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Wood-based panels —
Determination of
modulus of elasticity in
bending and of bending

The European Standard EN 310:1993 has the status of a

British Standard

UDC 674.03:620.172.225:620.174
BS EN 310:1993

Cooperating organizations

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN), under whose supervision

this European Standard was prepared, comprises the national standards
organizations of the following countries.

Austria Oesterreichisches Normungsinstitut

Belgium Institut belge de normalisation
Denmark Dansk Standardiseringsraad
Finland Suomen Standardisoimisliito, r.y.
France Association française de normalisation
Germany Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V.
Greece Hellenic Organization for Standardization
Iceland Technological Institute of Iceland
Ireland National Standards Authority of Ireland
Italy Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione
Luxembourg Inspection du Travail et des Mines
Netherlands Nederlands Normalisatie-instituut
Norway Norges Standardiseringsforbund
Portugal Instituto Portuguès da Qualidade
Spain Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación
Sweden Standardiseringskommissionen i Sverige
Switzerland Association suisse de normalisation
United Kingdom British Standards Institution

This British Standard, having

been prepared under the
direction of the Technical Sector
Board for Building and Civil
Engineering (B/-), was
published under the
authority of the Standards
Board and comes
into effect on
15 April 1993
Amendments issued since publication

© BSI 03-1999 Amd. No. Date Comments

The following BSI references

relate to the work on this
Committee reference B/541
Draft for comment 90/15587 DC

ISBN 0 580 21056 1

BS EN 310:1993


Cooperating organizations Inside front cover
National foreword ii
Foreword 2
Text of EN 310 3
National annex NA (informative) Committees responsible Inside back cover
National annex NB (informative) Cross-reference Inside back cover

© BSI 03-1999 i
BS EN 310:1993

National foreword

This British Standard has been prepared under the direction of the Technical
Sector Board for Building and Civil Engineering and is the English language
version of EN 310:1993 Wood-based panels — Determination of modulus of
elasticity in bending and of bending strength, published by the European
Committee for Standardization (CEN).
EN 310 was produced as a result of international discussion in which the UK took
an active part.
The principle of this method is technically equivalent to A.10 and A.12 of
BS 1142:1989 Specification for fibre building boards and to clauses 10 and 11.1
of BS 5669 Particleboard — Part 1:1989 Methods of sampling, conditioning and
test, both of which will be withdrawn in due course.
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity
from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i and ii,
the EN title page, pages 2 to 8, an inside back cover and a back cover.
This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had
amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on
the inside front cover.

ii © BSI 03-1999
February 1993

UDC 674.03:620.172.225:620.174

Descriptors: Wood-based panel, particleboard, plywood, fibreboard, OSB, cement-bonded particleboard, test method, modulus of
elasticity, bending strength

English version

Wood-based panels — Determination of modulus of

elasticity in bending and of bending strength

Panneaux à base de bois — Holzwerkstoffe —

Détermination du module d’élasticité en Bestimmung des Elastizitätsmoduls und der
flexion et de la résistance à la flexion Biegefestigkeit

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1992-12-15. CEN members

are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any
CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French,
German). A version in any other language made by translation under the
responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the
Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and
United Kingdom.

European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels

© 1993 Copyright reserved to CEN members

Ref. No. EN 310:1993 E
EN 310:1993

Foreword Contents
This European Standard was prepared by Working Page
Group 4 “Common test methods” (Secretariat: 1 Scope 3
United Kingdom) of Technical Committee
2 Normative references 3
CEN/TC 112 “Wood-based panels” (Secretariat:
Germany). 3 Principle 3
The text is based on ISO 9429 (at present ISO/DIS) 4 Apparatus 3
which has been elaborated with European 5 Test pieces 3
participation. 6 Procedure 5
This standard is one of a series of standards 7 Expression of results 5
specifying methods of test for determining
dimensions and properties of wood-based panels. 8 Test report 5
Annex A (informative) Bibliography 7
No existing European Standard is superseded.
Figure 1 — Arrangement of the binding
This European Standard shall be given the status of
apparatus 4
a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by Figure 2 — Cross section of tubular boards 4
August 1993, and conflicting national standards Figure 3 — Load-deflection curve within
shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 1994. the range of elastic deformation 6
In accordance with the CEN/CENELEC Internal
Regulations the following countries are bound to
implement this European Standard: Austria,
Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, United Kingdom.

2 © BSI 03-1999
EN 310:1993

1 Scope 4.2.2 A suitable instrument capable of measuring

the deflection of the test piece in the middle of the
This European Standard specifies a method of
span with an accuracy of 0,1 mm.
determining the apparent modulus of elasticity in
flatwise bending and bending strength of 4.2.3 A suitable load measurement system capable
wood-based panels of nominal thickness equal to or of measuring the load applied to the test piece with
greater than 3 mm. an accuracy of 1 % of the measured value.
NOTE Structural design values shall be determined according
to methods according to EN 789. 5 Test pieces
5.1 Sampling and cutting
2 Normative references
Sampling and cutting of the test pieces shall be
This European Standard incorporates by dated or carried out according to EN 326-1. Series of both
undated reference, provisions from other transverse and longitudinal test pieces are required.
publications. These normative references are cited
at the appropriate places in the text and the 5.2 Dimensions of test pieces
publications are listed hereafter. For dated The test pieces shall be rectangular, and of the
references, subsequent amendments to or revisions following dimensions:
of any of these publications apply to this European The width b shall be (50 ± 1) mm.
Standard, only when incorporated in it by In the case of extruded panels, cellular panels, or
amendment or revision. For undated references the
panels of similar structure with cavities parallel to
latest edition of the publication referred to applies.
the length of the test piece, the width of the test
EN 325, Wood-based panels — Determination of piece shall be at least twice the width of an
dimensions of test pieces. individual core element (e.g. two tube diameters
EN 326-1, Wood-based panels — Sampling, cutting plus two web thicknesses) and the test pieces shall
and inspection — Part 1: Sampling and cutting of have a symmetrical cross-sectional area as shown in
test pieces and expression of test results1). Figure 2.
In test pieces with cavities perpendicular to the
3 Principle length, the loading head shall be located directly
The modulus of elasticity in bending and bending above a web.
strength are determined by applying a load to the The length l2 shall be 20 times the nominal
centre of a test piece supported at two points. The thickness plus 50 mm, with a maximum length
modulus of elasticity is calculated by using the slope of 1 050 mm and a minimum length of 150 mm.
of the linear region of the load-deflection curve; the If the deflection of the test piece is large but rupture
value calculated is the apparent modulus, not the (failure) does not occur, the distance between
true modulus, because the test method includes supports shall be reduced for testing the bending
shear as well as bending. The bending strength of strength. The test report shall include the distance
each test piece is calculated by determining the ratio between supports at which failing tests were
of the bending moment M, at the maximum load conducted. If this procedure needs to be adopted, a
Fmax, to the moment of its full cross section. new set of test pieces shall be used.
Plywood test pieces shall be free of visible
4 Apparatus
strength-reducing characteristics.
4.1 Measuring instruments, as specified in EN 325.
5.3 Conditioning
4.2 Testing apparatus (Figure 1), having the
The test pieces shall be conditioned to constant
following essential components.
mass in an atmosphere with a relative humidity
4.2.1 Two parallel, cylindrical, roller-bearing of (65 ± 5) % and a temperature of (20 ± 2) °C.
supports of length exceeding the width of the test Constant mass is considered to be reached when the
piece and of (15 ± 0,5) mm diameter. results of two successive weighing operations,
The distance between the supports shall be carried out at an interval of 24 h, do not differ by
adjustable. more than 0,1 % of the mass of the test piece.
A cylindrical loading head, of the same length
and (30 ± 0,5) mm in diameter, placed parallel to
the supports and equidistant from them.

At present at the draft stage.

© BSI 03-1999 3
EN 310:1993

Figure 1 — Arrangement of the bending apparatus

Figure 2 — Cross section of tubular boards

4 © BSI 03-1999
EN 310:1993

6 Procedure where
6.1 Measure the width and thickness of each test l1 is the distance between the centres of the
piece according to EN 325 at the following points: supports, in millimetres
— the thickness at the intersection of the b is the width of the test piece, in millimetres
diagonals; t is the thickness of the test piece, in
— the width at the mid-length. millimetres
6.2 Adjust the distance between the centres of the F2 – F1 is the increment of load on the straight
supports, to within 1 mm of 20 times the nominal line portion of the load-deflection curve,
thickness of the panel, but not less than 100 mm (Figure 3) in N. F1 shall be
and not more than 1 000 mm. Measure the distance approximately 10 % and F2 shall be
between the centres of the supports to the approximately 40 % of the maximum
nearest 0,5 mm. load
6.3 Place the test piece flat on the supports, with its a2 – a1 is the increment of deflection at the
longitudinal axis at right angles to those of the mid-length of the test piece
supports with the centre point under the load (corresponding to F2 – F1)
(Figure 1).
The modulus of elasticity for each test piece shall be
6.4 The load shall be applied at a constant rate of
expressed to three significant figures.
cross-head movement throughout the test. The rate
of loading shall be adjusted so that the maximum 7.1.2 The modulus of elasticity for each group of test
load is reached within (60 ± 30) s. pieces taken from the same board (6.6) is the
arithmetic mean of the moduli of elasticity of the
Measure the deflection in the middle of the test
appropriate test pieces, expressed to three
piece (below the loading head) to an accuracy
significant figures.
of 0,1 mm and plot these values against the
corresponding loads measured to an accuracy of 1 % 7.2 Bending strength
of the measured value. If deflection is determined by 7.2.1 The bending strength fm (in N/mm2), of each
incremental readings, at least 6 pairs of readings test piece, is calculated from the formula:
shall be used.
3 F max l 1
6.5 Record the maximum load to an accuracy of 1 % f m = -------------------------
of the measured value. 2 bt
6.6 Carry out tests on two groups of test pieces where
according to the two directions of the board, i.e. in Fmax is the maximum load, in newtons
the longitudinal and transverse directions. Within
each group, test half of the test pieces with the “top l1, b, and t are in millimetres as defined in 7.1.1
face” upwards and half with the “bottom face” The bending strength of each test piece shall be
upwards. expressed to three significant figures.
7.2.2 The bending strength for each group of test
7 Expression of results pieces taken from the same board (6.6) is the
7.1 Modulus of elasticity arithmetic mean of the bending strengths of the
7.1.1 The modulus of elasticity Em (in N/mm2), of appropriate test pieces, expressed to three
each test piece, is calculated from the formula: significant figures.
l1 ( F2 – F1 ) 8 Test report
E m = ------------------------------------------
3 As described in EN 326-1.
4 bt ( a 2 – a 1 )

© BSI 03-1999 5
EN 310:1993

Figure 3 — Load-deflection curve within the range of elastic deformation

6 © BSI 03-1999
EN 310:1993

Annex A (informative)
EN 789, Timber structures — Testing of wood-based panels for the determination of mechanical properties
for structural purposes2).
ISO 9429:1987, Wood-based panels — Determination of apparent modulus of elasticity in bending and of
bending strength.

At present at the draft stage.

© BSI 03-1999 7
8 blank
BS EN 310:1993

National annex NA (informative)

Committees responsible
The United Kingdom participation in the preparation of this European Standard was entrusted by the
Technical Sector Board for Building and Civil Engineering (B/-) to Technical Committee B/541, upon which
the following bodies were represented:

American Plywood Association

Association of British Plywood and Veneer Manufacturers
British Woodworking Federation
Chartered Institute of Building
Coordinator for Timber and Timber Products
Council of the Forest Industries of British Columbia
Department of the Environment (Timber Division, Building Research Establishment)
Fibre Building Board Organisation (FIDOR)
Finnish Plywood International
Flat Roofing Contractors’ Advisory Board
Forestry Commission
Furniture Industry Research Association
Institution of Structural Engineers
National Federation of Roofing Contractors
National House-building Council
National Panel Products Association
Royal Institute of British Architects
Timber Research and Development Association
Timber Trade Federation
United Kingdom and Ireland Particleboard Association
Coopted member

National annex NB (informative)

Publication referred to Corresponding British Standard
EN 325:1993 BS EN 325:1993 Wood-based panels — Determination of dimensions of test pieces

© BSI 03-1999
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