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Name:

Linguistics)for)Teachers)and)Writers)

TESC%•%E&W%Studies%

)

Study)guide)for)week)4: )

%

The%goals%for%this%week%are%to:%1)%become%familiar%with%the%building%blocks%of%words%(i.e.,%

morphemes)%and%their%different%types;%2)%study%the%different%ways%in%which%words%can%

be%constructed%(e.g.,%processes%of%affixation,%blends,%acronyms,%back%formation,%etc.);%

and%3)%practice%analyzing%words%and%breaking%them%down%into%their%constituent%

morphemes.%%

Readings: % Language%Files:%chapter%4. % Pinker:%chapter%5. %

Exercises)from)the)text:)% Language%Files:%File%4.6%(exercises%only%– %not%activities%or%discussion%points).%%

**WARNING**%If%you%feel%like%you%understand%the%concept%associated%with%a%particular% exercise%from%the%text,%please%stop.%%Write%“got%it”%and%move%on%to%the%next%exercise.% **WARNING** %

Additional)exercises: % 1. That%speakers%of%a%language%know%the%mo rphemes%of%that%language%and%the%rules%for% word%formation%is%shown%by%the%errors%made%by%some%speakers.%%Amsel%Greene% collected%errors%made%by%her%students%in%vocabulary Ybuilding%classes%and%published% these%in%a%book%called%Pullet&Surprises&(Scott,%Foresma n%&%Co.,%Glenview,%Ill.,%1969).%% The%title%is%taken%from%a%sentence%written%by%one%of%her%highYschool%students:%“In%

1957%Eugene%O’Neill%won%a%Pullet%Surprise.”%%Another%student%once%wrote:%“She%tried%

many%reducing%diets,%but%remained%indefatigable.”%%The%interesting%thing%about%these%

errors%is%that%they%reveal%something%about%the%students’%knowledge%of%English%

morphology.%%Consider%the%creativity%of%these%students%demonstrated%in%the%

following%examples:%

deciduous %

“able%to%make%up%one’s%mind” %

longevity %

“being%very%tall” %

fortuitous %

“well%protected” %

gubernatorial %

“to%do%with%peanuts” %

bibliography %

“holy%geography” %

adamant %

“pertaining%to%original%sin” %

diatribe %

“food%for%the%whole%clan” %

gullible %

“to%do%with%sea%birds” %

homogeneous %

“devoted%to%home%life” %

*This study guide is due on 7/16*

s talemate%

“husband%or%wife%no%longer%interesting” %

tenet %

“a%group%of%ten%singers” %

dermatology %

“study%of%derms” %

ingenious %

“not%very%smart” %

finesse %

%“a%female%fish” %

%

For%each%of%these%incorrect%definitions,%provide%the%possible%reasons%why%the% students%ma de%the%guesses%they%did.%%Exemplify%by%reference%to%other%words%or% morphemes,%giving%their%meanings%as%well. %

2.

Consider%the%following%lines%from%the%beginning%of%Lewis%Carroll’s%poem%

“Jabberwocky”:%

‘Twas%brillig,%and%the%slithy%toves % Did%gyre%and%gimble%in%the%wabe;% All%mimsy%were%the%borogoves,% And%the%mome%rathes%outgrabe. %

(a)%What%distinguishes%the%morphemes%which%Carroll%invented%for%this%poem%from%

the%words%which%are%familiar?%%(Hint:%look%back%at%file%5.3.)%

(b)%Show%the%inflectional%morphemes%that%Ca rroll%used%on%the%morphemes%he% created. %

3.

In%a%movie%called%Funny&Farm ,%a%couple%moves%from%the%city%to%a%farm%and%ends%up% spending%the%first%night%on%the%floor.%%The%next%morning%the%wife%says%to%the%husband,% “What%they%really%mean%when%then%say%‘hardwood%floors’%is%‘hard,%wood%floors.’”%% What%concept%from%syntax%accounts%for%the%humor%in%this%line?%%Explain,%using%tree% diagrams%and%paraphrases. %

*This study guide is due on 7/16*

*This study guide is due on 7/16*

%

4. In%many%languages%of%the%world,%whole%sentences%can%be%expressed%with%a%single% word.%This%is%true%in%Classical%Nahuatl,%the%language%of%the%Aztec%Empire%that%

flourished%in%what%is%now%Mexico%between%1325%and%1522%CE.%In%the%following%

problem,%try%to%divide%each%Nahuatl%word%into%its%various%parts,%and%then%fill%in%the% translations%at%the%end. %

%

Nahuatl%word %

English%Translation%

a.%nicho:ka %

"I%cry."%

b.%nicho:kani %

"I%am%crying."%

c.%ankochinih %

"Y'all%are%sleeping."%

d.%tikochih %

"We%sleep."%

e.%kochiya %

"He%was%sle eping."%

f.%kwi:kas %

"He%will%sing."%

g.%ankochiyah%

"Y'all%were%sleeping."%

h.%nicho:kas %

"I%will%cry."%

i.%cho:kayah%

"They%were%crying."%

j.%tikochi %

"You%sleep."%

k.%ancho:kah %

"Y'all%cry."%

l.%tikochis %

"We%will%sleep."%

m.%ticho:kayah %

"We%were%crying."%

n.%cho:ka %

"He%cries."%

o.%kochini %

"He%is%sleeping."%

p.%ancho:kayah%

"Y'all%were%crying."%

q.%ticho:kanih %

"We%are%crying."%

r.%kwi:kah %

"They%sing."%

%

Translate%the%following%into%English:%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

s.%tikwi:kani%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%

t.%nikwi:kaya%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%

u.%cho:kanih%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

*This study guide is due on 7/16*

*This study guide is due on 7/16*

Now%translate%the%following%English%sentences%into%Classical%Nahuatl:%

%

v.%They%sleep.%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

w.%I%will%sleep.%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

x.%You%will%cry. %

Essential)concepts: )

 

a)

morphology%%

g) allomorph%

b)

bound%vs.%free%morpheme%%

h) lexicon%

c)

stem %

i) compound%

d)

prefix,%suffix,%infix%%

j) reduplication%

e)

inflectional%morpheme%%

k) suppletion%

f)

derivational%morpheme%%

l) open%vs.%closed%class %

*This study guide is due on 7/16*