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Dec 01, 2018

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AC Principles

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AC Principles

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VM Maximum or peak value of the voltage, in volts (V)

T Period: The time taken for one cycle, in seconds

Frequency – the number of periods in 1 second, in Hz (Hertz) or

f

1/s. f = 1/T

Angular frequency, expressed in radians/s

= 2**f or = 2* / T.

Initial phase given in radians or degrees. This quantity determines

the value of the sine or cosine wave at t = 0.

Note: The amplitude of a sinusoidal voltage is sometimes

expressed as VEff, the effective or RMS value. This is related to

VM according to the relationship VM=2VEff, or approximately VEff =

0.707 VM

Peak value: VM = 2 220 V = 311 V

Frequency: f = 50 1/s = 50 Hz

Angular frequency: = 2**f = 314 1/s = 314 rad/s

Period: T = 1/f = 20 ms

Time function: v(t)=311 sin (314 t)

Let’s see the time function using TINA’s Analysis/AC Analysis/Time Function command.

You can check that the period is T=20m and that VM = 311 V.

The properties of the 120 V AC voltage in the household electrical outlet in the US:

Peak value: VM = 2 120 V = 169.68 V » 170 V

Frequency: f = 60 1/s = 60 Hz

Angular frequency: = 2**f = 376.8 rad/s 377 rad/s

Period: T = 1/f = 16.7 ms

Time function: v(t)=170 sin (377 t)

Note that in this case the time function could be given either as v(t)=311 sin (314 t+ ) or v(t)=311 cos (314

t+), since in the case of the outlet voltage we do not know the initial phase.

The initial phase plays an important role when several voltages are present simultaneously. A good practical example is

the three-phase system, where three voltages of the same peak value, shape and frequency are present, each of which

has a 120° phase shift relative to the others. In a 60 Hz network, the time functions are:

The following figure made with TINA shows the circuit with these time functions as TINA’s voltage generators.

The voltage difference vAB= vA(t) - vB(t) is shown as solved by TINA’s Analysis/AC Analysis/Time Function command.

Note that the peak of vAB (t) is approximately 294 V, larger than the 170 V peaks of the vA(t) or vB(t) voltages, but also not

simply the sum of their peak voltages. This is due to the phase difference. We will discuss how to calculate the resulting

voltage (which is 3 * 170 294 in this case) later in this chapter and also in the separate Three-phase Systems chapter.

Characteristic values of sinusoidal signals

Though an AC signal continuously varies during its period, it is easy to define a few characteristic values for comparing

one wave with another: These are the peak, average and root-mean-square (rms) values.

We have already met the peak value VM , which is simply the maximum value of the time function, the

amplitude of the sinusoidal wave.

Sometimes the peak-to-peak (p-p) value is used. For sinusoidal voltages and currents, the peak-to-peak value is double

the peak value.

The average value of the sine wave is the arithmetic average of the values for the positive half cycle. It is also

called absolute average since it is the same as the average of the absolute value of the waveform. In practice, we

encounter this waveform by rectifying the sine wave with a circuit called a full wave rectifier.

VAV = 2 / VM 0.637 VM

The rms or effective value of a sinusoidal voltage or current corresponds to the equivalent DC value producing the same

heating power. For example, a voltage with an effective value of 120 V produces the same heating and lighting power in a

light bulb as does 120 V from a DC voltage source. It can be shown that the rms or effective value of a sinusoidal wave is:

Vrms = VM / 2 0.707 VM

These values can be calculated the same way for both voltages and currents.

The rms value is very important in practice. Unless indicated otherwise, power line AC voltages (e.g. 110V or 220V) are

given in rms values. Most AC meters are calibrated in rms and indicate the rms level.

Example 1 Find the peak value of the sinusoidal voltage in an electrical network with 220 V rms value.

VM = 220/0.707 = 311.17 V

Example 2 Find the peak value of the sinusoidal voltage in an electrical network with 110 V rms value.

VM = 110/0.707 = 155.58 V

Example 3 Find the (absolute) average of the sinusoidal voltage if its rms value is 220 V.

Example 4 Find the absolute average of the sinusoidal voltage if its rms value is 110 V.

Example 5 Find the ratio between the absolute average (V a) and rms (V) values for the sinusoidal waveform.

Note that you cannot add average values in an AC circuit because it leads to improper results.

PHASORS

As we have already seen in the previous section, it is often necessary in AC circuits to add sinusoidal voltages and

currents of the same frequency. Though it is possible to add the signals numerically using TINA, or by employing

trigonometric relations, it is more convenient to use the so-called phasor method. A phasor is a complex number

representing the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal signal. It is important to note that the phasor does not represent the

frequency, which must be the same for all phasors.

A phasor can be handled as a complex number or represented graphically as a planar arrow in the complex plane. The

graphic representation is called a phasor diagram. Using phasor diagrams, you can add or subtract phasors in a complex

plane by the triangle or parallelogram rule.

There are two forms of complex numbers: rectangular and polar.

The rectangular representation is in the form a + jb, where j = -1 is the imaginary unit.

The polar representation is in the form Ae j , where A is the absolute value (amplitude) and f is the angle of the phasor

from the positive real axis, in the counterclockwise direction.

Now let’s see how to derive the corresponding phasor from a time function.

First, assume that all the voltages in the circuit are expressed in the form of cosine functions. (All voltages can be

converted to that form.) Then the phasorcorresponding to the voltage of v(t) = VM cos(t+) is: VM = VMe j, which is also

called the complex peak value.

We can calculate the time function from a phasor in the same way. First we write the phasor in polar form e.g. VM =

VMe j and then the corresponding time function is

v(t)=VM (cos(t+).

And hence the time function is: v(t) = 22.36 cos(t – 63.5°) V

Phasors are often used to define the complex effective or rms value of the voltages and currents in AC circuits. Given v(t)

= VMcos(t+)= 10cos(t+30°)

Numerically:

The complex effective (rms) value: V = 0.707*10* e- j30° = 7.07 e- j30° = 6.13 – j 3.535

V = - 10 + j 20 = 22.36 e j 116.5°

VM (cos(t+r), let’s define the complex time function as:

v(t) = VMe jt = 10 e j30 e jt = 10e jt (cos(30) + j sin(30))= e jt (8.66+j5)

By introducing the complex time function, we have a representation with both a real part and an imaginary part. We can always recover the original

real function of time by taking the real part of our result: v(t) = Re {v(t)}

However the complex time function has the great advantage that, since all the complex time functions in the AC circuits under consideration have

the same ejt multiplier, we can factor this out and just work with the phasors. Moreover, in practice we do not use the e jt part at all--just the

transformations from the time functions to the phasors and back.

To demonstrate the advantage of using phasors, let’s see the following example.

Hence:

As this simple example shows, the method of phasors.is an extremely powerful tool for solving AC problems.

{calculation of v1+v2}

v1:=100

v2:=50*exp(-pi/4*j)

v2=[35.3553-35.3553*j]

v1add:=v1+v2

v1add=[135.3553-35.3553*j]

abs(v1add)=[139.8966]

radtodeg(arc(v1add))=[-14.6388]

{calculation of v1-v2}

v1sub:=v1-v2

v1sub=[64.6447+35.3553*j]

abs(v1sub)=[73.6813]

radtodeg(arc(v1sub))=[28.6751]

calculations.

the Base function for AC ia set to cosine in the Editor

Options dialog box from the View/Option menu. We will

explain the role of this parameter at Example 8.

Again the result is the same. Here are the time function graphs:

Example 7 Find the sum and the difference of the voltages:

This example brings up a new question. So far we have required that all time functions be given as cosine functions. What

shall we do with a time function given as a sine? The solution is to transform the sine function to a cosine function. Using

the trigonometric relation sin(x)=cos(x-/2)=cos(x-90°), our example can be rephrased as follows:

Hence:

Vadd = V1M + V2M = 35.53 – j 135.35

{calculation of v1+v2}

v1:=-100*j

v2:=50*exp(-pi/4*j)

v2=[35.3553 - 35.3553*j]

v1add:=v1+v2

v1add=[35.3553-135.3553*j]

abs(v1add)=[139.8966]

radtodeg(arc(v1add))=[-75.3612]

{calculation of v1-v2}

v1sub:=v1-v2

v1sub=[-35.3553 - 64.6447*j]

abs(v1sub)=[73.6813]

radtodeg(arc(v1sub))=[-118.6751]

Example 8 Find the sum and the difference of the voltages:

This example brings up one more issue. What if all voltages are given as sine waves and we also wish to see the result as

a sine wave?. We could of course convert both voltages to cosine functions, compute the answer, and than convert the

result back to a sine function--but this isn't necessary. We can create phasors from the sine waves in the same way that

we did from cosine waves and then simply use their amplitude and phases as amplitude and phase of sine waves in the

result.

This will obviously give the same result as transforming the sine waves to cosine waves. As we could see in the previous example, this is

equivalent to multiplying by –j and then using the cos(x) = sin (x-90°) relation to transform it back to a sine wave. This is equivalent to multiplying

by j. In other words, since –j × j = 1, we could use the phasors derived directly from the amplitudes and phases of sine waves to represent the

function and then return to them directly. Also, reasoning in the same manner about the complex time functions, we could consider sine waves as

the imaginary parts of the complex time functions and supplement them with the cosine function to create the full complex time function.

Let's see the solution to this example using the sine functions as the base of the phasors (transforming sin(t) to the real

unit phasor (1) ).

Hence:

Note that the phasors are exactly the same as in Example 6 but not the time functions:

As you can see, it is very easy to obtain the result using sine functions, especially when our initial data are sine waves.

Many textbooks prefer to use the sine wave as the base function of phasors. In practice, you can use either method, but

don't confuse them.

When you create the phasors, it is very important that all time functions are first converted either to sine or

cosine. If you started from sine functions, your solutions should be represented with sine functions when

returning from phasors to time functions. The same is true if you start with cosine functions.

Let’s solve the same problem using TINA’s interactive mode. Since we want to use sine functions as the base for creating

the phasors, make sure that theBase function for AC is set to sine in the Editor Options dialog box from

theView/Option menu.

The circuits for making the sum and difference

of the waveforms and the result:

and the time funtions:

PASSIVE COMPONENTS IN AC CIRCUITS

USING IMPEDANCE AND

ADMITTANCE

As we move from our study of DC circuits to AC circuits, we must consider two other types of passive component, ones that behave

very differently from resistors--namely, inductors and capacitors. Resistors are characterized only by their resistance and by Ohm’s

law. Inductors and capacitors change the phase of their current relative to their voltage and have impedances that depend upon

frequency. This makes AC circuits much more interesting and powerful. In this chapter, you will see how the use of phasors will

permit us to characterize all passive components (resistor, inductor, and capacitor) in AC circuits by their impedance and

the generalized Ohm’s law.

Resistor

When a resistor is used in an AC circuit, the variations of the current through and the voltage across the resistor are in

phase. In other words, their sinusoidal voltages and currents have the same phase. This in phase relationship can be

analyzed using the generalized Ohm’s law for the phasors of the voltage and current:

VM = R*IM or V = R*I

Obviously, we can use Ohm’s law simply for the peak or rms values (the absolute values of the complex phasors)--

VM = R*IM or V = R*I

but this form does not contain the phase information , which plays such an important role in AC circuits.

Inductor

An inductor is a length of wire, sometimes just a short trace on a PCB, sometimes a longer wire wound in the shape of a

coil with a core of iron or air.

The symbol of the inductor is L, while its value is called inductance. The unit of inductance is the henry (H), named after

the famous American physicist Joseph Henry. As inductance increases, so too does the inductor's opposition to the flow of

AC currents.

It can be shown that the AC voltage across an inductor leads the current by a quarter of a period. Viewed as phasors, the

voltage is 90 ahead (in a counterclockwise direction) of the current. In the complex plane, the voltage phasor is

perpendicular to the current phasor, in the positive direction (with respect to the reference direction, counterclockwise).

You can express this by complex numbers using an imaginary factor j as a multiplier.

The inductive reactance of an inductor reflects its opposition to the flow of AC current at a particular frequency, is

represented by the symbol XL, and is measured in ohms. Inductive reactance is calculated by the relationship X L = *L =

2**f*L. The voltage drop across an inductor is XL times the current. This relationship is valid for both the peak or rms

values of the voltage and current. In the equation for inductive reactance (X L ), f is frequency in Hz, the angular

frequency in rad/s (radians/second), and L the inductance in H (Henry). So we have two forms of the generalized Ohm’s

law:

1. For the peak (VM, IM ) or effective (V,I) values of the current and the voltage:

VM = XL*IM or V = XL*I

VM = j * X L I M or V = j * XL * I

The ratio between the voltage and current phasors of the inductor is its complex inductive impedance:

ZL= V/I = VM / IM = j L

The ratio between the phasors of the current and voltage of the inductor is its complex inductive admittance:

You can see that the three forms of the generalized Ohm's law--ZL= V / I, I = V / ZL, and V = I * ZL--are very similar to

Ohm’s law for DC, except that they use impedance and complex phasors. Using impedance, admittance, and the

generalized Ohm’s law, we can treat AC circuits very similarly to DC circuits.

We can use Ohm’s law with the magnitude of inductive reactance just as we did for resistance. We simply relate the peak

(VM, IM) and rms (V, I) values of the current and voltage by XL, the magnitude of inductive reactance:

VM = XL IM or V = XL * I

However, since these equations do not include the phase difference between the voltage and current, they

shouldn’t be used unless phase is of no interest or is taken into account otherwise.

Proof

The time function of the voltage across a pure linear inductor (an inductor with zero internal

resistance and no stray capacitance) can be found by considering the time function that relates

voltage and current of the inductor:

Using the complex time function concept introduced in the previous chapter

VL = j L* IL

vL (t) = L iL (t+90)

Let us demonstrate the proof above with TINA and show the voltage and the current as time functions and as phasors, in

a circuit containing a sinusoidal voltage generator and an inductor. First we will calculate the functions by hand.

The circuit we will study consists of a 1mH inductor connected to a voltage generator with sinusoidal voltage of 1Vpk and

a frequency of 100Hz (vL=1sin (t)=1sin(6.28*100t) V).

Using the generalized Ohm’s law, the complex phasor of the current is:

iL(t)=1.59sin (t-90) A.

Now let’s demonstrate the same functions with TINA. The results are shown in the next figures.

Note on the use of TINA: We derived the time function using Analysis/AC Analysis/Time Function, while the phasor

diagram was derived usingAnalysis/AC Analysis/Phasor Diagram. We then used copy and paste to put the analysis

results on the schematic diagram. To show the amplitude and phase of the instruments on the schematic, we used AC

Interactive Mode.

The circuit diagram with the embedded time function and phasor diagram

circuit

Time functions

Phasor diagram

Example 1

Find the inductive reactance and the complex impedance of an inductor with L = 3mH inductance, at a frequency f = 50

Hz.

You can check these results using TINA’s impedance meter. Set the frequency to 50Hz in the property box of the

impedance meter, which appears when you double click on the meter. The impedance meter will show the inductive

reactance of the inductor if you press the AC Interactive mode button as shown in the figure, or if you select

the Analysis/AC Analysis/Calculate nodal voltages command.

Analysis/Calculate nodal

voltages command, you can

also check the complex

impedance measured by the

meter. Moving the pen-like tester

that appears after this command

and clicking on the inductor, you

will see the following table

showing the complex impedance

and admittance.

admittance have a very small (1E-16) real part due to rounding errors in the calculation.

You can also show the complex impedance as a complex phasor using TINA’s AC Phasor Diagram. The result is shown in

the next figure. Use the Auto Label command to put the label showing the inductive reactance on the figure. Note that you

may need to change the automatic settings of the axes by double clicking to achieve the scales shown below.

Example 2

Find the inductive reactance of the 3mH inductor again, but this time at a frequency f = 200kHz.

Using TINA you can also plot the reactance as a function of the frequency.

Select the Analysis /AC Analysis/AC transfer and set the Amplitude and Phase checkbox. The following diagram will

appear:

In this diagram the Impedance is shown on a linear scale against frequency on a logarithmic scale. This conceals the fact

that the impedance is a linear function of frequency. To see this, double click on the upper frequency axis and set Scale to

Linear and Number of Ticks to 6. See the dialog box below:

Note that in some older version of TINA the phase diagram may show very small oscillations around 90

degrees due to rounding errors. You can eliminate this from the diagram by setting the vertical axis limit

similar to those shown in the figures above.

Capacitor

A capacitor consists of two conducting electrodes of metal separated by a dielectric (insulating) material. The capacitor

stores electric charge.

The symbol of the capacitor is C, and its capacity (or capacitance) is measured in farads (F), after the famous English

chemist and physicist Michael Faraday. As capacitance increases, the capacitor's opposition to the flow of AC

currents decreases. Furthermore, as frequency increases, the capacitor's opposition to the flow of AC currents decreases.

capacitor by a quarter of period. Viewed as phasors, the voltage is 90 behind (in a counterclockwise direction) the

current. In the complex plane, the voltage phasor is perpendicular to the current phasor, in the negative direction (with

respect to the reference direction, counterclockwise). You can express this by complex numbers using an imaginary factor

-j as a multiplier.

The capacitive reactance of a capacitor reflects its opposition to the flow of AC current at a particular frequency, is

represented by the symbol XC, and is measured in ohms. Capacitive reactance is calculated by the relationship XC = 1/

(2**f*C) = 1/C. The voltage drop across a capacitor is XC times the current. This relationship is valid for both the peak or

rms values of the voltage and current. Note: in the equation for capacitive reactance (XC ), f is frequency in Hz, the

angular frequency in rad/s (radians/second), C is the

in F (Farad), and XC is the capacitive reactance in ohms. So we have two forms of the generalized Ohm’s law:

1. For the absolute peak or effective values of the current and the voltage:

or V = XC*I

2. For the complex peak or effective values of the current and the voltage:

VM = -j * XC*IM or V = - j*XC*I

The ratio between the voltage and current phasors of the capacitor is its complex capacitive impedance:

ZC = V/I = VM / IM = - j*XC = - j / C

The ratio between the phasors of the current and voltage of the capacitor is its complex capacitive admittance:

Proof:

The time function of the voltage across a pure linear capacitance (a capacitor with no parallel or

series resistance and no stray inductance) can be expressed using the time functions of the

capacitor’s voltage (vC), charge (qC) and current (iC ):

or with real time functions

vc (t) = ic (t-90)/( C)

Let us demonstrate the proof above with TINA and show the voltage and the current as functions of time, and as phasors.

Our circuit contains a sinusoidal voltage generator and a capacitor. First we will calculate the functions by hand.

The capacitor is 100nF and is connected across a voltage generator with sinusoidal voltage of 2V and a frequency of

1MHz : vL=2sin (t)=2sin(6.28*106t) V

Using the generalized Ohm’s law, the complex phasor of the current is:

iL(t)=1.26sin (t+90) A

Now let us demonstrate the same functions with TINA. The results are shown in the next figures.

The circuit diagram with the embedded time function and phasor diagram

Time diagram

Phasor diagram

Example 3

Find the capacitive reactance and the complex impedance of a capacitor with C = 25 F capacitance, at a frequency f =

50 Hz.

Let’s check these results with TINA as we did for the inductor earlier.

You can also show the complex impedance as a complex phasor using TINA’s AC Phasor Diagram. The result is shown in the next

figure. Use the Auto Label command to put the label showing the inductive reactance on the figure. Note that you may need to change

the automatic settings of the axes by double clicking to achieve the scales shown below.

Example 4

Find the capacitive reactance of a 25 F capacitor again, but this time at frequency f = 200 kHz.

You can see that the capacitive reactance decreases with frequency.

To see the frequency dependence of the impedance of a capacitor, let’s use TINA as we did earlier with the inductor.

covered in this chapter,

Z = V / I = VM/IM

basic RLC components:

ZR =

R; ZL = j L and Z

C = 1 / (j C) = -j / C

generalized form of Ohm's law

applies to all components--

resistors, capacitors, and

inductors. Since we have already

learned how to work with

Kirchoff's laws and Ohm's law for

DC circuits, we can build upon

them and use very similar rules

and circuit theorems for AC circuits. This will be described and demonstrated in the next chapters.

PASSIVE COMPONENTS IN AC CIRCUITS

VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

DIVISION

As we saw in the previous chapter, impedance and admittance can be manipulated using the same rules as are used for

DC circuits. In this chapter we will demonstrate these rules by calculating total or equivalent impedance for series, parallel

and series-parallel AC circuits.

Example 1

The elements are in series, so we realise that their complex impedances should be added:

We can illustrate this result using impedance meters and the Phasor Diagram in

TINA v6. Since TINA’s impedance meter is an active device and we are going to use two of them, we must arrange the

circuit so that the meters don’t influence each other.

We have created another circuit just for the measurement of the part impedances. In this circuit, the two meters do not

“see” each other’s impedance.

The Analysis/AC Analysis/Phasor diagram command will draw the three phasors on one diagram. We used the Auto

Label command to add the values and the Line command of the Diagram Editor to add the dashed auxiliary lines for the

parallelogram rule.

Phasor diagram showing the construction of Zeq with the parallelogram rule

As the diagram shows, the total impedance, Zeq, can be considered as a complex resultant vector derived

using the parallelogram rulefrom the complex impedances ZR and ZL .

Example 2

R =20 ohm, C = 5 F, f = 20 kHz

The admittance:

The impedance using the Ztot= Z1 Z2 / (Z1 + Z2 ) formula for parallel impedances:

Check your calculations using TINA’s Analysis menu Calculate nodal voltages. When you click on the Impedance meter, TINA

presents both the impedance and admittance and gives the results in algebraic and exponential forms.

Another way TINA can solve this problem is with its Interpreter:

om:=2*pi*20000;

Z:=Replus(R,(1/j/om/C))

Z=[125.8545m-1.5815*j]

Y:=1/R+j*om*C;

Y=[50m+628.3185m*j]

Example 3

Find the equivalent impedance of this parallel circuit. It uses the same elements as in Example 1:

R = 12 ohm and L = 10 mH, at f = 159 Hz frequency.

For parallel circuits, it’s often easier to calculate the admittance first:

Yeq = YR + YL = 1/R + 1/ (j*2**f*L) = 1/12 – j /10 = 0.0833 – j 0.1 = 0.13 e-j 50 S

Click here to load or save this circuit

Another way TINA can solve this problem is with its Interpreter:

f:=159;

om:=2*pi*f;

Zeq:=replus(R,j*om*L);

Zeq=[4.9124+5.9006*j]

Example 4

Find the impedance of a series circuit with R = 10 ohm, C = 4 F, and L = 0.3 mH, at an angular frequency = 50

krad/s (f = / 2 = 7.957 kHz ).

ej 45 ohms.

impedances of the parts

Click here to load or save this circuit

Starting with the phasor diagram above, let’s use the triangle or geometric construction rule to find the equivalent

impedance. We start by moving the tail ofZR to the tip of ZL. Then we move the tail of ZC to the tip of ZR. Now the

resultant Zeq will exactly close the polygon starting from the tail of the first ZR phasor and ending at the tip of ZC.

The phasor diagram showing the geometric construction of Zeq

om:=50k;

ZR:=R;

ZL:=om*L;

ZC:=1/om/C;

Z:=ZR+j*ZL-j*ZC;

Z=[10+10*j]

abs(Z)=[14.1421]

radtodeg(arc(Z))=[45]

{other way}

Zeq:=R+j*om*L+1/j/om/C;

Zeq=[10+10*j]

Abs(Zeq)=[14.1421]

fi:=arc(Z)*180/pi;

fi=[45]

Check your calculations using TINA’s Analysis menu Calculate nodal voltages. When you click on the Impedance

meter, TINA presents both the impedance and admittance, and gives the results in algebraic and exponential forms.

Since the circuit’s impedance has a positive phase like an inductor, we can call it an inductive circuit--at least at this

frequency!

Example 5

Find a simpler series network that could replace the series circuit of example 4 (at the given frequency).

We noted in Example 4 that the network is inductive, so we can replace it by a 4 ohm resistor and a 10 ohm inductive

reactance in series:

XL = 10 = *L = 50*103 L

L = 0.2 mH

Click here to load or save this circuit

Don’t forget that, since inductive reactance depends upon frequency, this equivalence is valid only for one frequency.

Example 6

Find the impedance of three components connected in parallel: R = 4 ohm, C = 4 F, and L = 0.3 mH, at an angular

frequency = 50 krad/s (f = / 2 = 7.947 kHz).

Noting that this is a parallel circuit, we solve first for the admittance:

Z = 1/(0.25 + j 0.133) = (0.25 – j 0.133)/0.0802 = 3.11 – j 1.65 =3.5238 e-j 28.1 ohms.

om:=50k;

ZR:=R;

ZL:=om*L;

ZC:=1/om/C;

Z:=1/(1/R+1/j/ZL-1/j/ZC);

Z=[3.1142-1.6609*j]

abs(Z)=[3.5294]

fi:=radtodeg(arc(Z));

fi=[-28.0725]

The Interpreter calculates phase in radians. If you want phase in degrees, you can convert from radians to degrees by

multiplying by 180 and dividing by . In this last example, you see a simpler way—use the Interpreter’s built in function,

radtodeg. There is an inverse function as well, degtorad. Note that this network’s impedance has a negative phase like a

capacitor, so we say that—at this frequency—it is a capacitive circuit.

In Example 4 we placed three passive components in series, while in this example we placed the same three elements in

parallel. Comparing the equivalent impedances calculated at the same frequency, reveals that they are totally different,

even their inductive or capacitive character.

Example 7

Find a simple series network that could replace the parallel circuit of example 6 (at the given frequency).

This network is capacitive because of the negative phase, so we try to replace it with a series connection of a resistor and

a capacitor:

Click here to load or save this circuit

hence

Re = 3.11 ohm

C = 12.048 F

You could, of course, replace the parallel circuit with a simpler parallel circuit in both examples

Example 8

Find the equivalent impedance of the following more complicated circuit at frequency f=50 Hz:

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om:=2*pi*50;

Z1:=R3+j*om*L3;

Z2:=replus(R2,1/j/om/C);

Zeq:=R1+Replus(Z1,Z2);

Zeq=[55.469-34.4532*j]

abs(Zeq)=[65.2981]

radtodeg(arc(Zeq))=[-31.8455]

We need a strategy before we begin. First we’ll reduce C and R2 to an equivalent impedance, Z RC. Then, seeing that ZRC is in parallel

with the series-connected L3 and R3, we’ll compute the equivalent impedance of their parallel connection, Z 2. Finally, we calculate

Zeq as the sum of Z1 and Z2.

And finally:

SUPERPOSITION IN AC

CIRCUITS

We have already shown how the elementary methods of DC circuit analysis can be extended and used in AC circuits to

solve for the complex peak or effective values of voltage and current and for complex impedance or admittance. In this

chapter, we'll solve some examples of voltage and current division in AC circuits.

Example 1

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Let's first obtain this result by hand calculation using the voltage division formula.

The problem can be considered as two complex impedances in series: the impedance of the resistor R1, Z1=R1 ohms (which is a real

number), and the equivalent impedance of R2 and L2 in series, Z2 = R2 + j L2.

Substituting the equivalent impedances, the circuit can be redrawn in TINA as follows:

Note that we have used a new component, a complex impedance, now available in TINA v6. You can define the frequency dependence

of Z by means of a table that you can reach by double clicking the impedance component. In the first row of the table you can define

either the DC impedance or a frequency independent complex impedance (we have done the latter here, for the inductor and resistor in

series, at the given frequency).

Numerically:

Z1 = R1 = 10 ohms

Let's check the result with TINA using Analysis/AC Analysis/Calculate nodal voltages

V1 V2

Next let's check these results with TINA's Interpreter:

f:=50;

om:=2*pi*f;

VS:=110;

v1:=VS*R1/(R1+R2+j*om*L2);

v2:=VS*(R2+j*om*L2)/(R1+R2+j*om*L2);

v1=[35.1252-17.6559*j]

v2=[74.8748+17.6559*j]

abs(v2)=[76.9283]

radtodeg(arc(v2))=[13.2683]

abs(v1)=[39.313]

radtodeg(arc(v1))=[-26.6866]

Note that when using the Interpreter we did not have to declare the values of the passive components. This is because we are using the

Interpreter in a work session with TINA in which the schematic is in the schematic editor. TINA's Interpreter looks in this schematic

for the definition of the passive component symbols entered into the Interpreter program.

Finally, let's use TINA's Phasor Diagram to demonstrate this result. Connecting a voltmeter to the voltage generator,

selecting the Analysis/AC Analysis/Phasor Diagram command, setting the axes, and adding the labels, will yield the

following diagram. Note that View/Vector label style was set to Amplitude for this diagram.

The diagram shows that Vs is the sum of the phasors V1 and V2, Vs = V1 + V2.

By moving the phasors we can also demonstrate that V2 is the difference between Vs and V1, V2 = Vs – V1.

This figure also demonstrates the subtraction of vectors. The resultant vector should start from the tip of the second vector, V1.

In a similar way we can demonstrate that V1 = Vs – V2. Again, the resultant vector should start from the tip of the second vector, V1.

Of course, both phasor diagrams can be considered as a simple triangle rule diagram for Vs = V1 + V2 .

The phasor diagrams above also demonstrate Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL).

As we have learned in our study of DC circuits, the applied voltage of a series circuit equals the sum of the voltage drops

across the series elements. The phasor diagrams demonstrate that KVL is also true for AC circuits, but only if we use

complex phasors!

Example 2

In this circuit, R1 represents the DC resistance of the coil L; together they model a real world inductor with its loss component. Find

the voltage across the capacitor and the voltage across the real world coil.

V1 V2

= 13.91 e j 44.1 V

and

= 13.93 e -j 44.1 V

and

Notice that at this frequency, with these component values, the magnitudes of the two voltages are nearly the same, but the phases are

of opposite sign.

Once again, let's have TINA do the tedious work by solving for V1 and V2 with the Interpreter:

om:=600*pi;

V:=20;

v1:=V*(R1+j*om*L)/(R1+j*om*L+replus(R2,(1/j/om/C)));

abs(v1)=[13.9301]

180*arc(v1)/pi=[44.1229]

v2:=V*(replus(R2,1/j/om/C))/(R1+j*om*L+replus(R2,(1/j/om/C)));

abs (v2)=[13.9305]

180*arc(v2)/pi=[-44.1211]

And finally, take a look at this result using TINA's Phasor Diagram. Connecting a voltmeter to the voltage generator, invoking

the Analysis/AC Analysis/Phasor Diagramcommand, setting the axes, and adding the labels will yield the following diagram (note

that we have set View/Vector label style to Real+j*Imag for this diagram):

Example 3

The current source iS(t) = 5 cos (t) A, the resistor R = 250 mohm, the inductor L = 53 uH, and the frequency f = 1

kHz. Find the current in the inductor and the current in the resistor.

IR IL

Similarly:

iL(t) = 3 cos(t - 53.1)

om:=2*pi*1000;

is:=5;

iL:=is*R/(R+j*om*L);

iL=[1.8022-2.4007*j]

iR:=is*j*om*L/(R+j*om*L);

iR=[3.1978+2.4007*j]

abs(iL)=[3.0019]

radtodeg(arc(iL))=[-53.1033]

abs(iR)=[3.9986]

radtodeg(arc(iR))=[36.8967]

The phasor diagram shows that the generator current IS is the resultant vector of the complex currents IL and IR. It also

demonstrates Kirchhoff's current law (KCL), showing that the current IS entering the upper node of the circuit equals

the sum of IL and IR, the complex currents leaving the node.

Example 4

Determine i0(t), i1(t) and i2(t). The component values and the source voltage, frequency, and phase are given on the schematic below.

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i0

i1

i2

In our solution, we will use the principle of current division. First we find the expression for the total current i0:

I2M = 0.216 e-j 76.6 A and i2(t) = 0.216 cos(t - 76.6) A

With anticipation, we seek confirmation of our hand calculations using TINA's Interpreter.

V:=10;

om:=2*pi*1000;

I0:=V/((1/j/om/C1)+replus((1/j/om/C),(R+j*om*L)));

I0=[37.4671m+313.3141m*j]

abs(I0)=[315.5463m]

180*arc(I0)/pi=[83.1808]

I1:=I0*(R+j*om*L)/(R+j*om*L+1/j/om/C);

I1=[-12.489m+523.8805m*j]

abs(I1)=[524.0294m]

180*arc(I1)/pi=[91.3656]

I2:=I0*(1/j/om/C)/(R+j*om*L+1/j/om/C);

I2=[49.9561m-210.5665m*j]

abs(I2)=[216.4113m]

180*arc(I2)/pi=[-76.6535]

{Control: I1+I2=I0}

abs(I1+I2)=[315.5463m]

Another way of solving this would be to first find the voltage across the parallel complex impedance of Z LR and ZC.

Knowing this voltage, we could find the currents i1 and i2 by then dividing this voltage first by ZLR and then by ZC. We will

show next the solution for voltage across the parallel complex impedance of Z LR and ZC. We will have to use the voltage

division principal along the way:

VRLCM = 8.34 e j 1.42 V

and

IC = I1= VRLCM*jC = 0.524 e j 91.42 A

and hence

SUPERPOSITION IN AC CIRCUITS

DIVISION CIRCUITS

We have already studied the superposition theorem for DC circuits. In this chapter we will show its application for AC

circuits.

The superposition theorem states that in a linear circuit with several sources, the current and voltage for any element in the circuit is

the sum of the currents and voltages produced by each source acting independently. The theorem is valid for any linear circuit. The

best way to use superposition with AC circuits is to calculate the complex effective or peak value of the contribution of each source

applied one at a time, and then to add the complex values. This is much easier than using superposition with time functions, where one

has to add the individual time functions.

To calculate the contribution of each source independently, all the other sources must be removed and replaced without affecting the

final result.

When removing a voltage source, its voltage must be set to zero, which is equivalent to replacing the voltage source with a short

circuit.

When removing a current source, its current must be set to zero, which is equivalent to replacing the current source with an open

circuit.

In the circuit shown below"

Ri = 100 ohm, R1 = 20 ohm, R2 = 12 ohm, L = 10 uH, C = 0.3 nF, vS(t)=50cos(t) V, iS(t)=1cos(t+30°) A, f=400 kHz.

Notice that both sources have the same frequency: we will only work in this chapter with sources all having the same

frequency. Otherwise, superposition must be handled differently.

Find the currents i(t) and i1(t) using the superposition theorem.

Let's use TINA and hand calculations in parallel to solve the problem.

First substitute an open circuit for the current source and calculate the complex phasors I', I1' due to the contribution only

from VS.

Next substitute a short-circuit for the voltage source and calculate the complex phasors I'', I1'' due to the contribution only

from IS.

and

i1(t) = 1.1865 cos (t + 8.3) A

f:=400000;

Vs:=50;

IG:=1*exp(j*pi/6);

om:=2*pi*f;

sys I,I1

I+IG=I1

Vs=I*Ri+I1*(R1+j*om*L)

end;

I=[308.093m-329.2401m*j]

abs(I)=[450.9106m]

radtodeg(arc(I))=[-46.9004]

abs(I1)=[1.1865]

radtodeg(arc(I1))=[8.2749]

As we said in the DC chapter on superposition, it gets pretty complicated using the superposition theorem for circuits

containing more then two sources. While the superposition theorem can be useful for solving simple practical problems,

its main use is in the theory of circuit analysis, where it is employed in proving other theorems.

SUPERPOSITION IN AC CIRCUITS

KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS IN AC

CIRCUITS

Thévenin's Theorem for AC circuits with sinusoidal sources is very similar to the theorem we have learned for DC circuits. The only

difference is that we must considerimpedance instead of resistance. Concisely stated, Thévenin's Theorem for AC circuits says:

Any two terminal linear circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source (V Th) and a series

impedance (ZTh).

In other words, Thévenin's Theorem allows one to replace a complicated circuit with a simple equivalent circuit containing only a

voltage source and a series connected impedance. The theorem is very important from both theoretical and practical viewpoints.

It is important to note that the Thévenin equivalent circuit provides equivalence at the terminals only. Obviously, the internal structure

of the original circuit and the Thévenin equivalent may be quite different. And for AC circuits, where impedance is frequency

dependent, the equivalence is valid at one frequency only.

we want to concentrate on a specific portion of a circuit. The rest of the circuit can be replaced by a simple Thévenin

equivalent.

we have to study the circuit with different load values at the terminals. Using the Thévenin equivalent we can avoid having to

analyze the complex original circuit each time.

1. Calculate ZTh. Set all sources to zero (replace voltage sources by short circuits and current sources by open circuits) and then

find the total impedance between the two terminals.

2. Calculate VTh. Find the open circuit voltage between the terminals.

Norton's Theorem, already presented for DC circuits, can also be used in AC circuits. Norton's Theorem applied to AC circuits states

that the network can be replaced by acurrent source in parallel with an impedance.

1. Calculate ZTh. Set all sources to zero (replace voltage sources by short circuits and current sources by open circuits) and then

find the total impedance between the two terminals.

2. Calculate ITh. Find the short circuit current between the terminals.

Example 1

Find the Thévenin equivalent of the network for the points A and B at a frequency: f = 1 kHz, vS(t) = 10 cost V.

The first step is to find the open circuit voltage between points A and B:

The second step is to replace the voltage source by a short circuit and to find the impedance between points A and B:

Of course, we can check our ZT solution using TINA's impedance meter (note that we have replaced the voltage source with a short

circuit):

Here is the Thévenin equivalent circuit, valid only at a frequency of 1kHz. We must first, however, solve for CT's capacitance. Using

the relationship 1/CT = 304 ohm, we find CT = 0.524 uF

Next, we can use TINA's interpreter to check our calculations of the Thévenin equivalent circuit:

VM:=10;

f:=1000;

om:=2*pi*f;

Z1:=R1+j*om*L;

Z2:=R2/(1+j*om*C*R2);

VT:=VM*Z2/(Z1+Z2);

VT=[-64.0391m-2.462*j]

abs(VT)=[2.4629]

abs(VT)/sqrt(2)=[1.7415]

radtodeg(arc(VT))=[-91.49]

ZT:=Replus((R1+j*om*L),replus(R2,(1/j/om/C)));

ZT=[301.7035-303.4914*j]

Abs(ZT)=[427.9393]

radtodeg(arc(ZT))=[-45.1693]

Ct:=-1/im(ZT)/om;

Ct=[524.4134n]

Note that in the listing above we used a function "replus.' Replus solves for the parallel equivalent of two impedances; i.e., it finds the

product over the sum of the two parallel impedances.

Example 2

ZN=(0.301-j0.304) k

IN = (3.97-j4.16) mA

And we can check our hand calculations against TINA's results. First the open circuit impedance:

Then the short-circuit current:

Next, we can use TINA's interpreter to find the Norton equivalent circuit components:

VM:=10;

f:=1000;

om:=2*pi*f;

Z1:=R1+j*om*L;

Z2:=R2/(1+j*om*C*R2);

IN:=VM/Z1;

IN=[3.9746m-4.1622m*j]

abs(IN)=[5.7552m]

abs(IN)/sqrt(2)=[4.0695m]

radtodeg(arc(IN))=[-46.3207]

ZN:=Replus((R1+j*om*L),replus(R2,(1/j/om/C)));

ZN=[301.7035-303.4914*j]

Abs(ZN)=[427.9393]

radtodeg(arc(ZN))=[-45.1693]

CN:=-1/im(ZN)/om;

CN=[524.4134n]

Example 3

In this circuit, the load is the series-connected RL and CL. These load components are not part of the circuit whose equivalent we are

seeking. Find the current in the load using the Norton equivalent of the circuit.

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First find the open circuit equivalent impedance Zeq by hand (without the load).

Numerically

ZN = Zeq = (13.93 - j5.85)

ohm.

Below we see TINA's solution. Note that we replaced all the voltage sources with short circuits before we used the

meter.

The calculation of the short-circuit current is quite complicated. Hint: this would be a good time to use Superposition. An approach

would be to find the load current (in rectangular form) for each voltage source taken one at a time. Then sum the five partial results to

get the total.

Putting it all together (replacing the network with its Norton equivalent, reconnecting the load components to the

output, and inserting an ammeter in the load), we have the solution for the load current that we sought:

By hand calculation, we could find the load current using current division:

Finally

I = (- 0.544 - j 1.41) A

EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS CURRENT METHOD IN AC CIRCUITS

As we have already seen, circuits with sinusoidal excitation can be solved using complex impedances for the elements

and complex peak or complex rms values for the currents and voltages. Using the complex values version of Kirchhoff's

laws, nodal and mesh analysis techniques can be employed to solve AC circuits in a manner similar to DC circuits. In this

chapter we will show this through examples of Kirchhoff's laws.

Example 1

vS(t) = VSM cos 2ft; i(t) =ISM cos 2ft; VSM = 10 V; ISM = 1 A; f = 10 kHz;

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Altogether we have 10 unknown voltages and currents, namely: i, iC1, iR, iL, iC2, vC1, vR, vL, vC2 and vIS. (If we

use complex peak or rms values for the voltages and currents, we have altogether 20 real equations!)

The equations:

M2 - VRM + VLM = 0

M3 - VLM + VC2M = 0

M4 - VC2M + VIsM = 0

VLM = j**L*ILM

IC1M = j**C1*VC1M

IC2M = j**C2*VC2M

for series elements I = IC1M

Solving the system of equations you can find the unknown current:

Solving such a large system of complex equations is very complicated, so we haven't shown it in

detail. Each complex equation leads to two real equations, so we show the solution only by the values

calculated with TINA's Interpreter.

{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}

om:=20000*pi;

Vs:=10;

Is:=1;

Sys Ic1,Ir,IL,Ic2,Vc1,Vr,VL,Vc2,Vis,Ivs

Vs=Vc1+Vr {M1}

Vr=VL {M2}

Vr=Vc2 {M3}

Vc2=Vis {M4}

Ivs=Ir+IL+Ic2-Is {N1}

{Ohm's rules}

Ic1=j*om*C1*Vc1

Vr=R*Ir

VL=j*om*L*IL

Ic2=j*om*C2*Vc2

Ivs=Ic1

end;

Ivs=[3.1531E-1+1.7812E0*j]

abs(Ivs)=[1.8089]

fiIvs:=180*arc(Ivs)/pi

fiIvs=[79.9613]

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To solve this problem by hand, work with the complex impedances. For example, R, L and C2 are connected

in parallel, so you can simplify the circuit by computing their parallel equivalent. || means the parallel

equivalent of the impedances:

Numerically:

VS = VC1 +VZ

VZ = Z · IZ

I = j C1· VC1

There are four unknowns- I; IZ; VC1; VZ - and we have four equations, so a solution is possible.

Numerically

{Solution using the impedance Z}

om:=20000*pi;

Vs:=10;

Is:=1;

Z:=replus(R,replus(j*om*L,1/j/om/C2));

Z=[2.1046E0-2.4685E0*j]

sys I

I=j*om*C1*(Vs-Z*(I+Is))

end;

I=[3.1531E-1+1.7812E0*j]

abs(I)=[1.8089]

180*arc(I)/pi=[79.9613]

You can check Kirchhoff's current rule using phasor diagrams. The picture below was developed by

checking the node equation in iZ = i + iG1 form. The first diagram shows the phasors added by parallelogram

rule, the second one illustrates the triangular rule of the phasor addition.

Now let's demonstrate KVR using TINA's phasor diagram feature. Since the source voltage is negative in the

equation, we connected the voltmeter "backwards." The phasor diagram illustrates the original form of the

Kirchhoff's voltage rule.

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The first phasor diagram uses the parallelogram rule, while the second uses the triangular rule.

To illustrate KVR in the form VC1 + VZ - VS = 0, we again connected the voltmeter to the voltage source backwards. You

can see that the phasor triangle is closed.

Note that TINA lets you use either sine or cosine function as a base function. Depending on the function chosen, the

complex amplitudes seen in phasor diagrams may differ by 90º. You can set the base function under 'View' 'Options' 'Base

function for AC'. In our examples we always used cosine function as a base.

Example 2

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Let the unknowns be the complex peak values of the voltages and currents of 'passive' elements, as well as the current of

the voltage source ( iVS ) and the voltage of the current source ( vIS ). Altogether, there are twelve complex unknowns. We

have three independent nodes, four independent loops ( marked as M I), and five passive elements which can be

characterized by five "Ohm's laws" - altogether there are 3+4+5 = 12 equations:

for M3 VLM = VC1M

VR2M = R2*IR2M

IC1m = j**C1*VC1M

IC2m = j**C2*VC2M

VLM = j**L*ILM

Don't forget that any complex equation might lead to two real equations, so Kirchhoff's method requires many

calculations. It's much simpler to solve for the time functions of the voltages and currents using a system of differential

equations (not discussed here). First we show the results calculated by TINA's Interpreter:

{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}

f:=10000;

Vs:=10;

s:=0.005*exp(j*pi/6);

om:=2*pi*f;

sys ir1,ir2,ic1,ic2,iL,vr1,vr2,vc1,vc2,vL,vis,ivs

ivs=ir1+ic2 {1}

ir1=iL+ic1 {2}

ic2+iL+ic1+Is=ir2 {3}

Vs=vc2+vr2 {4}

Vs=vr1+vr2+vc1 {5}

vc1=vL {6}

vr2=vis {7}

vr1=ir1*R1 {8}

vr2=ir2*R2 {9}

ic1=j*om*C1*vc1 {10}

ic2=j*om*C2*vc2 {11}

vL=j*om*L*iL {12}

end;

abs(vr1)=[970.1563m]

abs(vr2)=[10.8726]

abs(ic1)=[245.6503u]

abs(ic2)=[3.0503m]

abs(vc1)=[39.0965m]

abs(vc2)=[970.9437m]

abs(iL)=[3.1112u]

abs(vL)=[39.0965m]

abs(ivs)=[3.0697m]

180+radtodeg(arc(ivs))=[58.2734]

abs(vis)=[10.8726]

radtodeg(arc(vis))=[-2.3393]

radtodeg(arc(vr1))=[155.1092]

radtodeg(arc(vr2))=[-2.3393]

radtodeg(arc(ic1))=[155.1092]

radtodeg(arc(ic2))=[-117.1985]

radtodeg(arc(vc2))=[152.8015]

radtodeg(arc(vc1))=[65.1092]

radtodeg(arc(iL))=[-24.8908]

radtodeg(arc(vL))=[65.1092]

Now try to simplify the equations by hand using substitution. First substitute eq.9. into eq 5.

Express VC1

c.)

Express VC2 from eq.4. and eq.5. and substitute eq.8., eq.11. and V C1:

d.)

Substitute eq.2., 10., 11. and d.) into eq.3. and express I R2

e.)

Now substitute d.) and e.) into eq.4 and express IR1

Numerically:

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KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS IN AC CIRCUITS COUPLED INDUCTORS

In the previous chapter, we've seen that the use of Kirchhoff's laws for AC circuit analysis not only results in many

equations (as too with DC circuits), but also (due to the use of complex numbers) doubles the number of unknowns. To

reduce the number of equations and unknowns there are two other methods we can use: the node potential and the mesh

(loop) current methods. The only difference from DC circuits is that in the AC case, we have to work withcomplex

impedances (or admittances) for the passive elements and complex peak or effective (rms) values for the voltages and

currents.

Example 1

Find the amplitude and phase angle of the current i(t) if R = 5 ohm; L = 2 mH; C1 = 10 F; C2 = 20 F; f = 1 kHz; vS(t) =

10 cos t V and iS(t) = cos t A

Here we have only one independent node, N 1 with an unknown potential: = vR = vL = vC2 = vIS . The best method is the

node potential method.

Using TINA

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{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}

om:=2000*pi;

V:=10;

Is:=1;

Sys fi

(fi-V)*j*om*C1+fi*j*om*C2+fi/j/om/L+fi/R1-Is=0

end;

I:=(V-fi)*j*om*C1;

abs(I)=[303.7892m]

radtodeg(arc(I))=[86.1709]

Example 2

Find the current of the voltage generator V = 10 V, f = 1 kHz, R = 4 kohm, R2 = 2 kohm, C = 250 nF, L = 0.5 H, I = 10

mA, vS(t) = V cos t, iS(t) = I sin t

Although we could again use the method of node potential with only one unknown, we will demonstrate the solution

with the mesh current method.

Let's first calculate the equivalent impedances of R2,L (Z1) and R,C (Z2) to simplify the work:

and

We have two independent meshes (loops).The first is: v S, Z1 and Z2 and the second: iS and Z2. The direction of the mesh

currents are: I1 clockwise, I2counterclockwise.

You must use complex values for all the impedances, voltages and currents.

The two sources are: VS = 10 V; IS = -j*0.01 A.

We calculate the voltage in volts and the impedance in kohm so we get the current in mA.

Hence:

Solution by TINA:

{Solution by TINA's Interpreter}

Vs:=10;

Is:=-j*0.01;

om:=2000*pi;

Z1:=R2*j*om*L/(R2+j*om*L);

Z2:=R/(1+j*om*R*C);

Sys I

Vs=I*(Z1+Z2)+Is*Z2

end;

I=[10.406m-1.3003m*j]

abs(I)=[10.487m]

radtodeg(arc(I))=[-7.1224]

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COUPLED INDUCTORS

PERIODIC

CIRCUITS WAVEFORMS

Two inductors or coils that are linked by electromagnetic induction are said to be coupled inductors. When an alternating

current flows through one coil, the coil sets up a magnetic field which is coupled to the second coil and induces a voltage

in that coil. The phenomenon of one inductor inducing a voltage in another inductor is known as mutual inductance.

Coupled coils can be used as a basic model for transformers, an important part of power distribution systems and

electronic circuits. Transformers are used for changing alternating voltages, currents, and impedances, and to isolate

one part of a circuit from another.

Three parameters are required to characterize a pair of coupled inductors: two self inductances, L1 and L2, and the mutual

inductance, L12 = M. The symbol for coupled inductors is:

Circuits which contain coupled inductors are more complicated than other circuits because we can only express the

voltage of the coils in terms of their currents. The following equations are valid for the circuit above with the dot locations

and reference directions shown:

The mutual inductance terms can have a negative sign if the dots have different positions. The governing

rule is that the induced voltage on a coupled coil has the same direction relative to its dot as the inducing

current has to its own dot on the coupled counterpart.

is very useful when solving circuits with coupled coils.

Example 1

0 = I*j L2 - I1*j M

i(t) = 0.045473 cos (t - 90) A

om:=2*pi*1000;

Sys I1,I

1=I1*j*om*0.001-I*j*om*0.0005

0=I*j*om*0.002-I1*j*om*0.0005

end;

abs(I)=[45.4728m]

radtodeg(arc(I))=[-90]

Example 2

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First we show the solution obtained by solving the loop equations. We suppose that the impedance meter current is 1 A

so that the meter voltage equals the impedance. You can see the solution in TINA's Interpreter.

{Use loop equations}

L1:=0.0001;

L2:=0.00001;

M:=0.00002;

om:=2*pi*2000000;

Sys Vs,J1,J2,J3

J1*(R1+j*om*L1)+J2*j*om*M-Vs=0

J1+J3=1

J2*(R2+j*om*L2)+J1*om*j*M-J3*R2=0

J3*(R2+1/j/om/C)-J2*R2-Vs=0

end;

Z:=Vs;

Z=[1.2996k-1.1423k*j]

We could also solve this problem using the T-equivalent of the transformer in TINA:

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If we wanted to calculate the equivalent impedance by hand, we'd need to use wye to delta conversion. While this is

feasible here, in general circuits can be very complicated, and it is more convenient to use the equations for coupled coils.

PERIODIC WAVEFORMS

The Fourier theorem states that any periodic waveform can be synthesized by adding appropriately weighted sine and cosine terms

of various frequencies. The theorem is well-covered in other textbooks, so we will only summarize the results and show some

examples.

Let our periodic function be f (t) = f (t nT) where T is the time of one period and n is an integer number.

By the Fourier theorem, the periodic function can be written as the following sum:

where

An and Bn are the Fourier coefficients and the sum is the Fourier series.

where

A0 = C0 is the DC or average value, A1, B1 and C1 are the fundamental components, and the others are the harmonic terms.

While only a few terms may be required to approximate some waveforms, others will require many terms.

Generally, the more terms included, the better the approximation, but for waveforms containing steps, such as rectangular impulses,

the Gibbs phenomenon comes into play. As the number of terms increases, the overshoot becomes concentrated in an ever smaller

period of time.

An even function f(t) = f(-t) (axis symmetry) requires only cosine terms.

An odd function f(t) = - f(-t) (point symmetry) requires only sine terms.

A waveform with mirror or half-wave symmetry has only odd harmonics in its Fourier representation.

Here we will not deal with the Fourier series expansion, but will only use a given sum of sines and cosines as an excitation for a

circuit.

In the earlier chapters of this book, we dealt with sinusoidal excitation. If the circuit is linear, the superposition theorem is valid. For a

network with nonsinusoidal periodic excitation, superposition allows us to calculate the currents and voltages due to each Fourier

sinusoid term one at a time. When all are calculated, we finally summarize the harmonic components of the response.

It is a bit complicated to determine the different terms of the periodic voltages and currents and, in fact, it may yield an overload of

information. In practice, we would like to simply make measurements. We can measure the different harmonic terms using

a harmonic analyzer, spectrum analyzer, wave analyzer or Fourier analyzer. All these are complicated and probably yield more data

than needed. Sometimes it is sufficient to describe a periodic signal only by its average values. But there are several kinds of

average measurements.

AVERAGE VALUES

This average can be measured with instruments such as the Deprez DC instruments.

Effective value or rms (root mean square) has the following definition:

This is the most important average value because the heat dissipated in resistors is proportional to the effective value.

Many digital and some analog voltmeters can measure the effective value of voltages and currents.

Absolute average

This average is no longer important; earlier instruments measured this form of average.

If we know the Fourier representation of a voltage or current waveform, we can also calculate the average values as follows:

Effective value or rms (root mean square) is, after integrating the Fourier series of the voltage:

It is the ratio of the effective value of the higher harmonic terms to the effective value of the fundamental harmonic:

There seems to be a contradiction here--we solve network in terms of harmonic components, but we measure average

quantities.

Example 1

Find the time function and the effective (rms) value of the voltage v C(t)

if R = 5 ohm, C = 10 F and v(t)=(100 + 200 cos(0t) + 30 cos(3 0t - 90°)) V, where the fundamental angular frequency is 0= 30

krad/s.

The first step is to find the transfer function as a function of the frequency. For simplicity, use the substitution: s = j

Now substitute the component values and s = j k 0where k = 0; 1; 3 in this example and 0= 30 krad/s. In V, A, ohm, F and Mrad/s

units:

It is helpful to use a table to organise the steps of the numerical solution:

k

W(jk) =

We can summarise the steps of the superposition solution in another table. As we have already seen, to find

the complex peak value of a component, we should multiply the complex peak value of the component of the

excitation by the value of the complex transfer function:

0 100 1 100

1 200 0.55 e-j56.3 110 e-j56.3

3 30 e-j90 0.217 e-j77.5 6.51 e-j167.5

And finally we can give the time function knowing the complex peak values of the components:

As you can see, TINA's measuring instrument measures this rms value.

Example 2

Find the time function and the effective (rms) value of the current i(t)

if R = 5 ohm, C = 10 F and v(t)=(100 + 200 cos(0t) + 30 cos(30t - 90°)) V where the fundamental angular frequency is 0= 30

krad/s.

The steps of the solution are similar to Example 1, but the transfer function is different.

It's helpful to use a table during the numerical solution:

k

W(jk) =

We can summarise the steps of the superposition in another table. As we have already seen, to find the

peak value of a component, we should multiply the complex peak value of that component of the excitation

by the value of the complex transfer function. Use the complex peak values of the components of the

excitation:

k VSk W(jk) Ik

0 100 0 0

1 200 0.162 ej33.7 32.4 ej33.7

3 30 e-j90 0.195 ej12.5 5.85 e-j77.5

And finally, knowing the complex peak values of the components we can state the time function:

i(t) = 32.4 cos (0t + 33.7) + 5.85 cos (30t - 77.5) [A]

You can often do a sanity check for part of the solution. For example, a capacitor can have a DC voltage but not a DC

current.

Example 3

Obtain the time function of the voltage Vab if R1= 12 ohm, R2 = 14 ohm, L = 25 mH, and

C = 200 F. The generator voltage is v(t)=(50 + 80 cos(0t) + 30 cos(2 0t+60°)) V, where the fundamental frequency is f0 = 50 Hz.

Merging the two tables:

k VSk Vabk

0 50

50

1 80

79.3 e-j66.3°

2 30 ej60

29.7 e-j44.7°

and the rms value:

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