
and (c) the high stress concentration at the ends of the concrete at the ends of the specimen due to
embedded bar. The following modifications were intro- stress concentration. The main embedded screw
duced to improve the existing method. bar, 12 mm in diameter, was 150 mm long, out
(a) With the embedded-bar method, it is vital that the of which 125 mm was embedded in the specimen
two embedded bars are aligned along the geometric and the remaining 25 mm was intended for con-
centre of the specimen. Elaborate work was carried nection between the specimen and the mould or
out to achieve the above requirement. The em- between the specimen and the testing machine.
bedded bars should also be aligned such that they Each of the four 6 mm dia. stress-distributing
are parallel to the edges of the specimen. This will bars, about 50 mm long, was welded evenly
ensure that the tension test provides an accurate around the main bar. The embedded bars were
estimate of the tensile strain and strength, and fixed on to the two-piece mould before casting
diminish the bending action in the specimen under the specimen, as shown in Fig. 1.

Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3 187

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Wee et al.

Fig. 1. Tensile mould: (a) two-piece mould; (b) mould adjustment with a standard rod and plate; (c) mould with embedded bars
fixed after adjustment

Testing. Two strain gauges, each 120 mm long,


were glued on opposite faces of the tensile specimens
in the middle section. The tensile specimen was
mounted on the Instron testing system through a joint
set at each end. The joint set was composed of three
components, i.e. a ball joint, a joint box and a bolt
joint. The ball joint connection between the testing
machine and specimen helped diminish any bending
moment that might occur owing to the eccentricity of
the applied load. A constant strain rate of 5 ìå=min
was achieved through the stroke speed adjustment
and maintained in the linear portion of the stress±
strain curve. The test set-up is shown in Fig. 2.

Results and discussion


Test method
Typical stress±strain curves recorded from a tension
test are shown in Fig. 3. It is evident that the two
tensile-strain values measured on opposite faces are
very close up to about 70±80% of the failure load. This
demonstrates that the test method adopted in the pre-
sent study is effective in minimizing the load eccentri-
city. Since concrete is a non-homogeneous material, the
two curves will part at a certain stress level, depending
Fig. 2. Direct tension test
on the stress concentration at the tips of flaws of the
crack pattern existing in the concrete specimen.
The stress concentration at the ends of the embedded
bars is substantially reduced. Using this test method, Strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio
more that 90% of over 200 tensile specimens tested The compressive strength, tensile strength and flex-
fractured in the middle 200 mm section. Fig. 4 shows ural strength of concretes of various mixes are tabu-
some tensile specimens after testing. lated in Table 3. Their relationships are evaluated and
188 Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Tensile strain capacity of concrete

Table 3. Strength in compression, tension and flexure


Tensile stress: MPa

3
Mix Compressive Tensile Modulus of
2 strength: MPa strength: rupture:
MPa MPa
Cube Cylinder
1
OPC1 67´8 56´5 3´33 4´73
0 OPC2 58´4 48´8 2´90 4´17
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 OPC3 49´3 40´3 2´73 4´29
Tensile strain: µε OPC4 40´4 32´5 2´68 3´65
PFA 49´2 39´8 2´48 3´93
Fig. 3. Typical stress±strain curves of concrete in tension GGBFS 49´3 38´9 2´70 4´07
M1 41´2 35´2 2´04 2´88
M2 24´5 20´1 1´68 2´65
P1 81´3 61´3 1´22 2´79
listed in Table 4. The results show that concrete with a P2 62´9 42´4 1´01 2´42
higher compressive strength has a lower tensile/com-
pressive strength ratio. The tensile strength of concrete
and mortar is about two-thirds of the flexural strength.
The flexural strength and tensile strength are about compressive, flexure and tension tests are depicted in
8´5±11´5% and 5´5±8´5%, respectively, of the cylinder Figs 5±7. Stress±strain curves of concrete are affected
compressive strength, or 6´5±9´5% and 4´5±7% of the by the applied state of stress. Under uniaxial compres-
cube strength. sion, the higher the compressive strength, the longer
Aggregate arrests cracks much less frequently under the linear portion of the stress±strain curve (Fig. 5).
tension than under compression in concrete. Under ten- However, as expected, high-strength concrete has a low
sion, only a few cracks, can be fully developed and maximum compressive strain at failure, indicating more
cause failure of the specimen, rather than the numerous brittle behaviour. Concrete is more ductile under the
cracks that are developed under compression. Owing to flexural-strength test than under the tension test, as
the lack of aggregate, cement paste shows a very low demonstrated by the longer flat portion of most stress±
tensile strength although its compressive strength is strain curves shown in Fig. 6 compared with those
very high. It seems that fine aggregate shows lower depicted in Fig. 7.
resistance against cracking than coarse aggregate. Mor- The modulus of elasticity of concrete was taken as
tar M1 has lower tensile and flexural strengths than the slope of the linear portion of its stress±strain
concrete OPC4, while both have almost same cube curves. Table 5 lists the values of the modulus of
compressive strength. elasticity under various states of stress. For concrete
The stress±strain relationships of concrete under with low compressive strength (mix OPC4), the values

Fig. 4. Tensile specimens after testing


Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3 189

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Wee et al.

Table 4. Relationship between compressive, tensile and flexural strength


Mix Ratio: %

Tensile strength to cube Tensile strength to Flexural strength to Flexural strength to Tensile strength to
compressive strength cylinder compressive cube compressive cylinder compressive flexural strength
strength strength strength
OPC1 4´91 5´89 6´98 8´37 70´4
OPC2 4´97 5´94 7´14 8´55 69´5
OPC3 5´54 6´77 8´70 10´64 63´6
OPC4 6´63 8´25 9´03 11´23 73´4
PFA 5´04 6´25 7´99 9´87 63´1
GGBFS 5´47 6´94 8´26 10´45 66´3
M1 4´95 5´79 6´99 8´18 70´8
M2 6´86 8´36 10´82 13´18 63´4
P1 1´50 1´99 3´43 4´55 43´7
P2 1´61 2´38 3´85 5´71 41´7

60 Table 5. Modulus of elasticity under different states of stress


Compressive strength: MPa

OPC1 OPC2
50 Mix Modulus of Modulus of Modulus of
OPC3
40
elasticity in elasticity in elasticity in
GGBFS compression: tension: flexure:
30 GPa GPa GPa
20 OPC1 35´1 30´6 28´9
PFA OPC4 OPC2 30´4 27´4 25´8
10 OPC3 28´5 26´3 26´1
0 OPC4 26´0 26´1 25´1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 PFA 27´0 26´7 27´0
Compressive strain: µε GGBFS 27´5 25´9 23´7
M1 24´0 22´4 21´7
Fig. 5. Stress±strain curves of concrete in compression M2 18´9 20´7 21´5
P1 24´2 21´5 18´1
P2 17´7 17´8 16´5
 The moduli of elasticity in tension and flexure are the slopes of the
6
OPC1 GGBFS
linear portion of the stress±strain curve.
5 OPC2
Flexural stress: MPa

4 OPC3

3 PFA
of the modulus of elasticity under different loading
conditions are close to each other. However, for con-
2 OPC4
cretes with greater compressive strength, the values of
1 the modulus of elasticity in the compressive test are
0
greater than those in the tension or flexural-strength
0 100 200 300 400 500 tests. The higher the compressive strength, the greater
Tensile strain: µε the difference. The modulus of elasticity of mortar and
cement paste is lower than that of concrete in general.
Fig. 6. Stress±strain curves of concrete in flexure
The results show that aggregates, especially coarse
aggregate, contribute significantly to the modulus of
elasticity. Coarse aggregate increases the value of the
GGBFS modulus of elasticity under compression, flexure and
OPC1
3 tension.
Tensile stress: MPa

OPC2 Figures 8 and 9 show the relationship between mod-


2 OPC3 ulus of elasticity and stress under flexure and tension.
OPC4 The values decrease gradually up to about 60% of the
PFA ultimate tensile strength and then drop sharply beyond
1
that point. It is difficult to locate the dicontinuity point,
which indicates fracture in concrete and is defined as
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
the point of deviation of the stress±strain curve from a
Tensile strain: µε straight line, in flexure and tension. However, the dis-
continuity point can be easily captured during the com-
Fig. 7. Stress±strain curves of concrete in tension pression test, as shown in Fig. 10. The turning point of
190 Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Tensile strain capacity of concrete

30 0·4
Tangent modulus: GPa

Poisson's ratio
25 0·3
20
0·2
15
0·1
10
0
5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
0 Compressive stress: MPa
0 0·5 1·0 1·5 2·0 2·5 3·0 3·5 4·0
Flexural stress: MPa Fig. 11. Typical variation of Poisson's ratio of concrete in
Fig. 8. Typical relationship between tangent modulus and compression
flexural stress

propagate at an accelerated rate and the Poisson's ratio


35 also increases at an accelerated rate.
The relationship between the Poisson's ratio and the
Tangent modulus: GPa

30
25 stress in the flexural-strength test is depicted in Fig. 12.
20 In this case, the Poisson's ratio is the ratio of the lateral
15 compressive strain to the longitudinal tensile strain on
10 the surface in the constant-moment section. Poisson's
5 ratio varies inversely with the level of the stress. Fig.
0 13 shows the relationship between Poisson's ratio and
0 0·5 1·0 1·5 2·0 2·5 3·0 stress in the tension test. The Poisson's ratio, the ratio
Tensile stress: MPa
of lateral compressive strain to longitudinal tensile
Fig. 9. Typical relationship between tangent modulus and strain, decreases with stress only marginally when the
tensile stress load is below 75% of the ultimate strength. The values
then decrease sharply when the specimen is loaded
beyond 75% of its ultimate strength.
50
Compressive stress: MPa

Volumetric strain Tensile strain capacity


40
In practice, the tensile strain capacity of concrete is
30 estimated as the tensile strain at 90% failure load in the
28
20 flexural-strength test. The tensile strain is measured
10
on the tensile face of constant moment portion of the

0
–1000 0 1000 2000 0·3
Tensile strain: µε Compressive strain: µε
Poisson's ratio

0·2
Fig. 10. Typical relationship between strains and stresses in
compression test 0·1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
the volumetric-strain curve signifies the discontinuity
Flexural stress: MPa
point. The limiting tensile strain is the lateral tensile
strain at the discontinuity point, which lies between Fig. 12. Typical variation of Poisson's ratio of concrete in
300 ìå and 500 ìå. flexure
Figure 11 shows the relationship between Poisson's
ratio and the compressive stress in the concrete. The
relationship reflects the cracks developing in the con-
crete. The lateral tensile strain is affected by cracking
Poisson's ratio

more than the longitudinal compressive strain because 0·1

most cracks are longitudinal. When the load is below


75% of the ultimate load, most cracks exist in the
transition zone between the matrix and the coarse 0
0 0·5 1·0 1·5 2·0 2·5 3·0
aggregate, while matrix cracking is negligible. The
Tensile stress: MPa
Poisson's ratio shows a marginal increment in this re-
gime. When the load is above 75% of the ultimate load, Fig. 13. Typical variation of Poisson's ratio of concrete in
cracks in both the transition zone and the matrix mortar tension
Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3 191

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Wee et al.

specimen. In direct tension test, the tensile strain capa-


29 Concluding remarks
city is estimated as the tensile strain at failure. The
values of tensile strain capacity obtained from the flex- The mould proposed here for preparing a specimen
ural-strength test and the tension test, and those calcu- for a direct tension test overcomes the difficulties in
lated from equation (1) are tabulated and compared in centralizing and aligning the two embedded bars in the
Table 6. The standard deviation for each category of specimen. The method adopted enhances the bond
the text results is also included in the table. strength between the embedded bar and the concrete
The tensile strain capacity of the concrete varies and minimizes the stress concentration at the end of the
marginally with the concrete mixes. The values of embedded bar. The method can be used to study the
tensile strain capacity obtained from different test mechanical behaviour of concrete under tension, such
methods differ. The average value derived from the as the relationship between tensile stress and strain and
flexural-strength test is 188 ìå, that is, about 60 ìå creep under tension.
larger than that obtained from the direct tension test. The state of stress affects the failure characteristics
The tensile strain capacity of the concrete lies between of concrete. Concrete is most brittle under tension. The
150 ìå and 210 ìå in the flexural-strength test and be- tensile strain capacity, which is used to evaluate crack-
tween 100 ìå and 140 ìå in the direct tension test. The ing in concrete, should be chosen judiciously depending
standard deviation of the tensile strain capacity under on the state of stress in the concrete. The limiting
flexure also shows a larger value than that under the tensile strain in the uniaxial compressive test lies
tension test. between 300 ìå and 500 ìå. The tensile strain capacity
Theoretically, if the stress±strain curve in tension is of concrete lies between 150 ìå and 210 ìå in the
assumed to vary linearly to failure, the tensile strain flexural-strength test and between 100 ìå and 140 ìå in
capacity should be equal to the tensile strength divided the direct tension test. The tensile strain capacity ob-
by the modulus of elasticity under tension. In equation tained from the flexure test has a higher standard devia-
(1), the tensile strain capacity is esimated as the flex- tion. The tensile strain capacity calculated from
ural strength divided by the modulus of elasticity under equation (1) on the basis of the flexural strength from
compression. Coincidentally, both the flexural strength the flexure test and the modulus of elasticity from the
and the modulus of elasticity under compression are compression test is, coincidentally, close to that ob-
higher than the tensile strength from the direct tension tained from the direct tension test. However, the former
test and the modulus of elasticity in tension respec- overestimates the tensile strain capacity of cement
tively, and hence this procedure is self-correcting. paste.
Although the differences are not proportional and de- The tensile strength obtained from the direct tension
pend on the grade of concrete, the values of tensile test is about two-thirds of the flexural strength of the
strain capacity calculated from equation (1) do not concrete. The flexural strength is about 8±11´5% of the
differ significantly from those obtained from the direct cylinder compressive strength or 6´5±9´5% of the cube
tension test. The average value of the former is 145 ìå, strength. The tensile strength is 5´5±8´5% of the cylin-
which is reasonably close to that of the latter. Equation der compressive strength or 4´5±7% of the cube
(1), however, will not be able to predict the tensile strength. Cement paste shows a very low tensile
strain capacity of cement paste accurately, as the value strength. The modulus of elasticity obtained from the
obtained from equation (1) is much greater than that tension test is similar to that obtained from the com-
under the direct tension test. pression test for low-grade concrete, but the values of
the former are lower than those of the latter for con-
crete of high grade. The value of Poisson's ratio de-
creases when the tensile or flexural stress in the
concrete is raised. The value of Poisson's ratio in com-
Table 6. Tensile strain capacity and standard deviation pression varies insignificantly before reaching the dis-
continuity point and increases sharply afterwards.
Mix Tensile strain capacity: ìå Standard deviation:
ìå
Flexure Tension Equation (1)
Flexure Tension
OPC1 179 125 135 38´9 31´5
Acknowledgement
OPC2 207 130 137 63´2 26´6 The research scholarship awarded to the second
OPC3 201 126 151 45´8 35´8
OPC4 151 125 147 31´3 22´2
author by the National University of Singapore is grate-
PFA 178 103 146 58´6 21´6 fully acknowledged.
GGBFS 210 141 152 51´6 29´7
M1 175 99 110 26´4 30´2
M2 130 112 152 12´4 21´7 References
P1 133 56 100 15´2 10´8
P2 173 69 158 22´7 6´2 1. Neville A. M. Some aspects of the strength of concrete. Part 1.
Civil Engineering, 1959, 54, 1153±1156.

192 Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Tensile strain capacity of concrete

2. Neville A. M. Some aspects of the strength of concrete. Part 2. anism of plain concrete under uniaxial tension. Concrete Library
Civil Engineering, 1959, 54, 1308±1310. of the JSCE, 1994, No. 24, 31±45.
3. Neville A. M. Some aspects of the strength of concrete. Part 3. 18. Elvery R. H. and Haroun W. A direct tensile test for concrete
Civil Engineering, 1959, 54, 1435±1438. under long- or short-term loading. Magazine of Concrete Re-
4. Lowe P. G. Deformation and fracture of plain concrete. Maga- search, 1968, 20, No. 63, 111±116.
zine of Concrete Research, 1978, 30, No. 105, 200±204. 19. British Standards Institution. Specification for Ordinary
5. Newman K. Criteria for the behaviour of plain concrete under and Rapid Hardening Portland Cement. BSI, Milton Keynes,
complex states of stress. Proceedings of the International Con- 1978, BS 12.
ference on the Structure of Concrete. London, 1965, pp. 255± 20. British Standards Institution. Specification for Ground
274. Granulated Blastfurnace Slag for Use with Portland Cement.
6. Carino N. J. and Slate F. O. Limiting tensile strain criterion for BSI, Milton Keynes, 1992, BS 6699.
failure of concrete. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 21. British Standards Institution. Pulverized-fuel Ash. Part 1,
1976, 73, No. 3, 160±165. Specification for Pulverized-fuel Ash for Use with Portland Ce-
7. Hughes B. P. and Chapman C. P. Direct Tensile Tests for Con- ment. BSI, Milton Keynes, 1997, BS 3892.
crete Using Modern Adhesives. RILEM, Paris, 1980, Bulletin 26, 22. American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard
pp. 70±80. Specification for Concrete Aggregates. ASTM, Philadelphia,
8. Dunstan M. R. H. Rolled Concrete for DamsÐA Laboratory 1997, C33±97.
Study of Properties of High Fly Ash Content Concrete. CIRIA, 23. Singapore Standards Institution. Testing Concrete. Meth-
London, 1981, Technical Note 105. od of Normal Curing of Testing Specimens. SSI, Singapore, 1987,
9. Xie N. X. and Liu W. Y. Determining tensile properties of mass Part A11.
concrete by direct tensile test. Materials Journal of the American 24. British Standards Institution. Testing Concrete. Method
Concrete Institute, 1989, 214±219. for Determination of Slump. BSI, Milton Keynes, 1983, BS 1881:
10. Houghton D. L. Determining tensile strain capacity of mass Part 102.
concrete. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 1976, 25. British Standards Institution. Testing concrete. Method for
691±700. Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes. BSI,
11. Houk I. E., Jr., Paxton J. A. and Houghton D. L. Prediction Milton Keynes, 1983, BS 1881: Part 116.
of thermal stress and strain capacity of concrete by tests on small 26. British Standards Istitution. Testing Concrete. Method for
beams. Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Proceedings, Determination of Static Modulus of Elasticity in Compression.
1970, 67, No. 3, 253±261. BSI, Milton Keynes, 1983, BS 1881: Part 121.
12. Thomas M. D. A., Mukherjee P. K., Sato J. A. and Everitt 27. British Standards Institution. Testing Concrete. Method
M. F. Effect of fly ash composition on thermal cracking in con- for Determination of Flexural Strength. BSI, Milton Keynes,
crete. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Fly 1983, BS 1881: Part 118.
Ash, Silica Fume, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Milwaukee, 28. American Concrete Institute. ACI Manual of Concrete
1995, 1, 81±98. Practice. Mass Concrete. ACI, Detroit, 1989, ACI 207, Part 1-
13. Hunt J. G. A Laboratory Study of Early-age Thermal Cracking 207-4R.
of Concrete. Cement and Concrete Association, London, 1971. 29. Hydroelectricity Department of the People's Republic
14. RILEM. Direct Tensile Test of Concrete. RILEM, Paris, 1963, of China. Experimental method of limiting tensile strain of
Bulletin 20, pp. 84±89. concrete. In Standard Methods of Test for Concrete in Hydraulic
15. Johnson C. D. and Sidwell E. H. Testing concrete in tension Structure. HDPRC, Beijing, 1982, SD 105±82, Part 506±80 [in
and in compression. Magazine of Concrete Research, 1968, 20, Chinese].
No. 65, 221±228.
16. Baishya M. C., Cook R. L. and Kelly M. T. Testing of
polymer injection material. Concrete International, 1997, Apr.,
48±51. Discussion contributions on this paper should reach the editor by
17. Ueda M., Hasebe N., Sato M. and Okuda H. Fracture mech- 25 September 2000

Magazine of Concrete Research, 2000, 52, No. 3 193

Downloaded by [ Technische Informationsbibliothek Universitaetsbibliothek Hannover / TIBUB (NEW)] on [09/11/18]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.