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PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt active power filter — A report

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PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt active power filter — A report

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ISA Transactions

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/isatrans

PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt active power filter — A report

Karuppanan P ∗ , Kamala Kanta Mahapatra

Department of Electronics and Communication, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769 008, India

Article history: This paper presents a shunt Active Power Filter (APF) for power quality improvements in terms of

Received 8 March 2011 harmonics and reactive power compensation in the distribution network. The compensation process is

Received in revised form based only on source current extraction that reduces the number of sensors as well as its complexity.

11 September 2011

A Proportional Integral (PI) or Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is used to extract the required reference

Accepted 12 September 2011

Available online 5 October 2011

current from the distorted line-current, and this controls the DC-side capacitor voltage of the inverter. The

shunt APF is implemented with PWM-current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and the switching

Keywords:

patterns are generated through a novel Adaptive-Fuzzy Hysteresis Current Controller (A-F-HCC). The

Active power filter proposed adaptive-fuzzy-HCC is compared with fixed-HCC and adaptive-HCC techniques and the superior

PI-controller features of this novel approach are established. The FLC based shunt APF system is validated through

Fuzzy logic controller extensive simulation for diode-rectifier/R–L loads.

Adaptive-fuzzy hysteresis current © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

controller

Harmonic currents

and another is the PWM-current controller to generate switching

Recently a lot of research is being encouraged for power quality patterns for inverter [16,17]. Many control strategies are proposed

and custom power problems in the distribution system due to in the literature to extract the harmonic components. However,

non-linear loads [1,2]. In practical application most of the loads the conventional PI controller requires precise linear mathematical

are non-linear, such as power converters, SMPS, arc furnaces, UPS model of the system, which is difficult to obtain under parameter

and ASDs [3]. These non-linear loads are introducing harmonic variations and non-linear load disturbances. Another drawback of

distortion and reactive power problems [4]. The harmonics in the system is that the proportional and integral gains are chosen

the system induce several undesirable issues, such as increased heuristically [18,19]. Recently, Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) have

heating losses in transformers, low power factor, torque pulsation been used in various power electronic applications and also in ac-

in motors, poor utilization of distribution plant and also affects tive power filters [20,21]. The advantage of FLCs over the conven-

other loads connected at the same Point of Common Coupling tional controllers is that it does not need an accurate mathematical

(PCC) [5,6]. In recent times Active Power Filters (APFs) or Active model. It can handle nonlinearity and is more robust than conven-

tional PI or PID controllers [22,23].

Power-Line Conditioners (APLCs) are developed for compensating

Similarly, various current control techniques are proposed

the harmonics and reactive power simultaneously [7,8]. The APF

for APF inner current control loop, such as triangular current

topology can be connected in series or shunt and combinations

controller, sinusoidal-PWM, periodical-sampling controller and

of both (unified power quality conditioners) as well as hybrid

hysteresis current controller [24,25]. The Hysteresis Current

configurations [9,10]. The shunt active filter is most popular than

Controller (HCC) method attracts researchers’ attention due to

the series active filter, because most of the industrial applications

unconditional stability and simple implementation [26]. However,

required the current harmonics compensation [11,12].

this control scheme exhibits several unsatisfactory features such

The controller is the most significant part of the active power fil- as uneven switching frequency where the switching frequency

ter and currently various control strategies are proposed by many varies within a particular band limit [27]. Adaptive-HCC (A-HCC)

researchers [13–15]. There are two major parts of the controller, overcomes these fixed-HCC demerits. The adaptive-HCC changes

the bandwidth according to instantaneous compensation current

variation [28–31]. However, the adaptive-HCC is having more

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9442704585; fax: +91 661 2462999. switching losses due to high frequency switching. These problems

E-mail addresses: karuppanan1982@gmail.com (K. P), kkm@nitrkl.ac.in can be overcome by the proposed Adaptive-Fuzzy-HCC (A-F-HCC)

(K.K. Mahapatra). in this paper. We focus on an adaptive-fuzzy-hysteresis current

0019-0578/$ – see front matter © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.isatra.2011.09.004

164 K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169

The instantaneous load power can be computed from the source

voltage and load current and the calculation is given as

control scheme, where the hysteresis-bandwidth is calculated

with the help of fuzzy logic [32–34]. This controller maintains pL (t ) = is (t )∗ vs (t )

the modulation frequency constant that facilitates reduction of = Vm sin2 ωt ∗ cos ϕ1 + Vm I1 sin ωt ∗ cos ωt ∗ sin ϕ1

switching loss. Furthermore, uneven switching does not occur

∞

−

that facilitates reduction in the high frequency ripples in the + Vm sin ωt ∗

In sin(nωt + Φn )

compensating current as well as load current. Therefore this n =2

control strategy for inner current loop improves the PWM–VSI

= pf (t ) + pr (t ) + ph (t ). (4)

performance and makes APF substantially.

This paper presents a shunt APF that uses PI or fuzzy logic This load power contains fundamental (active power), reactive

controller for reference current extraction. The active filter is power and harmonic power. From this Eq. (4), the real (fundamen-

implemented with VSI and switching patterns are generated tal) power drawn from the load is

from the proposed novel adaptive-fuzzy-HCC. The shunt APF

system is validated through extensive simulation under non- pf (t ) = Vm I1 sin2 ωt ∗ cos ϕ1 = vs (t )∗ is (t ). (5)

linear load conditions. Comparative assessments of the different If the active power filter provides the total reactive and harmonic

PWM-current controller are presented. In Section 2, the design of power, the source current is (t ) will be in phase with the utility

shunt APF system architecture is presented. Section 3 describes voltage and sinusoidal. The three-phase source currents after

about control strategies for reference current extraction and PWM- compensation can be expressed as

current controller proficiencies. Section 4, system performance has

been modeled and analyzed from the obtained results under non- i∗sa (t ) = pf (t )/vs (t ) = I1 cos ϕ1 sin ωt

linear load conditions. Finally, Section 5 describes the conclusions = Imax sin ωt . (6)

of this work.

Similarly,

2. Design of shunt APF system i∗sb = Imax sin(ωt − 120°) (7)

Shunt APF is connected in the distribution-grid at PCC through i∗sc = Imax sin(ωt + 120°). (8)

filter inductance that is shown in Fig. 1. The filter inductance This peak value of the reference current Imax is estimated by

suppresses the harmonics caused by the switching operation of the regulating the DC-bus capacitor voltage of the inverter using PI or

power inverter. The current harmonic compensation is achieved by fuzzy logic controller.

injecting equal but opposite current harmonic components at PCC,

there by canceling the original distortion and improving the power 3. Control strategies

quality on the connected power distribution system [8].

The instantaneous source current is represented as The block diagram of the proposed control system is shown in

is (t ) = iL (t ) − ic (t ). (1) Fig. 2 that consists of two parts. One is reference current extraction

controller using unit current vector along with PI or fuzzy logic

The instantaneous source voltage is controller. Another is PWM-current controlled voltage source

vs (t ) = Vm sin ωt . (2) inverter switching control method using fixed-HCC or adaptive-

HCC or adaptive-fuzzy-HCC.

The nonlinear load current contains the fundamental component

and harmonic current components, which is represented as [20] 3.1. Reference current extraction controller

∞

−

iL (t ) = In sin(nωt + Φn ) The reference current is extracted from distorted line-current

n=1 using unit current vector with PI or FLC. Conventional PI and PID

∞

controllers have been used to estimate the required reference

current, and to control the dc-bus capacitor voltage of the

−

= I1 sin(ωt + Φ1 ) + In sin(nωt + Φn ) . (3)

n =2

inverter [18,19]. When load is non-linear or reactive, it is

K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169 165

expected that the supply will supply only the active fundamental

component of the load current and the compensator would supply

the harmonic/reactive component. The outer voltage loop will

try to maintain the capacitor voltage nearly constant which is

also a mandatory condition for the successful operation of the

APF. The system losses are provided by the source in steady

state. The compensator supplies the harmonic power, which

manifests itself only on the reactive component of power. In

the transient conditions the load changes are reflected in the dc

capacitor voltage as an increase (or decrease) as capacitor absorbs

(or delivers) the excess (or deficit) power. This conservation

of energy philosophy is used to obtain the reference current

for compensator in this method. The perturbations in the

capacitor voltage are related to the perturbations in the average Fig. 3. Fuzzy logic controller.

power drawn by the non-linear load. This property is utilized

which facilitates extracting compensator reference and maintains Table 1

capacitor voltage nearly constant. This control algorithm is based Rule base table.

on sensing source current only (no need to sense load currents and e(n) ce(n)

compensation currents) that reduces sensors and complexity. NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NB NM NS ZE

3.1.1. Unit current vector NM NB NB NB NM NS ZE PS

NS NB NB NM NS ZE PS PM

The source currents are sensed and converted into the unit sine ZE NB NM NS ZE PS PM PB

current(s) while corresponding phase angles are maintained. The PS NM NS ZE PS PM PB PB

unit current vectors templates are represented as [21] PM NS ZE PS PM PB PB PB

PB ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB

ia = sin ωt ,

ib = sin(ωt − 120°) and (9) a closed loop, the dc-bus capacitor voltage is sensed and compared

ic = sin(ωt + 120°). with the desired reference value. This computed error signal (e =

VDC −ref − VDC ) is passed through a LPF. The error signal e(n) and

The amplitude of the sine current is unity in steady state and in

integration of error signal or change of error signal ce(n) are used

the transient condition it may increase or decrease according to

as inputs for fuzzy processing as shown in Fig. 3.

the loads. The unit currents should be in phase with the source

Fuzzy logic is characterized by (1) Seven fuzzy sets (NB, NM, NS,

voltages. These unit currents are multiplied with peak-amplitude

ZE, PS, PM, PB) for each input and output variables. (2) Triangular

of the estimated reference current (using PI or FLC) which is used

membership function is used for the simplicity. (3) Implication

to generate the desired reference currents.

using Mamdani-type min-operator. (4) Defuzzification using the

height method.

3.1.2. PI-controller

Fuzzification: Fuzzy logic uses linguistic variables instead of

The DC-side capacitor voltage is sensed and compared with

numerical variables. In a control system, the error between

a reference voltage. The comparison result of the voltage error

reference signal and output signal can be assigned as Negative

e = Vdc ,ref − Vdc at the nth sampling instant is used as an input

Big (NB), Negative Medium (NM), Negative Small (NS), Zero (ZE),

for Proportional Integral (PI)-controller. The error signal passes

Positive Small (PS), Positive Medium (PM), Positive Big (PB).

through Low Pass Filter (LPF) to filter the higher order components

The processes of fuzzification convert numerical variables (real

and passes only the fundamental. It transfer function is defined

number) convert to linguistic variables (fuzzy number).

as [18],

Rule elevator: Conventional controllers like PI and PID have control

H (s) = KP + KI /s. (10) gains which are combination of numerical values. In case of fuzzy

The proportional gain is derived using KP = 2ζ ωnv C [KP = 0.7] logic controller uses linguistic variables instead of the numerical.

that determines the dynamic response of the DC-side voltage. The The basic fuzzy logic operations required for evaluation of fuzzy set

√ rules are AND (∩), OR (∪) and NOT (−) for intersection, union and

damping factor ζ = 2 / 2 and natural frequency ωnv should

be chosen as the supply fundamental frequency. Similarly, the complement functions respectively, it is define as

integral gain is derived using KI = C ωn2v [KI = 23] that determines AND—Intersection µA∩B = min[µA (X ), µB (x)]

settling time and eliminates steady state error in the DC-side OR—Union µA∪B = max[µA (X ), µB (x)]

capacitor voltage. This controller estimates the magnitude of peak NOT —Complement: µA = 1 − µA (x).

reference current Imax and controls the dc-side capacitor. This Defuzzification: The rules of fuzzy logic generate required output

estimated magnitude of peak current multiplies with output of unit in linguistic variables, according to real time requirements. The

current vector, which generates the required reference currents to linguistic variables have to be transformed to crisp number.

compensate the harmonic components. This selection of strategy is compromise between accuracy and

computational intensity.

3.1.3. Fuzzy logic controller Data and rule base: The database stores the definition of the

Fuzzy logic control is deduced from fuzzy set theory; it was triangular membership function, which is required by fuzzifier and

introduced by Zadeh in 1965 [22]. In fuzzy set theory develops the defuzzifier. The rule-base stores the linguistic control rules which

transitions between membership and non-membership function. are used by rule evaluator (decision making logic). The 49-rules are

Therefore, limitation or boundaries of fuzzy sets can be undefined used in this proposed controller as given in Table 1.

and ambiguous and useful for approximate systems design. In The output of the fuzzy controller estimates the magnitude of

order to implement the fuzzy logic control algorithm of an APF in peak reference current Imax . This current Imax takes response of the

166 K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169

sation. This estimated magnitude of peak-current multiplies with

output of unit current vector and generates the required reference

currents. These reference currents compared with actual currents

to generate the inverter switching patterns using PWM-current

controller. Fig. 5. Adaptive hysteresis current controller.

3.2. PWM–VSI current controller following equations can be written in the switching intervals t1

and t2 [27,28]

The effectiveness of active power filter depends on the design

and characteristics of the current controller. There is various PWM- di+ 1

current control strategies proposed for APF applications. But in

a

= (0.5Vdc − Vs ) (12)

dt L

terms of quick current controllability and easy implementation,

di− 1

HCC has highest rating among other methods such as sinusoidal- a

= − (0.5Vdc + Vs ) (13)

PWM and triangular current controller [24,25]. This section dt L

describes the fixed-HCC, adaptive-HCC and adaptive-fuzzy-HCC where L = phase inductance; (i+a ) and (ia ) are the respective rising

−

for active power filter. and falling current segments. From the geometry of Fig. 5, we can

write

3.2.1. Fixed-hysteresis current controller

di+

a di∗a

The fixed-hysteresis current controller is utilized indepen- t1 − t1 = 2HB′ (14)

dt dt

dently for each phase and directly generates the switching patterns

for the PWM-voltage source inverter [26]. It imposes a bang–bang di−

a di∗a

t2 − t2 = −2HB′ (15)

instantaneous control method that draws the APF compensation dt dt

current to follow its reference signal within a certain band limits. t1 + t2 = Tc = 1/fc (16)

The actual current iactual (t ) is compared with iref (t ) and the result-

ing error is subjected to a hysteresis controller to determine the where t1 and t2 are the respective switching intervals, and fc is the

gating signals of the inverter as shown in Fig. 4. modulation frequency. Adding (14) and (15) and substituting (16)

If the error current exceeds the upper limit of the hysteresis we can write

band, the upper switch of the inverter arm is turned OFF and di+ di− 1 di∗a

the lower switch is turned ON. As a result, the current starts to

a

t1 − a

t2 − = 0. (17)

decay. If the error current crosses the lower limit of the band, the dt dt fc dt

lower switch is turned OFF and the upper switch is turned ON. Subtracting (15) from (14), we get

As a result, the current gets back into the hysteresis band. This

switching performance is defined as di+ di− di∗a

a

t1 − a

t2 − (t1 − t2 ) = 4HB′ . (18)

dt dt dt

OFF if iactual (t ) > iref (t ) + H

S= . (11) Substituting (17) in (18), we get

ON if iactual (t ) < iref (t ) − H

di+ di∗a

The advantages of fixed-HCC are simple design and unconditioned a

(t1 + t2 ) − (t1 − t2 ) = 4HB′ . (19)

stability. However, this control scheme exhibits several unsatis- dt dt

factory features such as uneven switching frequency, difficult to Substituting (13) in (17) and simplifying,

design the passive filters system to suppress ripples in compensat-

di∗a /dt

ing currents. This unpredictable switching function affects the APF (t1 − t2 ) = . (20)

efficiency and reliability. Adaptive-hysteresis current controller fc (di+

a /dt )

overcomes the fixed-HCC demerits. This adaptive-HCC changes the Substituting (20) in (19), it gives,

bandwidth according to instantaneous compensation current vari- 2

ation. 0.125Vdc 4L2

Vs

HB =′

1− 2

+m . (21)

fc L Vdc L

3.2.2. Adaptive-hysteresis current controller

Fig. 5 shows current and voltage waves of the PWM-voltage Here, m = di∗a /dt is the slope of reference current signals. The

source inverter for phase a. The current ia tends to cross the lower hysteresis band HB′ can be modulated at different points of funda-

hysteresis band at point 1, where the transistor Q 1 is switched mental frequency to control the switching pattern of the inverter.

ON. The linearly rising current (ia +) then touches the upper band The bandwidth HB′ is applied to the variable HCC and it created by

at point 2, where the transistor Q 4 is switched ON. The linearly s-functions in Matlab to produce switching patterns. This switch-

falling current (ia −) then touches the lower band at point 3. The ing frequency of the inverter depends on the dc-side capacitor

K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169 167

1

Table 2 0.9

System parameters. 0.8

0.7

Parameters Values 0.6

0.5

Line to line source voltage (Vm ) 440 V 0.4

0.3

System frequency (f ) 50 Hz 0.2

Source impedance: Source resistor (RS ) 1 0.1

0

Source inductor (LS ) 0.1 mH 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

Non-linear load: Diode rectifier 6-diode 1

Load resistor (RL ) 20 0.9

0.8

Load inductor (LL ) 100 mH 0.7

Filter:Inductor (LF ) 1 mH 0.6

0.5

Resistor (RF ) 1 0.4

DC-side capacitance (CDC ) 2100 µF 0.3

Reference voltage (VDC , ref )

0.2

400 V 0.1

Power converter MOSFETs/diodes 0

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

1

0.9

voltage and line inductance of the APF configuration. This adaptive- 0.8

0.7

HCC is having more switching power losses due to high frequency 0.6

0.5

and this problem is mitigated by the proposed adaptive-fuzzy-HCC. 0.4

The adaptive-fuzzy-HCC calculates the bandwidth effectively with 0.3

0.2

the help of FLC and reduces the switching power losses by optimiz- 0.1

0

ing switching frequency. 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

Fig. 6. Switching patterns (a) HCC (b) Adaptive-HCC and (c) Adaptive-fuzzy-HCC.

The proposed adaptive-fuzzy-HCC calculates the hysteresis

bandwidth very effectively with the help of fuzzy logic controller.

generated due to this approach contain high frequency ripples. The

The adaptive-HCC based band-width is calculated and is given in

PWM-current controller performance can be improved by using

the Eq. (21). From this equation, the hysteresis bandwidth HB′

the adaptive control technique. A novel A-F-HCC, based on the

is derived from the modulation frequency fc , supply voltage Vs ,

adaptive control concept is used in this paper where hysteresis

dc-side capacitor voltage Vdc , and slope of the reference current

band implementation is done using fuzzy logic; this approach

signals di∗a /dt and decoupling inductance L of the active power

facilitates to optimize the PWM performance. The A-F-HCC utilizes

filter. The adaptive hysteresis band-width can be modulated as a

a look-up table method using the instantaneous supply voltage and

function of di∗a /dt, Vs and Vdc . This adaptive hysteresis bandwidth

mains current reference slope as input variables and the hysteresis

HB′ as an error signal E (HB′ ) and change of error signal CE (HB′ )

band as an output variable to maintain the modulation frequency

are used as inputs for fuzzy logic processing. The adaptive-fuzzy-

constant. Fig. 6 illustrates the switching patterns of fixed-HCC,

hysteresis bandwidth (HB) is the output of the fuzzy controller.

A-HCC and A-F-HCC methods. The ripples in the currents are

The fuzzy logic rules are stored as linguistic variables, which

reduced even if the switching frequency is increased; the A-F-HCC

are required by the rule-evaluator. The 49-rules are used in this

facilitates increase of switching frequency as per the system

adaptive-fuzzy-HCC to calculate the required band-width (HB) and

requirements. This A-F-HCC reduces the arbitrary switching and

the rules are given in Table 1.

current ripples, which improves the APF performance compared

The output of FLC of HB (hysteresis bandwidth) can be

modulated at different points of the fundamental frequency cycle to fixed-HCC and A-HCC.

to control the switching pattern of the inverter. For symmetrical Case 2 PI-controller.

operation of all three-phases is denoted as HBa , HBb and HBc The ac-main grid feeds diode-rectifier load. Shunt APF is

of same value, but having 120° phase difference. The adaptive- connected in parallel at PCC that injects the anti-harmonics.

fuzzy-HCC based hysteresis-bandwidth HB should maintain the PI-controller is used to estimate the peak amplitude of the

modulation frequency fc constant. This controller reduces the reference current and fixed-HCC or A-HCC and A-F-HCC controllers

switching power losses and improves the PWM–VSI performances used to generate switching patterns of the inverter. These

for APF substantially. three-different types of current controllers are simulated and

investigated separately, but simulation of the Fig. 7 is focused on

4. Result and analysis A-F-HCC. The rectifier R–L load current or source current before

compensation is shown in Fig. 7(a). The shunt active filter supplies

The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated the compensating current that is shown in Fig. 7(b). Consequently

through Matlab/Simpower tools. The three-phase APF system current harmonic compensation is achieved by injecting equal but

comprises six-IGBTs with diodes, a dc-bus capacitor, RL-filter, opposite current harmonic components at PCC by canceling the

compensation controller and switching pattern generator. The original distortion. The simulation result of source current after

compensation control process is developed from unit current compensation is presented in Fig. 7(c) that indicates the current

vector along with PI or FLC for extract the reference currents. The is sinusoidal. These figures are presented for A-phase only; other

switching patterns are generated from fixed-HCC, adaptive-HCC phase waveforms are phase shifted by 120°.

and adaptive-fuzzy-HCC. These three-different types of current Case 3 Fuzzy logic controller.

control techniques are simulated and investigated. The designs FLC-controller is used to estimate the magnitude of peak

of the shunt APF system parameters value are given in Appendix reference current by controlling dc-side capacitor voltage of the

(see in Table 2). inverter. The simulation result of the 3-phase source voltage is

Case 1 PWM-current controller. shown in Fig. 8(a) that indicates the source voltage is balanced.

The effectiveness of an active power filter basically depends The six-pulse diode-rectifier load current or source current before

on the design and characteristics of the current controller. The compensation is shown in Fig. 8(b). The peak reference current is

switching losses are increased in fixed-HCC method and currents multiplied with unit current vector templates and generates the

168 K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169

a 60

40

a

20

0

20

40

60

b 40

30

20

10

b

0

10

20

30

c 40

80

60

40

20

0

c

20

40

60

80

0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

d

Fig. 7. Simulation results (a) source current before compensation (b) compensation

current (c) source current after active filter compensation.

Table 3

VDC settling time under various techniques.

e

Current controller VDC -settling time

PI FLC

Adaptive-HCC (s) 0.26 0.23

Adaptive-fuzzy HCC (s) 0.25 0.23

Table 4

Real and reactive power measured under various methods.

f

Current controller Without APF With APF

PI FLC

Q = 118 VAR Q = 108 VAR

Q = 269 VAR Q = 067 VAR Q = 053 VAR

g

Adaptive-Fuzzy HCC P = 11.27 kW P = 11.81 kW

Q = 059 VAR Q = 048 VAR

currents compared with actual current and generates switching

patterns using fixed-HCC or A-HCC or A-F-HCC current controllers.

The controllers are tested individually; however, the simulation of

the Fig. 8 is focused on A-F-HCC. The shunt active filter produces

required compensation currents as shown in Fig. 8(d). The source

current after compensation is presented in Fig. 8(e) that indicates

the current is sinusoidal. Fig. 8. Simulation results (a) source-voltage, (b) load current, (c) reference-current,

(d) compensation current (e) source current after compensation and (f) unity power

The APF is suppressing reactive/harmonic power and simulta-

factor, (g) DC-side capacitor-voltages.

neously improves power factor as shown in Fig. 8(f); the phase-a

voltage is in phase with current. The DC-side capacitance voltage

is controlled by PI or FLC. This controller reduces the ripples in the (THD) of the source current is measured without and with active

capacitor voltage to certain level and makes settling time to a low filter using PI and FLC along with different current controllers. The

value (t = 0.23 s) and it is plotted in Fig. 8(g). This figure is for THD measurement is compared for PI and FLC controller that is

FLC in the outer loop with A-F-HCC in the inner current loop. The presented in Table 5. The order of the harmonics versus magnitude

performance of the PI or FLC with different PWM-current control of the source current is plotted that is shown in Fig. 9(a). It is

based dc-side capacitor voltage settling time is measured and given shown that the supply current is distorted due to the presence

in Table 3. of fifth, seventh, eleventh and higher order of harmonic spectral

The Real (P ) and Reactive (Q ) power are calculated for different components and the measurement of THD is 26.67%. The Fig. 9(b)

cases and are given in Table 4. These results are measured under is plotted using A-F-HCC current controller based active power

diode-rectifier load using PI and FLC with three-different PWM- filter and it ensures that THD is less than 5% (THD = 1.72%) in

current controller. These results indicate that reactive power is compliance with the harmonic standards.

suppressed by APF and hence improves power quality in the The PI or FLC based active filter system is simulated and

distribution system. validated under diode-rectifier load conditions. The adaptive-

The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used to measure the order fuzzy-HCC reduces the switching power losses and improves the

of harmonics in the source current. The Total Harmonic Distortion active filter performance in comparison with the fixed-HCC and

K. P, K.K. Mahapatra / ISA Transactions 51 (2012) 163–169 169

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