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ISA Transactions

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/isatrans

Research Article

pendulum system

Mohammad El-Bardini, Ahmad M. El-Nagar n

Department of Industrial Electronics and Control Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoﬁa University, Menof 32852, Egypt

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper, the interval type-2 fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative controller (IT2F-PID) is pro-

Received 5 December 2012 posed for controlling an inverted pendulum on a cart system with an uncertain model. The proposed

Received in revised form controller is designed using a new method of type-reduction that we have proposed, which is called the

29 January 2014

simpliﬁed type-reduction method. The proposed IT2F-PID controller is able to handle the effect of

Accepted 16 February 2014

Available online 21 March 2014

structure uncertainties due to the structure of the interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2-FLS). The

This paper was recommended for results of the proposed IT2F-PID controller using a new method of type-reduction are compared with the

publication by A.B. Rad other proposed IT2F-PID controller using the uncertainty bound method and the type-1 fuzzy PID

controller (T1F-PID). The simulation and practical results show that the performance of the proposed

Keywords: controller is signiﬁcantly improved compared with the T1F-PID controller.

Fuzzy PID controllers

& 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Interval type-2 fuzzy logic system

Interval type-2 fuzzy PID controller

Inverted pendulum system

Uncertain system

1. Introduction obtain the overall improved performance. The fuzzy PIþD con-

troller is developed which is a combination of a fuzzy PI controller

The conventional PID controllers are still the most widely used and a fuzzy D controller [13]. The fuzzy P þID controller is

control structure in most of the industrial processes. This is mainly developed for tracking control of a two-link experimental direct

because PID controllers have simple control structures, affordable arm [14]. There are different control structures for the fuzzy PID

price, and effectiveness for linear systems [1–6]. Due to their linear controller mentioned in [15–21], in order to improve the closed

structure, the conventional PID controllers are usually not effective loop systems. Despite the signiﬁcant improvement of system

if the system to be controlled has a high level of complexity, such performance with the fuzzy PID controllers over their conven-

as, time delay, high order, modeling nonlinearities, vague systems tional counterparts, it should be noted that they are usually not

without precise mathematical models, and structural uncertainties effective if cases where the system to be controlled has structure

[7]. For these reasons, many researchers have attempted to com- uncertainties as the ordinary fuzzy controllers (type-1 FLCs) have

bine a conventional PID controller with a fuzzy logic controller limited capabilities to directly handle data uncertainties [22].

(FLC) in order to achieve a better system performance over the There are ﬁve sources of uncertainties in type-1 fuzzy logic

conventional PID controller. systems (T1-FLSs) [23,24]: (1) uncertainties in the inputs to the

The fuzzy PI controller [8] and the fuzzy PD controller [9] are FLS, which translate into uncertainties in the antecedents mem-

developed to improve the system performance rather than con- bership functions as the sensor measurements are affected by high

ventional PID controllers. The fuzzy PI controllers are preferred noise levels from various sources. (2) Uncertainties in the control

more than the fuzzy PD controllers as the fuzzy PD controllers are outputs, which translate into uncertainties in the consequents

not able to eliminate the steady state errors [10]. However, the membership function of the FLS. (3) The meanings of the words

fuzzy PI controllers show a poor performance during the transient that are used in the antecedents and consequents of rules can

phase for higher order processes due to their internal integration be uncertain (words mean different things to different people).

operation. The fuzzy PI and the fuzzy PD controllers are combined (4) Uncertainties associated with the change in the operating

to get a fuzzy PID controller [11,12]. Its knowledge base consists of conditions of the controller. Such uncertainties can translate into

two-dimensional rule base for the PI and the PD controllers to uncertainties in the antecedents and/or consequent membership

functions. (5) The data that is used to tune the parameters of a T1-

FLS may also be noisy. All of these uncertainties translate into

n

Corresponding author.

uncertainties about fuzzy set membership functions. The T1-FLSs

E-mail addresses: dralbardini@ieee.org (M. El-Bardini), are not able to directly model such uncertainties because their

Ahmed_elnagar@menoﬁa.edu.eg (A.M. El-Nagar). membership functions are totally crisp.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2014.02.007

0019-0578/& 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743 733

On the other hand, the type-2 fuzzy sets (T2-FSs) that were The major contributions of this study are (1) the successful

introduced by Zadeh in 1975 are able to model such uncertainties development of fuzzy PID controller to IT2F-PID controller. (2)

because their membership functions are themselves fuzzy; they The successful application of the proposed IT2F-PID controller for

are very useful in circumstances where it is difﬁcult to determine controlling the uncertain inverted pendulum on a cart system. (3)

an exact membership function for a fuzzy set [25]. The concept of a The success of the proposed method of type-reduction to mini-

T2-FS is an extension of the concept of ordinary fuzzy sets (type-1 mize the memory required and reduces the time of compu-

fuzzy sets; T1-FSs). A T2-FS is characterized by a fuzzy member- tation for the type-reduction process. (4) The success of the

ship function (i.e., the membership grade for each element of this proposed controller to minimize the effect of the system uncer-

set is a fuzzy set in [0, 1]), unlike a T1-FS where the membership tainties and the external disturbance.

grade is a crisp number in [0, 1] [25]. Therefore, a T2-FS provides This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the IT2F-PID

additional degrees of freedom that make it possible to model and controller is included. The description of the mathematical model

handle the uncertainties directly [26]. Both the T1-FLS and T2-FLS of the uncertain inverted pendulum is presented in Section 3.

have the same four components, which are a fuzziﬁer, a rule base, Section 4 presents the simulation and practical results followed by

a fuzzy inference engine, and an output processor. Furthermore, the conclusions and the relevant references.

unlike a T1-FLS, the output processor generates a T1-FS output

using the type-reducer or a crisp number using the defuzziﬁer.

A T2-FLS also is characterized by IF–THEN rules, but its antecedent 2. Interval type-2 fuzzy PID controller

or consequent sets are type-2. A T2-FLS can be used when the

circumstances are too uncertain to determine membership grades The prime objective of the controller design is to achieve a

exactly and they have been used in many applications, especially better control performance in terms of the stability and the

in the control systems [27–34]. The IT2-FLS is a special case of the robustness for the system uncertainties and the environmental

T2-FLS [24]. These are simpler to work with than general T2-FSs disturbances. The proposed control structure consists of a simple

and distribute the uncertainty evenly among all admissible pri- upper-level intelligent controller and a lower-level classical con-

mary memberships [35]. The IT2-FLSs have been applied to troller. The upper level controller provides a mechanism to select

various ﬁelds with great success [36–43]. the gains of a classical PID controller, whereas the lower-level

The structure of the IT2-FLS has four components, viz. a fuzziﬁer, a controller should deliver the solutions to a particular situation. In

rule base, a fuzzy inference engine, and an output processor. The the proposed control structure, a rule-based Mamdani-type-2

output sets of the IT2-FLS are interval type-2, so we have to use an fuzzy controller is used in the upper level and a conventional

extended version of type-1 defuzziﬁcation methods. The extended PID controller is selected for the lower level. The structure of the

defuzziﬁcation operation with the type-2 case gives a T1-FS at the IT2F-PID controller is shown in Fig. 1. In usual practice, the error

output. Since this operation takes us from the T2-FSs of the IT2-FLS to (e) and the change of error (Δe) parameters were preferred to the

a T1-FS, this operation is called a type-reduction and calls the type-1 designing of the antecedent of the fuzzy rules for control applica-

set so obtained a type-reduced set [44]. The type-reduced set is a tions [50]. So, in this proposed controller the error signal and

collection of the outputs of all of the embedded T1-FLSs [25]. The the change in error signal are used for the antecedent part of the

type-reduction is usually performed by iterative Karnik–Mendel (KM) rule based.

algorithms [45], which are computationally intensive. However, the The PID controller is usually implemented as follows:

IT2-FLS has a computational overhead associated with the computa- Z

deðtÞ

tion of the type-reduced fuzzy sets using the KM algorithms [46]. This uðtÞ ¼ kp eðtÞ þki eðtÞdt þ kd

dt

computational overhead reduces the real-time performance of the eðtÞ ¼ yr ðtÞ ym ðtÞ ð1Þ

IT2-FLS, especially when operating on industrial embedded controllers

which have limited computational and memory capabilities. So, the where kp, ki, and kd are the proportional, the integral, and the

type-2 computational overhead can limit the application of the IT2- derivative gains respectively. The controller output, the process

FLSs in industrial embedded controllers. Wu and Mendel [47] pro- output, and the set point are denoted as u, ym, and yr, respectively.

posed a method called uncertainty bounds (UB) to approximate the In the classical PID controller, the values of kp, ki, and kd in Eq. (1)

type-reduced set, thus avoiding the use of the iterative KM algorithms. are adjusted by the operator according to the changes in the

In this study, we propose a new method of type-reduction called the process condition. By developing a rule-based intelligent type-2

simpliﬁed type-reduction method which is able to reduce the computa- fuzzy controller structure, these parameters can be modiﬁed

tion cost of the type-reduction and also, reduces the memory required online, according to the changes in the process condition without

for the IT2-FLS when implemented in embedded systems. much intervention of an operator and further it will enhance the

As reported in [48,49], the T1F-PID controller is proposed to conventional controller performance over a wide operating range.

improve the system performance where the fuzzy rules and reason- The structure of upper-level IT2-FLS contains four components: a

ing are utilized on-line to determine the PID controller parameters fuzziﬁer, an inference engine, a rule base, and an output processing

based on the error signal and its ﬁrst difference. The main drawback

of the T1F-PID controller [48,49] is the limitation capabilities to IT2F-PID Controller

directly handle data uncertainties. For these reasons, the main

objective of this paper is developing an IT2F-PID controller using Interval Type-2

the proposed type-reduction method which combines the conven- Fuzzy System

tional PID controller with the IT2-FLS to improve the system

performance compared with the T1F-PID controller. The proposed kp ki kd

controller has the ability to minimize the effect of structure uncer-

tainties and external disturbance. The proposed controller is used for yr + e u ym

PID Controller Process

controlling the uncertain nonlinear inverted pendulum on a cart

system. The results are compared with the T1F-PID controller to test -

the robustness of the proposed controller to provide some improve-

ments in system performance over the T1F-PID controller under the

effect of the system uncertainties and the external disturbance. Fig. 1. Interval type-2 fuzzy PID controller structure.

734 M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743

Crisp

Crisp output

Fuzzifier Rule Base

Inputs Defuzzifier

Type-1 Reduced

Output Fuzzy

Sets

Type-Reduction

Inference Output

Fuzzy Sets Fuzzy Sets

Table 1

1 Effects of gain parameters.

UMF

~

( A) UMF ( A)

Rise time Overshoot Settling time

Ki Decrease Increase Increase

Kd Decrease Decrease Decrease

~ ~

FOU ( A) LMF ( A) ~

FOU ( A)

x ~ and is denoted as

associated with the lower bound of FOU (A)

Fig. 3. Interval type-2 fuzzy set [22]. μ ~ ðxÞ, 8 x A X:

A

~

μA~ ðxÞ ¼ FOUðAÞ 8xAX ð4Þ

μ A~ ðxÞ ¼ FOUðAÞ 8xAX ð5Þ

follows [36]: the crisp input from the input sensors is ﬁrst fuzziﬁed

into input interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2-FSs). The input IT2-FSs

Note that Jx is an interval set:

then activate the inference engine and the rule base to produce

output IT2-FSs. The IT2-FLS rules will remain the same as in the T1- J x ¼ fðx; vÞ : v A ½μ ~ ðxÞ; μA~ ðxÞg ð6Þ

A

FLS, but the antecedents and/or the consequences will be repre-

sented by the IT2-FSs. The inference engine combines the ﬁred rules

and gives a mapping from input IT2-FSs to output IT2-FSs. The IT2

fuzzy outputs of the inference engine are then processed by the type

reducer, which combines the output sets and performs a centroid 2.2. The rule base

calculation that leads to T1-FSs called the type-reduced sets. After

the type reduction process, the type-reduced sets (or approximate The upper-level IT2-FLS of the proposed control structure

type-reduced sets) are defuzziﬁed (by taking the average of the contains operator knowledge in the form of IF–THEN rules to

type-reduced or approximated type-reduced set) to obtain crisp decide the gain factors of the conventional PID controller. The

outputs. effect of variation in gain parameters on rise time, overshoot, and

settling time of a PID controller is illustrated in Table 1. In the

proposed method, the control rules are developed with the error

2.1. Interval type-2 fuzzy set and the change in error as a premise and the proportional,

integral, and derivative gains are consequent of each rule. The

An IT2-FS A~ is characterized as [23] structure of the fuzzy rule is written as

Z Z Z "Z #

If e is A~ 1 and Δe is A~ 2 then kp is B~ 1 and ki is B~ 2 and kd is B~ 3 ð7Þ

A~ ¼ 1=ðx; vÞ ¼ 1=v =x ð2Þ

x A X v A J x D ½0;1 xAX v A J x D ½0;1

where A~ 1 , A~ 2 , B~ 1 , B~ 2 , and B~ 3 are IT2-FSs as described in Fig. 3.

where x is the primary variable and x A X; v is the secondary

variable, v A V and it has a domain Jx at each x A X; Jx is called the

primary membership of x and is deﬁned in Eq. (6); and, the

2.3. Fuzziﬁcation and inference

secondary grades of A~ are all equal to 1. The union of all the

primary memberships for fuzzy set A~ is called the footprint of

When e ¼ x01 , the vertical line at x01 intersects FOUðA~ 1 Þ every-

uncertainty (FOU) of A~ (see Fig. 3):

where in the interval [μ ~ ðx01 Þ; μA~ 1 ðx01 Þ]; and, when Δe ¼ x02 ,

~ ¼ [ J ¼ ðx; vÞ : v A J D ½0; 1

A1

FOUðAÞ x x ð3Þ the vertical line at x02 intersects FOUðA~ 2 Þ everywhere in the

8xAX

interval [μ ~ ðx02 Þ; μA~ 2 ðx02 Þ]. Two ﬁring levels are then computed,

A2

The upper membership function (UMF) and the lower member- a lower ﬁring level, f ðx0 Þ, and an upper ﬁring level, f ðx0 Þ, where

ship function (LMF) of A~ are two type-1 membership functions f ðx0 Þ ¼ min[μ ~ ðx01 Þ; μ ~ ðx02 Þ] and f ðx0 Þ ¼ min[μA~ 1 ðx01 Þ, μA~ 2 ðx02 Þ]. The

A1 A2

that are bound to the FOU. The UMF is associated with the upper main thing to observe from the result of input and antecedent

bound of FOU (A)~ and is denoted as μ ~ ðxÞ, 8 x A X, and the LMF is operations is the ﬁring interval Fðx0 Þ, where Fðx0 Þ ¼ ½f ðx0 Þ; f ðx0 Þ.

A

M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743 735

2.4. Type-reduction and defuzziﬁcation B. Compute the average between the two end points of the

centroid for each consequent IT2-FS as

Type-reduction is an extension of type-1 defuzziﬁcation which i i

i kl þ kr

represents a mapping of a T2-FS into a T1-FS [47]. The output of a kc ¼ ð15Þ

2

type-reduction process is called a type-reduced set which is a

collection of the outputs of all the embedded T1-FLSs. We i

i

introduce a new method for the type-reduction, which is able to C. Compute the ﬁring interval for each ﬁred rule. Call it ½f ; f

reduce the time of computations and the memory required for the ði ¼ 1; :::; MÞ.

IT2F-PID controller. In order to show the difference between the D. Compute kl ðxÞ and kr ðxÞ as follows:

UB method and the proposed type-reduction method, we describe i i i i

∑M

i ¼ 1 f kc ∑M

i ¼ 1 f kc

the computation steps for each method. kl ðxÞ ¼ i

; kr ðxÞ ¼ i

ð16Þ

∑M

i ¼ 1f ∑M

i ¼ 1f

2.4.1. The uncertainty bounds method

E. Compute the approximate defuzziﬁed output by Eq. (14).

The steps of this method are calculated as follows [22]:

A. Compute the centroids of M consequent IT2-FSs: The UB method depends on the two end points of the centroids

i i

kl and kr (i ¼ 1; :::; MÞ, the end points of the centroids of the M of the M consequent IT2-FSs but, the proposed type-reduction

consequent IT2-FSs, are computed using KM algorithms [46,51]. method depends on the average of the two end points of the

These computations can be performed after the design of the centroids. This modiﬁcation reduces the time of computations and

IT2-FLS has been completed and they only have to be done once. also reduces the size of the memory required to implement the

B. Compute the four boundary T1-FLS centroids: output processing when the IT2F-PID controller is implemented in

, the embedded systems. The calculations which are shown above

M M

ð0Þ i i i for the proposed method of type-reduction are performed to

kl ðxÞ ¼ ∑ f kl ∑f

i¼1 i¼1 obtain the values of kp, ki, and kd.

,

M i i M i

ð0Þ

kr ðxÞ ¼ ∑f kr ∑f ;

i¼1 i¼1

, 3. Uncertain inverted pendulum system

M i M i

ðMÞ i

kl ðxÞ ¼ ∑f kl ∑f

i¼1 i¼1 3.1. Mathematical model

,

M M

ðMÞ i i i

kr ðxÞ ¼ ∑ f kr ∑f ð8Þ The inverted pendulum system deﬁned here is shown in Fig. 4,

i¼1 i¼1

which is formed from a cart, a pendulum and a rail for deﬁning the

positions of the cart. The pendulum is hinged in the center of the

C. Compute the four uncertainty bounds: top surface of the cart and can rotate around the pivot in the same

vertical plane with the rail. The cart can move right or left on the

k l ðxÞ r kl ðxÞ r k l ðxÞ; k r ðxÞ r kr ðxÞ r kr ðxÞ ð9Þ

rail freely. It is given that no friction exists in the system between

n o n o the cart and the rail or between the cart and the pendulum

ð0Þ M ð0Þ M

k l ðxÞ ¼ min kl ðxÞ; kl ðxÞ ; k r ðxÞ ¼ max kr ðxÞ; kr ðxÞ ð10Þ [52,53].

2 i 3 The dynamic equation of the uncertain inverted pendulum

i i i 1 i M i

∑M

i ¼ 1 f f

∑M f kl kl ∑M f kl kl system can be expressed as [52,54]

6 i ¼ 1 i ¼ 1 7

k l ðxÞ ¼ k l ðxÞ 4 i

i

5 2 3 2 3

∑M f ∑M

i

f ∑M

i i 1

f kl kl þ ∑M

M

f kl kl

i " # x2 " # 0

i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 x_ 1 6 ðm þ Δm Þlx 2 sin ðx Þ cos ðx1 Þ 7 x1 6 cos ðx1 Þ

7

¼6

4

g sin ðx1 Þ p ðmp þ 2Δm þ m1 Þ 7 þ ΔA

5 þ4 ðmp þ Δmp þ mc Þ 5u

ð11Þ x_ 2

p p

ðmp þ Δmp Þl cos 2 ðx1 Þ

c

x2 ðmp þ Δmp Þl cos 2 ðx1 Þ

4l

ðm

4l

3

ðmp þ Δmp þ mc Þ

3 p þ Δmp þ mc Þ

2 i 3

i i i 1 i M i

6

∑Mi ¼ 1 f f ∑M

i ¼ 1 f kr kr ∑M i ¼ 1 f ðkr kr Þ

7 ð17Þ

k r ðxÞ ¼ k r ðxÞþ 4 i i

5 ð12Þ

i i 1

∑Mi ¼ 1 f ∑i ¼ 1 f

M ∑M i ¼ 1f kr kr þ ∑M i¼1

i M i

f ðkr kr Þ

½kl ðxÞ; kr ðxÞ ¼ ½ðk l ðxÞ þ k l ðxÞÞ=2; ðk r ðxÞ þk r ðxÞÞ=2 ð13Þ

1 2l

kðxÞ ¼ ½kl ðxÞ þ kr ðxÞ ð14Þ

2

type-reduction)

u

The calculations of the proposed simpliﬁed type-reduction

method are performed as follows:

i i

the KM algorithms [46,51]. Call it ½kl ; kr ði ¼ 1; :::; MÞ. Fig. 4. Inverted pendulum on a cart.

736 M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743

where x1 is the angle of the pendulum, x2 ¼ x_ 1 , and u is the control gravity acceleration. The parameter l is the half length of the

force in the unit (Newton) applied horizontally to the cart. The pendulum in the unit (m). Δmp is the uncertainty in the mass of

parameters, mc and mp, are, respectively, the mass of the cart and the pendulum. ΔA is the structural uncertainty of the inverted

the mass of the pendulum in the unit (kg), and g ¼ 9:8 m=s2 is the pendulum.

d

Interval Type-2

u + + x1 Fig. 5 shows the block diagram of an IT2F-PID controller for

yr + e Inverted

Fuzzy PID

Pendulum

balancing an inverted pendulum on a cart. yr Denotes the desired

- Controller angular position of the pendulum. The goal is to balance the

pendulum in the upright position (i.e., yr ¼ 0) when it initially

starts with a non-zero angle of the vertical (i.e., x1 a 0). u and d

Fig. 5. Interval type-2 fuzzy PID controller for an inverted pendulum. are the control signal (force) and the external disturbance,

M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743 737

Table 2 Table 4

Rule base for the proportional gain. Rule base for the derivative gain.

Change of error signal Error signal Change of error signal Error signal

NL NS Z PS PL NL NS Z PS PL

NL M S S S M NL M M B M M

NS B M S M B NS M M B M M

Z VB B M B VB Z S M B M S

PS B M S M B PS M M B M M

PL M S S S M PL M M B M M

Table 3

Rule base for the integral gain. as the input variables; and the proportional, the integral, and

the derivative gains as the output variables.

Change of error signal Error signal

(2) Once the fuzzy controller inputs and outputs are chosen, we

NL NS Z PS PL

deﬁne the universe of discourse for the input and output

variables. Then, we divide the universe of discourse into IT2-

NL B M S M B FSs as described in Fig. 3. For the inverted pendulum system,

NS B M M M B Figs. 6 and 7 show the membership function for the error

Z VB B M B VB

signal and the change in error signal respectively, where the

PS B M M M B

PL B M S M B universe of discourse is divided into ﬁve overlapping IT2-FS

values labeled Negative Large (NL), Negative Small (NS),

Zero (Z), Positive Small (PS) and Positive Large (PL). The

membership functions for the proportional, the integral,

respectively. The steps for designing the proposed controller for and the derivative gains are shown in Figs. 8–10, correspond-

the inverted pendulum are summarized as follows: ingly. Where the linguistic variables are labeled Small (S),

Medium (M), Big (B), and Very Big (VB).

(1) Choosing the input and output variables for the fuzzy con- (3) Writing the rule-bases for the inverted pendulum system for

troller. We use the error signal and the change of error signal all possible cases. Based on the experience and Table 1, the

738 M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743

rule base for the proportional, the integral, and the derivative a small overshoot for the two proposed controllers and T1F-PID

gains are shown in Tables 2–4 correspondingly. controller.

(4) Applying the algorithm of the IT2F-PID controller that are

described in Sections 2.3 and 2.4.

4.1.2. Task 2: uncertainty in mass

4. Simulation and practical results using the two proposed IT2F-PID controllers and the T1F-PID

controller for initial conditions x1 ¼ 0:1 rad and x2 ¼ 0 rad=s;

4.1. Simulation results Δmp ¼ 2 kg after 3 s. The inverted pendulum system with the

two proposed controllers can be balanced at the desired posi-

In this section, an inverted pendulum–cart system has been tion after adding the uncertainty value of the pendulum mass.

simulated using the two proposed controllers: the IT2F-PID con- So, the response of the two proposed IT2F-PID controllers is made

troller using the UB method and the IT2F-PID controller using the signiﬁcantly better than the T1F-PID controller. Fig. 13 shows the

proposed method of type-reduction. In order to clear the improve- response of the inverted pendulum system when Δmp ¼ 2:2 kg.

ment of the proposed controllers, the T1F-PID controller is also It is clear that, the system remains stable for the two proposed

implemented for comparison purposes. The parameters of an controllers and unstable for the T1F-PID controller. So, the two

inverted pendulum–cart system are given in Table 5. There are proposed IT2F-PID controllers are superior to respond to the

four simulation tasks performed for the inverted pendulum. uncertainty in the mass of the pendulum.

4.1.3. Task 3: structure uncertainty

Fig. 11 shows the response of the inverted pendulum system

using the two IT2F-PID controllers and the T1F-PID controller for Fig. 14 shows the response of the inverted pendulum system

initial conditions x1 ¼ 0:1 rad and x2 ¼ 0 rad=s. The output moves using the two proposed IT2F-PID controllers and the T1F-PID

toward the inverted position without a steady state error and controller for initial conditions x1 ¼ 0:1 rad and x2 ¼ 0 rad=s. The

uncertainty value is deﬁned as

0:075 0:075

Table 5 ΔA ¼

0:075 0:075

Parameters of the inverted pendulum system.

This value is added at time equal to 2 s. As shown in the ﬁgure,

the two proposed controllers are able to maintain the stability

mc Mass of the cart 0.5 kg of the system after adding the uncertainty value but the system

mp Mass of the pendulum 0.2 kg becomes unstable for the T1F-PID controller. So, the two proposed

l Half-length of the pendulum 0.5 m

controllers are superior in responding to the uncertainty rather

g Gravity acceleration 9.8 m/s2

than the T1F-PID controller.

Fig. 11. Response of the inverted pendulum system for normal case.

M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743 739

Fig. 12. Response of the inverted pendulum system for uncertainty in mass (Δmp ¼ 2 kg).

Fig. 13. Response of the inverted pendulum system for uncertainty in mass (Δmp ¼ 2:2 kg).

4.1.4. Task 4: external disturbance RMSE and the IAE are deﬁned in Eqs. (18)–(20) correspondingly.

Z 1

The response of the inverted pendulum system using the two ISE ¼ ½eðtÞ2 dt ð18Þ

0

proposed IT2F-PID controllers and the T1F-PID controller for the

external disturbance value, d ¼ 29 N, is shown in Fig. 15. It can be sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 N

seen that the response of the system for the proposed IT2F-PID RMSE ¼ ∑ ðeðtÞÞ2 ð19Þ

Ni¼1

controller using a new method of type-reduction is made sig-

niﬁcantly better than the proposed IT2F-PID controller using the Z 1

UB method and the T1F-PID controller after adding an external IAE ¼ jeðtÞjdt ð20Þ

0

disturbance at time equal to 2 s.

To show the visual indications of control performance, an Tables 6–8 list the ISE, the RMSE and the IAE values corre-

objective measure of error performance was made using the spondingly, for the T1F-PID controller [48,49], the IT2-FLC [55],

integral of square of errors (ISE), the root mean square error the Type-2 FLC [56], the fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) [57,58]

(RMSE) and the integral of absolute error (IAE) criteria. The ISE, the and the two proposed IT2F-PID controllers for all the above

740 M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743

Fig. 14. Response of the inverted pendulum system for structure uncertainty.

Fig. 15. Response of the inverted pendulum system when the value of disturbance is d ¼29 N.

Table 6 Table 7

ISE values. RMSE values.

Task 1 Task 2 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 1 Task 2 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4

(Δmp ¼2 kg) (Δmp ¼2.2 kg) (Δmp ¼ 2 kg) (Δmp ¼2.2 kg)

T1F-PID [48,49] 0.0496 0.1643 1.5395 6.483 306.08 T1F-PID [48,49] 0.01 0.0091 0.0277 0.0805 0.5532

FSMC [57,58] 0.0452 0.1251 1.356 1.852 255.70 FSMC [57,58] 0.0095 0.0079 0.0260 0.0430 0.5057

IT2-FLC [55] 0.0413 0.0935 0.5248 0.0698 223.87 IT2-FLC [55] 0.0091 0.0068 0.0162 0.0084 0.4731

Type-2 FLC [56] 0.0411 0.0856 0.4821 0.0621 192.51 Type-2 FLC [56] 0.0091 0.0065 0.0127 0.0079 0.4388

IT2F-PID 0.0369 0.0584 0.0714 0.0534 143.90 IT2F-PID 0.0086 0.0054 0.006 0.0073 0.3793

(UB method) (UB method)

IT2F-PID (proposed 0.0360 0.0581 0.0710 0.0531 81.85 IT2F-PID (proposed 0.0085 0.0053 0.005 0.0072 0.2861

method) method)

M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743 741

simulation tasks. As shown in Tables 6–8 the values of the ISE, the 4.2. Practical results

RMSE and the IAE for the two proposed IT2F-PID controllers are

lower than those obtained for the T1F-PID controller, the IT2-FLC, In this section, we show the effect of the two proposed IT2F-

the Type-2 FLC and the FSMC. For the external disturbance task, PID controllers practically. The two proposed IT2F-PID controllers

the values for the IT2F-PID controller using the proposed type- are implemented using the PIC microcontroller (P18F4685). Fig. 16

reduction method are lower than that obtained for the IT2F-PID shows the response of the two proposed IT2F-PID controllers and

controller using the UB method. In the next section, the best two the T1F-PID controller for the normal case. It is clear that, the

controllers which are the proposed IT2F-PID controller using the response of the inverted pendulum has a small overshoot and

new method of type-reduction and the proposed IT2F-PID con- without a steady state error for all the controllers. Fig. 17 shows

troller using the UB method are implemented practically using the the response of the inverted pendulum when the uncertainty of

PIC microcontroller. the mass of the pendulum (Δmp ¼ 2 kg) is added at time equal to

3 s. It is clear that, the response of the two proposed IT2F-PID

controllers is signiﬁcantly better than the T1F-PID controller. The

response of the inverted pendulum when Δmp ¼ 2:2 kg is added is

Table 8 shown in Fig. 18. It is clear that, the response of the inverted

IAE values.

pendulum remains stable for the two proposed IT2F-PID control-

Task 1 Task 2 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 lers and unstable for the T1F-PID controller. The response of the

(Δmp ¼2 kg) (Δmp ¼2.2 kg) inverted pendulum when applying the external disturbance in the

force is shown in Fig. 19. The response of the proposed IT2F-PID

T1F-PID [48,49] 1.9969 11.626 45.417 50.707 258.30

controller using a new method of type-reduction is better than

FSMC [57,58] 1.9821 8.561 35.260 6.634 240.54

IT2-FLC [55] 1.901 6.559 19.485 2.814 219.65 the proposed IT2F-PID controller using the UB method and the

Type-2 FLC [56] 1.8821 5.012 16.521 2.751 189.65 T1F-PID controller.

IT2F-PID (UB 1.8031 3.603 4.959 2.004 166.92 Table 9 lists the memory usage and computation time for

method) the IT2F-PID controller based on the UB method and the IT2F-PID

IT2F-PID (proposed 1.8001 3.501 4.804 1.996 95.10

method)

controller based on the proposed method of type-reduction.

It is clear that the IT2F-PID controller using the proposed

Fig. 16. Practical response of the inverted pendulum for normal case.

Fig. 17. Practical response of the inverted pendulum after adding the uncertainty in the mass of the pendulum (Δmp ¼ 2 kg).

742 M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743

Fig. 18. Practical response of the inverted pendulum after adding the uncertainty in the mass of the pendulum (Δmp ¼ 2:2 kg).

Fig. 19. Practical response of the inverted pendulum after adding the external disturbance.

Memory usage and computation time for IT2F-PID controllers. proposed controllers have been tested by using four simulation

tasks including the normal case, the mass uncertainties, the

IT2F-PID (UB method [21]) IT2F-PID (proposed method)

structure uncertainties, and the external disturbance. The simula-

ROM usage 45% 30% tion results of the two proposed controllers are compared with the

RAM usage 35% 25% results of the T1F-PID controller. In the normal case, the response

Computation time 0.1518 ms 0.0404 ms of the inverted pendulum is good for all the controllers. For the

mass uncertainty case, the two proposed controllers can realize

tracking of an inverted pendulum with a small overshoot and

type-reduction method reduces the size of memory used which a small settling time rather than the T1F-PID controller.

saves 15% of the read only memory (ROM) and 10% from The response of the inverted pendulum for the T1F-PID controller

the internal random access memory (RAM). The proposed remains unstable when the value of the mass uncertainty is

type-reduction method reduces the computation time of type- increased. For the structured uncertainty case, the inverted pen-

reduction process which the IT2F-PID controller using the pro- dulum system remains stable for the two proposed controllers.

posed method of type-reduction is about 3.75 times faster than But, it becomes unstable for the T1F-PID controller. So, the two

the IT2F-PID controller using the UB method [18]. proposed IT2F-PID controllers can handle the structured uncer-

tainties rather than the T1F-PID controller. For the external

disturbance case, the proposed IT2F-PID controller using the

5. Conclusions new method of type-reduction has the ability to respond to the

effect of external disturbance rather than the proposed IT2F-PID

In this paper, the IT2F-PID controller using the UB method and controller using the UB method and the T1F-PID controller.

the new method of type-reduction are proposed for controlling The two proposed controllers are implemented using the PIC

M. El-Bardini, A.M. El-Nagar / ISA Transactions 53 (2014) 732–743 743

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