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Aerospace Vehicle Design

Dr. Dhayalan. R

Department of Aerospace Engineering,


Indian Institute of Space Science Technology,
Odd Semester, 2018

Dr. Dhayalan. R (Department of Aerospace Engineering,Indian


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Space Science Technology, Odd Semester, 2018) 1 / 175
Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Design Flow Chart

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Conceptual Design

An appropriate starting point at the conceptual level

To select a path forward for the preferred configuration

The preference of configuration is based on the design


requirements

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Conceptual Design - Flow Chart

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Wing Configurations

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Tail and Fuselage Configurations

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Engine and Landing Gear Configurations

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Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Aerospace
Institute
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Space Science Technology, Odd Semester, 2018) 9 / 175
Preliminary Design

The primary objective of this section is to determine a few


fundamental parameters of the aircraft
Maximum Take-off weight, WTO

Wing reference area, Sref or S

Engine Thrust or Power, T or P

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Preliminary Design - Flow Chart

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Estimation of WTO

General Technique
Referring to historical database for the same class of aircraft
under design
The weight fractions are estimated from the available data.
The data to be referred needs to contemporary to get more
meaningful value
Use performance calculations in the later stage to bring more
accuracy

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Estimation of WTO

WTO = WPL + WC + WF + WE

WPL - Payload weight


WC - Crew weight
WF - Fuel weight
WE - Empty weight

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Estimation of WTO

The weight fractions are introduced for fuel and empty weight,
since they both can alter the WTO during the design process.
   
WF WE
WTO = WPL + WC + WTO + WTO
WTO WTO

solving for WTO

W +W
WTO =  PL  C 
1 − WWTO
F
− WWTO
E

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Payload Weight (WPL )

Follow the DGCA regulations to get the average adult weight


for passenger weight calculation.

The number depends on the design requirement.

Include the weight of winter clothes to consider worst-case


scenario.

Luggage and carry-on bags are decided based on the aviation


agency’s regulations and operating cost constraints.

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Crew Weight (WC )

Crew number is decided based on the class of aircraft along


with DGCA regulations.

Depends on the class and size of the aircraft.

Modern cockpit needs less number of crew to operate the


aircraft.

Serving crew decided on the guidelines given by the DGCA.

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Fuel Weight

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Fuel Weight (WF )

WF = WTO − WLanding
WLanding W − WF
= TO
WTO WTO

Converting as segment weight fractions,

WF W
= 1− 6
WTO W1

W6 W W W W W
= 2 3 4 5 6
W1 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5

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Fuel Weight (WF )

Each segment weight fractions needed to be estimated.


Identify the segments where the fuel burnt is negligible
compared with WTO .
Taxi, take-off, climb, descent, approach and landing have less
fuel burnt compared with WTO .
The weight fractions for these segments has to be estimated
from statistics.
For the remaining segments, like cruise/loiter are determined
through calculations from performance equations

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Typical Segment Weight Fractions

The following segments are considered

Mission segment Wi+1 /Wi


Taxi and Take-off, (1-2) 0.98
Climb, (2-3) 0.97
Descent, (4-5) 0.99
Approach and Landing, (5-6) 0.997

Adding extra fuel for safety purposes,


 
WF W6
= 1.05 1 −
WTO W1

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Cruise Weight Fraction

For ease of calculation in the preliminary stage, we use the second


condition, which is Breguet Range Equation
Jet Aircraft
   
V L Wi
Rmax = L/Dmax ln
c D max Wi+1

Propeller Aircraft
L
  
ηP D max Wi
Rmax = ln
c Wi+1

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Cruise Fuel Weight Fraction (WF )

An optimal velocity to fly close to the VL/Dmax is chosen to reduce


trip duration.

VC = 1.32VL/Dmax

The maximum aerodynamic efficiency will also change


accordingly.
  √  
L 3 L
=
D cruise 2 D max

The range equation is modified as


   
VC L Wi
R= ln
c D cruise Wi+1

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Cruise Fuel Weight Fraction (WF )

The cruise weight fraction for jet aircraft is determined as follows


!
Wi + 1 −Rc
= exp
0.866VC DL max

W1

The cruise weight fraction for propeller aircraft is determined as


follows
!
Wi+1 −Rc
= exp
ηP DL max

W1

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L

Typical Values - D max

L

Aircaft Type D max

Glider 20-35
Jet Transport 12-20
GA 10-15
Subsonic Military 8-11
Supersonic Fighter 5-8
Helicopter 2-4
Ultralight 8-15

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Loiter Weight Fraction

Loiter is the phase flight mainly used by aircrafts for missions


like reconnaissance, surveillance and border monitoring.

The loiter is mainly characterized as the flight at a specified


altitude for long duration.

Endurance is used to characterize the loiter.

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Loiter Weight Fraction - Jet Aircraft

Endurance for jet aircraft


L
  
D max Wi
Emax = ln
c Wi+1

The loiter weight fraction is determined as follows


!
Wi+1 −Ec
= exp L

W1 D max

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Loiter Weight Fraction - Propeller Aircraft
Endurance for propeller aircraft

ηP DL Emax
  
Wi
Emax = ln
cVEmax Wi+1

For propeller aircraft,


   
L L
= 0.866
D Emax D max

The loiter weight fraction is determined as follows


!
Wi+1 −EcVEmax
= exp
0.866ηP DL max

W1

Velocity for maximum endurance

VEmax =V Min.Power ≈ 1.2V − 1.4VS S


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Typical Values - Specific Fuel Consumption

Engine Type Cruise Loiter Unit


Turbojet 0.9 0.8 N/Nh
Low-bypass ratio Turbofan 0.7 0.8 N/Nh
High-bypass ratio Turbofan 0.4 0.5 N/Nh
Turboprop 2.98 - 4.77 3.58 - 4.77 N/KWh
Piston (Fixed Pitch) 2.4 - 4.77 2.98 - 4.2 N/KWh
Piston (Variable Pitch) 2.4 - 4.77 2.4 - 4.2 N/KWh

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Empty Weight - WE

The geometry and size are not available during the


preliminary phase.
No detailed mathematical relation of Empty weight to any of
the flight segments.
Use historical and statistical data.
Empirical relation between empty weight and MTOW can be
used to get an initial estimate.

WE
= aWTO + b
WTO

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Empty Weight Fraction

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Steps Involved

1 Flight Mission profile and Mission Segments


2 Crew Weight (WC ) and Payload Weight (WP )
3 Fuel Weight fractions for individual segments (Except
Cruise/Loiter)
4 Fuel Weight Fractions for cruise using expressions derived
!
Wi+1 −Rc
= exp
0.866VC DL max

W1 jet

!
Wi+1 −Rc
= exp L

W1 prop ηP D max

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Steps Involved - Continued
5 Fuel Weight Fractions for cruise using expressions derived
!
Wi+1 −Ec
= exp L

W1 jet D max

!
Wi+1 −EcVEmax
= exp
0.866ηP DL max

W1 prop

6 Establish the overall fuel weight fraction

W6 W W W W W
= 2 3 4 5 6
W1 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5

 
WF W6
= 1.05 1 −
WTO W1
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Steps Involved - Continued

7 Establish the Empty Weight fraction, using the statistical data

WE
= aWTO + b
WTO
8 The equation for MTOW is now used simultaneously with the
above equation to solve for WTO and WWTO
E

W +W
WTO =  PL  C 
1 − WWTO
F
− WWTO
E

WE
The unknowns here are WTO and WTO , with two simultaneous
equations.

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Institute
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Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Wing Area and Engine Sizing

Primary Objectives are to determine


Wing Area, S
Engine Thrust, T/ Power, P
Following Performance requirements are used
Stall Speed, VS
Maximum Speed, Vmax
Maximum Rate of Climb, RCmax
Take-off Distance, STO
Ceiling, hC

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Steps

T W W
Derive the relation between W ( P ) and wing loading, S for all
the performance requirements
Plot the relations in single graph
Identify the acceptable region in the plot
T
/ W W
  
Determine the optimum point ( W D P D, S D) in the
region
The optimum point usually corresponds to the smallest value
of power or thrust.
Using the determined max. take-off weight, WTO , find the
Thrust/Power and Wing Area from the optimum design point.

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Stall Speed
 
W 1
= ρVS 2 CLmax
S VS 2

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Maximum Speed - Jet Engine

aV 2
   
T b W
= Wmax + 2
W Vmax S
Vmax S

where, a = 12 ρCD0 and b = 2Kρ


Zero-lift drag coefficient (CD0 ) can be determined from the
statistical aircraft data.

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Take-off Distance - Jet Engine
CDG
 h
 i
1

T
 µ− µ+ CLR exp 0.6ρgCDG STO W/S
=  
W STO 1
1 − exp 0.6ρgCDG STO W/S

2mg
where, CDG = CDTO − µCLTO , CLR = ρSVR2
Coefficient of friction (µ) chosen from type of the runway.

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Rate of Climb - Jet Engine
 
T ROC 1
=s +
W ROC 2(W/S)
r
(L/D)max
CD
ρ 0
K

The climb is assumed to happening under maximum aerodynamic


efficiency, hence the VClimb = VDmin

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Ceiling - Jet Engine
Absolute Ceiling, hac ; ROCac = 0
Service Ceiling, hsc ; ROCsc = 100 fpm
Cruise Ceiling, hcrc ; ROCcrc = 300 fpm
Combat Ceiling, hcoc ; ROCcoc = 500 fpm
 
W 1
=
S hac (L/D)max

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Jet Engine

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Maximum Speed - Propeller Engine
 
W ηP
= 3
P aVmax b W

Vmax W + Vmax S
( )
S

where, a = 12 ρCD0 and b = 2Kρ


Zero-lift drag coefficient (CD0 ) can be determined from the
statistical aircraft data.

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Take-off Distance - Propeller Engine
 
1
1 − exp 0.6ρgCDG STO W
(S)
 
W ηP
=   
P STO
 CD

1 VTO
µ − µ + CLRG exp 0.6ρgCDG STO
( WS )
2mg
where, CDG = CDTO − µCLTO , CLR = ρSVR2
Coefficient of friction (µ) chosen from type of the runway.

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Rate of Climb - Propeller Engine
 
W 1
= s
P ROC ROC
+ r2 W
 1.155
ηP 3CD S (L/D)max ηP
ρ 0
K

The climb is assumed to happening under Minimum Power


Required, hence the VClimb = VPRmin

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Ceiling - Propeller Engine
 
W 1
=s
P hac r2 W
 1.155
3CD S (L/D)max ηP
ρ 0
K

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Propeller Engine

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Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Wing Design

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Number of Wings

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Wing Position

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High Wing
Disadvantages

Advantages Longitudinally Unstable due


to wing position
Cargo loading and unloading
is easier Lesser ground effect, large
take-off run
Higher Engine Clearance
Landing gear installation is
Facilitates strut installation complicated
Increase in Dihedral effect Difficult view in
(Laterally Stable) higher-than-horizon for pilot
More lift due to less Higher Induced Drag
interference on wing lift
Downwash higher at the
Better view in horizontal tail
lower-than-horizon for pilot
Lesser Lateral control
Heavier structure

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Low Wing

Advantages
Better Take-off performance
Better view in Disadvantages
higher-than-horizon for pilot Less lift due to wing-body
Ease in landing gear retraction interference
Lighter Structure Higher Stall speed
Lesser induced drag Lesser dihedral effect, laterally
Better lateral control less stable
Tail is more effective due to Larger landing run, due to less
less downwash CLmax
Longitudinally Stable due to
wing position

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Mid Wing and Parasol Wing

Mid Wing
Advantages Disadvantages
Features in between high and Wing has to cut into two
low wing halves
Aerodynamically streamed Higher weight to
than the high and low wing reinforcement of wing root
Less interference Manufacturing is costly

Parasol Wing
Similar to high wing, but with extra strut to support the wing. Usually
this configuration is used in hang gliders and amphibian aircraft.

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Selection Table

Design Weight (%) High Low Mid Parasol


Objectives Wing Wing Wing Wing
Stability 20
Control 15
Cost 10
Production 10
Operations 40
Other 5
Summation 100 83 96 64 68

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High Lift Devices

To maximize the payload weight


Minimize the stall speed
Used to maximize the capability of the wing to generate lift
Only in-flight method to maximize lift
Utilized mainly during the take-off and landing of the aircraft
Airworthiness standards specify the relationship between stall
speed and take-off/landing speeds. A general rule followed

VTO = k ∗ VS

k = 1.1, for fighter aircraft


k = 1.2, for jet transport and GA aircrafts

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High Lift Devices

Cl is increased
Cm is changed
Clmax is increased
Cd is increased
α0 is changed
Clα is increased
Stall angle, αs is changed

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High Lift Devices

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CLmax during landing and take off

Aircraft Take-off Landing


Cessna 172 1.5 2.1
Piper Cherokee 1.3 1.74
Short Skyvan 3 2.07 2.71
Gulfstream II 1.4 1.8
DC-9 1.9 2.4
Boeing 727 2.35 2.75
Airbus 300 2.7 3
Learjet 25 1.37 1.37

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HLD - Trailing Edge Flaps - 1
Plain Flap Split Flap

Implemented by rotating the Bottom surface of flap is


wing trailing edge hinged
Increases lift by modifying the Less change in pitching
effective camber moment
Simple in design and Produces more drag
manufacturing Employed mainly in the 30s
Employed in smaller and and 50s.
cheaper aircrafts

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HLD - Trailing Edge Flaps - 2
Single-slotted Flap Double-slotted Flap

Modify and stabilize the LE


boundary layer Similar to single slotted flap
Increases effective chord and Doubles the advantages
effective wing area Higher cost and complex
Higher lift than plain and split fabrication
flap Employed mainly in modern
Higher cost, more complex turboprop and jet transport
fabrication aircrafts
Employed in modern light GA
aircrafts
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HLD - Trailing Edge Flaps - 3

Triple-slotted Flap Fowler Flap

Three slots Deflects downward while


More complex design and tracks the trailing edge of the
fabrication wing
Lift increment is highest Increases the exposed wing
Higher cost area, more lift and modifies Clα
Employed in heavy transport Can be combined with double
aircrafts and triple slotted flaps

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HLD - Leading Edge Flaps
Leading edge Flap Leading edge slat

Highly cambered section


employed forward of the LE
Its a LE flap but with an
Plain flap installed at the
unsealed gap, when deployed
leading edge
A secondary flow takes place
Increases the effective camber
between slat and wing LE
by pivoting the leading edge
Delays the flow separation
Wing α0 is shifted to right
over the wing
Lift increment is low
Lower lift increment
Employed in Modern jet
aircrafts
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HLD - Leading Edge Flaps

Kruger Flap

A thinner leading edge slat


Useful for thinner wing sections

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HLD - Lift Increment

High Lift Device ∆CL


Plain Flap 0.7-0.9
Split flap 0.7-0.9
Fowler Flap 1-1.3
Slotted Flap 1.3 cf /c
Double-slotted Flap 1.6 cf /c
Tripl-slotted Flap 1.9 cf /c
Leading Edge Flap 0.2-0.3
Leading Edge Slat 0.3-0.4
Kruger Flap 0.3-0.4

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HLD - Parameters

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HLD - Design Parameters

Location along the wing span

Type

Chord, cf

Span, bf

Max deflection, δfmax

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Sweep Angle, Λ

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Sweep Angle, Λ

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Outcome of Sweep

Improved aerodynamic characteristics for high speed aircafts

Adjustment in center of gravity

Improved lateral stability

Impact in longitudinal and directional stability

Better view for pilot (mainly for fighter aircrafts)

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Sweep - Selection

Low Subsonic Aircraft:


If Mach number is less than 0.3, no sweep angle is needed
It adds less complexity in manufacturing, hence less cost
High Subsonic and Supersonic Aircraft:
Initial value can be estimated using the Mach angle relation
 
1
µ = sin−1
M
Λ = 1.2 ∗ (90 − µ)

The final value will be obtained from the total analysis of the
aerodynamic characteristics
It adds complexity in designing and fabricating the
wing-fuselage interference, hence more cost

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Dihedral Angle, Γ

Dihedral Anhedral

No Gust After Gust

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Advantages and Disadvantages
Dihedral Anhedral
Improved lateral/roll control
Improved lateral stability The other wing parameters
(sweep angle and vertical
Ease in handling side winds
position) contribute to the
More spiral-stability lateral stability
More ground clearance for a Improves the high wing
low wing configuration advantages with better control
Larger control force need for a Introduced to reduce the
roll motion dihedral effect from sweep
angle in military aircrafts

The initial values taken from the data of similar class of


aircafts, but ultimately decided from stability and control
analysis.

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Typical values of dihedral angle, Λ◦

Wing Low Mid High Parasol


Wing Wing Wing Wing
5 to 10 3 to 6 -4 to -10 -5 to -12
Unswept
Low-Subsonic 2 to 5 -3 to 3 -3 to -6 -4 to -8
Swept
High-Subsonic 3 to 8 -4 to 2 -5 to -10 -6 to -12
Swept
Supersonic 0 to -3 1 to -4 0 to -5 NA
Swept
Hypersonic 1 to 0 0 to -1 -1 to -2 NA
Swept

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Aspect Ratio, AR

The aspect ratio of a wing is defined as the ratio of square of the


wing span to its planform area. For a rectangular wing, it
transforms to the ratio of span to the chord of the wing.

b2
AR =
S
b
ARrec =
c

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Aspect Ratio, AR

Aspect ratio signifies the aerodynamic characteristics of a 3-D


wing
Its variation changed the aerodynamic features significantly
As AR is increased, the following changes happen
CLα and CLmax increase
αS and CDi decreases
L
D increases
Downwash effect on horizontal tail decreases
Aileron arm increases, leading to increased roll control
IX increases, leading to less manoeuvrability
Wing stiffness reduces, as AR increases, leading to dropping of
wing tip during take-off and rising during high speeds.
High strength is need for high er AR wings, leading to more
manufacturing cost

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Aspect Ratio - Typical values

Type Aspect Ratio


Hang Glider 4-8
Glider 20-40
Home-built 4-7
General Aviation 5-9
Jet trainer 4-8
Low-subsonic Transport 6-9
High-subsonic Transport 8-12
Supersonic Fighter 2-4
Tactical Missile 0.3-1
Hypersonic aircraft 1-3

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Taper Ratio, λ
Taper ratio is defined as the ratio of tip chord to the root chord.
ct
λ=
cr

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Taper Ratio - Lift Distribution
Used to modify the span-wise lift distribution of the wing
Reduce the weight of the wing
IX reduces considerably due to tapered wing
Lift at the tip section is lesser, leading to reduced induced drag
Increases manufacturing cost

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Mean Aerodynamic Chord, c̄

Mean Aerodynamic chord (MAC) is the chord on the wing mainly


used to determine the aerodynamic center of the wing.

2 b/2
Z
c̄ = (c(y))2 dy
S 0
1 + λ + λ2
 
2
c̄ = cr
3 1+λ

The second equation is used for trapezoidal planform


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MAC span-wise location

2 b/2
Z
yMAC = (c(y) ∗ y) dy
S 0
 
b 1 + 2λ
yMAC =
6 1+λ

The second equation is used for trapezoidal planform

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Lift and Load Distributions

Eliptic Wing

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Lift and Load Distributions

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Airfoils - Nomenclature

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Center of Pressure

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Lift vs angle of attack

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Stall behaviour

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Pitching Moment

Cmc/4 vs α

Cma.c vs Cl
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Drag

Cd vs Cl Cd vs Cl (Laminar Airfoil)

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Aerodynamic Efficiency

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Airfoils - Selection Criteria

 
Cl
Highest : Clmax , Clα , Cd max
Lowest : Cdmin , Cm
Proper stall behaviour
Enough thick to place the spars

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Airfoils - NACA
Four Digits: NACA 4412
First digit: Maximum camber is 0.04c
Second digit: Position of the maximum camber is at 0.4c
Last two digits : (t/c)max is 0.12c
Five Digits: NACA 23012
First digit: 2/3 of the design lift in tenths; the design lift for this
is 0.3.
Second digit: Position of the maximum camber is at
0.3/2 = 0.15c
Last two digits : (t/c)max is 0.12c
Six Digits: NACA 653 -418
First digit: Series Designation
Second digit: Minimum pressure ar 0.5c
Subscript: The drag minimum coefficient is over a range of 0.3
above and below the design Cl
Third digit: Design lift coefficient is 0.4
Last two digits : (t/c)max is 0.12c

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Airfoils - NACA

NACA 4 series

NACA 5 series

NACA
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Airfoils - Data

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Steps for Airfoil selection
Determine average aircraft weight in cruise condition

1 
Wavg = Wi + Wf
2
Calculate ideal cruise lift coefficient, CLc

2Wavg
CLc =
ρVc2 S

Calculate the wing cruise lift coefficient, CLcw

CLc
CLcw =
0.95
Calculate the wing airfoil ideal lift coefficient, Cli

CLcw
Cli =
0.9
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Steps for Airfoil selection ...
Calculate the aircraft maximum lift coefficient, CLmax

2WTO
CLmax =
ρ0 VS2 S

Calculate the wing maximum lift coefficient, CLwmax

CLmax
CLwmax =
0.95
Calculate gross airfoil maximum lift coefficient, Clgrossmax

CLwmax
Clgrossmax =
0.9
Identify the HLD type and determine its lift contribution,
∆ClHLD

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Steps for Airfoil selection ...

Calculate the wing airfoil maximum lift coefficient, Clmax

Clmax = Clgrossmax − ∆ClHLD

Identify the airfoil that delivers the Cli and Clmax


If the aircraft is designed for high subsonic aircraft, select the
thinnest airfoil
Collect the Cli and Clmax and plot.

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Cli Vs Clmax

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Selection Table

Design Weight Airfoil Airfoil Airfoil Airfoil


Objectives % 1 2 3 4
Cdmin 25
Cm0 15
αs 15
α0 10
(Cl /Cd )max 10
Clα 5
Stall Type 20
Summation 100 83 96 64 68

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Wing Twist

Geometric Twist Aerodynamic Twist

Lift Distribution
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Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Tail Design
Need for Tail
Equilibrium: Trim Flight
Stability: Static and Dynamic
Control

Horizontal Tail: Longitudinal Trim and Dynamics

∑ FX = 0
∑ FZ = 0
∑ Mcg = 0
Vertical Tail: Directional (-Lateral) Trim and Dynamics

∑ FY = 0
∑ Ncg = 0
(∑ Lcg = 0)
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Static Stability Conditions

Cm vs α Cm vs α

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Typical Values

Mode Requirement Derivative Typical Value


Static Cm α -0.3 to -1.5
Longitudinal ¯
Static N̄0 − XC.G 0.1 - 0.3
Stability
Dynamic Cmq -5 to -40
Directional Static Cn β 0.05 - 0.4
Stability Dynamic Cnr -0.1 to -1

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Tail Configurations

Aft HT, 1 VT Aft HT, 2 VT Canard HT, 1 VT

Canard HT, 2 VT Canard and Aft HT Wing Alone with


VT

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Aft Tail Configurations

Conventional T-Tail Cruicifrom H-Tail

V-tail Y-Tail Twin VT Boom Mounted

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Deep Stall

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Location of the tail

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Prop Wash

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Tail Setting Configurations

Fixed Adjustible

All moving

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Aircraft V¯H V̄v
Gliders 0.6 0.03
Home-built 0.5 0.04
GA, Single Prop engine 0.7 0.04
GA, Twin Prop engine 0.8 0.07
GA with canard 0.6 0.05
Agricultural 0.5 0.04
Twin Turboprop 0.9 0.08
Jet Trainer 0.7 0.06
Fighter Aircraft .4 0.07
Fighter with canard 0.1 0.06
Military Transport 1 0.08
Jet Transport 1.1 0.9

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Stability Parameters

  
l St de
Cm α = awf (X̄CG − X̄AC ) − at ηt − X̄CG 1−
c̄S dα
 
St l
Cm0 = Cm0wf + CL0w (X̄CG − X̄AC ) − at ηt − X̄CG (α + it − e0 )
S c̄
 

Cnβ = Kf av 1 − ηv Vv

Dr. Dhayalan. R (Department of Aerospace Engineering,Indian


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Design Steps
Choose Tail Configuration
Select Tail volume ratio, (VH or Vv )
Find optimum tail moment arm, (lopt ), Same for lv
Fix the initial C.G location
Calculate CLt in case of Horizontal Tail
Choose airfoil section based on CLt for HT
In case of VT, choose the airfoil for higher CLαv
Select geometric parameters, λ, Λ, Γ, AR
Determine αt and tail incidence angle, it
Calculate the lift for the above parameters for HT
Find Cmα and Cm0 for HT
Find Cnβ and for VT
Analyze the dynamic stability conditions for both the cases

Dr. Dhayalan. R (Department of Aerospace Engineering,Indian


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Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Dr. Dhayalan. R (Department of Aerospace Engineering,Indian
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Functional Analysis

Functions Description
Features
Primary Function Accommodate the payload
Accommodate crew members
Accommodate flight attendants and
Secondary Function other technical personnel
Space for landing gears and engine
Room for systems
Structural Arm for empennage
Lower drag and low weight
Enough comfort for crew, passenger and pilots
Carry structural loads
Desired features External symmetry
Effective loading and unloading
Safety against environmental hazards

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Design Requirements

Accommodation
Operational and mission
Airworthiness, Crash-worthiness
Aerodynamic and Aircraft Stability
Low weight, Low wetted and side area
Symmetry, Strength and Structural integrity
Manufacturability and maintainability
Cost, durability and radar detectability

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Generic Fuselage configurations

Large Transport Fighter

Light GA aircraft Glider

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Internal Arrangement

Low-wing passenger

Fighter Aircraft
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Cockpit Design

Number of Pilots and Crew


Mission
Comfort/Hardship level
Pilot personal equipment
Control Equipment
Measurement Equipment
Automation
External constraints

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Measurement panel
Air temperature indicator
Clock with digital presentation
Direction indicator
Airspeed indicator
Altimeter
Rate of climb indicator
Rate of turn indicator
Bank and Pitch indicator
Direction Indicator
Speed Warning device
Machmeter
GPS
Engine Instruments
Weather radar
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Core panel

Core panel

Cessna Boeing B-757


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Cockpit for Large transport aircraft

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Cockpit for Fighter aircraft

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Passenger Cabin

Seat adjust-ability, legroom and headroom


Aisle room
Lavatories, wash-rooms and lounges
Flight attendant services
Air conditioning and pressurization
Interiors - Light, sound and entertainment
Number of flight attendants

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Cabin Parameters
Seat Pitch, PS
Seat Width, WS
Aisle Width, WA

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Cabin Recommendations

Table: Dimensions in cm

Transport Aircraft
Cabin GA
Economy First Class
Parameter Aircraft
High Density Tourist
Seat Width, WS 38-43 42-46 48-55 60-75
Seat Pitch, PS 55-65 65-72 75-86 92-104
Headroom 120-130 150-160 160-170 170-185
Aisle Width, WA 35-40 40-50 43-53 60-70
Seat-back 10-13 13-17 15-20 20-30
angle (deg)

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Seating Chart

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Cabin - Top view

3
LC = ∑ ∑ nr i
 PSi
i−1
WC = nS  WS + nA  WA

Diameter of the cross-section is determined from WC


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Cargo Section

VC = nt  Vb

Vb is the baggage volume of each traveller, with the limit of 158 cm of


combined dimension of length, width and height of the baggage.
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Cargo containers

Container Width Height Depth Volume Max. Load


(in.) (in.) (in.) (ft3 ) (lb)
LD1 92 64 60 173 3500
LD2 61.5 64 47 120 1200
LD3 79 64 60.4 159 3500
LD6 160 64 60.4 316 7000
LD7 125 64 80 381 13300
LD8 125 64 60.4 243 5400

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Cargo Arrangements

W2
 
1
Vbottom = π C LC
2 4

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Optimum length to diameter ratio

Lowest zero-lift drag


Lowest wetted area
Lightest fuselage
Maximum internal volume
Lowest mass moment of inertia
Better aircraft stability
Lower fabrication cost

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Swetf
CD0−f = Cf fld fM
Sref
 
60 l
fld = 1 + 3
+ 0.0025
(l/d) d
Finding the minimum of fld yields,
(l/d)opt = 16.3

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Df = WC + 2TW
Lf = LC + LCP + LN + LR
r
4Across
Dequ =
π

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Fuselage Internal Segments
Water drainage and pipe lines
Fuel Tanks
−RcT
  
mf = 1.2  mTO 1 − exp
V (L/D)
−Rc
  
mf = 1.2  mTO 1 − exp
ηP (L/D)

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Fuselage Internal Segments
Radar dish

Wing box

Power Transmission systems


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Aerodynamic Considerations

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Area Ruling

Area Rule Modifications

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Fuselage Rear Section

Upsweep Angle

C-17 Globemaster Boeing 777-300

F-16 Falcon Cessna 172

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Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Functional Analysis

Category Function
Primary Function Generate Propulsive force
Secondary Function Generate power/energy for subsystems
such as hydraulic and electric systems
Stability contributing
Comfort reduction due to noise
Comfort compromise due to heat exchange
Contributing Functions Safety compromise in case of
one engine inoperative
Operating Cost
Structural Impact due to vibrations

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Design Requirements

Aircraft Performance and Stability


Operational and manufacturing cost
Weight and Size constraints
Flight Safety
Efficiency
Heat exchange, Noise and vibrations
Passenger comfort/appeal
Manufacturability and maintainability
Stealth and installation constraints

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Classification

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Absolute Ceiling and Flight Mach Number

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Propulsive Efficiency

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Specific Fuel Consumption

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Engine Weight

Engine Type Specific Weight


Piston Engine 1.5 lb/hp
Turboprop Engine 0.4 lg/hp
Turbofan Engine 0.2 lb/lb
Turbojet Engine 0.3 lb/lb

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Other Considerations

Passenger Appeal
Noise and Vibration
Engine Maintainability
Engine Size
Production Cost

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Engine Location and Considerations
Buried
Fuselage nose
Fuselage main section
Rear Fuselage
Wing
Podded
Over the wing
On the wing tip
Under the wing
Over the Fuselage
Rear section of the fuselage

Under Wing Over Wing On the Wing


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Podded vs. Buried

Podded Buried

Podded Bending Moment

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Pusher vs. Tractor

Podded Buried

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Twin Jet Engine

Under the wing Rear-Fuselage

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Engine Installation - Propeller Engine

Prop-Drive Rear-Fuselage

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Engine Installation - Jet Engine

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Outline

1 Conceptual Design

2 Preliminary Design

3 Wing Area and Engine Sizing

4 Wing Design

5 Tail Design

6 Fuselage Design

7 Propulsion Design

8 Control Surfaces

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Design of Control Surfaces

Primary Control Surfaces Secondary Control Surfaces

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Conventions

Control Surface Deflection Convention Resulting Moment


Elevator, δe +ve : Down Nose down,
−ve Pitching moment
Aileron, δa +ve : Right aileron up Right wing down,
+ve Rolling moment
Rudder, δr +ve - Left Right Wing back,
−ve Yawing moment

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Design Process

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Handling Qualities
Qualities of an aircraft which govern the ease and precision with which a
pilot is able to perform his mission

Quantification of pilot effort to handle the aircraft for a


particular mission
Study and evaluation of stability and control characteristics of
the aircraft
Levels of Quality are defined based on class and phase of the
flight
The interaction between pilot and the his aircraft is very
crucial in terms of safety
The pilot effort and experience is quantified by the dynamic
characteristics
Time constant, Damping ratio, un-damped natural frequency

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Aircraft Classes

Class Aircraft Characteristics


I Small, Light Aircraft with low maneuverability
(Max. take-off mass less than 6000 kg)
II Medium weight and low-to-medium maneuverability
(Max. take-off mass between 6000 - 30000 kg)
III Large , heavy and low-to-medium maneuverability
(Max. take-off mass more than 30000 kg)
IV Highly Maneuverable
(Acrobatic and Fighter Aircraft, Missiles)

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Flight Phases

Category Flight operations

(i) Air-to-air combat (CO); (ii) Ground attack (GA)


(iii) Weapon Delivery/Launch (WD); (iv) Aerial Recovery (AR)
A (v) In-flight Refuelling receiver (RR); (vi) Terrain Following (TR)
(vii) Anti-submarine Search (AS); (viii) Close Formation Flying (FF)
(ix) Low-Altitude Parachute Extraction system delivery (LAPSES)

(i) Climb (CL); (ii) Cruise (CR); (iii) Loiter (LO); (iv) Descent (D)
B (v) In-flight Refuelling Tanker (RT); (vi) Aerial Delivery (AD);
(vii) Emergency Descent (ED); (viii) Emergency Deceleration (DE)

C (i) Take-off (TO) ; (ii) Catapult Take-off (CT); (iii) Powered Approach (PA)
(iv) Wave-off/ Go-around (WO); (v) Landing (L)

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Levels of Acceptability

Level Definition
1 Flying qualities clearly adequate for mission flight phase
Flying qualities adequate to accomplish mission flight phase,
2 but some increase in pilot qorkload or degradation
in mission effectiveness, or both, exists
Flying qualities such that the airplane can be controlled safely,
but pilot workload is excessive or mission effectiveness
3 is inadequate, or both. Category A flight phases can be
terminated safely, Category B and C flight phases
can be completed

Level Interpretation Pilot Comfort Level


1 Very Comfortable 1-3
2 Hardly Comfortable 4-6
3 Uncomfortable 7-10

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Longitudinal Dynamics

Short Period

Phugoid
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Longitudinal Control

Aircraft Type Rotation time Angular Acceleration


(s) (deg/s2 )
Highly Manueverable 0.2 -0.7 12-20
Utility GA 1-2 10-15
Normal GA 1-3 8-10
Small Transport 2-4 6-8
Large Transport 3-5 4-6
UAV 1-2 10-15

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Longitudinal Requirement
Level of Acceptability Requirement
1 ζ ph ≥ 0.04
2 ζ ph ≥ 0.0
3 t2a 55 seconds
Phugoid

Short-Period Damping ratio (ζ s )


Flight Phase Level 1 Level 2 Level 2
Min Max Min Max Min Max
A 0.35 1.3 0.25 2.0 0.15 NIL
B 0.3 2.0 0.2 2.0 0.15 NIL
C 0.35 1.3 0.25 2.0 0.15 NIL
Short Period

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Lateral-Directional Dynamics

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Lateral-Directional Dynamics - Dutch-Roll

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Roll Control
Flight Phase
Level A B C
T to 60◦ T to 45◦ T to 30◦
Class I
1 1.3 1.7 1.3
2 1.7 2.5 1.8
3 2.6 3.4 2.6

Flight Phase
Level Runway A B C C
T to 60◦ T to 45◦ T to 30◦ T to 25◦
1 Land 1.4 1.9 1.8 -
Class II Carrier 1.4 1.9 2.5 -
2 Land 1.9 2.8 3.6 -
Carrier 1.9 2.8 - 1.0
3 Land 2.8 3.8 - 1.5
Carrier 2.8 3.8 - 2.0

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Roll Control

Flight Phase
Level Speed Range A B C
Low 1.8 2.3 2.5
1 Medium 1.5 2.0 2.5
Class III High 2.0 2.3 2.5
Low 2.4 3.9 4.0
2 Medium 2.0 3.3 4.0
High 2.5 3.9 4.0
3 All 3.0 5.0 6.0
Time to achieve 30◦ bank angle

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Roll Control
Flight Phase
Level Speed A B C
30◦ 50◦ 90◦ 90◦ 30◦
Very Low 1.1 - - 2.0 1.1
Low 1.1 - - 1.7 1.1
1
Medium - - 1.3 1.7 1.1
High - 1.1 - 1.7 1.1
Class IV Very Low 1.6 - - 2.8 1.3
Low 1.5 - - 2.5 1.3
2
Medium - - 1.7 2.5 1.3
High - 1.3 - 2.5 1.3
Very Low 2.6 - - 3.7 2.0
Low 2.0 - - 3.4 2.0
3
Medium - - 2.6 3.4 2.0
High - 2.6 - 3.4 2.0

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Directional Control

Sufficiently sensitive to pilot input


Enough to meet the force requirements without high pedal forces
Should be easy enough to control in presence of the asymmetric
thrust and cross-winds
Must possible to take-off and land with normal pilot skill and
technique in 90◦

Level Class Cross-Wind


I 20 knots
1
II,III and IV 30 knots
I 20 knots
2
II,III and IV 30 knots
3 I,II,III and IV 10 knots

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Lateral-Directional requirement
Flight Phase Aircraft Class TR
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
I,IV 1.0 1.4 10
A
II,III 1.4 3.0 10
B All 1.4 3.0 10
I,IV 1.0 1.4 10
C
II,III 1.4 3.0 10
Roll Mode

Class Flight Phase Min. Time to double the amplitude


Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
A 12 8 4
I & IV
B&C 20 8 4
B All 1.4 3.0 10
II & III A, B, C 20 8 4
Spiral Mode
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Lateral-Directional requirement

Level Flight Phase Aircraft Class Min. ζ d Min ζ d ωnd Min ωnd
A I, IV 0.19 0.35 1
A II, III 0.19 0.35 0.4
1 B All 0.08 0.15 0.4
C I,II, IV 0.08 0.15 1
C III 0.08 0.15 0.4
2 All All 0.02 0.05 0.4
3 All All 0.02 No limit 0.4
Dutch-Roll Mode

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