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ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169

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ISA Transactions
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/isatrans

PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt active power filter — A report
Karuppanan P ∗ , Kamala Kanta Mahapatra
Department of Electronics and Communication, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769 008, India

article info abstract


Article history: This paper presents a shunt Active Power Filter (APF) for power quality improvements in terms of
Received 8 March 2011 harmonics and reactive power compensation in the distribution network. The compensation process is
Received in revised form based only on source current extraction that reduces the number of sensors as well as its complexity.
11 September 2011
A Proportional Integral (PI) or Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is used to extract the required reference
Accepted 12 September 2011
Available online 5 October 2011
current from the distorted line-current, and this controls the DC-side capacitor voltage of the inverter. The
shunt APF is implemented with PWM-current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and the switching
Keywords:
patterns are generated through a novel Adaptive-Fuzzy Hysteresis Current Controller (A-F-HCC). The
Active power filter proposed adaptive-fuzzy-HCC is compared with fixed-HCC and adaptive-HCC techniques and the superior
PI-controller features of this novel approach are established. The FLC based shunt APF system is validated through
Fuzzy logic controller extensive simulation for diode-rectifier/R–L loads.
Adaptive-fuzzy hysteresis current © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
controller
Harmonic currents

1. Introduction one is reference current extraction from the distorted line-current


and another is the PWM-current controller to generate switching
Recently a lot of research is being encouraged for power quality patterns for inverter [16,17]. Many control strategies are proposed
and custom power problems in the distribution system due to in the literature to extract the harmonic components. However,
non-linear loads [1,2]. In practical application most of the loads the conventional PI controller requires precise linear mathematical
are non-linear, such as power converters, SMPS, arc furnaces, UPS model of the system, which is difficult to obtain under parameter
and ASDs [3]. These non-linear loads are introducing harmonic variations and non-linear load disturbances. Another drawback of
distortion and reactive power problems [4]. The harmonics in the system is that the proportional and integral gains are chosen
the system induce several undesirable issues, such as increased heuristically [18,19]. Recently, Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) have
heating losses in transformers, low power factor, torque pulsation been used in various power electronic applications and also in ac-
in motors, poor utilization of distribution plant and also affects tive power filters [20,21]. The advantage of FLCs over the conven-
other loads connected at the same Point of Common Coupling tional controllers is that it does not need an accurate mathematical
(PCC) [5,6]. In recent times Active Power Filters (APFs) or Active model. It can handle nonlinearity and is more robust than conven-
tional PI or PID controllers [22,23].
Power-Line Conditioners (APLCs) are developed for compensating
Similarly, various current control techniques are proposed
the harmonics and reactive power simultaneously [7,8]. The APF
for APF inner current control loop, such as triangular current
topology can be connected in series or shunt and combinations
controller, sinusoidal-PWM, periodical-sampling controller and
of both (unified power quality conditioners) as well as hybrid
hysteresis current controller [24,25]. The Hysteresis Current
configurations [9,10]. The shunt active filter is most popular than
Controller (HCC) method attracts researchers’ attention due to
the series active filter, because most of the industrial applications
unconditional stability and simple implementation [26]. However,
required the current harmonics compensation [11,12].
this control scheme exhibits several unsatisfactory features such
The controller is the most significant part of the active power fil- as uneven switching frequency where the switching frequency
ter and currently various control strategies are proposed by many varies within a particular band limit [27]. Adaptive-HCC (A-HCC)
researchers [13–15]. There are two major parts of the controller, overcomes these fixed-HCC demerits. The adaptive-HCC changes
the bandwidth according to instantaneous compensation current
variation [28–31]. However, the adaptive-HCC is having more
∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9442704585; fax: +91 661 2462999. switching losses due to high frequency switching. These problems
E-mail addresses: karuppanan1982@gmail.com (K. P), kkm@nitrkl.ac.in can be overcome by the proposed Adaptive-Fuzzy-HCC (A-F-HCC)
(K.K. Mahapatra). in this paper. We focus on an adaptive-fuzzy-hysteresis current
0019-0578/$ – see front matter © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.isatra.2011.09.004
164 K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169

Fig. 2. Block diagram of the control strategy.

Fig. 1. Shunt active power filter system.


The instantaneous load power can be computed from the source
voltage and load current and the calculation is given as
control scheme, where the hysteresis-bandwidth is calculated
with the help of fuzzy logic [32–34]. This controller maintains pL (t ) = is (t )∗ vs (t )
the modulation frequency constant that facilitates reduction of = Vm sin2 ωt ∗ cos ϕ1 + Vm I1 sin ωt ∗ cos ωt ∗ sin ϕ1
switching loss. Furthermore, uneven switching does not occur 



that facilitates reduction in the high frequency ripples in the + Vm sin ωt ∗
In sin(nωt + Φn )
compensating current as well as load current. Therefore this n =2
control strategy for inner current loop improves the PWM–VSI
= pf (t ) + pr (t ) + ph (t ). (4)
performance and makes APF substantially.
This paper presents a shunt APF that uses PI or fuzzy logic This load power contains fundamental (active power), reactive
controller for reference current extraction. The active filter is power and harmonic power. From this Eq. (4), the real (fundamen-
implemented with VSI and switching patterns are generated tal) power drawn from the load is
from the proposed novel adaptive-fuzzy-HCC. The shunt APF
system is validated through extensive simulation under non- pf (t ) = Vm I1 sin2 ωt ∗ cos ϕ1 = vs (t )∗ is (t ). (5)
linear load conditions. Comparative assessments of the different If the active power filter provides the total reactive and harmonic
PWM-current controller are presented. In Section 2, the design of power, the source current is (t ) will be in phase with the utility
shunt APF system architecture is presented. Section 3 describes voltage and sinusoidal. The three-phase source currents after
about control strategies for reference current extraction and PWM- compensation can be expressed as
current controller proficiencies. Section 4, system performance has
been modeled and analyzed from the obtained results under non- i∗sa (t ) = pf (t )/vs (t ) = I1 cos ϕ1 sin ωt
linear load conditions. Finally, Section 5 describes the conclusions = Imax sin ωt . (6)
of this work.
Similarly,
2. Design of shunt APF system i∗sb = Imax sin(ωt − 120°) (7)

Shunt APF is connected in the distribution-grid at PCC through i∗sc = Imax sin(ωt + 120°). (8)
filter inductance that is shown in Fig. 1. The filter inductance This peak value of the reference current Imax is estimated by
suppresses the harmonics caused by the switching operation of the regulating the DC-bus capacitor voltage of the inverter using PI or
power inverter. The current harmonic compensation is achieved by fuzzy logic controller.
injecting equal but opposite current harmonic components at PCC,
there by canceling the original distortion and improving the power 3. Control strategies
quality on the connected power distribution system [8].
The instantaneous source current is represented as The block diagram of the proposed control system is shown in
is (t ) = iL (t ) − ic (t ). (1) Fig. 2 that consists of two parts. One is reference current extraction
controller using unit current vector along with PI or fuzzy logic
The instantaneous source voltage is controller. Another is PWM-current controlled voltage source
vs (t ) = Vm sin ωt . (2) inverter switching control method using fixed-HCC or adaptive-
HCC or adaptive-fuzzy-HCC.
The nonlinear load current contains the fundamental component
and harmonic current components, which is represented as [20] 3.1. Reference current extraction controller


iL (t ) = In sin(nωt + Φn ) The reference current is extracted from distorted line-current
n=1 using unit current vector with PI or FLC. Conventional PI and PID


 controllers have been used to estimate the required reference
current, and to control the dc-bus capacitor voltage of the

= I1 sin(ωt + Φ1 ) + In sin(nωt + Φn ) . (3)
n =2
inverter [18,19]. When load is non-linear or reactive, it is
K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169 165

expected that the supply will supply only the active fundamental
component of the load current and the compensator would supply
the harmonic/reactive component. The outer voltage loop will
try to maintain the capacitor voltage nearly constant which is
also a mandatory condition for the successful operation of the
APF. The system losses are provided by the source in steady
state. The compensator supplies the harmonic power, which
manifests itself only on the reactive component of power. In
the transient conditions the load changes are reflected in the dc
capacitor voltage as an increase (or decrease) as capacitor absorbs
(or delivers) the excess (or deficit) power. This conservation
of energy philosophy is used to obtain the reference current
for compensator in this method. The perturbations in the
capacitor voltage are related to the perturbations in the average Fig. 3. Fuzzy logic controller.
power drawn by the non-linear load. This property is utilized
which facilitates extracting compensator reference and maintains Table 1
capacitor voltage nearly constant. This control algorithm is based Rule base table.
on sensing source current only (no need to sense load currents and e(n) ce(n)
compensation currents) that reduces sensors and complexity. NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NB NM NS ZE
3.1.1. Unit current vector NM NB NB NB NM NS ZE PS
NS NB NB NM NS ZE PS PM
The source currents are sensed and converted into the unit sine ZE NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB
current(s) while corresponding phase angles are maintained. The PS NM NS ZE PS PM PB PB
unit current vectors templates are represented as [21] PM NS ZE PS PM PB PB PB
PB ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB
ia = sin ωt ,
ib = sin(ωt − 120°) and (9) a closed loop, the dc-bus capacitor voltage is sensed and compared
ic = sin(ωt + 120°). with the desired reference value. This computed error signal (e =
VDC −ref − VDC ) is passed through a LPF. The error signal e(n) and
The amplitude of the sine current is unity in steady state and in
integration of error signal or change of error signal ce(n) are used
the transient condition it may increase or decrease according to
as inputs for fuzzy processing as shown in Fig. 3.
the loads. The unit currents should be in phase with the source
Fuzzy logic is characterized by (1) Seven fuzzy sets (NB, NM, NS,
voltages. These unit currents are multiplied with peak-amplitude
ZE, PS, PM, PB) for each input and output variables. (2) Triangular
of the estimated reference current (using PI or FLC) which is used
membership function is used for the simplicity. (3) Implication
to generate the desired reference currents.
using Mamdani-type min-operator. (4) Defuzzification using the
height method.
3.1.2. PI-controller
Fuzzification: Fuzzy logic uses linguistic variables instead of
The DC-side capacitor voltage is sensed and compared with
numerical variables. In a control system, the error between
a reference voltage. The comparison result of the voltage error
reference signal and output signal can be assigned as Negative
e = Vdc ,ref − Vdc at the nth sampling instant is used as an input
Big (NB), Negative Medium (NM), Negative Small (NS), Zero (ZE),
for Proportional Integral (PI)-controller. The error signal passes
Positive Small (PS), Positive Medium (PM), Positive Big (PB).
through Low Pass Filter (LPF) to filter the higher order components
The processes of fuzzification convert numerical variables (real
and passes only the fundamental. It transfer function is defined
number) convert to linguistic variables (fuzzy number).
as [18],
Rule elevator: Conventional controllers like PI and PID have control
H (s) = KP + KI /s. (10) gains which are combination of numerical values. In case of fuzzy
The proportional gain is derived using KP = 2ζ ωnv C [KP = 0.7] logic controller uses linguistic variables instead of the numerical.
that determines the dynamic response of the DC-side voltage. The The basic fuzzy logic operations required for evaluation of fuzzy set
√ rules are AND (∩), OR (∪) and NOT (−) for intersection, union and
damping factor ζ = 2 / 2 and natural frequency ωnv should
be chosen as the supply fundamental frequency. Similarly, the complement functions respectively, it is define as
integral gain is derived using KI = C ωn2v [KI = 23] that determines AND—Intersection µA∩B = min[µA (X ), µB (x)]
settling time and eliminates steady state error in the DC-side OR—Union µA∪B = max[µA (X ), µB (x)]
capacitor voltage. This controller estimates the magnitude of peak NOT —Complement: µA = 1 − µA (x).
reference current Imax and controls the dc-side capacitor. This Defuzzification: The rules of fuzzy logic generate required output
estimated magnitude of peak current multiplies with output of unit in linguistic variables, according to real time requirements. The
current vector, which generates the required reference currents to linguistic variables have to be transformed to crisp number.
compensate the harmonic components. This selection of strategy is compromise between accuracy and
computational intensity.
3.1.3. Fuzzy logic controller Data and rule base: The database stores the definition of the
Fuzzy logic control is deduced from fuzzy set theory; it was triangular membership function, which is required by fuzzifier and
introduced by Zadeh in 1965 [22]. In fuzzy set theory develops the defuzzifier. The rule-base stores the linguistic control rules which
transitions between membership and non-membership function. are used by rule evaluator (decision making logic). The 49-rules are
Therefore, limitation or boundaries of fuzzy sets can be undefined used in this proposed controller as given in Table 1.
and ambiguous and useful for approximate systems design. In The output of the fuzzy controller estimates the magnitude of
order to implement the fuzzy logic control algorithm of an APF in peak reference current Imax . This current Imax takes response of the
166 K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169

Fig. 4. Diagram of hysteresis current control.

active power demand for harmonics and reactive power compen-


sation. This estimated magnitude of peak-current multiplies with
output of unit current vector and generates the required reference
currents. These reference currents compared with actual currents
to generate the inverter switching patterns using PWM-current
controller. Fig. 5. Adaptive hysteresis current controller.

3.2. PWM–VSI current controller following equations can be written in the switching intervals t1
and t2 [27,28]
The effectiveness of active power filter depends on the design
and characteristics of the current controller. There is various PWM- di+ 1
current control strategies proposed for APF applications. But in
a
= (0.5Vdc − Vs ) (12)
dt L
terms of quick current controllability and easy implementation,
di− 1
HCC has highest rating among other methods such as sinusoidal- a
= − (0.5Vdc + Vs ) (13)
PWM and triangular current controller [24,25]. This section dt L
describes the fixed-HCC, adaptive-HCC and adaptive-fuzzy-HCC where L = phase inductance; (i+a ) and (ia ) are the respective rising

for active power filter. and falling current segments. From the geometry of Fig. 5, we can
write
3.2.1. Fixed-hysteresis current controller
di+
a di∗a
The fixed-hysteresis current controller is utilized indepen- t1 − t1 = 2HB′ (14)
dt dt
dently for each phase and directly generates the switching patterns
for the PWM-voltage source inverter [26]. It imposes a bang–bang di−
a di∗a
t2 − t2 = −2HB′ (15)
instantaneous control method that draws the APF compensation dt dt
current to follow its reference signal within a certain band limits. t1 + t2 = Tc = 1/fc (16)
The actual current iactual (t ) is compared with iref (t ) and the result-
ing error is subjected to a hysteresis controller to determine the where t1 and t2 are the respective switching intervals, and fc is the
gating signals of the inverter as shown in Fig. 4. modulation frequency. Adding (14) and (15) and substituting (16)
If the error current exceeds the upper limit of the hysteresis we can write
band, the upper switch of the inverter arm is turned OFF and di+ di− 1 di∗a
the lower switch is turned ON. As a result, the current starts to
a
t1 − a
t2 − = 0. (17)
decay. If the error current crosses the lower limit of the band, the dt dt fc dt
lower switch is turned OFF and the upper switch is turned ON. Subtracting (15) from (14), we get
As a result, the current gets back into the hysteresis band. This
switching performance is defined as di+ di− di∗a
a
t1 − a
t2 − (t1 − t2 ) = 4HB′ . (18)
dt dt dt
OFF if iactual (t ) > iref (t ) + H
 
S= . (11) Substituting (17) in (18), we get
ON if iactual (t ) < iref (t ) − H
di+ di∗a
The advantages of fixed-HCC are simple design and unconditioned a
(t1 + t2 ) − (t1 − t2 ) = 4HB′ . (19)
stability. However, this control scheme exhibits several unsatis- dt dt
factory features such as uneven switching frequency, difficult to Substituting (13) in (17) and simplifying,
design the passive filters system to suppress ripples in compensat-
di∗a /dt
ing currents. This unpredictable switching function affects the APF (t1 − t2 ) = . (20)
efficiency and reliability. Adaptive-hysteresis current controller fc (di+
a /dt )
overcomes the fixed-HCC demerits. This adaptive-HCC changes the Substituting (20) in (19), it gives,
bandwidth according to instantaneous compensation current vari-   2 
ation. 0.125Vdc 4L2

Vs
HB =′
1− 2
+m . (21)
fc L Vdc L
3.2.2. Adaptive-hysteresis current controller
Fig. 5 shows current and voltage waves of the PWM-voltage Here, m = di∗a /dt is the slope of reference current signals. The
source inverter for phase a. The current ia tends to cross the lower hysteresis band HB′ can be modulated at different points of funda-
hysteresis band at point 1, where the transistor Q 1 is switched mental frequency to control the switching pattern of the inverter.
ON. The linearly rising current (ia +) then touches the upper band The bandwidth HB′ is applied to the variable HCC and it created by
at point 2, where the transistor Q 4 is switched ON. The linearly s-functions in Matlab to produce switching patterns. This switch-
falling current (ia −) then touches the lower band at point 3. The ing frequency of the inverter depends on the dc-side capacitor
K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169 167

1
Table 2 0.9
System parameters. 0.8
0.7
Parameters Values 0.6
0.5
Line to line source voltage (Vm ) 440 V 0.4
0.3
System frequency (f ) 50 Hz 0.2
Source impedance: Source resistor (RS ) 1 0.1
0
Source inductor (LS ) 0.1 mH 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
Non-linear load: Diode rectifier 6-diode 1
Load resistor (RL ) 20  0.9
0.8
Load inductor (LL ) 100 mH 0.7
Filter:Inductor (LF ) 1 mH 0.6
0.5
Resistor (RF ) 1 0.4
DC-side capacitance (CDC ) 2100 µF 0.3
Reference voltage (VDC , ref )
0.2
400 V 0.1
Power converter MOSFETs/diodes 0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
1
0.9
voltage and line inductance of the APF configuration. This adaptive- 0.8
0.7
HCC is having more switching power losses due to high frequency 0.6
0.5
and this problem is mitigated by the proposed adaptive-fuzzy-HCC. 0.4
The adaptive-fuzzy-HCC calculates the bandwidth effectively with 0.3
0.2
the help of FLC and reduces the switching power losses by optimiz- 0.1
0
ing switching frequency. 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

3.2.3. Adaptive-fuzzy hysteresis current controller


Fig. 6. Switching patterns (a) HCC (b) Adaptive-HCC and (c) Adaptive-fuzzy-HCC.
The proposed adaptive-fuzzy-HCC calculates the hysteresis
bandwidth very effectively with the help of fuzzy logic controller.
generated due to this approach contain high frequency ripples. The
The adaptive-HCC based band-width is calculated and is given in
PWM-current controller performance can be improved by using
the Eq. (21). From this equation, the hysteresis bandwidth HB′
the adaptive control technique. A novel A-F-HCC, based on the
is derived from the modulation frequency fc , supply voltage Vs ,
adaptive control concept is used in this paper where hysteresis
dc-side capacitor voltage Vdc , and slope of the reference current
band implementation is done using fuzzy logic; this approach
signals di∗a /dt and decoupling inductance L of the active power
facilitates to optimize the PWM performance. The A-F-HCC utilizes
filter. The adaptive hysteresis band-width can be modulated as a
a look-up table method using the instantaneous supply voltage and
function of di∗a /dt, Vs and Vdc . This adaptive hysteresis bandwidth
mains current reference slope as input variables and the hysteresis
HB′ as an error signal E (HB′ ) and change of error signal CE (HB′ )
band as an output variable to maintain the modulation frequency
are used as inputs for fuzzy logic processing. The adaptive-fuzzy-
constant. Fig. 6 illustrates the switching patterns of fixed-HCC,
hysteresis bandwidth (HB) is the output of the fuzzy controller.
A-HCC and A-F-HCC methods. The ripples in the currents are
The fuzzy logic rules are stored as linguistic variables, which
reduced even if the switching frequency is increased; the A-F-HCC
are required by the rule-evaluator. The 49-rules are used in this
facilitates increase of switching frequency as per the system
adaptive-fuzzy-HCC to calculate the required band-width (HB) and
requirements. This A-F-HCC reduces the arbitrary switching and
the rules are given in Table 1.
current ripples, which improves the APF performance compared
The output of FLC of HB (hysteresis bandwidth) can be
modulated at different points of the fundamental frequency cycle to fixed-HCC and A-HCC.
to control the switching pattern of the inverter. For symmetrical Case 2 PI-controller.
operation of all three-phases is denoted as HBa , HBb and HBc The ac-main grid feeds diode-rectifier load. Shunt APF is
of same value, but having 120° phase difference. The adaptive- connected in parallel at PCC that injects the anti-harmonics.
fuzzy-HCC based hysteresis-bandwidth HB should maintain the PI-controller is used to estimate the peak amplitude of the
modulation frequency fc constant. This controller reduces the reference current and fixed-HCC or A-HCC and A-F-HCC controllers
switching power losses and improves the PWM–VSI performances used to generate switching patterns of the inverter. These
for APF substantially. three-different types of current controllers are simulated and
investigated separately, but simulation of the Fig. 7 is focused on
4. Result and analysis A-F-HCC. The rectifier R–L load current or source current before
compensation is shown in Fig. 7(a). The shunt active filter supplies
The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated the compensating current that is shown in Fig. 7(b). Consequently
through Matlab/Simpower tools. The three-phase APF system current harmonic compensation is achieved by injecting equal but
comprises six-IGBTs with diodes, a dc-bus capacitor, RL-filter, opposite current harmonic components at PCC by canceling the
compensation controller and switching pattern generator. The original distortion. The simulation result of source current after
compensation control process is developed from unit current compensation is presented in Fig. 7(c) that indicates the current
vector along with PI or FLC for extract the reference currents. The is sinusoidal. These figures are presented for A-phase only; other
switching patterns are generated from fixed-HCC, adaptive-HCC phase waveforms are phase shifted by 120°.
and adaptive-fuzzy-HCC. These three-different types of current Case 3 Fuzzy logic controller.
control techniques are simulated and investigated. The designs FLC-controller is used to estimate the magnitude of peak
of the shunt APF system parameters value are given in Appendix reference current by controlling dc-side capacitor voltage of the
(see in Table 2). inverter. The simulation result of the 3-phase source voltage is
Case 1 PWM-current controller. shown in Fig. 8(a) that indicates the source voltage is balanced.
The effectiveness of an active power filter basically depends The six-pulse diode-rectifier load current or source current before
on the design and characteristics of the current controller. The compensation is shown in Fig. 8(b). The peak reference current is
switching losses are increased in fixed-HCC method and currents multiplied with unit current vector templates and generates the
168 K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169

a 60
40
a
20
0
20
40
60
b 40
30
20
10
b
0
10
20
30

c 40
80
60
40
20
0
c
20
40
60
80
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

d
Fig. 7. Simulation results (a) source current before compensation (b) compensation
current (c) source current after active filter compensation.

Table 3
VDC settling time under various techniques.
e
Current controller VDC -settling time
PI FLC

Fixed-HCC (s) 0.29 0.25


Adaptive-HCC (s) 0.26 0.23
Adaptive-fuzzy HCC (s) 0.25 0.23

Table 4
Real and reactive power measured under various methods.
f
Current controller Without APF With APF
PI FLC

Fixed-HCC P = 10.85 kW P = 10.93 kW


Q = 118 VAR Q = 108 VAR

Adaptive-HCC P = 10.17 kW P = 11.14 kW P = 11.42 kW


Q = 269 VAR Q = 067 VAR Q = 053 VAR
g
Adaptive-Fuzzy HCC P = 11.27 kW P = 11.81 kW
Q = 059 VAR Q = 048 VAR

required reference-currents as shown in Fig. 8(c). That reference


currents compared with actual current and generates switching
patterns using fixed-HCC or A-HCC or A-F-HCC current controllers.
The controllers are tested individually; however, the simulation of
the Fig. 8 is focused on A-F-HCC. The shunt active filter produces
required compensation currents as shown in Fig. 8(d). The source
current after compensation is presented in Fig. 8(e) that indicates
the current is sinusoidal. Fig. 8. Simulation results (a) source-voltage, (b) load current, (c) reference-current,
(d) compensation current (e) source current after compensation and (f) unity power
The APF is suppressing reactive/harmonic power and simulta-
factor, (g) DC-side capacitor-voltages.
neously improves power factor as shown in Fig. 8(f); the phase-a
voltage is in phase with current. The DC-side capacitance voltage
is controlled by PI or FLC. This controller reduces the ripples in the (THD) of the source current is measured without and with active
capacitor voltage to certain level and makes settling time to a low filter using PI and FLC along with different current controllers. The
value (t = 0.23 s) and it is plotted in Fig. 8(g). This figure is for THD measurement is compared for PI and FLC controller that is
FLC in the outer loop with A-F-HCC in the inner current loop. The presented in Table 5. The order of the harmonics versus magnitude
performance of the PI or FLC with different PWM-current control of the source current is plotted that is shown in Fig. 9(a). It is
based dc-side capacitor voltage settling time is measured and given shown that the supply current is distorted due to the presence
in Table 3. of fifth, seventh, eleventh and higher order of harmonic spectral
The Real (P ) and Reactive (Q ) power are calculated for different components and the measurement of THD is 26.67%. The Fig. 9(b)
cases and are given in Table 4. These results are measured under is plotted using A-F-HCC current controller based active power
diode-rectifier load using PI and FLC with three-different PWM- filter and it ensures that THD is less than 5% (THD = 1.72%) in
current controller. These results indicate that reactive power is compliance with the harmonic standards.
suppressed by APF and hence improves power quality in the The PI or FLC based active filter system is simulated and
distribution system. validated under diode-rectifier load conditions. The adaptive-
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used to measure the order fuzzy-HCC reduces the switching power losses and improves the
of harmonics in the source current. The Total Harmonic Distortion active filter performance in comparison with the fixed-HCC and
K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169 169

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